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colored ink for

computer printer out of


malabar nihtshade
(alugbati) extract
Huwebes, Marso 22, 2012

chapter I-III
Chapter I

Introduction

Background of the study.

In this modern world of technology the price of products becomes a challenge to every user
particularly the scarcity of resources in order to address the demands of the consumers. Nowadays
problems to supply the needs of computer ink will be in demand specially in the modernized and
industrialized countries throughout the world. Even the government encourage young scientist to discover
things that can be useful and answer to the needs of social changes.

A shrubby plant , Malabar Nightshade (Basella rubra linn), Alugbati in native terms inhabits
a watery surface in wet lands. Nightshade family has about 90 genera and 2600 species. Its genus are
such common weeds as horse nettle, a spiny perennial herb of the south central to eastern united states.

Plant is the nightshade family bear flowers with five sepals, five petals, five stamen, and
solitary pistil that in the most species rips into a berry. In horse nettle the flowers are white or pale violet.
Foliage and unripe fruit of most nightshade contain dangerous levels of steroid, alkaloid and solanine.

The berries is so intensely purple that it put beet juice it is use as natural food colorant for agar. This was
commonly played by class, feed as snail polish, stems, leaves, seed as ingredient in their little cooking
reason. This berries can caused stain/tint of their dresses.

Nowadays many people are now using high class gadget like computer to make their work easier. Most of
us know that printer is one of the Gadget that connected to computer to print books, newspapers or
magazine.
Ink is a liquid pigmented substances used for writing and printing or even for drawing
purpose. For which if is used. All inks, however contain two or more rudimentary components a pigments
or dye called a colorant and a vehicle, a liquid form into which the colorant is dispersed,. Many inks differ
from paint only in the purpose for which they are used. There are several types of ink include writing inks
drawing inks, printing inks and invisible or sympathetic inks

The first printing inks used in Europe were made of lamp black mixed with varmish or boiled in
seed oil, colored ink were ink develop late in the 18th century. In the later century several and great variety
of pigments were develop for used in the manufacture of the common inks today, Primarily though the
application of driers, only in the 20th century did ink manufacture become the complicated process it now
involving the mixture of a pigment with a vehicle, grinding of the mixture in a mill between rollers.

Print inks are more like paints than like writing inks that they consist of solid pigments dispersed
in an oil they are therefore less liquid. The simplest form of black printing ink, use on a low speed
letterpress is made of carbon black in linseed oil generally with a drier added to reduce drying time. In
many modern ink the oil used as vehicles semi synthetic, this oils have the advantage of drying faster
than natural oil and make speed printing .

Inks is one of the important component of printer without ink printer is useless therefore it is like
a blueprint of commercial printer ink becomes higher in the price until such time people cannot afford to
buy a commercial ink.

In this observable phenomena have come up the proponent to conduct research study,
computer printer out of Malabar nightshade berries to have a new source and solve the problem th high
value of commercial ink. Natural cored ink from alugbati berries is most useful and eco environmental
friendly than commercial ink

It is most effective and we can save money about 50% than commercial ink that can buy up to
200 pesos above while the alugbati berries can only buy 50 pesos.

Objectives.

This research will investigate the berries of alugbati if could be extract as source of colored
ink for computer printer.

Specifically this study aims to answer the following specific question.

1. What will be the possible component of alugbati berries can a source of colored ink?

2. How to extract the alugbati seed into colored ink

3. What properties can we found on its juice that made it dark in color?

Hypothesis.

Alugbati berries can be extracted to produce colored ink for computer printer.

Significance of the study.

Community. This research could help the community look for alternative source of ink for
printer.
Student. This research may help them to challenge and developed new products for ink printer.

Ink industries. The result of the study help to enrich their capabilities in developing local
available resources for colored ink for computer.

Entrepreneurs. This research may them to challenge and develop their new products for ink
printers

Researcher. This may serve as motivation to do more research and to inspire the other
researcher and serve a future references.

Scope and delimitation.

Alugbati berries. One of the most popular indigenous leafy vegetables in Philippines it
contains dangerous levels of steroid alkaloid and solanine.

Colored ink printer. Liquid for making marks.

Computer. Machine that performs task such as calculation or electronic communication under
the control of program.

Printer. A machine that print books, news paper or magazine.

Ink. Are point fluids and poster used for writing and printing?

Steroid. A large natural synthetic fatty substance containing for carbon ring including sex
hormones.

Alkaloid. A group of nitrogen containing compounds that are physiologically avtive for poison
or drugs.

Solanine. A bitter poisonous alkaline found in several plant of nightshade family.

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature and Studies

This study is focus on the alugbati berries extract as an alternative source of ink. This chapter
covers the past studies researches including the up-to-date facts and article, which have bearing on this
study. It is compared and analyzed the information difference commons. In connection with this we give
respect to the authors and researcher who contributed and supplied important data and information that
have strengthen this research study an original studies which correlates with some other studies
connected with other researches.

Related Literature
Pc World (2008)

Pc world and Rochester Institute of Technology test inks from Cannon, Epson, HP, Kodak
and Lexmark head to head against cheaper 3rd party inks. The lower cost print more page but the brand
name inks print better quality more fade resistant image. Cannon ink is judge good with text and photos to
third party inks.

Choice Magazine (2011)

An Australian publication similar to consumer reports test official manufacture ink and 7 brands of
3rd party ink really worked well and save money.

Allion.com (2011)

Japanese consulting firm has run several tests comparing various brands named printer ink with
off brand inks and continuous ink system. The test appear to be well done using gasses to stimulate the
aging process, but the reports sometimes leave out crucial bits of information – such as the name of the
brand ink.

Dr. Aligui (2007)

Alugbati is an excellent source of anti-oxidant good source of vitamin A, B, and C, calcium, and
iron. Also a good source of rough age.

Related Studies

Mesa (2008)

The alugbati extract is somewhat slippery and smooth so maybe it can be potential hair
conditioner. Alugbati sap can also help reduce of acne eruptions. It can be also helpful to those have an
ankle on their heads.

Swtmine (2009)

A based on the result, the alugbati seed can be made into a food voloring and can be a potential
source of food coloring production. The food coloring produced from Alugbati seed following an easy
step. The food coloring observed to be violet in color and pure odor. According to the result of the survey,
the product was food coloring like in odor.

Fernandez (1995)
Marker inks are widely used in the Philippines at present but because it is being manufactured in
other countries it is expensive. Due to this, the feasibility of the leaf protein concentrate of Mayana
Leaves as a cheaper source of colorant for marker ink.

Bensurto (2008)

Alugbati seed can be extract as fabric dye and it can be potential source of fabric dye. The dye is
produced from Alugbati berries that its juice is so intensely purple that it puts juice to shame.

Alvaro (2008)

The seed of alugbati can cause a stain or tint on their dresses. With this observable phenomena,
researcher have come up with this study Alugbati Seeds Juice as Ink.

Gorex (2008)

Based on the result Alugbati stem can be a moisturizer because it processes that commercial
moisturizer have like. This help the skin to moisture and soften.

CHAPTER III

Methodology

A. Research Design

The researcher made use of the experimental design. Different samples on Alugbati extract is collected
and tested the component through component analysis. Discripted analysis will be used in the analysis
and interpretation of data. There were several concentration which replicated several times.

B. Materials

Mortar and Pestle

Cartridge

Strainer

Printer

Computer

Colored Paper

Bond Paper
Alugbati berries

Cloth

C. Procedures

1. Collection of dye

a. Extraction of ink out of Malabar Nightshade with the use if mortar and pestle. After extraction strain
the extracted ink to separate the skin and seed of berries and put it on a clean beaker.

b. Extraction of ink out of Malabar Nightshade with the use of clean cloth and put it on a beaker.

2. Preparation of ink

a. Extract the juice of Alugbati berries with the use of mortar and pestle.

b. Strain the extracted juice.

c. After straining, put the ink in a clean beaker.

d. Transfer the extracted juice from the beaker into the cartridge and put the cartridge into the printer.

e. Now its ready to print.

3. Data gathering tools

a. Intensity. The degree of colored produce.

b. Stability of color. The ability of steadiness of color.

c. Consistency of color. The condition of color of the ink to stay constant.

d. Resistant to fading. The ability of the ink to stay constant in terms of color.

e. Absorption time. The amount of time required to dry or to be absorb in paper.

4. Evaluation of samples

Collected extracts after through analysis of the content will be injected to a printer cartridge and test its
effect to several types of paper used in printing. Evaluation shall be made to the different samples.
Objectives.

This research will investigate the berries of alugbati if could be extract as source of colored
ink for computer printer.

Specifically this study aims to answer the following specific question.

1. What will be the possible component of alugbati berries can a source of colored ink?

2. How to extract the alugbati seed into colored ink

3. What properties can we found on its juice that made it dark in color?

Hypothesis.

Alugbati berries can be extracted to produce colored ink for computer printer.

Significance of the study.

Community. This research could help the community look for alternative source of ink for
printer.

Student. This research may help them to challenge and developed new products for ink printer.

Ink industries. The result of the study help to enrich their capabilities in developing local
available resources for colored ink for computer.

Entrepreneurs. This research may them to challenge and develop their new products for ink
printers

Researcher. This may serve as motivation to do more research and to inspire the other
researcher and serve a future references.

Scope and delimitation.

Alugbati berries. One of the most popular indigenous leafy vegetables in Philippines it
contains dangerous levels of steroid alkaloid and solanine.

Colored ink printer. Liquid for making marks.

Computer. Machine that performs task such as calculation or electronic communication under
the control of program.

Printer. A machine that print books, news paper or magazine.

Ink. Are point fluids and poster used for writing and printing?

Steroid. A large natural synthetic fatty substance containing for carbon ring including sex
hormones.
Alkaloid. A group of nitrogen containing compounds that are physiologically avtive for poison
or drugs.

Solanine. A bitter poisonous alkaline found in several plant of nightshade family.

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature and Studies

This study is focus on the alugbati berries extract as an alternative source of ink. This chapter
covers the past studies researches including the up-to-date facts and article, which have bearing on this
study. It is compared and analyzed the information difference commons. In connection with this we give
respect to the authors and researcher who contributed and supplied important data and information that
have strengthen this research study an original studies which correlates with some other studies
connected with other researches.

Related Literature

Pc World (2008)

Pc world and Rochester Institute of Technology test inks from Cannon, Epson, HP, Kodak
and Lexmark head to head against cheaper 3rd party inks. The lower cost print more page but the brand
name inks print better quality more fade resistant image. Cannon ink is judge good with text and photos to
third party inks.

Choice Magazine (2011)

An Australian publication similar to consumer reports test official manufacture ink and 7 brands of
3rd party ink really worked well and save money.

Allion.com (2011)

Japanese consulting firm has run several tests comparing various brands named printer ink with
off brand inks and continuous ink system. The test appear to be well done using gasses to stimulate the
aging process, but the reports sometimes leave out crucial bits of information – such as the name of the
brand ink.
Dr. Aligui (2007)

Alugbati is an excellent source of anti-oxidant good source of vitamin A, B, and C, calcium, and
iron. Also a good source of rough age.

Related Studies

Mesa (2008)

The alugbati extract is somewhat slippery and smooth so maybe it can be potential hair
conditioner. Alugbati sap can also help reduce of acne eruptions. It can be also helpful to those have an
ankle on their heads.

Swtmine (2009)

A based on the result, the alugbati seed can be made into a food voloring and can be a potential
source of food coloring production. The food coloring produced from Alugbati seed following an easy
step. The food coloring observed to be violet in color and pure odor. According to the result of the survey,
the product was food coloring like in odor.

Fernandez (1995)

Marker inks are widely used in the Philippines at present but because it is being manufactured in
other countries it is expensive. Due to this, the feasibility of the leaf protein concentrate of Mayana
Leaves as a cheaper source of colorant for marker ink.

Bensurto (2008)

Alugbati seed can be extract as fabric dye and it can be potential source of fabric dye. The dye is
produced from Alugbati berries that its juice is so intensely purple that it puts juice to shame.

Alvaro (2008)

The seed of alugbati can cause a stain or tint on their dresses. With this observable phenomena,
researcher have come up with this study Alugbati Seeds Juice as Ink.

Gorex (2008)

Based on the result Alugbati stem can be a moisturizer because it processes that commercial
moisturizer have like. This help the skin to moisture and soften.
CHAPTER III

Methodology

A. Research Design

The researcher made use of the experimental design. Different samples on Alugbati extract is collected
and tested the component through component analysis. Discripted analysis will be used in the analysis
and interpretation of data. There were several concentration which replicated several times.

B. Materials

Mortar and Pestle

Cartridge

Strainer

Printer

Computer

Colored Paper

Bond Paper

Alugbati berries

Cloth
C. Procedures

1. Collection of dye

a. Extraction of ink out of Malabar Nightshade with the use if mortar and pestle. After extraction strain
the extracted ink to separate the skin and seed of berries and put it on a clean beaker.

b. Extraction of ink out of Malabar Nightshade with the use of clean cloth and put it on a beaker.

2. Preparation of ink

a. Extract the juice of Alugbati berries with the use of mortar and pestle.

b. Strain the extracted juice.

c. After straining, put the ink in a clean beaker.

d. Transfer the extracted juice from the beaker into the cartridge and put the cartridge into the printer.

e. Now its ready to print.

3. Data gathering tools

a. Intensity. The degree of colored produce.

b. Stability of color. The ability of steadiness of color.

c. Consistency of color. The condition of color of the ink to stay constant.

d. Resistant to fading. The ability of the ink to stay constant in terms of color.

e. Absorption time. The amount of time required to dry or to be absorb in paper.

4. Evaluation of samples

Collected extracts after through analysis of the content will be injected to a printer cartridge and test its
effect to several types of paper used in printing. Evaluation shall be made to the different samples.

D. Flowchart