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Contents Page

Page 2…………………………………………………………………………………….Lesson Plan 1

Page 5…………………………………………………………………………………….Lesson Plan 1 Activity

Page 6…………………………………………………………………………………….Lesson Plan 1 Backup/Adjustment

Page 7…………………………………………………………………………………….Lesson Plan 2

Page 10…………………………………………………………………………………..Lesson Plan 2 Activity 1

Page 14…………………………………………………………………………………..Lesson Plan 2 Activity 2

Page 15……………………………………………………………………………………Lesson Plan 3

Page 18……………………………………………………………………………………Explanation

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Lesson Plan 1

Class/Stage: Date/Period: Time: Lesson Topic:


Stage 4 01/08/17 60 mins Core: Design process
Year 8 Period 2
Prior knowledge: Know definition of sustainable and repetitious design.

Outcomes: Assessment Students learn about Students learn to


4.4.1 Identifies innovative, Formative assessment- Creative and innovative idea-  Use idea-generation
enterprising and creative observations throughout the generation using: techniques when
design ideas and solutions lesson brainstorming, concept developing creative
When students present their sketches and maps, design idea
design ideas research, collaboration  Use research and
information when
generating creative
design ideas
 Collaborate when
developing design
ideas and solutions
Life skills outcomes/NCCD Adjustments (Learning difficulties):
- Show the student examples of previous students work to generate ideas.
- Provide some websites students can look at online.
http://slmdesigninteriors.com/22265/s/fantastic-hand-made-lamps-handmade-lamps-warisan-lighting/
http://design-milk.com/using-unusual-sustainable-materials-in-home-decor-by-jay-watson/
http://inhabitat.com/everything-is-illuminated-graypants-scrap-lights/
Resources
Computers, worksheets (NCCD adjustments and backup if technology fails)
Literacy, numeracy and ICT Evidence
Literacy: recording and documenting design ideas
ICT: use of computers for research
Safety
General classroom safety
Indicators of learning:
By the end of this lesson students will collaborate in groups to create a sustainable and repetitious lamp design.
Students will use idea-generation techniques to research appropriate information including materials, processes and
production methods.

Time Teaching and learning actions Organisation Centred


T/S
Before class: Book computer room, print worksheets
Introduction:
5 mins Teacher instructs students to line up in two straight lines outside Teacher: Teacher calls Teacher
classroom. Expectations of the lesson and expected behaviour out names of students
are told before students enter the classroom. and mark the roll.

Student: Students sit


Teacher instructs students to sit down at seats and get out at appropriate seats
equipment. and get equipment out
and answer to their
name when called
Roll call
Resources: Class roll
10 mins Teacher asks students to imagine they work for a design Teacher: Explains the Teacher
company. Their design brief is to create a ceiling lamp shade task students need to
made of sustainable materials with a repetitious design. achieve.

Teacher explains that the activity will go over three lessons and Student: Listens to the
students need to work in groups to complete task. teacher

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Teacher strategically picks student groups of 4 for collaborative Resources: Sample of
work. other students work,
Explains that students will be using the computers to brainstorm images of examples
and research ideas of suitable materials they can use to meet from the internet
the design brief. printed.
- Backup if technology fails:
Show students an example of previous students work
Show students images of examples which were printed and
prepared earlier.

Life skills/NCCD adjustments (student with learning difficulties):


Show the student examples of previous students work to
generate ideas.
Provide some websites students can look at online.
http://slmdesigninteriors.com/22265/s/fantastic-hand-made-
lamps-handmade-lamps-warisan-lighting/
http://design-milk.com/using-unusual-sustainable-materials-in-
home-decor-by-jay-watson/
http://inhabitat.com/everything-is-illuminated-graypants-scrap-
lights/
Body:
30 mins Teacher hands out worksheet and explains what the task is. Teacher: Teacher Student
hands out worksheet
Teacher tells students they have to start to think of a list of and explains it. Teacher
resources they require to make the prototype in lesson 3 as the make sure each group
list will be needed in lesson 2. has a design they are
going to work with
Teacher is available for assistance if needed. resources written
down.

Student: Complete
worksheet and writes
resources they will
need for lesson 3 to
make prototype of their
design.

Resources:
Worksheet, computer
Conclusion:
10 mins Students verbally presents their design ideas to the rest of the Teacher: Picks groups Student
class stating what their idea is and what materials they will be at random to present to
using. the class until all have
presented.
Provide feedback
Student: Presents
design idea to class

Resources: n/a
5 mins Teacher instructs students to pack up and asks if they have any Teacher: Instructs Teacher/st
questions. students to pack up udent
and see if they have
Teacher explains what will be happening in the next lesson. any questions

Student: Pack up and


asks questions

Resources: n/a

3
Quality Teaching Elements (lesson focus) Highlight the appropriate areas
Intellectual Quality 1.1 Deep knowledge 1.4 Higher-order thinking
This refers to pedagogy focused on producing deep understanding of important, substantive 1.2 Deep understanding 1.5 Metalanguage
concepts, skills and ideas. Such pedagogy treats knowledge as something that requires active 1.3 Problematic knowledge 1.6 Substantive
construction and requires students to engage in higher-order thinking and to communicate communication
substantively about what they are learning.
Quality Learning Environment 2.1 Explicit quality criteria 2.4 Social Support
This refers to pedagogy that creates classrooms where students and teachers work productively 2.2 Engagement 2.5 Students’ self-regulation
in an environment clearly focused on learning. Such pedagogy sets high and explicit 2.3 High Expectations 2.6 Student direction
expectations and develops positive relationships between teacher and students and among
students.
Significance 3.1 Background knowledge 3.4 Inclusivity
This refers to pedagogy that helps make learning more meaningful and important to students. 3.2 Cultural knowledge 3.5 Connectedness
Such pedagogy draws clear connections with students’ prior knowledge and identities, with 3.3 Knowledge integration 3.6 Narrative
contexts outside of the classroom, and with multiple ways of knowing all cultural perspective.

How are the quality teaching elements you have identified achieved within the lesson?
Teaching Indicators of presence in the lesson
element
1.4 Higher- Students are to design their own lamp shade using sustainable resources with a
order thinking repetitious design.

Reflection
What have I learned about the teaching and learning process when preparing this
lesson?

While creating this lesson plan I learnt that organisation and time management are important to
create a successful lesson plan which has flow.

How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording


Identifies innovative, When students present their work, the teacher can assess
enterprising and creative whether the idea meets the design brief as well as overall
design ideas and solutions observations when students are working together.

Other considerations

Complete the table blow by inserting the AISTL graduate standards that you are
demonstrating and indicates the evidence from this lesson that should comply with the
standard.

Graduate Evidence within this lesson


Standards
2.6 Using computers and internet for research within this lesson.
Information
and
Communication
Technology
(ICT)

WHS
What are the key risk issues that may appear for and need to be reduced/eliminated in
this lesson? Using your syllabus and support documents as well as other WHS policy-
Outline the key WHS considerations that are to be applied in this lesson?
All bags are under chairs and cannot be tripped on
All power cords are not in the way of walking areas
All chairs are tucked in

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Name: ______________________________ Date: __/__/__

Idea Generation
Individual Activity: Individual group members need to contribute a design and list them in the box

1. _________________ Design (1) 2. _______________ Design (2)

Materials: Materials:

Repetitious pattern: Repetitious pattern:

Name of student: Name of student:

3. _________________Design (3) 4. _________________ Design (4)

Materials: Materials:

Repetitious pattern: Repetitious pattern:

Name of student: Name of student:

Group Activity 1:
Group members must now share their design to the rest of the group and justify why it is the best
design. The other members of the group can then ask 1 question each (if needed).

Group Activity 2:
Each member scores each design (except their own) out of 5.

Team Member
Scores ( /5)

Design 1 Design 2 Design 3 Design 4

Total

The design with the highest score will be the one that is used for this activity. Group members must
add ideas of their own to the design and must research the suitable materials to use to meet the
design brief as well as make a prototype in lesson 3.

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Sustainable Design Ideas

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Lesson Plan 2

Class/Stage: Date/Period: Time: Lesson Topic:


Stage 4 04/08/17 60 mins Core-Design Process
Year 8 Period 2
Prior knowledge: Sketches of front view, side view, top view, bottom view.

Outcomes: Assessment Students learn about: Students learn to


4.4.1 Identifies innovative, Formative- Creative and innovative  Use research and
enterprising and creative Observation throughout idea-generation using: information when
design ideas and solutions lesson brainstorming, concept generating creative
End of lesson when sketches and maps, design ideas
students show sketches research, collaboration  Collaborate when
developing design ideas
and solutions
 Identify a range of tools
and equipment,
materials and
techniques and
calculate
requirements for each
design project
Life skills outcomes/NCCD Adjustments (Autistic spectrum):
Provide an alternative setting for the student, away from others if needed to work on their task.
Resources Sketch worksheet, resource worksheet, laptops

Literacy, Numeracy and ICT Evidence:


Numeracy- Sketches measurements on it
ICT- Using laptops to find out cost of resources
Safety
General classroom safety
Indicators of learning:

By the end of this lesson students will draw concept sketches of their chosen lamp design with dimensions and
provide a costed list of resources needed to create the prototype.

Time Teaching and learning actions Organisation Centred


T/S
Before class: Print worksheets
Introduction:
5 mins Teacher instructs students to line up in two straight lines outside Teacher: Teacher Teacher
classroom. Expectations of the lesson and expected behaviour are calls out names of
told before students enter the classroom. students and mark
the roll.

Teacher instructs students to sit down at seats and get out Student: Students
equipment. sit at appropriate
seats and get
equipment out and
Roll call
answer to their
name when called

Resources: Class
roll
Body:
30 mins Teacher instructs students that they will be drawing concept Teacher: Students
sketches and making a list of resources. Hands out
sketching

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Teacher explains that all students in the group will be assigned worksheets,
different views to sketch e.g. front, side, top and bottom. explains activities.

Life skills/NCCD adjustments (Autistic spectrum): Provide an Student:


alternative setting for the student, away from others if needed to Complete
work on their task. worksheets in their
groups

Resources:
Worksheets
10 mins Students are also required to fill out the table on the worksheet with Teacher:
the resources and the cost of each item they require for the Hands out resource
prototype they will make in lesson 3. Students are reminded to list list, explains
all items or they won’t receive them activities.

- If students have technology: they are required to look Student:


up the costs of resources Complete
- Backup if technology not working: Students are to worksheets in their
estimate approximate cost of items required. groups

Resources:
Laptops,
worksheets
Conclusion:
10 mins Teacher asks groups to show their sketches and determine whether Teacher: Teacher/st
their dimensions are realistic Formatively udents
assesses students
Provide feedback through their
sketches and
dimensions.

Student: presents
sketches and
dimensions.

Resources:
sketches of lamp
design.
5 mins Teacher instructs students to pack up and asks if they have any Teacher: Instructs Teacher/st
questions. students to pack up udents
and see if they
Teacher explains what will be happening in the next lesson. have any questions

Student: Pack up
and asks questions

Resources: n/a

Quality Teaching Elements (lesson focus) Highlight the appropriate areas


Intellectual Quality 1.1 Deep knowledge 1.4 Higher-order thinking
This refers to pedagogy focused on producing deep understanding of important, substantive 1.2 Deep understanding 1.5 Metalanguage
concepts, skills and ideas. Such pedagogy treats knowledge as something that requires active 1.3 Problematic knowledge 1.6 Substantive
construction and requires students to engage in higher-order thinking and to communicate communication
substantively about what they are learning.
Quality Learning Environment 2.1 Explicit quality criteria 2.4 Social Support
This refers to pedagogy that creates classrooms where students and teachers work productively 2.2 Engagement 2.5 Students’ self-regulation
in an environment clearly focused on learning. Such pedagogy sets high and explicit 2.3 High Expectations 2.6 Student direction
expectations and develops positive relationships between teacher and students and among
students.
Significance 3.1 Background knowledge 3.4 Inclusivity
This refers to pedagogy that helps make learning more meaningful and important to students. 3.2 Cultural knowledge 3.5 Connectedness
Such pedagogy draws clear connections with students’ prior knowledge and identities, with 3.3 Knowledge integration 3.6 Narrative
contexts outside of the classroom, and with multiple ways of knowing all cultural perspective.

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How are the quality teaching elements you have identified achieved within the lesson?

Teaching Indicators of presence in the lesson


element
2.4 Social Students collaborating together and assisting one another in positive ways with the sketches and
Support the resource list.

Reflection
What have I learned about the teaching and learning process when preparing this
lesson?

Through this lesson plan I have learnt that it is important to make sure there are alternative activities
organised if ICT cannot be used.

How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording


Identifies innovative, When student present their sketches, teacher can
enterprising and creative assess whether it is realistic.
design ideas and solutions

Other considerations

Complete the table blow by inserting the AISTL graduate standards that you are
demonstrating and indicates the evidence from this lesson that should comply with the
standard.

Graduate Evidence within this lesson


Standards
2.5 Literacy Literacy and numeracy are evident as students need to research and
and comprehend information online as well as the sketches with dimensions for
Numeracy their diagrams.
Strategies

WHS
What are the key risk issues that may appear for and need to be reduced/eliminated in
this lesson? Using your syllabus and support documents as well as other WHS policy-
Outline the key WHS considerations that are to be applied in this lesson?
All bags are under chairs and cannot be tripped on
All power cords are not in the way of walking areas
All chairs are tucked in

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Group Members Names: ______________________________ Date: __/__/__

Front View of Design

Width:
Length:

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Group Members Names: ______________________________ Date: __/__/__

Side View of Design

Width:
Length:

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Group Members Names: ______________________________ Date: __/__/__

Top View of Design


Width:
Length:

12
Group Members Names: ______________________________ Date: __/__/__

Bottom View of Design

Width:
Length:

13
Group Members Names: ______________________________ Date: __/__/__

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Lesson Plan 3

Class/Stage: Date/Period: Time: Lesson Topic:


Stage 4 07/08/17 60 mins Core- Design Process
Year 8
Prior knowledge: Knowledge of how to use equipment chose to use in the classroom.

Outcomes: Assessment Students learn about Students learn to


4.4.1 Identifies innovative, Summative Creative and innovative  Collaborate when
enterprising and creative Through observations and
idea-generation using: developing design
design ideas and solutions presentation at the end of
brainstorming, concept ideas and solutions
the lesson sketches and maps,
research, collaboration
Life skills outcomes/NCCD Adjustments (Learning Difficulties):
If a group does not feel comfortable presenting in front of class they can make a PowerPoint presentation of their design and
send it to the teacher after the lesson.
Resources
Equipment needed to make project
Literacy, Numeracy and ICT Evidence:
Literacy- oral presentation
Safety
General classroom safety
Indicators of learning:
By the end of this lesson students will Students will collaborate to develop their design idea

Time Teaching and learning actions Organisation Centred


T/S
Before class:
Organise student’s resources needed to make the prototypes and places them on desks
Introduction:
5 mins Teacher instructs students to line up in two straight lines outside Teacher: Teacher Teacher
classroom. Expectations of the lesson and expected behaviour are calls out names of
told before students enter the classroom. students and mark
the roll.

Teacher instructs students to sit down at seats and get out Student: Students sit
equipment. at appropriate seats
and get equipment
out and answer to
Roll call
their name when
called

Resources: Class roll


5 mins Teacher tells students they need to work together to build the Teacher: Instruct Teacher
prototype. students of what is
expected of lesson
Teacher explains students need to organise who is in charge of what
to make the design Student: Listens to
e.g. someone glue, someone arrange design etc. teacher
Resources: white
Teacher tells students they will need to present their completed board, white board
designs towards the end of the lesson and will need to evaluate their markers
design and process.
Teacher writes the questions on the white board of the questions
students need to answer.
- Did the design go to plan?
- Did you have to modify the design when making it?
- Who was in charge of what in the design process?
- Did you work well as a group?

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Body:
35 mins Students divide tasks and make prototype of their lamp design. Teacher: Observes Student
Teacher observes group work and keeps students on task. students, helping
when required with
NCCD adjustments: If a group does not feel comfortable presenting designs
in front of class they can make a PowerPoint presentation of their
design and send it to the teacher after the lesson. Student: Work
together in their
groups to make
prototypes

Resources:
equipment supplied
by the teacher
needed to make
prototypes
Conclusion:
10 mins Teacher instructs students to present their lamp designs to the Teacher: Asks Teacher/st
class. questions when udent
Teacher asks them: students present their
- Did the design go to plan? designs- formative
- Did you have to modify the design when making it? assessment
- Who was in charge of what in the design process?
- Did you work well as a group? Student: Presents
their designs to class,
Teacher opens discussion up to the class and see if any other answers teachers
students can give feedback on what they think the groups could questions
have done better
Resources:
Provide feedback prototype of lamp
5 mins Teacher instructs students to pack up and asks if they have any Teacher: Instructs Teacher/st
questions. students to pack up udent
and see if they have
Teacher explains what will be happening in the next lesson. any questions

Student: Pack up
and asks questions

Resources: n/a

Quality Teaching Elements (lesson focus) Highlight the appropriate areas


Intellectual Quality 1.1 Deep knowledge 1.4 Higher-order thinking
This refers to pedagogy focused on producing deep understanding of important, substantive 1.2 Deep understanding 1.5 Metalanguage
concepts, skills and ideas. Such pedagogy treats knowledge as something that requires active 1.3 Problematic knowledge 1.6 Substantive
construction and requires students to engage in higher-order thinking and to communicate communication
substantively about what they are learning.
Quality Learning Environment 2.1 Explicit quality criteria 2.4 Social Support
This refers to pedagogy that creates classrooms where students and teachers work productively 2.2 Engagement 2.5 Students’ self-regulation
in an environment clearly focused on learning. Such pedagogy sets high and explicit 2.3 High Expectations 2.6 Student direction
expectations and develops positive relationships between teacher and students and among
students.
Significance 3.1 Background knowledge 3.4 Inclusivity
This refers to pedagogy that helps make learning more meaningful and important to students. 3.2 Cultural knowledge 3.5 Connectedness
Such pedagogy draws clear connections with students’ prior knowledge and identities, with 3.3 Knowledge integration 3.6 Narrative
contexts outside of the classroom, and with multiple ways of knowing all cultural perspective.

16
How are the quality teaching elements you have identified achieved within the lesson?

Teaching Indicators of presence in the lesson


element
2.2 Engagement Students participating to make their chosen design

Reflection
What have I learned about the teaching and learning process when preparing this lesson?
Through making this lesson plan, I learnt it is important for students to have some guidance but to also let them learn
and discover on their own.

How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording


Identifies innovative, Students presenting their completed designs at the end of
enterprising and creative the lesson and evaluating design process
design ideas and solutions

Other considerations

Complete the table blow by inserting the AISTL graduate standards that you are demonstrating and
indicates the evidence from this lesson that should comply with the standard.

Graduate Evidence within this lesson


Standards
4.4 Maintain Teacher supervision is given at all times when students are making their
Student designs.
Safety

WHS
What are the key risk issues that may appear for and need to be reduced/eliminated in this lesson?
Using your syllabus and support documents as well as other WHS policy- Outline the key WHS
considerations that are to be applied in this lesson?
All bags are under chairs and cannot be tripped on
All power cords are not in the way of walking areas
All chairs are tucked in

References (In APA)


You must list all references that you have used for the content and resources of this lesson in this space.

Resources Attached:
You must list all the resources that you have created or found in this space.

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Explanation

The Design Process unit in the NSW K-10 Design and Technology Syllabus was used throughout
all three lesson plans. The lessons are sequenced together as one follows on from another and
are aimed for stage 4 year 8 students. Teaching strategies were implemented in the three lesson
plans to develop student’s skills. Furthermore, differentiated learning techniques are evident to
cater for student’s needs across all abilities. The general capabilities of literacy, numeracy and ICT
were used as these skills are important not only in school but throughout life.

The overall task is designed for students to create a repetitious ceiling lamp shade using
sustainable materials. Across the three lessons students will generate the idea, sketch and make
a resource list and create a scaled down version of their idea. The lessons utilise the key learning
theory of constructivism which was brought about by the work of Piaget and Vygotsky (Cakir,
2008). This approach to teaching is particularly important as it allows tasks to be student centred
and promotes project based learning. Often collaboration is linked with design projects thus, the
task is group based (Johnson & Johnson, 1986b).

The major teaching strategies used throughout the lessons are collaborative work and class
discussions at the end of the lessons. The task requires students to work in groups of 4, promoting
collaborative project based learning. Collaboration in design simulates real world experiences as
designers work in groups to generate design ideas (Bruffee, 1993). As well as this, collaborative
work teaches students to become active rather than passive learners as all group members are
involved (Bruffee, 1993). It also promotes peer support as students can learn from and teach each
other (Bruffee, 1993). However, group work can also be disadvantageous if students are not
paired properly. In these lessons, the teacher is in control of who is working together which could
minimise the risk of distracting and off task behaviours. Also, students should be grouped across a
range of abilities to encourage the learning of one another (Johnson & Johnson, 2009a).

To help guide students to participate as a group, in lesson 1 the worksheet is scaffolded so that
every member has the opportunity to share their design thoughts. Each student’s ideas are rated
out of 5 and the idea which receives the highest rating will be the design they will create. This
strategy is beneficial as it encourages all students to participate and allows the group to decide
together which design they want to pick efficiently. The use of ICT within this lesson allows
students to generate ideas they might not think of themselves. This lesson can be adjusted for
students who may have learning difficulties as particular websites can be given to these students if

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they are struggling. However, the scaffolded websites can be given to any student who may
require it to keep them on task.

Lesson 2 requires students to sketch their design ideas across 4 different views where each
individual student would sketch one view. As well as this, students are required to make a
resource list with all the items they will need to make their deign in lesson 3. Numeracy was the
major general capability which was incorporated within this lesson as students need to write the
width and length of their sketches. The lesson can be differentiated if a student is on the autism
spectrum they can be provided with an alternative setting such as sitting by themselves to sketch
on of the drawings as they can often be sensitive to loud sounds (Friend & Bursuck, 2002).

In lesson 3, the students are required to make their design. They divide the roles up within the
group to make sure that everyone has a role within the design process which promotes group
participation and collaboration. They are also required to present their completed work at the end
of the lesson and answer the questions about their design experience and group collaboration.
This allows the students to reflect not only on their work but also on the group and requires them
to critically think about what they could do better next time. It requires students to use oral literacy
skills in order to present which is a general capability used within this lesson. For students who do
not feel confident in giving the presentation the task is differentiated so they can make a
PowerPoint presentation and can email it to the teacher. This is a type of instructional scaffolding
where activities are designed so that students can complete tasks successfully (Larkin, 2001).

Discussions which are facilitated by the teacher are implemented at the end of the lessons as a
form of feedback as well as formative and summative assessment. In lessons 1 and 2 the
discussions are used at the end of the lesson as formative assessment. The teacher can view
where the students are up to and if they are headed in the correct direction or need some extra
support. In lesson 3 the students are required to present their designs and the teacher asks the
students and the whole class what they thought of the groups design or if they could have made
any improvements. This type of discussion is used as a summative assessment as the designs
are presented at the end of the lesson. Class discussions are a way for students to build critically
thinking skills (Murphy, Wilkinson, Soter, Hennessey & Alexander, 2009). Discussions are also
useful to clear up any misconceptions students may have before moving on to the next lesson and
carrying those with them (Murphy et al., 2009).

In conclusion, embedded within these lesson plans are teaching strategies such as collaborative
project based learning in relation to constructivism which benefit students learning in design and
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technology. Also, the implementation of literacy, numeracy and ICT within these lesson plans are
important as these skills are necessary for future use. Differentiation is also shown throughout the
three lessons to meet the needs of individual students. It is important as teachers that we meet the
needs of all students across all abilities to maintain equality within the classroom.

References:
Bruffee, K, A. (1993). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence and the authority
of knowledge. Baltmore, Johns Hopkins University Press

Cakir, M. (2008). Constructivist approaches to learning in science and their implication for science
pedagogy: Aliterature review. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 3(4),
193–206.

Friend, M & Bursuck, W, D. (2002). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for
classroom teachers (3rd ed.). Boston, A Pearson Educational Company

Johnson, D, W, & Johnson, R, T. (2009a). Making cooperative learning work. Theory Into Practice,
38(2), 67-73.

Johnson, R.T & Johnson, D.W. (1986b). Cooperative learning in the science classroom. Science
and Children, 24(1), 31-32.

Larkin, M.J. (2001). Providing support for student independence through scaffolding instruction.
Teaching Exception Children, 34(1), 30

Murphy, P. K., Wilkinson, I. A. G., Soter, A. O., Hennessey, M. N., & Alexander, J. F. (2009).
Examining the effects of classroom discussion on students’ comprehension of text: A meta-
analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 740-764.

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