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Technical Service Report No.

25 - Page 1 of 5

Understanding The Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.® (UL)


Yellow Card
INTRODUCTION QMFZ2 October 16, 1990
The UL Yellow Card bears information Component - Plastics
GEON VINYL DIV E41877 (N)
relative to specific polymeric materials 6100 OAK TREE BLVD, CLEVELAND OH 44131 (A card)
which a company has submitted to RTI H D
Underwriters Laboratories to be tested. The Min UL94 Elec Mech H H V 4 C
materials are listed on the card, hence, the Thk Flame with w/o W A T 9 T
Mtl Dsg Col mm Class Imp Imp I I R 5 I
phrase "UL Recognized." The listings (for
Polyvinyl choloride (PVC) designated "Geon," furnished in the form of pellets.
plastic materials) are published in the "UL 8700A(b) All 0.71 94V-0 50 50 50 0 0 4 - -
Recognized Components Directory," 3.05 94V-0 50 50 50 0 - 4 7 1
Volume II, Section QMFZ2, under the 6.10 94V-0 50 50 50 0 0 4 - -
0.76 94-5V 50 50 50 - - - - -
heading "Plastics."
WT, BK,
YL
The data shown in the sample are taken All 3.18 94-5VA 50 50 50 - - - - -
from an existing UL Yellow Card for Geon Reports: April 7,1976; April 9, 1985
(Cont. on A1 card)
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC).
774863001 H7047 D11/0026634

UL is a registered trademark of The Underwriters


Laboratories, Inc.

THE IMPORTANCE OF UL testing can include the determination of a Note: Due to limited space, not all material
UL TESTING wide variety of material properties including: property test results may be listed on a
The properties of materials listed on the UL l Ignition and burning characteristics from given UL card.
Yellow Card have been determined in thermal and electrical sources.
accordance with established procedures. The l A wide range of other electrical, physical Comparative Tracking Index, Dielectric
UL evaluation of material properties is and mechanical characteristics, as well as Strength, Volume Resistivity as well as other
valuable to end users of the material in specific analytical tests. electrical and mechanical properties may be
determining its appropriateness for a specific l The effect of exposure to elevated determined by means of the applicable
application. Additionally UL listings often temperatures (air/oven aging), cold, water, ASTM and/or UL specifications in the
save end users time and money by ultraviolet rays, etc. Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., Standard for
eliminating the need for further material Polymeric Materials - "Use In Electrical
testing. Equipment Evaluations" (UL746A).
Technical Service Report No. 25 - Page 2 of 5

In addition to the aforementioned tests, Mechanical performance can be either with to permit the molten material to hit the cotton.
materials which are used in applications or without impact. Thus the reason for two Five sets are tested.
involving support, or contact with current- columns: "with imp" and "w/o imp". The
carrying parts, are also required to display a default temperature rating, for PVC materials The following are vertical ratings:
minimum stability (heat-distortion, moisture- given when no thermal aging is done, is 50°
resistance, dimensional stability and mold C. 94V-0
stress) performance level as described in Materials classified as V-0 shall:
UL746C procedures. FLAMMABILITY RECOGNITION A. Not have any bar specimen burn with
Materials may be classified based on burning flaming combustion for more than 10
To determine a material's compliance relative tests conducted in accordance with seconds after either application.
to a specific application, the test values Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., Standard B. Not have a total flaming combustion time
generated for that material should be Tests for Flammability of Plastic Materials for exceeding 50 seconds
compared with the minimum performance parts in devices and appliances (UL94). By for the 10 flame applications.
level established for that application as small scale tests, solid materials are C. Not have any specimens which burn
outlined in applicable product standards. classified as 94V-0, 94V-1, 94V-2, 94-5V, (flame or glow) up to the holding clamp.
94-5VA, and 94-5VB. Materials may also be D. Not have any specimens which drip
THERMAL AGING PROGRAM evaluated using the radiant panel in flaming particles that ignite the cotton.
The materials covered by the UL program accordance with ASTM E-162 (referenced in E. Not have any specimens with glowing
have, in many cases, been investigated with UL94); such flame spread indices are shown combustion which persists beyond 30
respect to the retention of certain critical as "RP-10", "RP-15", etc. seconds after the second flame.
properties (e.g., dielectric, flammability,
tensile, impact, etc.) as part of an on-going UL94 small scale test data do not pertain to 94V-1
thermal aging program conducted in building materials, furnishings and related Materials classified as V-1 shall:
accordance with Underwriters Laboratories, contents. UL94 small scale test data are A. Not have any bar specimen burn with
Inc., Standard for Polymeric Materials Long intended solely for determining the flaming combustion for more than 30
Term Property Evaluations (UL746B). The flammability of plastic materials used in seconds after either application.
end-of-life of a material at each test components and parts of end-product devices B. Not have a total flaming combustion time
temperature in this program has been and appliances where the acceptability of the exceeding 250 seconds for the 10 flame
assumed to be the time when the value of the combination is determined by Underwriters applications.
critical property has decreased to 50 percent Laboratories. C. Not have any specimens which burn
of its original (as received) value. (flame or glow) up to the holding clamp.
UL94: "FLAMMABILITY OF D. Not have any specimens which drip
The temperature index shown in the PLASTIC MATERIALS FOR flaming particles that ignite the cotton.
individual recognition correlates numerically PARTS IN DEVICES AND E. Not have any specimens with glowing
with the temperature (°C) above which the APPLIANCES." combustion which persists beyond 60
material is likely to degrade prematurely (as This test measures a plastic material's ability seconds after the second flame.
compared to the test results generated by a to accept and support flame. A variety of test
material with acceptable service results). ratings are possible depending on 94V-2
More than one temperature index may be performance: Materials classified as V-2 shall:
appropriate for a given material (depending A. Not have any bar specimens which burn
upon property requirements for a given VERTICAL BURNING TESTS with flaming combustion for more than 10
application). seconds after either application.
(V-0, V-1, V-2, 5V, 5VA, 5VB)
B. Not have a total flaming combustion time
In the vertical tests the specimen is
NOTE: In certain cases, higher exceeding 250 seconds for 10 flame
supported in a vertical position and the flame
temperatures than indicated in the individual applications.
applied directly to the bottom of the specimen
recognition are permitted if so specified by C. Not have any specimens which burn
in a vertical direction. The flame is applied for
the applicable end-product standard. (flame or glow) up to the holding clamp.
ten seconds and then withdrawn until the
D. Have specimens that drip flaming
flaming ceases. The flame is reapplied
The column heading "RTI" (Relative Thermal particles which burn briefly, some of
immediately for ten seconds and withdrawn.
Index) refers to thermal aging. Test protocol which ignite the cotton.
This procedure balances the duration periods
involves oven-aging samples at four different E. Not have any specimens with glowing
of flaming and glowing. A bed of surgical
temperatures (minimum 500-hours at highest combustion which persists beyond 60
cotton is laid horizontally to the specimen to
temperature and 2000-hours at lowest seconds after the second flame.
catch any dripping particles. If the specimen
temperature). The resultant temperature rating drips material, the burner may be tilted up to
pertains to
pertains to mechanical
mechanical and/or
and/or electrical
electrical 45°
45°
performance.
Technical Service Report No. 25 - Page 3 of 5

94-5V end of the test specimen. It is clamped at the The burner, with a blue flame 1.5 inches
In the 5V test, the specimen is vertical and end farthest from the 1 inch mark - high, is placed beneath the wire gauze under
the flame is applied to one of the lower horizontally with its transverse axis inclined the upturned end of the specimen support
corners at an angle of 20° from the vertical. at an angle of 45°. with the center of the wingtip in line with the
The flame is applied for 5 seconds and longitudinal axis of the specimen. The flame
removed for 5 seconds. This cycle is A flame is applied at the free end at the lower is applied for 60 seconds. A time is started
repeated for five applications. edge of the sample for 30 seconds. If the as the test flame is removed. Another timing
specimen burns to the 1 inch mark before 30 device is started when the flame front
Also, under 5V test procedures, some test seconds, the flame is to be cut off at the 1 reaches the 0.98 gauge mark.
specimens are to be heat-aged at inch mark. The burning rate is to be
temperatures of 90 to 120°C for between 5 to measured from 1 inch to 4 inches. 94HBF
60 days. Materials classified as HBF shall:
Materials classified as HB shall: A. Not have any specimens with a burning
Materials classified as 5V shall: A. Not have a burning rate exceeding 1.5 rate exceeding 1.5 inches/mm. over a
A. Not have any burning (flame or glowing) inches / minute over a 3-inch span on 4.0 inch span.
for more than 60 seconds after the five widths (thickness) between 0.120 to B. Have each specimen cease to burn
flame applications. 0.500 inches. before flaming or glowing reaches the 5.0
B. No dripping. B. Not have a burning rate exceeding 3 inch gauge mark.
C. Not have any specimen destroyed in the inches / minute over a 3-inch span for
area of the flame. widths less than 0.120 inches. NOTE: If only one specimen (from a set of
C. Cease to burn before the flame reaches five) does not comply with requirements (A,
94-5VA the 4-inch mark. B, listed above) another set of five
A material classified 5VA shall: specimens, subjected to the same
A. Not have any bar specimens that burn HORIZONTAL BURNING conditioning, shall be tested. All specimens
with flaming or glowing combustion for FOAMED MATERIAL from the second set shall comply with the
more than 60 seconds after the fifth flame Test specimens are cut from a representative requirements (A,B) for the material in that
application. sample of the material, with standard test thickness and density to be classed 94HBF.
B. Not have any bar specimens that burn specimens 6 inches long by 2 inches wide
with flaming particles that ignite dry (maximum thickness not to exceed 0.51 94HF-1
absorbent, surgical cotton located 12 inches). Materials classified as HF-1 shall conform to
inches (304.6mm) below the test the following:
specimen. If the material is to be considered in a range A. Afterflame time should not exceed 2
C. Not have any plaque specimens that of densities or colors, specimens seconds (4 out of 5 test specimens), and
exhibit a burn through (hole). representing the extremes of the range are to 10 seconds (1 out of 5 test specimens).
be tested and considered representative of B. Afterglow time should not exceed 30
94-5VB the range (if test results are essentially the seconds.
A material classified as 5VB shall: same). Color pigments, known by C. Surgical cotton below the test specimen
A. Not have any bar specimens that burn experience to have adverse effects, must be should not be ignited by flaming particles.
with flaming or glowing combustion for provided for testing. D. Test specimen damage should not
more than 60 seconds after the fifth flame exceed 2.4 inches.
application. Test procedure involves supporting the test
B. Not have any bar specimens that drip specimen in such a manner that the major 94HF-2
flaming particles that ignite dry absorbent, section is horizontal and 0.5 inches above a Materials classified as HF-2 shall conform to
surgical cotton located 12 inches burner wing tip, and 7 inches above a 2 inch the following:
(304.6mm) below the test specimen. by 2 inch horizontal layer of dry, absorbent A. Afterflame time should not exceed 2
C. Permit a burn through (hole) on plaque cotton, thinned to a free-standing height of seconds (4 out of 5 test specimens), and
specimens. 0.24 inches. 10 seconds (1 out of 5 test specimens).
B. Afterglow time should not exceed 30
HORIZONTAL BURNING TESTS Each specimen is marked across its width seconds.
(HB, HBF, HF-1, HF-2) with three gauge marks 0.98 inches, 2.4 C. Test specimen damage should not
inches, and 4.9 inches in from one end. It is exceed 2.4 inches.
94HB then placed flat on a wire cloth with the gauge
Specimens 5.0 x 0.5 x 0.125 inches (with a marks facing up. The end closer to the 2.4
designated minimum thickness) are tested. inch mark is placed in contact with the
Each specimen is marked with a line 1 inch, upturned end of the wire cloth.
and a second line 4 inches from one

Each specimen is marked with a line 1 inch, upturned end of the wire cloth.
Technical Service Report No. 25 - Page 4 of 5

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES "This test determines the durability of a HIGH VOLTAGE ARC TRACKING
To avoid an excessive level of implied material to withstand arcing on its surface at RATE (HVTR)
precision and bias, material performances for low voltage and high current levels, such as HVTR is denoted as the rate (mm/min) that a
several tests are recorded as Performance would be encountered in the mounting of tracking path can be produced on the surface
Level Categories (PLC), based on mean test contacts or the breaking of internal of the material under standardized test
results (rather than recording exact numerical connections." conditions. Note is made if ignition of the
results), as indicated in the table following the material takes place. The results of testing the
test description. ARC RESISTANCE (ASTM D495) nominal 1/8 inch (3.1mm) thickness are
In accordance with ASTM D495, arc considered representative of the material's
HOT-WIRE IGNITION (HWI) resistance is expressed as the number of performance in any thickness.
Test specimens are wrapped with resistance seconds a material resists the formation of a
wire that dissipates a specified level of surface conducting path when subjected to an
HVTR Range - TR
electrical energy. Test objectives are to ignite intermittent arc of high voltage, low current
(mm/min) Assigned PLC
standard specimens or to burn through the characteristics. The results of testing the
0 through 10 0
specimen without ignition. nominal 1/8 inch (3.1mm) thickness are
Over 10 through 25.4 1
considered representative of the material's
Over 25.4 through 80 2
performance in any thickness.
HWI Range - Over 80 through 150 3
Mean Ignition Time Over 150 4
(IT) D495 Range -
(in seconds) Assigned PLC Mean Time of Arc
HIGH VOLTAGE TRACK RATE
120 and longer 0 Resistance
The purpose of this test is to determine the
60 and up to 120 1 (TAR in seconds) Assigned PLC
susceptibility of the test materials to track or
30 and up to 60 2 420 and longer 0
form a visible, carbonized conducting path
15 and up to 30 3 360 and up to 420 1
over the surface when subjected to high
7 and up to 15 4 300 and up to 360 2
voltage, low current arcing.
Less than 7 5 240 and up to 300 3
180 and up to 240 4
120 and up to 180 5 The test to measure this property is similar to
HIGH-AMPERE ARC IGNITION 60 and up to 120 6 the high ampere arc ignition test except
(HAl) Less than 60 7 continuous arcing is applied. The electrodes
Performance is expressed as the number of are positioned to establish a continuous arc
arc rupture exposures (standardized as to and are then moved farther apart at a fixed
electrode type and shape and electric circuit) Test materials may fail in several different rate until a distance of two inches is
which are necessary to ignite a material ways: become a temporary conductor, burst achieved, or a two minute interval has
when they are applied at a standard rate, into flames, start a track on the surface or passed. The tracking rate of the plastic is
either on the surface of the material or at a form a carbon layer sufficient to carry the computed in mm/min. or inches/min.
specified distance from it. current. Elapsed time until failure is recorded
in seconds. COMPARATIVE TRACKING INDEX
(CTI)
HAI Range - HIGH VOLTAGE ARC Comparative Tracking Index is expressed
Mean Number of Arcs
RESISTANCE TO IGNITION as that voltage which causes tracking on a
To Cause Ignition (NA)Assigned PLC
(HVAR) material after 50 drops of 0.1 percent
120 and greater 0
HVAR is expressed as the number of ammonium chloride solution has fallen. The
60 and up to 120 1
seconds that a material resists ignition when results of testing the nominal 1/8 inch
30 and up to 60 2
subjected to a high voltage, low current (3.1mm) thickness are considered
15 and up to 30 3
arcing source. representative of the material's performance
Less than 15 4
in any thickness.
HVAR Range -
Example: To measure resistance to a heavy CTI Range -
Mean Time to Ignition
current (32.5 amperes), an arc is passed Tracking Index
(TI in seconds) Assigned PLC
intermittently between two electrodes (TI in volts) Assigned PLC
300 and longer 0
positioned over the top surface of the test 600 and greater 0
120 and up to 300 1
specimen (just touching the specimen). The 400 and up to 600 1
30 and up to 120 2
test is continued until either the specimen 2
Less than 30 3 250 and up to 400
ignites or a total of 200 arcs is reached. 175 and up to 250 3
100 and up to 175 4
Less than 100 5

This test is intended to show susceptibility to


surface tracking of solid electrical insulating
materials when exposed, under electrical
stress, to water and other contaminants.
Technical Service Report No. 25 - Page 5 of 5

CTI Range -
Tracking Index
(TI in volts) Assigned PLC
600 and greater 0
400 and up to 600 1
250 and up to 400 2
175 and up to 250 3
100 and up to 175 4
Less than 100 5

This test is intended to show susceptibility to


surface tracking of solid electrical insulating
materials when exposed, under electrical
stress, to water and other contaminants.

PolyOne © Corporation, 1992


PolyOne © Corporation

The information contained herein is believed and equipment used commercially in control. POLYONE MAKES NO
to be reliable, but no representations, processing these materials, no warranties or WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
guarantees or warranties of any kind are made guarantees are made as to suitability of the INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
as to its accuracy, suitability for particular products for the application disclosed. Full- IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
applications or the results to be obtained scale testing and end product performance MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
therefrom. The information is based on are the responsibility of the user. PolyOne PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Nothing contained
laboratory work with small-scale equipment shall not be liable for and the customer herein is to be considered as permission,
and does not necessarily indicate end product assumes all risk and liability of any use or recommendation, nor as an inducement to
performance. Because of variations in handling of any material beyond PolyOne's practice any patented invention without
methods, conditions direct permission of the patent owner.
Printed in U.S.A. PolyOne Corporation June, 1992