Advection Diffusion Sediment Models in a Two Phase Flow Perspective

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Advection Diffusion Sediment Models in a Two Phase Flow Perspective

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phase flow perspective

To cite this article: G.H. Keetels, J.C. Goeree & C. van Rhee (2017): Advection-diffusion

sediment models in a two-phase flow perspective, Journal of Hydraulic Research, DOI:

10.1080/00221686.2017.1289262

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Journal of Hydraulic Research, 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221686.2017.1289262

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Technical note

G.H. KEETELS, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology,

The Netherlands

Email: g.h.keetels@tudelft.nl (author for correspondence)

J.C. GOEREE, PhD candidate, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology,

The Netherlands; Senior Specialist, IHC MTI B.V. Delft, The Netherlands

C. VAN RHEE, Full Professor, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology,

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The Netherlands

ABSTRACT

Sediment proﬁles in open channels are usually predicted by advection-diﬀusion models. Most basic forms consider the terminal settling velocity of

a single particle in still clear water. Alternative forms account for hindered settling at higher concentrations. It is not known, however, how these

modiﬁcations relate to mass and momentum conservation of each phase. For dilute ﬂow, it is known that the original form can be derived from a

two-phase analysis, assuming a dilute suspension, neglect of inertial eﬀects in the momentum balance and using a linear drag force formulation.

Here we study how and if it is possible to understand the hindered-settling modiﬁcations for the non-dilute case, and formulate a relation between

advection-diﬀusion models and parameters involved in the turbulent drag force. This note veriﬁes that the transient two-phase ﬂow solutions converge

to steady state, and compares the results to experimental data.

Keywords: Fluid–particle interactions; particle-laden ﬂows; sedimentation; suspended sediments; turbulence-sediment interactions

(Richardson & Zaki, 1954). It is not clear whether Eq. (1)

Sediment transport mechanics is important for river morphol- is mass and momentum conserving for all considered values

ogy, mining, coastal and dredging engineering. The case of of m. Another question is: how does m relate to the parame-

two-dimensional steady-uniform ﬂow is considered as a basic ters involved in drag force formulations? Finally, it is not known

problem to study the physics of sediment suspension (Ali & whether the diﬀerent forms of Eq. (1) are the asymptotic states of

Dey, 2016), and a validation case for a wide range of model- transient two-phase ﬂow equations. Greimann and Holly (2001)

ing techniques (Dey, 2014; Jha & Bombardelli, 2014). Basic found that the basic advection-diﬀusion form Eq. (1) with m = 0

approaches consider an advection-diﬀusion equation of the can be obtained from a two-phase model. In their derivation

form: it is essential to neglect inertial terms in the momentum bal-

dC ances of both phases and to linearize the drag force formulation.

(1 − C)m CV∞

p + s =0 (1) In order to answer the aforementioned questions, this techni-

dy

cal note reconsiders and extends the work of Greimann and

where y is the vertical coordinate, s is the turbulent diﬀu- Holly (2001).

sion coeﬃcient, C is the volumetric concentration and V∞ p

(> 0) is the terminal settling velocity of a single particle in

still clear water. Diﬀerent values for exponent m were con- 2 Two-phase formulation

sidered: m = 0 (Rouse, 1937; Schmidt, 1925). Also m = 1

(Halbronn, 1949; Hunt, 1954) m = n + 1 (van Rijn, 1984) and This section represents some relevant elements of the two-phase

m = n (Winterwerp, de Groot, Mastbergen, & Verwoert, 1990), formulation of Greimann, Muste, and Holly (1999). Figure 1

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1

2 G.H. Keetels et al. Journal of Hydraulic Research (2017)

eling in ﬂuid–multiparticle systems (Di Felice, 1994). Both Cf

and β depend on the particle Reynolds number: Rp = |ur |dp /νf ,

with velocity scale: |ur | = (V2r + uri2 )1/2 . The friction coeﬃcient

relates to the particle Reynolds number (Wallis, 1969):

ponents of a fully developed particle laden ﬂow layer Cf = (1 + 0.15 Rp 0.678 ) for 1 < Rp < 2000 (6)

deﬁnes the coordinates and velocity components. We consider The drift velocity is modelled as:

an uniform ﬂow layer yielding ∂z = ∂x = 0.

Mass conservation requires that: 1 ∂s 1 1 ∂s

Vd = −yy = −yy + (7)

s f ∂y s f ∂y

∂s ∂s Vs

+ =0 (2)

∂t ∂y The intraparticle stress Tsyy can be expressed as a function of the

solid velocity ﬂuctuations (Greimann & Holly, 2001).

where s is the solid phase fraction and Vs is the phase weighted

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vation of volume requires that: s + f = 1, where f denotes 3 Generic concentration-sedimentation model for the

the ﬂuid phase fraction. The momentum conservation equations diﬀusive regime

for the solid and ﬂuid phases in the vertical direction read:

−1/2

Considering local time scale τp , length scale yy vs2 , aver-

∂α Vα ∂α V2α 1/2

ρα + ρα aged phase velocity scale |Vs | and turbulent velocity scale vs2 ,

∂t ∂y

it follows from a scale analysis of Eqs (2) and (3) that:

∂Pα

= −α + α ρα gy

∂y

∂Vs 1 ∂Pf 1 s ρs ∂s Vr

= −|g| − + Vr + ρf CA

∂ α Tαyy − ρα α vα 2 ∂t ρs ∂y ρs s τp ∂t

+ + Mαy (3) (8)

∂y

and:

where α = s and α = f denote the solid and ﬂuid phase respec-

∂Vf 1 ∂Pf 1 s ρs ∂s Vr

tively, ρα is the density of each phase, Pα is the ensemble = −|g| − − Vr + ρf CA

averaged pressure (Ps = Pf ), Tαyy is the ensemble averaged ∂t ρf ∂y ρf f τp ∂t

(9)

intraparticle stress (α = s) or the viscous shear stress (α = f ), 1/2

vα 2 represents the turbulent shear stress, gy is the gravitational provided that vs2 τp /yy 1 and |Vs |vs2 τp /yy 1. From

acceleration, Mαy is the coupling force between the phases Eqs (2), (8) and (9), and volume conservation, it is possi-

(Mfy = −Msy ). The coupling force can be expressed as: ble to derive an evolution equation for the total volume ﬂux,

J = s Vs + f Vf (zero in this study), and ﬁnd an expression

for the pressure gradient. Using this equation for ∂Pf /∂y and

∂ ∂

Msy = s ρs τp−1 Vr + ρf CA s Vr + s (Vf + Vd )2 subtraction of Eq. (8) from Eq. (9) yield:

∂t ∂y

∂s V2s ∂

− + s vf 2 − vs 2 (4) ρf CA ∂Vl

∂y ∂y 1+

s ρf + f ρs f ∂t

where CA is the added mass coeﬃcient. The relative velocity is ρs − ρf 1

deﬁned as: Vr = Vf − Vs + Vd , where Vd is the drift velocity, = |g| −

s ρf + f ρs (s ρf + f ρs )s f

which relates to the correlation between the indicator function

of the solid phase and velocity ﬂuctuations of the ﬂuid phase. s ρs ∂s ∂s Vd

× (Vl + Vd ) + ρf CA Vl f + ρf CA

It is important to distinguish Vr and the lag velocity deﬁned as: τp ∂t ∂t

Vl = Vf − Vs . The particle response time τp is deﬁned as: (10)

ρs dp2 f

τp = (5) and (10) that:

18νf ρf Cf

where dp is the particle diameter, νf is the kinematic viscos- ρf 1 1 ds

Vl = f τp 1− |g| + yy + (11)

ity of the ﬂuid phase, Cf is the friction coeﬃcient of a single ρs s f dy

Journal of Hydraulic Research (2017) Advection-diﬀusion sediment models in a two-phase ﬂow perspective 3

Since J = 0 for all vertical positions y, it holds that Vs = −f Vl , with n(R∞

p ). Using the approximation (Rowe, 1987):

such that it follows from Eqs (5) and (11) that:

2 + 0.175(R∞

p )

3/4

n(R∞

p ) = 2.35 for 0 < R∞

p < 10 (14)

4

dp2 ρs − ρf ds 1 + 0.175(R∞

p )

3/4

− |g|f 2+β

s − yy = Vs s (12)

18νf Cf ρf dy

it follows for particle settling in the Stokes regime (R∞

p 1 ),

that β = n − 2. Figure 2 shows an optimal estimation for β as a

This is the most generic form for the steady solid phase distri-

function of R∞p .

bution in the diﬀusive regime.

4 Additional closures

The particle Reynolds number, deﬁned in Section 2, includes

the velocity ﬂuctuation of each phase. Issa and Oliviera (1997)

4.1 Drag force in ﬂuid–multiparticle systems

provided appropriate estimates for the coupling: vsi = Ct vﬁ . The

Di Felice (1994) obtained the exponent, β, as introduced in original derivation is valid for dilute ﬂow and particles that are

Eq. (5), from hindered-settling experiments. Eq. (12) shows smaller than a typical eddy size. For non-dilute ﬂow, their model

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that for particle setting in the absence of turbulent diﬀusion needs to be corrected for the mixture acceleration, yielding:

(yy = 0): ρf τe

ρs

(f + CA ) + τp

Cf (R∞ Ct = (15)

p )

ρ τe

= f n−2−β

(13) (f + CA ρfs ) + τp

∞

Cf (Rp f n−1 )

which becomes identical to the original model of Issa and

Oliviera (1997) for dilute ﬂow (f ≈ 1). This study estimates

the eddy turn overtime, τe , with the ratio between the turbu-

lent diﬀusivity yy = u∗ κ(1 − y/h) and the velocity ﬂuctuations

of the ﬂuid, where h denotes the channel height. The velocity

ﬂuctuations of the ﬂuid relate to the friction velocity u∗ and the

measured von Kármán constant κ (Greimann & Holly, 2001).

S16 of Einstein and Chien (1955) and SF1–SF6 of Wang and

Qian (1992). For these experiments the conditions for Eqs (8)

and (9) apply for 0.05 < y/h < 0.95. Figure 3 shows some tran-

sient solutions of Eq. (10) and the steady state solution Eq. (12).

Figure 2 Exponent β as a function of the particle Reynolds The phase fraction s is ﬁxed at y/h = 0.05 and s Vs = 0 at

number R∞

p y = h.

Figure 3 Steady state solutions of Eq. (12) obtained with two integration methods and transient solutions (interval 1 s) of Eqs (10), (2) with CA = 0,

Cf = C ∞f , β = n − 2, time step is 10

−4 and number of grid cells is 200. Experimental conditions S16

4 G.H. Keetels et al. Journal of Hydraulic Research (2017)

Figure 4 Comparison of diﬀerent approximations in Eq. (12) and experimental data (Einstein & Chien, 1955; Wang and Qian, 1992))

The transient solution converges towards the steady state pro- Table 1 Relation between the key assumption (i)–(iv) and diﬀerent

ﬁles. Figure 4 shows the comparison of several solutions of advection-diﬀusion models

Eq (12) with diﬀerent approximations of Cf and β. The cases Formulation (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

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Cf (Rp ), β = f(R∞ ∞

p ) and Cf (Rp ), β = n − 2 yield very simi-

lar and reasonably accurate results. The approximation Cf (R∞ p ), (a) Eq. (1), m = 0 yes yes β =0 yes

s ≈ 0, which corresponds with m = 0 in Eq. (1) shows signif- (b) Eq. (1), m = 2 yes yes β =0 no

icant deviations from the other cases at higher concentrations. (c) Eq. (1), m = n yes yes β =n−2 no

(d) Eq. (12) yes no β = f(R∞

p ) no

The same trends are observed in comparison to experiments

S12, S13, S14, S15, SF1, SF2, SF3 and SF5 (not shown).

6 Summary and conclusion Pf = ensemble averaged ﬂuid pressure (kg m−1 s−2 )

dp = particle diameter (m)

The results can be organized using the following list of assump- x,y,z = Cartesian coordinates (m)

tions: g, gx , gy = gravity acceleration (m s−2 )

h = channel height (m)

(i) Neglect inertial terms in the vertical momentum balance of

m = exponent in advection-diﬀusion equation (–)

the two phases, vs2 τp /yy 1

n = hindered-settling exponent (–)

(ii) Assume that the friction factor in two-dimensional steady-

t = time (s)

uniform ﬂow equals the friction factor of a single settling

vs2 = ensemble averaged turbulent shear stress

particle in still and clear water, Cf (Rp ) ≈ Cf (R∞

p ) (kg m−2 s−1 )

(iii) Ignore the particle crowding eﬀect, β = 0, assume β =

u∗ = friction velocity (m s−1 )

n − 2, i.e. the value that is only valid in the Stokes regime

Rp = particle Reynolds number (–)

(Cf = 1) or use β(R∞ p ); see Fig. 2 CA = added mass coeﬃcient (–)

(iv) Assume that the water fraction is almost unity (dilute

Cf = friction coeﬃcient of a single particle (–)

suspension).

Ct = coupling factor between solid and ﬂuid

Formulations (c) and (d), in Table 1 yield very similar and ﬂuctuations (–)

reasonably accurate predictions. The traditional form, m = 1, Vf , Vs = phase weighted ensemble averaged vertical

derived by Halbronn (1949) and Hunt (1954), is not found. velocity of the ﬂuid and solid phase (m s−1 )

This note veriﬁes that the asymptotic states of the transient two- Msy = coupling force between the solid and ﬂuid phase

phase model correspond to solutions of Eq. (1). This remarkable (kg m−2 s−2 )

observation explains why the corresponding concentration pro- Tsyy = intraparticle or viscous shear stress (kg m−1 s−2 )

ﬁles are robust, and can actually develop under experimental Vr , Vd , Vl = relative, drift and lag velocity (m s−1 )

conditions. f , s = ﬂuid and solid phase fraction (–)

β = drag model exponent for ﬂuid-multiparticle

systems (–)

Notation = turbulent diﬀusion coeﬃcient (m2 s−1 )

ρf , ρs = density of the ﬂuid and solid phase (kg m−3 )

C = volumetric concentration (–) νf = kinematic viscosity of the ﬂuid phase (m2 s−1 )

V∞

p = terminal settling velocity of a single particle in τp = particle response time (s)

still clear water (> 0) (m s−1 ) τe = eddy turnover time (s)

Journal of Hydraulic Research (2017) Advection-diﬀusion sediment models in a two-phase ﬂow perspective 5

2, 113–120.

Ali, S. Z., & Dey, S. (2016). Mechanics of advec- Jha, S. K., & Bombardelli, F. A. (2014). Modelling the diﬀu-

tion of suspended particles in turbulent ﬂow. Proceed- sion and transport of suspended sediment in open channels,

ings of the Royal Society of London A, 472: 20160749. using two-phase ﬂow theory. In Modelling and Simulation of

doi:10.1098/rspa.2016.0749 Diﬀusive Processes (pp. 51–68). Berlin: Springer.

Dey, S. (2014). Fluvial hydrodynamics. Berlin: Springer. Richardson, J., & Zaki, W. (1954). The sedimentation of a sus-

Di Felice, R. (1994). The voidage function for ﬂuid-particle pension of uniform spheres under conditions of viscous ﬂow.

interaction systems. International Journal of Multiphase Chemical Engineering Science, 3(2), 65–73.

Flow, 20(1), 153–159 van Rijn, L. C. (1984). Sediment transport, part II: Suspended

Einstein, H., & Chien, N. (1955). Eﬀects of heavy sediment con- load transport. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 110(11),

centration near the bed on velocity and sediment distribution. 1613–1641.

Missouri River Division, Corps of Engineers, US Army. Rouse, R. (1937). Modern conceptions of the mechanics of ﬂuid

Greimann, B., & Holly Jr., F. (2001). Two-phase ﬂow analysis turbulence. Transactions of the American Society of Civil

of concentration proﬁles. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Engineers, 102(1), 463–505.

127(9), 753–762. Rowe, P. (1987). A convenient empirical equation for estima-

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Greimann, B., Must, M., & Holly Jr., F. (1999). Two-phase tion of the Richardson-Zaki exponent. Chemical Engineering

formulation of suspended sediment transport. Journal of Science, 42(11), 2795–2796.

Hydraulic Research, 37(4), 479–500. Schmidt, W. (1925). Der Massenaustausch in freier Luft und

Halbronn, G. (1949). Remarque sur la théorie de l’austausch verwandte Erscheinungen. Hamburg: Grand.

appliquée au transport des matériaux en suspension. Proceed- Wallis, G. B. (1969). One-dimensional two-phase ﬂow (Vol. 1,

ing meeting International Association of Hydraulic Struc- pp. 175–281). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

tures Research, 3, 1–6. Wang, X., & Qian, N. (1992). Velocity proﬁles of sediment-

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