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Action VERBS

Definitions + Related Learning Outcomes

Analyse - Study or examine something in Discuss - Offer a considered, balanced Investigate - Observe, study, or make a
detail, break down something in order to review that includes a range of arguments, detailed and systematic examination, in
bring out the essential elements or factors or hypotheses: opinions or order to establish facts and reach new
structure; identify parts and relationships, conclusions should be presented clearly and conclusions CW 1 CW 6 CW 7
and interpret information to reach supported by appropriate evidence CW 8 PW 3 BW 1 BW 5 BW 7
conclusions NoS 4 PW 6 EaS 8 PW 4 PW 8 BW 9
Justify - Give valid reasons or evidence to
Apply - Select and use information and/or Evaluate (data) - Collect and examine data support an answer or conclusion NoS 4
knowledge and understanding to explain a to make judgments and appraisals; describe
given situation or real circumstances NoS 5 how evidence supports or does not support Measure - Quantify changes in systems by
a conclusion in an inquiry or investigation; reading a measuring tool PW 2
Appreciate - Recognise the meaning of; identify the limitations of data in
have a practical understanding of conclusions; make judgments about ideas,
solutions or methods NoS 2 NoS 6 Model - Generate a mathematical
NoS 1 NoS 10 BW 10
representation (e.g., number, graph,
NoS 8 E&S 7 CW 10 BW 6 BW 10 equation, geometric figure); diagrams;
Calculate - Obtain a numerical answer, physical replicas for real world or
showing the relevant stages in the working Evaluate (ethical judgement) - Collect and mathematical objects; properties; actions or
PW 2 examine evidence to make judgments and relationships EaS 2 EaS 4 CW 2 CW 3
appraisals; describe how evidence supports
Classify – Group things based on common or does not support a judgement; identify Organise - To arrange; to systematise or
characteristics CW 4 the limitations of evidence in conclusions; methodise NoS 7
make judgments about ideas, solutions or
Compare - Give an account of the methods NoS 2 NoS 6
Outline - To make a summary of the
similarities and/or differences between two NoS 8 E&S 7 CW 10 BW 6 BW 10 significant features of a subject BW 3
(or more) items or situations, referring to
both/all of them throughout NoS 2 EaS 3 Examine - Consider an argument or concept Plan - To devise or project a method or a
in a way that uncovers the assumptions and course of action NoS 3
Conduct - To perform an activity relationships of the issue EaS 8 BW 6
NoS 3 NoS 6 BW 5 Produce - To bring into existence by
Explain – Give a detailed account including intellectual or creative ability NoS 4
Consider - Describe patterns in data; use reasons or causes NoS 3 PW 6
knowledge and understanding to interpret BW 3 BW 8 BW 9 Research - To inquire specifically, using
patterns; make predictions and check involved and critical investigation
reliability CW 9 NoS 6 NoS 9 EaS 6 PW 4 PW 8 BW 5
Explore - Observe, study, in order to
establish facts EaS 2 BW 2
Review - To re-examine deliberately or
Demonstrate - Prove or make clear by
critically, usually with a view to approval or
reasoning or evidence; illustrating with Formulate - Express the relevant concept(s) dissent; to analyse results for the purpose
examples or practical application CW 2 or argument(s) precisely and systematically of giving an opinion NoS 5
EaS 6
Describe - Develop a detailed picture or
Recognise - Identify facts, characteristics or
image of, for example, a structure or a Identify - Recognise patterns, facts, or concepts that are critical (relevant /
process; using words or diagrams where details; provide an answer from a number appropriate) to the understanding of a
appropriate; produce a plan, simulation or of possibilities; recognise and state briefly a situation, event, process or phenomenon
model EaS 1 EaS 4 EaS 5 CW 2 distinguishing fact or feature NoS 4 PW 2 NoS 2
CW 3 PW 7 BW 2 BW 4 BW 7
Illustrate – Use examples to describe Reflect - To consider in order to correct or
Design - To conceive, create and execute something EaS 2 EaS 7 CW 9 improve NoS 5
according to plan NoS 3 PW 5 PW 7
Interpret - Use knowledge and Use - Apply knowledge or rules to put
Develop - To evolve; to make apparent or understanding to recognise trends and draw theory into practice
expand in detail EaS 4 CW 2 conclusions from given information EaS 3 EaS 4 CW 2 CW 5 CW 8 CW 9 PW 1

NoS = Nature of Science Adapted from the Junior Cycle Science

Understanding about Science Building Blocks
EaS = Earth & Space Curriculum Specification available at
Investigating in Science System & Interactions CW = Chemical World
Communicating in Science Energy PW = Physical World
BW = Biological World More science resources available at
Science in Society Sustainability