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Bicol University

College of Education
Daraga, Albay

Joshua A. Ballon September 28, 2017


Curriculum Implementation

What is Curriculum Implementation?

According to Chaudhary (2015), in his journal entitled “Factors Affecting Curriculum
Implementation for Students”, curriculum implementation entails putting into practice the
officially prescribed courses of study, syllabuses and subjects. The process involves helping the
learner acquire knowledge or experience. It is important to note that curriculum implementation
cannot take place without the learner. The learner is therefore the central figure in the curriculum
implementation process. Implementation takes place as the learner acquires the planned or
intended experiences, knowledge, skills, ideas and attitudes that are aimed at enabling the same
learner to function effectively in a society. Viewed from this perspective, curriculum
implementation also refers to the stage when the curriculum itself, as an educational programme,
is put into effect. Putting the curriculum into operation requires an implementing agent. Stenhouse
identifies the teacher as the agent in the curriculum implementation process. She argues that
implementation is the manner in which the teacher selects and mixes the various aspects of
knowledge contained in a curriculum document or syllabus. Implementation takes place when the
teacher-constructed syllabus.

How syllabus considers various factors affecting curriculum?

Syllabus act like a mirror of the school’s teaching-learning procedure it depicts lapses, flaws,
strengths and weaknesses of a curriculum inside the school. Through syllabus, the government
especially those agencies aligned to education like CHED and DepEd may be able to make find
different measures to improve the processes of teaching inside the school and innovate some other
part of the curriculum that is considered to be obsolete.
Schools Philosophy
According to Esu & Emah (2014) in the article of Onojerena (2004) entitled “The Role of School
Managers in Curriculum Implementation in Nigerian Secondary Schools”, the national
goals/educational objectives guide the development of the school curriculum. For instance, if a
country is leaning towards technological or scientific orientation then the goals would be translated
into contents, knowledge, skills and values, etc which will be inculcated into the students in order
to fulfill the educational goals. The content of syllabus must be appropriate to the school’s
philosophy or the nations mandated orientation of education in order to attain the target goals,
mission and vision.

Learning Environment
According to Chaudhary (2015), one other factor that influences curriculum implementation
concerns the particular circumstances of each school. Schools located in rich socio-economic
environments and those that have adequate human and material resources can implement the
curriculum to an extent that would be difficult or impossible for schools in poor economic
environments. So in order to avoid lapses in teaching-learning process we must not limit our
students in one environment. There are a lot of places that are very conducive to learning not just
classroom only.

Needs and Demands of the Society

We can easily determine the different needs of the society and its demands through contents of the
syllabus. The society are expecting the schools to produce different graduates that will help them
towards a sustainable development and it is based on what curriculum offers by the school and that
is listed on the syllabus.

Needs of the Students

Learners are considered to be the most essential part of curriculum implementation. According to
Chaudhary (2015), Learners are also a critical element in curriculum implementation. While
teachers are the arbiters of the classroom practice, the learners hold the key to what is actually
transmitted and adopted from the official curriculum. The official curriculum can be quite different
from the curriculum that is actually implemented. The learner factor influences teachers in their
selection of learning experiences, hence the need to consider the diverse characteristics of learners
in curriculum implementation. For example, home background and learner ability can determine
what is actually achieved in the classroom. At the end of the learning period the students must
have the complete understanding of what profession they took.

Faculty Expertise
Faculty must have the ability to be a vessel of the curriculum. According to Onojerena (2004),
Curriculum implementation cannot be achieved unless it has been made possible through the
supervisory function of the school head. The head does this through:

 deploying staff,
 allocating time to subjects taught at the school,
 providing teaching and learning materials, and
 creating an atmosphere conducive to effective teaching
and learning.
As stated in Curriculum Implementation, the head “monitors and guides curriculum
implementation through ensuring that schemes of work, lesson plans and records of marks are
prepared regularly”. The head teacher maintains a school tone and culture that create the climate
of social responsibility. Effective curriculum implementation does not take place in a school where
the head is incapable of executing supervisory functions. The faculties must be skilled in order to
implement a good and effective curriculum.

Curriculum Evaluation

What is Curriculum Evaluation?

According to Borabo et al. (2015) curriculum evaluation is a new idea for many teachers, not
knowing that every day; the teacher is involved in several components of evaluation. There are
two (2) ways of looking at curriculum evaluation.

 Curriculum Program Evaluation may focus on the overall aspects of curriculum or the
curriculum itself. More often it refers to big curriculum program. Examples of these
programs are the K-12 Curriculum and the Outcomes-Based Approach in Mathematics
 Curriculum Program Component Evaluation. A curriculum component may include
separate evaluation of (a) achieved learning outcomes, (b) curriculum process and (c)
instructional materials.

Commonly, parents are not recognize by other as one of the contributor of curriculum evaluation
but ironically parents give contributions to the curriculum through the GPTA. The teachers and
the parents share insights about the recent curriculum and they make suggestions in order to
provide feedbacks that will help to improve curriculum.

Students gives feedback into the curriculum that they experienced even though they are not much
knowledgeable about it but they provide contributions to the school. As shown in the table below
Marschall (2014) give clear roles of the students in curriculum evaluation.

It clearly shows that students are not only beneficiaries of curriculum but also contributor.
Community are involved not only in development of curriculum but also evaluator. Alexander
(1972) suggested two principles in his editorial entitled “Community Involvement in Curriculum”
of why community is involved in curriculum:

 First, community involvement is most widespread and effective when issues are real and
 Second, community involvement is most real and personal at the individual school level.

Professional Organization
Professional organization helps to analyze and assess the present curriculum, they propose and
suggest some other ways to improve and innovate the curriculum to provide a specialized and
efficient education for the learners. They also organized seminars that will help to train personnel
especially teachers to become a good curricularist and knowledge bearer.

According to Trinklein & Wells (1987), The horticulture curriculum requires regular evaluation
because of changing student needs. Traditionally, faculty have reviewed the curriculum and have
made appropriate changes depending upon their own observations. In recent years, an attempt has
been made to improve this process by involving others. For example, task forces have been formed
at the national level to assess groups representing education, government, business and industry to
determine student's needs and to establish curricular priorities (4). However helpful task force
recommendations may be. at times faculty must face curricular decisions unique to their own
institutions. In such situations, alumni represent valuable resources. As products of the educational
institution involved, alumni are in an advantageous position to judge both the quality and adequacy
of their education (3,7.8). They are able to identify both strengths and weaknesses in curricular
composition based upon career experiences. The purpose of our investigation was to involve
alumni in curricular evaluation and development through the use of a survey. Alumni is also part
of curriculum evaluation because they also considered as stakeholders and contributor to a good
and effective curriculum.
These researchers provide systematic measures on how to make curriculum more efficient and
timely. They help the school through their detailed study that gives advices and points in improving
the school curriculum.