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Running Head: HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 1

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation
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The Healthy People 2020 is a national initiative to achieve significant reforms in public

health over a ten-year period. It incorporates a roadmap to promote public health and

contribute to disease prevention by tracking the current public health situation to gauge how

best to attain the final objective. A variety of scientific objectives form the basis for

enhancing public health over the initiative’s term. Such objectives need contribution from

stakeholders in all sectors and disciplines relevant to creating a viable framework that has

defined objectives and targets to be achieved in 2020. Health data serves a central role in

measuring and monitoring outcomes and progress nationally (US Department of Health and

Human Services, 2011). Data helps in tracking trends, which in turn form the foundation of

decision-making and actionable initiatives. Healthy People 2020 has been the leading

national public health promotion and illness prevention initiative since it was inaugurated.

Health stakeholders across the board have a role to play in the Healthy People 2020

initiative. There are many ways in which it is applicable. Researchers, health officers,

businesses, professionals, and workgroup coordinators among others can contribute to

achieving its objectives. The performance of health programs can be measured, new

programs can be designed and implemented, and health goals and agenda could be set guided

by the initiative. Also, Healthy People 2020 serves as a basis to develop health education

programs and standardizes health data comparison across states and counties (US Department

of Health and Human Services, 2011). Through the initiative, partnerships can be forged

innovatively within a single national health agenda.

The Healthy People 2020 has four primary goals, vision, and a mission statement. The

first goal is to attain a higher quality of life for citizens by eliminating avertible illnesses,

injuries, disabilities and untimely death. Secondly, it has a goal to achieve health inclusivity
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and equitability to eliminate health inequalities across groups. The third goal is to create

environments that promote good health, both social and physical. Finally, Healthy People

2020 aims to create awareness on good health practices, enhance the quality of life and

promote healthy development across all life stages (US Department of Health and Human

Services, 2011). 1200 objectives developed under the initiative all aim to achieve the four

main goals. Additionally, 42 areas have been identified to cover aspects of disease prevention

and health promotion in line with identified objectives. Two rudiments can summarize

Healthy People 2020. Firstly, is to create standardized national health intents. Secondly, is to

provide supporting data and tools thereof for states, communities, and stakeholders to work

towards a singular national health objective.

The Miami Dade Infectious Diseases Services (IDS) program is tasked with

communicable diseases management. It investigates, conducts surveillance, prevents and

controls contagious diseases. The Epidemiology Program has disease control as its core

mandate, specifically dealing with infectious diseases. Community partners, laboratories,

hospitals, healthcare providers and physicians report all occurrences of suspected outbreaks

for investigation (Florida Department of Health). The three main categories identified for

control and prevention in the Epidemiology Program are HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted

Disease (STD) and Tuberculosis.

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) transmission control is achieved through four ways.

Firstly, persons at high risk of infection are educated on how to protect themselves and

reduce infection chances by embracing safer sexual practices. Secondly, detective services

are offered for people without symptoms and those unlikely to seek examination and

treatment services. Thirdly, infected persons are examined and treated. Finally, sex partners

of people infected with STDs are diagnosed, treated and counseled. The mandate of

controlling and preventing HIV/AIDS lies with the Florida Department of Health in Miami-
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Dade. Under Tuberculosis control and prevention, diagnosis and treatment services for

infected persons and those dormant infections are provided in clinical services. Of most

importance is the management of latent TB infection cases as it remains vital to achieving a

TB-free public in the county (Florida Department of Health). The respective communicable

disease control and prevention programs have the objective to eliminate the disease in Miami

Dade and the larger State of Florida.

Statistics

The statistics below represent surveillance data for communicable diseases in Miami

Dade, Florida.

Influenza and Pneumonia Death Rate statistics

Influenza and Pneumonia

Age-Adjusted Death Rate

Miami-Dade Florida

Years Count Rate Count Rate

2016 291 8.5 2,807 9.8

2015 242 7.2 2,666 9.1

2014 242 7.6 2,663 9.8

2013 241 7.8 2,644 9.7

2012 252 8.4 2,304 8.6

2011 268 9.0 2,418 9.2

2010 232 8.1 2,217 8.6

Table 1. Source: Florida Bureau of Vital Statistics, 2016.


HIV/AIDS cases statistics
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HIV Infection Cases, Per 100,000 Population

Miami-Dade Florida

MOV MOV
Year Count Denom Rate Count Denom Rate
(+/-) (+/-)

2016 1,270 2,702,890 47.0* 2.6 4,972 20,209,604 24.6 0.7

2015 1,344 2,651,195 50.7* 2.7 4,708 19,860,805 23.7 0.7

2014 1,195 2,615,410 45.7* 2.6 4,599 19,548,031 23.5 0.7

2013 1,130 2,583,021 43.7* 2.6 4,370 19,318,859 22.6 0.7

2012 1,149 2,534,877 45.3* 2.6 4,507 19,042,458 23.7 0.7

2011 1,142 2,521,194 45.3* 2.6 4,667 18,934,175 24.6 0.7

2010 1,185 2,498,855 47.4* 2.7 4,721 18,820,280 25.1 0.7

Table 2: Source: Florida Bureau of Vital Statistics, 2016.

Total STD cases statistics

Total Gonorrhea, Chlamydia & Infectious Syphilis

Miami-Dade Florida

MOV MOV
Year Count Denom Rate Count Denom Rate
(+/-) (+/-)

2015 14,956 2,651,195 564.1* 9.0 116,929 19,860,805 588.7 3.4

2014 13,440 2,615,410 513.9* 8.7 105,461 19,548,031 539.5 3.2

2013 13,191 2,583,021 510.7* 8.7 103,566 19,318,859 536.1 3.3

2012 12,410 2,534,877 489.6* 8.6 98,777 19,042,458 518.7 3.2

2011 11,509 2,521,194 456.5* 8.3 96,923 18,934,175 511.9 3.2

2010 11,471 2,498,855 459.1* 8.4 96,061 18,820,280 510.4 3.2


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2009 10,969 2,483,366 441.7* 8.2 94,837 18,711,844 506.8 3.2

Table 3: Source: Florida Bureau of Vital Statistics, 2016.

Gonorrhoea cases statistics

Gonorrhea Cases, Per 100,000 Population

Miami-Dade Florida

MOV MOV
Year Count Denom Rate Count Denom Rate
(+/-) (+/-)

2016 3,064 2,702,890 113.4* 4.0 28,153 20,209,604 139.3 1.6

2015 2,600 2,651,195 98.1* 3.8 24,186 19,860,805 121.8 1.5

2014 2,389 2,615,410 91.3* 3.7 20,597 19,548,031 105.4 1.4

2013 2,411 2,583,021 93.3* 3.7 21,006 19,318,859 108.7 1.5

2012 2,413 2,534,877 95.2* 3.8 19,554 19,042,458 102.7 1.4

2011 2,356 2,521,194 93.4* 3.8 19,704 18,934,175 104.1 1.5

2010 2,445 2,498,855 97.8* 3.9 20,169 18,820,280 107.2 1.5

Table 4: Source: Florida Bureau of Vital Statistics, 2016.

Effects of Lyme disease, pertussis, gonorrhea on the community

There is an enormous burden to carry when persons in the community are infected

with illnesses. With Lyme disease, there is a constant worry about diagnosis accuracy, the

right specialist, treatment costs and approach by the immediate family. Moreover, for

affected children, the education support offered by the community is a complicated one

making it difficult to make through school. It is challenging to meet the needs of a Lyme

disease patient both financially and in terms commitment (Zhang, et al., 2006). The disease

has complex and unpredictable symptoms that the larger community may not understand to

offer necessary support to patients.


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Pertussis, on the other hand, presents its set of preventive and outbreak control

challenges. Timely, accurate and standardized diagnosis is crucial. There are economic costs

for patients and communities to pay for the diagnosis, patient care, emergency medical

procedures, antibiotic and symptom treatment, loss of productivity and work absentia. In the

event of an outbreak, there are additional costs to cater for education, patient isolation,

surveillance and administration of antibiotics (Davis, 2005). Gonorrhoea left untreated leads

to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women. PID is one of the leading causes of

infertility. Also, antibiotic research and administration stretch the resources of the affected

community.
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References

Davis, J. P. (2005). Clinical and economic effects of pertussis outbreaks. The Pediatric

Infectious Disease Journal, 24(6), S109-S116.

Retrieved 25 September 2017, from http://miamidade.floridahealth.gov/programs-and-

services/infectious-disease-services/index.html

Florida Bureau of Vital Statistics. (2016). Community Health Assessment Resource Tool Set.

Retrieved 25 September 2017, from http://www.flhealthcharts.com/charts/

US Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Healthy people 2020: Improving the

health of Americans. Healthy People. gov.

Zhang, X., Meltzer, M. I., Peña, C. A., Hopkins, A. B., Wroth, L., & Fix, A. D. (2006).

Economic impact of Lyme disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 653.