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Perpetual machine patent ref 20081101 OCR20081102

US-RE29165 1977 Electromotive device including magnetic shield interacting with permanent . George Fred Bode
US4118637 1978 Integrated energy system Louis Eugene Tackett
US5810141 1998 Driveline clutch with unidirectional apply ball ramp- Organek
US5903069 1999 Synchronous reciprocating electric machines Misha Hitere
US6084322 2000 Amplifying mechanical energy with magnetomotive force Donald E. Rounds
US6356000 2002 Magnetically augmented rotation system Chun-Yuan Ho
US6369180 2002 magnetic force to create force vector to control an object Clarence S. Blakesley
US6851534 2002 Axial setting device with a switching coupling incorporated into the drive Michael Hock et al
US6956300 2005 Gimbal-mounted hydroelectric turbine Andrew Roman Gizara

Application pending
US20060237970 Perpetual motion comptrollers & energy molecule splitters Rudolph Bailey
US20070246939 Perpetual motion machine Macdonald
United States Patent [ 19] 1111 E Re. 29,165
Bode [45] Reissued Mar. 29, 1977

[54] ELECTROMOTIVE DEVICE INCLUDlNG 1,963,376 6/1934 Papas ............................ 310/l03 X


MAGNETIC SHIELD INTERACTING WITH 3,703,653 J 1/1972 Tracy et al .................... 31 Oil 03 X
PERMANENT MAGNET POLE FACES 3,721,873 3/l 973 Vogel .............................. 310/20 X
3,811,058 5/1974 Kiniski ........................... 310/l03 X
3,814.962 6/1974 Bacrmann ............ ........ ..... 310/103

[76] Inventor: George Fred Bode, Rte. No.1, Primary Examiner-Donovan F. Duggan
Middletown, Md. 21769 Attorney, ARent, or Firm--Lowe, King, Price & Markva
[22J Filed: Nov. 18, 1975
[57J ABSTRACT
[21] AppL No.: 633,002
An electric motor is composed of two counter-rotating
discs having intermeshing gearing and each carrying a
Related U.S. Patent Documents plurality of permanent magnets radially arranged with
Reissue of: the same poles at the periphery of both discs. A shield
[64] Patent No.: 3,895,245 of magnetic material is provided at one side extending
Issued: July IS, 1975 partly around the periphery of each of the discs and
App!. No.: 472,909 into substantially the bite of the discs. An electromag-
Filed: May 23, 1974 netic is arranged with one pole adjacent the bite of the
discs, with means to energize the electromagnet as each
[52J U.S. CI. .................................. 310/46; 3 JO/l03
of the permanerit magnets reaches the bite of the discs
[51] Int. CV ........................................ H02K 37/00
to create a field of such polarity as to make the mag-
[58] Field of Search ............ 310/46, 103,112,114,
netic poles of the adjacent permanent magnets move
310/115,126,83
away from the bite of the discs in the direction away
[56] References Cited from the shield, utilizing the combined forces of the
UNITED STATES PATENTS electromagnetic force and the repelling force of the
permanent magnets to effect rotation.
1,724,446 8/1929 Worthington ....................... 310/46
1,889,208 11/1932 Masterson et al. ............ 310/115 X
1,893,629 1/1933 Masterson et al. ............ 31 O/J 15 X 13 Claims. 11 Drawing Figures
r 30
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u.s. Patent March 29, 1977 Sheet 1 of 3 Re. 29,165

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u.s. Patent March 29, 1977 Sheet 2 of 3 Re. 29,165
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FIG. 8
U.S. Patent March 29, 1977 Sheet 3 of 3 Re. 29,165

FIG. 9 FIG. 10
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Re. 29,165
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as a basis for defining a term "user efficiency" which
ELECTROMOTIVE DEVICE INCLUDING will be employed in the following discussion.
MAGNETIC SHIELD INTERACTING WItH Assuming an analogy to a magnetic engine to be
PERMANENT MAGNET POLE FACES described herein, such as one which operates on com-
5 pressed gas and includes a conversion device such as a
turbine which converts the energy of the compressed
Matter enclosed in heavy brackets [ 1appears in the gas to rotary motion. Further assume that there is an
original patent but forms no part of this reissue ~pecifi­ endless supply of compressed gas which is released, as
cation; matter printed in italics indicates the additions required, by means of some control element which
made by reissue. 10 demands very little power compared to the output of
the compressed gas turbine. Under this condition, the
output exceeds the input to the control device and the
efficiency is greater than 100 percent. In the end, how-
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION ever, the compressed gas will be dissipated, and the
1. Field of the Invention 15 battery discharged, requiring the entire system to be
The invention relates to an electric motor relying on supplied with energy again. It will then be found that
permanent magnets and an electromagnet for its opera- the entire sum of energy supplied to the system exceeds
tion. the energy removed from it, resulting in overall effi-
2. The Prior Art ciency less than 100 percent.
Various attempts have been made to create motors 20 In the present context, magnetic energy is used to
utilizing the power of permanent magnets, but these replace the compressed. gas concept and offers a
seem never to have been commerically successful. method of storing large amounts of energy for long
periods of time. Furthermore, the magnetic energy can
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION be released in an orderly manner which does not re-
The invention relates to a new, highly efficient elec- 25 quire excessive amounts of energy from a lead-acid
trically operated motor, particularly suited forautomo- battery pack used to control the magnetic energy.
tive, truck or other systems requiring a compact, high- In principle, according to the invention, the motor is
powered engine which is independent of gasoline or composed oftwo counter-rotating members, preferably
similar fuels and operates pollution-free. disc rotors, which are connected by gearing so as to
The invention provides a motor which utilizes the 30 turn at the same speed in opposite directions. Each of
power· of permanent magnets aiong with an electro- the rotors carries a plurality, preferably four, equiangu-
magnet operating in synchronism with the movement larly spaced permanent magnets extending radially of
of the permanent magnets in order to produce turning the discs, the permanent magnets being so positioned
of a shaft. It is particularly desirable from the ecologi- that they are opposite each other when passing the bite
cal point of view, since the battery can be recharged, at 35 of the rotors. In the preferred form, all of the perma-
any point where sufficient electric current is available, nent magnets have the same poles at the peripheries of
while the magnets can be renewed or recharged in the the rotors and the opposite pole adjacent the centers of
machine, and there is no consumption of gasoline or the rotors.
other fuels which will contaminate the atmosphere. There is also provided a magnetic shield, composed
The device provides an arrangement by which, with a 40 of a generally V-shaped member of a magnetic mate-
reasonable battery storage capacity, and with adequate rial, such as tin-plated steel, the point of which extends
permanent magnets, vehicles can be operated for con- up almost to the bite of the rotors, while its legs are
siderable distances and over considerable periods of somewhat curved about a radius of curvature greater
time without the necessity for recharging, other than an than that of the rotors.
occasional charge of the storage battery. 45 In the vicinity of the bite of the rotors, preferably on
Fundamentally, the concept of rotating electrical the opposite side from the shield there is arranged an
machinery follows certain well-established and undis- electromagnet energized by a storage battery or other
puted laws governing the actual operation. One such current source. Timing mechanism is provided which,
law which is applicable to every machine is the law of when any pair of opposed electromagnets reaches the
conservation of energy. This law states that.energy is 50 bite of the rotors, energizes the electromagnet to create
given to a body when work is done upon it and in this a pole adjacent the other ends of the permanent mag-
process there is merely a transfer of energy from one nets and of opposite polarity, So as to pull the perma-
body to another. In such transfer, no energy is created nent magnets past the dead center or aligned position.
or destroyed; it merely changes from one form to an- In a modified form, the electromagnet may be placed
other. 55 at the point of the V-shaped shield and is then arranged
This statement does not indicate the efficiency with so that its end adjacent the bite of the rotors has the
which the transfer takes place. It must be assumed that same plurality as the outer poles of the permanent
the transfer takes place with somewhat less than 100 magnets, so as to push or repel them past the dead-cen-
percent efficiency, as otherwise the output could be ter position.
coupled to the input and the device would sustain itself, 60 Other objects and advantages of the invention will
which is not believed possible. In other words, losses appear more fully from the follo~ing description, par-
always occur which place an upper limit to the effi- ticularly when taken into conjunction with the accom-
ciency and preclude the possibility of perpetual mo- panying drawings which form a part thereof.
tion.
However, when the term "efficiency" is applied dis- 65 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
cretely, under properly defined conditions, it is possible In the drawings:
to arrive at apparent efficiencies exceeding 100 per- FIGS. 1 to 5 are diagrams for explaining the back-
cent. A simple example will illustrate a point and serve ground of the invention;
Re. 29,165
3 4
FIG. 6 shows in side elevation a motor in accordance FIG. 5 shows this condition, along with a modifica-
with the invention; tion of the shape of the ferromagnetic material 6'. A
FIG. 7 is a side view of the motor of FIG. 6; and study of the prevailing forces which prevail in this dia-
FIG. 8 shows a detail of a modified form of the inven- gram will lead to the conclusion that if a short burst of
tion; 5 external energy, of the proper polarity is applied to the
FIG. 9 shows in side elevation a part of a further system at this time two of the poles are nearest dead
modification of the invention; center (in this case, south pole), they will be kicked
FIG. 10 is a plan view of a part of FIG. 9; past dead center and beyond the influence of the ferro-
FIG. 11 shows a further possible modification. magnetic material. The two south poles will now de-
10 velop a force repelling each other, and the north poles
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED will develop new forces attracting them towards the
EMBODIMENTS shield until they reach a point just before dead center
FIG. 1 shows two magnets 2 and 4, of the ordinary where they will stop unless the external energy is ap-
bar type placed in close proximity to each other iIIus- plied again in the form of a short burst. It is evident that
trating in a simple manner that two poles of like 15 the external energy must be applied in such phase that
polarity repel each other. Further, with certain restric- it aids rotation or else a portion of the energy extracted
tions, they generally repel each other with a force F from the magnets is cancelled and the system will not
that is directly proportional to the product of the indi- work.
vidual pole strengths, and inversely proportional to the It is important to note at this point that the energy
square of the distance separating them. In addition, the 20 injected into the system in the manner and time sped-
force is affected by the permeability of the medium fied will add to any energy extracted from the magnets.
through which the force acts. For ordinary air the nu- Therefore, the total output energy is the sum of the
merical value of the permeability is very nearly unity external energy injected, plus the energy extracted
and is not used in calculation. from the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets,
FIG. 2 shows an identical pair of bar magnets, the 25 minus the energy used to overcome any losses.
only difference being that a piece 6 of ferromagnetic Experimentally it has been determined that the losses
material has been shown inserted between the poles. do not increase as rapidly as the Dutput, providing a
Under this condition an important effect is observed. basis for the assumption that it is possible to control
The poles no longer repeal each other; they are, as a substantial amounts of output power with relatively
matter of fact in apparent attraction as indicated by F I 30 small amounts of energy derived from a lead-acid bat-
and F2 • Theoretically, the individual magnets induce a tery control source. The impact of this statement is
pole of opposite polarity in the ferromagnetic material apparent as indicating that an engine of this type could
and are thereby attracted to it. Suitable arrangements be used to power an automobile for a considerable
of air gaps in conjunction with other factors allow this amount of time before it would be necessary to re-
apparent attraction to remain throughout a very wide 35 charge the batteries.
range of pole strengths, and thicknesses of the ferro- It is equally important to note that it is not necessary
magnetic material. to inject external energy continuously. As a matter of
This action actually occurs and the effect can be used fact, the external energy must be injected for a very
to recover large amounts of the energy stored in the brief time around dead center or the system will not
magnetic fields of permanent magnets. 40 work. Quickly, after the poles at dead center have been
Next, attention is directed to FIG. 3 where similar kicked past the dead center position, the input energy
magnets are attached to turn about fixed individual must be turned off and the forces developed by the
axes 8 physically geared together at 10. This arrange- permanent magnets left to supply their contribution to
ment is intended to confine the rotation of the magnets the output of the system. The advantages of not having
to a circular path, each magnet rotating in an opposite 45 to supply energy over the engine cycle are obvious also.
direction from the other. With these restrictions, the The instantaneous demand may be high, but if the
system will reach a state of equilibrium as shown where energy is only supplied for a short time the average
the force F t' is equal and opposite to the force F2 ', energy demand is much lower.
rendering the system stationary. Finally, the discussion thus far is based on a system
Now, referring to FIG. 4, visualize this as a plan view 50 employing a single bar magnet in each rotating head.
of FIG. 3, without showing the shafts and gears. In This results in having to reverse the polarity of the
other words, the right hand bar magnet 4 of FIG. 4 is external energy source because alternately north and
considered to rotate clockwise about the center axis 6 south poles appear at the dead center position. This
of the magnet in a plane parallel to the plane of the condition is easily taken care of by the arrangement
paper. The left hand magnet 2 rotates in the opposite 5S shown in FIGS. 6 to 8.
direction. Without the benefit of ferromagnetic mate- Referring to FIGS. 6 to 8, there are two rotors 12 and
rial 6 inserted between the south poles of FIG. 4, the 14 mounted on shafts 16 and 18, respectively, from one
bar magnets will align themselves paralic I to each other of which power may be taken. The rotors are caused to
as shown. If we now restrain the magnets in the parallel turn in opposite directions in the same speed by mesh-
position and insert the ferromagnetic material, the 60 ing gears 20 and 22 mounted on the shafts 16 and 18,
forces can be illustrated as shown in FIG. 4, where the respectively.
sum of the forces F2a and F2b complement the value of Each of the rotors carries a plurality of permanent
Fb and the system is no longer in a state of eqUilibrium. magnets 24, which are arranged radially in the rotors
If unrestrained, magnets will turn about axes 6 in the with the same poles at the periphery and the opposite
directions indicated. It can be seen that the insertion of 6S poles adjacent the center of the rotors. At one side of
the ferromagnetic material causes an apparent reversal the rotors there is a magnetic shield 26, which may for
of forces imparting rotation to the system in the direc- example be of tin-plated steel, which is of generally
tion intended. V-shape and has its point adjacent the bite of the ro-
Re.29,165
5 6
tors. The legs of the V-shape are arcuate, each having As is shown in FIG. 11, it is not essential that the
a radius of curvature somewhat greater than the radius electromagnet be at the bite of the rotors. It could be at
of curvature of the rotors, so that they gradually di- various places around the periphery of the rotors, and
verge from the rotors. The legs of the shield extend one or several such magnets can be used, to impart
about 90° around the periphery of the rotors. 5 either attractive or repulsive forces to the rotors.
On the side of the bite of the rotors opposite the I claim:
shields, there is an electromagnet 28 which is con- 1. An electric motor comprising a pair of rotors,
nected to a storage battery 30 by a make-and break- means for causing the rotors to rotate in opposite direc-
switch 32, operated by cam 34 having four projecting tions at the same speed, a plurality of permanent mag-
cam portions, corresponding generally in position to 10 nets carried by each rotor and angularly spaced there-
the permanent magnets, so as to close the switch 32 as around, the permanent magnets extending radially and
each· pair of permanent magnets reaches the aligned being angularly positioned so that a pair of magnets,
position at the bite of the rotors. one of each rotor come opposite each other at the bite
In such a device, as the magnets approach the mag- of the rotors, the outer poles of the magnets opposing
netic shield 26, they are attracted thereto and cause the 15 each other being of the same polarity, a magnetic shield
rotors to turn in the directions shown opposite to each of ferromagnetic material having its edge adjacent the
other. When the rotors reach the bite of the rotors, the bite of the rotors and extending away from the bite of
electromagnet 28 is energized in such a way as to cre- the rotors for a substantial distance, and electromagnet
ate a pole of opposite polarity to the outer poles of the means having one pole adjacent the periphery of at
rotors; that is when the permanent magnets have their 20 least one of the rotors, and means responsive to the
north poles outwardly the electromagnet pole adjacent rotation of the rotors for energizing the electromagnet
the bite of the rotors is a south pole. This will pull the means temporarily as a permanent magnet approaches
permanent magnets around in the direction of rotation, said electromagnet means, with the end of the electro-
and past the dead-center point, whereupon the electro- magnet adjacerit the periphery of the rotor having a
magnet is de-energized and the permanent magnets 25 polarity such as to produce movement ofthe outer ends
which have just passed the dead-center point because of the permanent magnets at the bite in the direction
of their repulsion continue to cause turning of the ro- away from the electromagnetic shield.
tors, while the following magnets approach the ~hield 2. An electric motor as claimed in claim 1, in which
and are attracted thereby so as to cause the rotatIOn to th t d f th t ts h th
continue. 30 e o~ er en s? e permanen magne. ave e same
.. polanty and Said electromagnet means IS on the oppo-
It may be necessary to start the rotors In motIOn at 't'd fth b't fth t f th h' Id d th
the beginning of the operation which can either be SI e Sl e 0 e leo e ro ors rom .e s Ie an e
done by hand or by an electric starting motor. Once end of the ~lectrom~gnet nearest the bite of the rotors
rotation is started, it continues until the electromagnet has a polanty opposIte to that of the outer ends of the
28 is no longer energized, which can be accomplished 35 pe;m:enlt m~gnetst I' d' I' l ' h' h
by opening a hand switch 38. • e ectnc mo or as c alme In c aim ,In W IC
In a modification shown in FIG. 8, the electromagnet the o~ter ends of the permanent magnet~ have the same
28 is placed on the same side as the shield 26 with one ~lanty and. the electromagnet mea;ns IS on the same
end extending into a gap in the shield adjacent the bite Side of the bite of the rotors as t~e shield and the end of
of the rotors. In this case, the electromagnet is ener- 40 the electrOl;nagnet nearest the bIte of the rotors has the
gized in such a way that the hole adjacent the bite of same polanty as the outer ends of the permanent mag-
the rotors has the same polarity as the outer ends of the nets. . .....
permanent magnets, so as to repel the permanent mag- 4. ~ ele.ctnc moto: as claimed m chum ~, III which
net poles which are adjacent the bite of the rotors and the shield IS substantlally V-shaped and sal~ electro-
to drive them in rotation. 45 magnet means has one pole adjacent the bite of the
Such an arrangement provides a device which does rotors.. .....
not create fumes or other undesirable vapors, and 5. An electnc .moto~ as claimed In elal.m 1, .m whIch
which can operate for considerable periods of time the legs of the shield dlV~rge from the penphenes of the
with only an occasional recharging of the storage bat- rotors away from th~ bite ~f the roto:-,: .
tery, since a majority ofthe energy is obtained from the 50 6. An electromotlVe devIce comprzsmg a mngnellc
permanent magnets. These can be re-magnetized at shield, a pair of rotors, each of said rotors having a plu-
considerable intervals, so that operation of a device rality of spaced, permnnent mngnet pole faces on its
over long periods of time is practical and effective. periphery, said rotors being mounted for synchronous
While the arrangement shown is of course the most rotation of the pole faces of the pair of rotors relative to
convenient to explain the theory, it is practical that the 55 a point of closest proximity between the peripheries of the
outer ends of the magnets could be of alternatingly two rotors so that while the rotors are in proximity to said
opposite polarity, which would however require two point mngnetic fields extending from the pole faces of the
electromagnets, one as shown in FIG. 6 and one as two rotors interact to produce forces on the rotors caus-
shown in FIG. 8, which would also be alternately ener- ing rotation of the rotors, said shield being mounted
gized to produce the necessary polarity. 60 relative to the periphery of said rotors and said point to
In the arrangement according to FIGS. 9 and 10, prevent substantial interaction of the magnetic pole faces
there is arranged adjacent the bite of the rolls an elec- of the two rotors on one side of said point, whereby the
tromagnet, possibly ofthe horseshoe type, which has its mngnetic fields of the two rotors interact assymetrically
poles on opposite sides of the bite of the rolls. When on the different sides of the point to rotatably drive the
this is energized, the north pole will impart a repellent 65 rotors in predetermined directions relative to the point,
force to the north poles of the magnets 24 and the and electromngnet means responsive to the rotation of
south pole will exert an attracting force, the two forces one of the rotors for supplying a mngnetic field to one of
thus reinforcing each other. the rotors to rotatably drive the rotor between the shield
Re.29,165
7 8
and the point in the same direction it rotates in response magnetic shield being positioned on one side of the point
to the interaction. and relative to said magnets to prevent substantial inter-
7. The device of claim 6 wherein the shield extends into action of the magnetic fields on said side of the point,
proximity with the point so that the magneticfieldsfrom whereby the magnetic fields interact assymetricaliy on
only one pole face on each of the rotors interact with each ·5 the different sides of the point to drive the magnets in
other on said side of the point. predetermined directions relative to the point, and elec-
8. The device of claim 6 wherein the pole faces of both tromagnet means responsive to movement of at least one
rotors have the same polarizations and said rotors are magnet for supplying a magnetic field to at least one
mounted to rotate toward said point, said shield being magnet to drive the magnets between the shield and the
positioned on the same side of the point as the side from 10 point in the predetermined directions.
which the rotors approach the point. 12. The device of claim 11 wherein the magnets are
9. An electromotive device comprising a fixed magnetic mounted for rotation about axes removed from said
shield, a pair of permanent magnets, means for mounting point.
at least one of said magnets for cyclic movement relative 13. An electromotive device comprising a magnetic
to said shield and a point of closest proximity between the 15 shield, a rotor having a plurality of spaced, permanent
magnets, said magnets having pole faces with polariza- magnet pole faces on its periphery, another permanent
tions that produce interacting magnetic fields tending to magnet pole face displaced from said rotor, said rotor
drive the at least one magnet relative to said point, said being mounted for rotation of the pole faces relative to a
magnetic shield being positioned on one side of the point point of closest proximity between the path of the periph-
and relative to said magnets to prevent substantial inter- 20 ery of the rotor and the another permanent magnet pole
action of the magnetic fields on said side of the point, face so that while the rotor is in proximity to said point
whereby the magnetic fields interact assymetrically on magnetic fields extending from the pole faces of the rotor
the different sides of the point to drive the at least one and another permanent magnet pole face interact to
magnet in a predetermined direction relative to the point, produce forces on the rotor causing rotation of the rotor,
and electromagnet means responsive to movement of the 25 said shield being mounted relative to the periphery of said
at least one magnet for supplying a magnetic field to the rotor, said another permanent magnet pole face, and said
at least one magnet to drive the magnet between the point to prevent substantial interac(ion of the magnetic
shield and the point in the predetermined direction. pole faces of the rotor and said another permanent mag-
10. The device of claim 9 wherein the at least one net pole face on one side of said point, whereby the mag-
magnet is mounted for rotation about an axis removed 30 netic fields of the rotor and another permanent magnet
from said point. pole face interact assymetrically on the different sides of
11. An electromotive device comprising a fIXed mag- the point to rotatably drive the rotor in a predetermined
netic shield, a pair of permanent magnets, means for direction relative to the point, and electromagnet means
mounting said magnets for cyclic movement relative to responsive to the rotation of the rotor for supplying a
said shield and a point of closest proximity between the 35 magnetic field to the rotor to rotatably drive the rotor
path of the magnets, said magnets having pole faces with between the shield and the point in the predetermined
polarizations that produce interacting magnetic fields direction.
tending to drive the magnets relative to said point, said * * * * *
40

45

50

55

60

65
United States Patent [19] [11] 4,118,637
Tackett [45] Oct. 3, 1978

[54] INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEM driven energy integration and multiple use-point sys-
[75] Inventor: Louis Eugene Tackett, Grandview, tem: which includes system air pressure compensated
Tex. variable pressure and volume delivery of compressed
air from multiple air compression stations which dis-
[73] Assignee: UNEP3 Energy Systems Inc., charge and store compressed air into an included inter-
Grandview, Tex. connecting collection storage and distribution conduit
[21] Appl. No.: 728,064 multiple module grid system; of largest needed and
commercially available size pipe to keep the pressure
[22] Filed: Sep. 30, 1976
drop to a minimum, and from which the compressed air
is withdrawn at multiple points of need; when and as
Related U.S. Application Data needed, through synchronized dual-precision-controls
[63] Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 579,131, May 20, to turn, at optimum RPM speed regardless of varying
1975, abandoned. work loads, air motor drives for operation of conven-
[51] Int. 0. 2 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• H02P 9/04 tional electrical generating equipment with varying
[52] U.S. CI. ......................................... 290/55; 60/398 customer-use-demand output work loads. The conduit-
[58] Field of Search ..................... 290/1, 4, 44, 43, 54, pipe systems are arranged in interconnecting, but isola-
290/55; 60/398, 413, 415; 417/336, 382 ble, multiple module grids ranging in size from those
needed, for example, for a small town or a large individ-
[56] References Cited
ual user of electricity to large metropolitan areas and
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS which may ultimately be interconnected into a large
874,140 12/1907 Valiquet .............. ,.................. 60/398 regional, national, or continental system. Natural en-
943.000 12/1909 Busby ................................... 417/336 ergy sources including wind, tide, wave, thermal and
2,539,862 111951 Rushing ................................. 60/398 solar power, as well as conventional fuels, may be uti-
3,996,741 12/1976 Herberg ................................. 60/398 lized to provide the energy required to drive compres-
4,004,427 1/1977 Butler, Jr............................... 60/398
sors to supply the air into the system. An improved
Primary Examiner-Robert K. Schaefer wind turbine is included for the recovery and use of
Assistant Examiner-John W. Redman wind-power for compressing air on a vast scale in multi-
Attorney, Agent, or Firm-James L. Bean ple installations.
[57] ABSTRACf
This invention is a multiple diverse energy source 21 Claims, 25 Drawing Figures

0+ 6' o·

143

014

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r
10.

:' 126
..

u. S. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 1 of 13 4,118,637

14
FIG. I
15 13 15

TOW~
t t
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t, () II

15 15

2/

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I

CITY.

f -1
FIG. 4

J
5.
u.s. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 2 of 13 4,118,637

FICJ.3

11,16,18
14

15

26

FIG. 5
30~

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u.s. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 3 of 13 4,118,637

~
+-7.
,
40 39 III1

36

FIG. 6

FIG. 7

21

FIG. 25
u.s. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 4 of 13 4,118,637

FIG.E3

78

75

80

81

~(-4(
)~74

86
U.s. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 5 of 13 4,118,637

FIG. 9

117

5 5

~/3

91
U.S. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 6 of 13 4,118,637

FIG. 10
1, /2 .

L'2.
u.s. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 7 of 13 4,118,637

FIG. II
140
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154
FIG. 20 154

136

135

130A
U.S. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 8 of 13 4,118,637

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FIG. '2
u.s. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 9 of 13 4,118,637

FIG. 13

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u.s. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 10 of 13 4,118,637

FIG. 14 c_

FIG 15

FICJ.16
U.S. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 11 of 13 4,118,637

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I

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u.s. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 12 of 13 4,118,637

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u.s. Patent Oct. 3, 1978 Sheet 13 of 13 4,118,637

FIG. 23 .FIG. 24
192
L- 11,16, 18,22,23

198

194
11,16,18,22,23

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190

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FINISHED GRADE LINE


4,118,637
1 2
stalled at the Grand Coulee Dam, it has been the gen-
INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEM eral practice to directly couple large water turbines to
fixed electrical generators, frequently making it neces-
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED sary to duplicate or provide additional equipment in
APPLICATIONS 5 order to accommodate fluctuating demands. Under this
This is a continuation-in-part of my co-pending appli- type of development, only the very large water power
cation Ser. No. 579,131, filed May 20, 1975 now aban- sites are developed, and smaller sites are not considered
doned. economically feasible. Further, other collectively enor-
mous sources of non-contaminating energy which have
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 10 never been fully exploited due primarily to their inter-
1. Field of the Invention mittent nature: include solar energy, wind energy, and
This invention relates to systems for providing useful ocean tide and wave energy.
energy in the form of electrical power, and more partic-
ularly to an improved system for utilization mUltiple SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
diverse energy sources in compressing large volumes of 15 The integrated energy system according to the pres-
air, collecting, storing and distributing the air in a con- ent invention may be constructed in any needed size,
duit system including interconnecting multiple module progressively and interconnectively from the size
grids constructed of large conduit-pipe, utilizing the air needed, for example, for a small town or a single user to
as and where necessary to operate equipment for gener- that required to serve a continent. Each said system
ating electricity near the points of use. 20 includes multiple diverse energy collector-converter-
2. Description of the Prior Art driven system pressure compensated variable volume
The use of compressed air as a means to drive or air-compression facilities, a grid-type compressed air
operate numerous devices is well-known, and com- combination collection-storage-transmission-distribu-
pressed air was widely used in the early development of tion network, preferably made of the largest commer-
modern industry. However, the development of oil and 25 cially available conduit-pipe which may be transported
gas powered direct drive universal electrical energy over the existing highway systems; and dual precision
generating and distribution systems have resulted in a controlled air-motor drives primarily for turning con-
virtual abandonment of the development of compressed ventional electric generators. The grid conduit network
air as a major industrial motive power. Consequently, preferably surrounds each area and region of use with
air compression, storage, and transmission systems in 30 interconnecting grid plumbing lines into which the
use today generally include conventional branch and compressed air is introduced and from which it is with-
truck type collection and transmission lines of relatively drawn where and as needed. The grid plumbing system
small flow size, with conventional air storage tanks, or incorporates means for automatically or manually iso-
accumulators, near the compressors and/or near the lating individual modules of the entire system to
points of use. The storage tanks are expressly for the 35 thereby isolate trouble spots, or areas under construc-
purpose of bridging over short periods of high use tion, etc.
where compressor and normal line carrying capacities A grid module surrounding each predetermined area
are normally overtaxed, and are not intended or built or region of need is fed from multiple diverse energy
for storage pf several days reserve usage of compressed source collector-converter driven air compressor sta-
air. Pressure losses in such conventional compressed air 40 tions. Such stations are placed at points throughout the
systems is a highly limiting factor in transmitting air in area of need where constant energy output sources are
large volumes over any substantial distance. available for use as well as at all other points of need
The compressor installations in use today are gener- where intermittent energy sources are available.
ally single stage compressors for delivering relatively While it is contemplated that various conventional or
high volumes of air at low pressures, while two stages 45 known collector-converters of diverse forms of energy
are used for medium pressures, and three stages for will be used to furnish mechanical torque for driving
higher pressure, low volume air. This does not give the air compressor stations, an improved wind powered
sufficient volume-pressure automatic demand delivery energy collector-converter according to the present
flexibility in meeting maximum use demands for com- invention is particularly well suited for driving the air
pressed air with minimum compressor equipment for 50 compressor units, for high capacity production of com-
large scale use. pressed air.
Conventional compressed air controls for air motors The grid type compressed air system allows the use of
which turn multiple electrical generators of power the compressed air for driving conventional electrical
plants cannot adequately control the delivery of the generators which may be located wherever needed and
driving air with the precision control required to reach 55 convenient to population centers.
and maintain the ditTerent optimum speeds required for The compressor stations employed to compress the
different generators with varying work loads, due to the air are preferably of a three stage capability, with the
fact that such known automatic control devices gener- inlet of the second and third stages being connected so
ally regulate only air flow and not a combination of that the various compressor stations can produce high
flow and pressure. 60 volumes of air at relatively low pressures: and by sys-
Electrical generating systems in use today normally tem pressure compensating automatic connecting of the
make no provisions for storing energy during periods of inlets of the second and third stages to the discharge of
low use for later utilization during times of peak use. the preceding stage, a lower volume of relatively high
This, generally, has resulted in discouraging the utiliza- pressure air can be delivered as system air-pressure
tion of natural energy sources for the generation of 65 rises. This facilitates high-efficiency start-up of the sys-
electricity with the exception of a relatively small num- tem and assures flexibility in meeting maximum use-
ber of hydroelectric generating plants. Even in the case demands for the compressed air with minimum air com-
of hydroelectric plants such, for example, as that in- pressor equipment design requirements.
4,118,637
3 4
While it is contemplated that, under most conditions, FIG. 19 is a fragmentary plan sectional view taken on
adequate compressed air volume storage capacity can line 19-19 of FIG. 17 and showing the linkages for
be provided in the multiple grid plumbing system con- operating the bottom brake shoes for the turbine;
structed from large diameter pipe surrounding the FIG. 20 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on line
major areas of use, it is recognized that in certain instal- 5 20-20 of FIG. 17.
lations such as in congested sea shore cities or on is- FIG. 21 is a schematic view of a two-way air flow
lands, space requirements on shore may limit installa- metering apparatus employed in the system;
tion of such conduit systems. Under these conditions, an FIG. 22 is a schematic view showing an automati-
offshore floating dock installation according to the cally and manually triggered isolation valve employed
present invention and including multiple interconnect- 10 in the plumbing system;
ing layers of piping may be joined together to provide FIG. 23 is a sectional view through a manhole and
storage for the compressed air. These floating docks are including a typical main grid line condensation blow-off
to be provided with a suitable anchorage system to means;
permit self-adjustment, with the docks themselves pro- FIG. 24 is a fragmentary plan sectional view showing
viding support for the multiple diverse energy collec- 15 an expansion-contraction pipe joint for use in the pipe in
tor-converter-driven air-compressor stations. the conduit system; and
FIG. 25 is a schematic layout plan of a portion of a
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS multiple grid system and illustrating the main isolation
The foregoing and other features and advantages of cut-off valves and typical modules encompassed within
the integrated energy system according to the present 20 the grids.
invention will become more apparent from the detailed
description thereof contained herein below, taken in DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED
conjunction with the drawings, in which: EMBODIMENTS
FIG. 1 is a schematic plan view of an integrated Referring now to the drawings in detail, a preferred
energy system module for a small consumer of electric- 25 embodiment of the invention will be described in which
ity; numerous energy sources are utilized to compress air
FIG. 2 is a view similar to FIG. 1 and showing an which is stored under pressure in an interconnected
integrated energy system module for a large city or network of transmission pipes of maximum commericial
metroplitan area; size required and available which is haulable on trucks
FIG. 3 is a schematic plan view of an energy recov- 30 and having sufficient total bulk storage capacity for
ery farm employed in the system; maintaining a long term reserve storage, and for utiliz-
FIG. 4 is a schematic plan view of an energy recov- ing the compressed air for the generation of electricity
ery farm adapted for off-shore floating use; at or near the points of use and at a rate determined by
FIG. 5 is a schematic side elevation view of the float- the requirement for electrical energy. The compressed
ing energy farm shown in FIG. 4; 35 air is utilized, through automatic, coordinated pressure
FIG. 6 is a sectional view of the floating energy farm and volume controls, to drive air motors which, in turn,
of FIG. 5 on an enlarged scale with the section taken on power conventional electrical generators to supply
line 6-6 of FIG. 7 and FIG. 4; electrical energy for conventional uses. The coordi-
FIG. 7 is a schematic sectional view taken on line nated pressure and volume controls enable the air motor
7-7 of FIG. 6 and FIG. 4; 40 to drive the generators at a precisely controlled speed
FIG. 8 is a schematic plan diagram of a typical com- throughout the load range capabilities of the generators.
pressor facility employed to provide compressed air for The transmission and storage pipe network employed
the main grid plumbing line system; in the system is designed in a plurality of modules which
FIG. 9 is a schematic plan diagram of a precision are interconnected and which may be automatically or
RPM control system for air motor drives, for conven- 45 manually isolated when desired or necessary, with the
tional electrical generators, employed in the com- individual modules containing sufficient interior vol-
pressed air driven power plants; ume storage capacity to operate electrical generating
FIG. 10 is a schematic plan diagram of a typical wind equipment to supply electrical energy to the geographi-
powered, vertical turbine driven air compression facil- cal area encompassed by the module for a substantil,tl
ity employed in the system; 50 period of time, preferably for several days. Each mod-
FIG. 11 is a plan view of a vertical air turbine show- ule is supplied with compressed air by multiple systems
ing the blade arrangement and support framing thereof; of air compressors described more fully herein below, at
FIG. 12 is a sectional view ofthe wind turbine and air least a portion of which are preferably driven by non-
compression facility driven thereby; poluting natural energy sources such as wind, solar,
FIG. 13 is a side elevation view of the frame structure 55 thermal, water, wave, or tide powered energy collec-
around the periphery of the horizontal revolving verti- tors. However, a portion of the compressor installations
cal wind turbine; in each module preferably are capable of employing
FIG. 14 is a fragmentary sectional view, on an en- conventional power sources such as gas or steam en-
larged scale, of the central hub and bearing at the base gines or turbines. .
of the revolving turbine; 60 By providing an interconnecting transmission and
FIG. 15 is a fragmentary plan sectional view taken on storage grid pipe network joining the respective mod-
line 15-15 of FIG. 14; ules, a more complete utilization of natural energy
FIG. 16 is a fragmentary sectional view of the central sources may be employed. Thus, in areas where ocean
hub and bearing at the top of the revolving turbine; tide and wave energy, or water power from streams is
FIG. 17 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on line 65 generally not available, wind power turbines according
17-17 of FIG. 12; to the present invention may be utilized, along with
FIG. 18 is a fragmentary plan sectional view taken on solar-power converters, as the principal sources of natu-
line 18-18 of FIG. 17; ral energy to be employed to provide the compressed
4,118,637
5 6
air. However, as is well-known, air movements are not utilizing a non-polluting, natural energy source, with at
uniform and it may be anticipated that wind turbines least a portion of the compressor stations also being
employed in a particular module will be able to supply capable of being driven by solar powered or by conven-
an excess of air during the terms of high wind move- tional fueled steam or heat differential engines in a rela-
ment and be unable to supply sufficient quantity of air 5 tively small module, half of the compressor stations may
during prolonged periods of relative calm. Likewise, be wind turbine driven stations, designated generally by
solar-power converters will not run at night nor on the reference numeral 15, and the other half, designated
cloudy days. By interconnecting the respective mod- generally by the reference numeral 15, powered by
ules, it is possible to more evenly balance the system, solar power or by conventional fueled steam or heat
with compressed air flowing out of a particular module 10 differential engines.
during times of high wind, and on bright and sunny Initially, a module of the type illustrated in FIG. 1
days, for example: or drawing from other modules hav- may operate entirely independently of other modules;
ing an extra energy supply in times of relative calm or however, as more modules are installed, and the re-
during prolonged doudy conditions. Due to check gional or national grid system developed, the respective
valve special spring loadings, small systems will release 15 modules will be connected, through a pipe 16 and meter
excess air pressure to adjoining systems. 17 to the grid transmission storage line 18.
Only the module and grid system according to this The larger m9dule shown in FIG. 2 and utilized for a
invention makes it possible to construct the system in larger consumer of electricity such as a large city or
steps, gradually expanding same, town by city by re- metroplitan area is quite similar in design and construc-
gion, to a complete integrated national air continental 20 tion to that of the small module shown in FIG. 1, with
energy system. On such a large scale, the grid network the principal difference being size, and accordingly,
preferably includes a basic grid covering and dividing similar reference numerals are used to designate similar
the entire area into relatively large regions, with the elements in the two figures. Thus, FIG. 2 illustrates a
individual towns, cities and metroplitan areas therein module, designated generally by the reference numeral
each having independently operable grid systems inter- 25 20, in which a typical city or large metropolitan area is
connected with each other and to the main grid system. generally surrounded by a network of transmission and
By use of automatically and/or mariually controlled storage pipes 11 joined together at spaced intervals by
automatic valves, entire regions as well as individual connecting pipes 12 which, in turn, are illustrated as
modules may be isolated. Further, meters are employed supplying compressed air from the system to a plurality
at each junction of a module to a region, or region to a 30 of generating stations 13 at various locations around the
national grid to measure the flow of air into or from the module, with the generating stations preferably being
over-all system. The meter readings are then employed located near the highest concentrations of electrical
to compute the net supply and utilization of compressed consumption to thereby minimize transmission line
air by the individual modules. Thus, a module, whether losses.
for an individual town or for a large metropolitan area, 35 Compressed air is supplied to the transmission and
may be charged for drawing excess air from the system, storage pipe of the module 20 much in the same manner
or may receive a payment or credit for supplying air as that described above with regard to the smaller mod-
utilized by other modules connected in the system. ule 10. However, for the larger module 20, energy re-
Referring now to FIG. 1, a typical module for a small covery farms, designated generally by the reference
town or a large individual user of electrical power is 40 numeral 21 and each consisting of a relatively large
designated generally by the reference numeral 10 and number of energy collecting-converting devices such as
includes a plurality of collection-transmission-storage the wind turbine described more full hereinbelow, are
pipes 11 extending in generally parallel relation around arranged in close proximity to one another in the man-
the user, indicated generally as a small town. The trans- ner illustrated schematically in FIGS. 3 and 4, to supply
mission and storage pipes 11 are interconnected as by 45 compressed air for the system.
pipe 12 to permit the free flow of compressed air be- Referring specifically to FIG. 3, the energy farms
tween the respective pipe. The number, size, and length indicated generally by the reference numeral 21 may
of the transmission and storage pipes 11 will obviously comprise a plurality of individual wind turbine driven
be determined by the projected requirement of electri- compressor stations 14, and/or other diverse energy
cal power to be generated and utilized within the geo- 50 driven stations 15, each having the compressor dis-
graphical area serviced by the module. However, it is charge connected to a collection pipe 22, with the re-
preferred that the transmission and storage pipes 11 be spective collection pipes 22 being connected to a header
of the largest needed diameter commercially available pipe 23. Header pipe 23 is connected, through a one-
and economically feasible, with the length of pipe uti- way check valve 24 and a cut-off valve 25, to one of the
lized being sufficient to provide a storage capacity suffi- 55 transmission and storage pipes 11. Additional cut-off
dent to supply compressed air for a substantial length of valves, or isolation valves, 26 are mounted in the lines
time, and preferably for several days, to operate a com- 11. Also, an airflow meter 17 is installed between check
pressed air motor driven generator station designated valve 24 and cut-off valve 25 to measure the flow of air
generally by the reference numeral 13. from the energy farm 21 into the transmission and stor-
At spaced points around the module 10 are located a 60 age pipes 11. It is believed apparent that the respective
plurality of compressor stations for supplying com- compressor stations in the farm 21 may be driven by any
pressed air to the transmission and storage pipes 11. In suitable source. The figures 28° plus 30 minutes indicate
FIG. 1, where a generally rectangular system of trans- preferred-orientation of energy-farm quadrants with
mission and storage pipes are utilized surrounding the reference to prevailing winds in areas of location.
area serviced by the modules, there is schematically 65 As can also be seen in FIG. 3, the respective needed
illustrated two compressor stations located at each cor- electrical generating stations 13 are connected to the
ner of the module. Preferably at least one of each of transmission and storage lines 11 through a cut-off valve
these pairs of compressor stations will be capable of 91, a one-way check valve 92, and a meter 93.
4,118,637
7 8
Referring now to FIGS. 4-7, a floating compressed ashore, vertical movement of the barge can be accom-
air storage facility for use in coastal regions is illus- modated. From the shore, the air is led through rigid
trated. These floating installations are preferably con- piping to generating stations in the module service area
structed, in the form of floating docks or floating as required.
barges, indicated generally by the reference numeral 30, 5 Referring now to FIG. 8, a typical air compressor
from multiple interconnecting and sealed layers of sec- station and control mechanism will be described in
tions of transmission and storage pipe 11, with alternate detail. The energy collecting source, whether a wind
layers of pipe extending at right angles to one another, driven turbine,· solar power collector-converter, or
as best seen in FIGS. 6 and 7. The layers of pipe are other power source, is indicated generally by the refer-
separated by welding plates 31 at each point of contact 10 ence numeral 45 and is connected, through a suitable
to strengthen the welded juncture and provide a rigid shaft 46 and governor 47 to a hydraulic torque con-
barge-like assembly. The individual pipe sections in verter coupling 48. The coupling 48 is of a minimum
each layer are interconnected by pipe section extending speed type control which gives no output rpm until
at 90° thereto along each end of the respective layers of optimum speed is approached or attained. The coupling
pipe sections, and the layers are interconnected by ver- 15 48 drives a conventional three stage compressor modi-
tically extending pipe sections 32 at spaced intervals fied in the manner described hereinbelow or alterna-
around the assembly. Preferably the welded assembly is tively three single stage compressors connected to-
provided with a deck surface 33 which may be em- gether in the manner described below.
ployed to support a plurality of energy collection-con- In FIG. 8, the three stage compressor is indicated
version stations 34 (see FIGS. 8 and 10) including air 20 schematically by three concentric circles, with the ex-
compressors run by suitable means such as tide or wave ternal circle 49 representing the first stage, the interme-
driven energy collecting devices or wind trubines of the diate circle 50 representing the second stage, and the
type described more fully hereinbelow. Also, the center circle 51 representing the third stage of the com-
welded assembly is preferably equipped with a bow pressor. The respective compressor stages each have
plate 35 to facilitate towing and positioning of the as- 25 their inlet connected, through one-way check valves 52
sembly in the open water and, to this end, one or more and manifold 53 to atmosphere. The manifold 53 is
conventional barge tow couplings 36 may be provided connected through a three-way, two-position valve 54,
on the assembly. operable to alternately connect the inlet to separate but
To anchor the barge assemblies 30 in position, a plu- identical air filters 55. The relative spool position of
rality of vertical guide sleeves 37 are rigidly welded to 30 valve 54 is controlled by a manually operated pilot
and extend through the barge assembly. The guide valve 56 which is operated to select the filter to be used
sleeves preferably have their inner surfaces lined or and to permit shifting of filters in response to excess
coated with a self-lubricating material such as Teflon to pressure drop. Filter drop is measured by a conven-
minimize frictional contact with vertical, fixed caisson tional vacuum gauge 57 connected in the manifold 53.
pilings 38. The pilings 38 are preferably positioned by 35 The respective compressor stages also have their
lowering through the guide sleeves 37 and set by con- outlets connected directly to a common discharge line
ventional means which lower the pilings to solid rock or 58, through one-way valves 59, and conventional pro-
into tough hardpan in accordance with known proce- portionate reduction in piston displacement where each
dure. The caisson pilings preferably will be made of of the compressor stages for higher pressure is followed
pipe having an external diameter slightly smaller than 40 regardless of whether a single three stage compressor or
the internal diameter of the self-lubricating guide three interconnected single stage compressors are em-
sleeves. ployed. However, in either case, conventional plumb-
When the floating docks or barges 30 are to be posi- ing between compressor stages is modified by the inclu-
tioned in water too deep to make the use of pilings sions of the two non-return air pressure operated check
practical, a system of anchors (not shown) may be used 45 valves 59 one connected in the outlet of the first stage
to retain the barges in position. This may be accom- compressor and the other in the outlet of the second
plished by using a suitable number of large anchors of stage compressor, and by the inclusion of two air pres-
conventional design, with the anchors positioned out- sure actuated unloading valves 60 and 61 connected one
wardly from and at spaced intervals around the respec- between the outlet of the first stage compressor and the
tive barges. Wire cables from the respective anchors are 50 inlet of the second stage compressor, and the other
secured to the barge via cable tensioning winches which between the outlet of the second stage compressor and
maintain a constant tensile load in the cable and thereby the inlet of the third stage compressor. In normal oper-
automatically compensate for vertical movement of the ating conditions, valve 60 is set to unload at approxi-
barge due to tide changes. The wenches may be pow- mately 100 psi and valve 61 to unload at approximately
ered by air motors if desired, with self-operating pres- 55 300 psi. These valves, operating in conjunction with the
sure-resistance triggered controls. one-way check valves 52 and 59, thus allow all three
Air compressed by the compression stations 34 sup- compressor stages to independently draw and deliver to
ported on or carried by the floatation barges 30 and line 58 maximum volume low pressure compressed air
stored in the pipe sections 11 which make up the body up to the unload pressure setting of valve 60 at initial
of the barges 30 is led from the barges to generating 60 startup and at all times when system is highly over-
stations on shore through large diameter flexible marine loaded. When the pressure in line 58 reaches the setting
hose which is commerically avialable and indicated as for valve 60 and prior to the pressure reaching the set-
39 in FIG. 6. The marin hose is connected, through a ting for valve 61, the first and second stages will act as
standard flange coupling 40 to air flow meter 17, a a conventional two stage compressor while the third
one-way check valve 41 and a cut-off valve 42 to an 65 stage will continue to operate as a single stage compres-
outlet 43 connected to the storage pipe assembly of the sor taking its inlet from the atmosphere. Upon the pres-
barge. By the use of the heavy-weighted flexible marine sure in the system reaching the setting for valve 61, the
hose, which is permitted to lie on the bottom as it is led valve spool position will shift to open, thereby connect-
4,118,637
9 10
ing the outlet of the second stage to the inlet of the third A high pressure line 88 bypasses safety valve 83 and
stage, causing the three stages to then operate in the is connected to a pressure reducing valve 89 for supply-
manner of a conventional three stage compressor. This ing reduced air pressure to pilot valve 56 for control-
operation will thereafter continue during all normal ling, through speed control valve 74, the position of
system operating conditions, with all three stages being 5 low-pressure filter selector valve 54; and to supply pres-
serviced by the suction inlet of the first stage compres- sure to a second manually actuated pilot valve 90 con-
sor and with all pressure outlets served, in normal suc- nected between lines 88 and line 86. Valve 90 may be
cession, by the pressure outlet of the third stage. Thus, manually actuated by apply pressure to line 86 to manu-
the pressure responsive compressor control system, ally control actuation of the brakes and disengagement
responding to system pressure, automatically controls 10 of the clutch 48. In the normal operating condition,
the compressors to deliver low, intermediate, or high valve 90 is connected, through and adjustable speed
pressure air, at inversely varying flow rates, to the pipe control orifice valve 74, to atmosphere through silencer
system. 82 to thereby slowly bleed pressure from line 86 to
Compressed air flows from the compressor unit permit the brakes 87 and clutch 84 to be released and
through pipe 58 to a two position, three-way selector 15 ready for automatic actuation upon return of safety
slave valve 62 which is normally spring loaded to a valve 83 to the normal closed operating position.
straight through flow position and operable either man- Referring now to FIG. 9, compressed air from the
ually or automatically as described below to the alter- respective compressor stations described above flows
nate position, to direct the compressed air through one through the transmission and storage lines 11 to electri-
or the other of two high pressure air filters 63 and one- 20 cal generating stations located at convenient positions
within the module being served. At the respective gen-
way check valve 64, which the discharge from the
erating stations, air flows through a normally open
respective check valves being connected to direct the
motor actuated, automatic or manually controlled shut-
flow through meter 65. The outlet of meter 65 is con-
off valve 91 and a one-way check valve 92 to a flow
nected to a two-way slave shut-off valve 66 which is 25
meter 93 and into a manifold header 94. A standard
normally spring loaded to the open position and which
sight gauge 95 is connected, through valve 96, to mani-
may be system pressure closed by manual shifting of
fold 94 to provide a visual indication of manifold pres-
two position, three-way pilot valve 67 from indicated
sure.
normal position "an to closing position "b". From main A plurality of electrical generators 97 are operated at
shut-off valve 66, air flows through a one-way check 30 the generating station each from a separate air line from
valve 68 and a manually operated shut-off valve 69 to the manifold 94. The respective generators, and their
discharge into the transmission and storage pipe n. control systems, are substantially identical, with four
In the valve operation just described above, main line such generators being illustrated in FIG. 9. Accord-
pressure is fed, through a shut-off valve 70 and a pres- ingly, only one will be described in detail, it being un-
sure reducer 71 to the two-position, manually actuated 35 derstood that the description applies equally to the
pilot valve 67 to supply actuating pressure to the shut- other generators except for the manual start-up control
off valve 66. Reduced pressure is also supplied through for the first generator.
line 72 to a manually actuated pilot valve 73 for direct- Air flows from the manifold 94 through a normally
ing operating pressure, through a suitable speed control open manually operable shut-off valve 98 in an air line
regulating orifice 74, to the filter selector valve 62. A 40 99 to a two-position normally closed shut-off slave
similar metering orifice is connected in the pressure line valve 100. Valve 100 is spring loaded to the closed
between valves 67 and 66. position and opened against spring pressure by system
A pipe 75 is connected in a loop around valve 62, air pressure supplied through valve 101 and line 102
filter 63 and check valves 64, and a differential pressure through a flow restricting orifice valve 103 in the valve
gauge 76 is connected in line 75 to give a visual indica- 45 100. Connected in line 102 is a normally closed, sole-
tion of the pressure loss across the filter 63 actually in noid-actuated pilot valve 104 for controlling the flow of
use, and act as an indicator directing the operator when air to valve 100 during normal operating conditions.
he is to actuate the valve 73 to shift from dirty to clean Also, to initially start up the system, a manually actu-
filter use. A standard system pressure gauge 77 is also ated, two-position, three-way valve 105 provides, in one
preferably connected to line 75, and a pair of shut-off 50 position, direct communication between the pilot valve
valves 78 in line 75 may be employed to isolate the 104 and shut-off valve 100, and in the other position
gauges 76 and 77. gives direct communication between line 102 and the
System air pressure is provided in a line 80 connected valve 100, bypassing the solenoid-actuated pilot valve
to compressor discharge line 58 and a spring-loaded 104 for manual start up conditions. The manual valve
safety valve 81, having a discharge vented to atmo- 55 105 is provided only for one of the generators at a sta-
sphere through a silencer 82, in connected in the line 80 tion, and in the FIG. 9 embodiment is provided only in
to provide safety relief for the system. A second safety the generator at the left side of the drawing.
valve 83, normally set to actuate at a pressure lower From the slave valve 100, air flows through a filter
than safety valve 81, is connected to line 80, through a 106 to a motor-actuated, variable pressure delivery
valve 84. The outlet of safety valve 83 is connected, 60 reducing valve assembly 107. A high pressure gauge
through a pressure reducing valve 85 to line 86 leading 109 and a pressure differential gauge 108 are connected
to clutch 48 to automatically disengage the clutch in the in a line 110 across filter 106.
event of overpressurization of the system. Simulta- From the pressure reducer assembly 107, air flows
neously, pressure in applied, through speed control through a line lubricator 110 to a check valve 111. Con-
orifice valves 74, to a brake or damper system 87 for 65 nected in the line between the lubricator and check
shutting down the power source 45. A speed control valve 111 is a pressure relief, or safety valve 112 which
ofifice valve 74 is also connected in line 86 between the vents to atmosphere through a suitable silencer 82. A
pressure reducing valve 85 and the clutch 48. second sight gauge is preferably connected in the line
4,118,637
11 12
downstream of the lubricator to provide a visual indica- Selection of the position of valve 54 is controlled by the
tion of the lowered line pressure. pilot valve 56 as described above.
From the check valve 111, air flows through a motor Each of the compressors have their outlets con-
operated variable flow restriction orifice 113 to an air nected, through one-way check valves 59 to manifold
motor 114 which vents spent air to atmosphere prefera- 5 piping 58 which, in turn, is connected to the transmis-
bly through a suitable silencer 82. sion and storage pipe 11 through the filter selector slave
Air motor 114 drives a generator 97 through a shaft valve 62, filters 63, check valves 64, meter 65, slave
coupling 115, and a governor type gravity controlled shut-off valve 66 and final check valve 68. The respec-.
fully reversing electrical switch, actuated by a geared tive compressors are driven by geared shafts 120 which,
drive from the air motor drive shaft, senses the motor 10 in turn, are driven by a bull gear 121 rigidly mounted on
speed and controls actuation of the one or more electric the base of turbine hub shaft 122 journaled for rotation
motor drives of the pressure delivery reducing valve about a central fixed shaft 123. The hub shaft 122 is
107 and the variable orifice 113. An insufficient speed driven by the horizontal supports or spokes 124 for the
reflected on the governor switch 116 will demand addi- vertical turbine blades 125. Also, suitable clutch means
tional pressure and volume delivery to the air motor, 15 (not shown), are provided between the compressor and
and will supply current from suitable contacts in the the drive shaft 120.
governor switch 116 and in the customary use demand A pilot operated unloading valve 60 is connected
meter 117 to drive the reversible motors in the direction between the check valve 59 of compressor 49A and the
to increase both volume and pressure. An excessive inlet of compressor SOA between the compressor and its
speed sensed by the governor switch 116 will reverse 20 inlet check valve 52, and a similar pilot operated un-
the flow of current to reduce pressure and volume to air loading valve 61 is connected between the outlet of
motor 114. Preferably, the motors actuating the valve compressor SOA and the inlet of compressor 51A. As
assembly 107 and the variable orifice 113 operate described above, valves 60 and 61 are set such that, as
through a low speed reduction gear mechanism to pro- 25 the outlet or main system pressure reaches a predeter-
vide precision control of air flow. Governor switch 116 mined minimum, valve 60 will be actuated to connect
the outlet of compressor 49A to the inlet of compressor
is a conventional item available commercially.
50A. Between this predetermined minimum pressure
To start up the system, the manual start up valve 105
and a second predetermined pressure setting for valve
is placed in the "b" position, thereby pressurizing the
61, the outlet of compressor SOA and compressor 51A
slave valve 100 which is shifted to the open position at 30
will each be discharged into the system outlet; how-
a slow rate due to the controlled flow of air through the ever, above this second predetermined pressure, valve
orifice 103 to gradually bring up the speed of air motor 61 will be actuated to connect the discharge of com-
114 and generator 97 to the predetermined optimum pressor 50A to the inlet of compressor 51A so thai the
speed of rotation. As the customer use demand meter three independent compressors will thereafter operate
117 is energized and calls for the generation of more 35 as a single, conventional three-stage compressor in the
electricity, solenoid valve 104 will be automatically manner described above. Controls for the operation of
energized and opened by electrical current from the clutch and braking system are functionally the same
contacts in the meter 117. Thereafter, valve 105 may be as described above with regards to the embodiment of
normally shifted back to the normal, straight through FIG. 8.
position "a" and further successive operation of the 40 Referring now to FIGS. 11 through 20 of the draw-
various electrical generator drives will be automatically ings, a wind turbine particularly suited to drive the air
controlled by the use demand meter. By providing addi- compressors employed in this invention will be de-
tional sets of contacts in the conventional use demand scribed in detail. In FIG. 12, the turbine base is set on a
meter, as the output of the first generator approaches fixed foundation 126 which anchors and rigidly sup-
maximum, the second solenoid switch will be energized 45 ports the fixed vertical shaft 123. Preferably, shaft 123 is
to bring the second generator up to speed and on line. in the form of a large-diameter pipe having an access
This procedure will automatically be followed up to the door 127 at its base, and a ladder assembly 128 mounted
full capacity of all generator sets through the contacts in the pipe permits maintenance personnel to ascend the
in the use demand meter, and generators will similarly structure regardless of rotation of the turbine. A plural-
be dropped from the line as use demand drops. 50 ity of maintenance access openings 129 are also pro-
Referring now to FIG. 10, an air compressor installa- vided in the fixed shaft 123 at the level of the main
tion similar to that described hereinabove with regard turbine bearings 138 and 139, illustrated in FIGS. 14 and
to FIG. 8, but particularly well adapted for use with a 16 and described more fully hereinbelow.
wind turbine of the type described hereinbelow, will be Extending upwardly from foundation 126 is a fixed,
described in detail. Since many of the components of 55 annular frame structure 130 having mounted on its top
the compressor installation of FIG. 10 are identical, surface and extending around its outer periphery a plu-
either actually or functionally, with that described with rality of guide rollers 131 (see FIG. 20) mounted in
regard to FIG. 8, similar reference numerals will be opposed pairs by horizontal stub shafts 132 supported
used to designate similar parts. Thus, the compressor by brackets 133 which, in tum, are mounted on a sup-
station is preferably installed beneath the circular base 60 port table 134 the top of which is four-way spring
of the air turbine frame structure and is illustrated as loaded vertically about multiple retaining screws 135
employing three separate, single stage compressors and horizontally about multiple retaining screw assem-
49A, 50A, 51A corresponding to the first, second and bly 136 mounted on the fixed frame 130. Additional
third stages, respectively, of the three stage compressor guide rollers 131A are mounted in opposed pairs by
described above. The compressors each have their inlet 65 vertical axle shafts 132A supported in brake assemblies
connected, through check valves 52 to a manifold 53 133.
which, in turn, is connected through the two position A revolving blade support wheel frame structure
filter selector sl?ve valve 54 to one of the two filters 55. indicated generally by the reference numeral 137 in
4,118,637
13 14
FIGS. 11 and 13, is supported on the fixed frame 130 of the bracket 133. Movement of the lower mounting
and the fixed shaft 123 for rotation about the vertical shoe is effected by a pair of pivoted arms, each having
axis of the fixed shaft by the upper and lower bearing its inner end pivotally connected to the piston rod of the
assemblies 138, 139, respectively, and by an annular, brake cylinder 154 and its outer end pivotally connected
flanged monorail track 140 adapted to engage and be 5 to the horizontal bolts 157, and having an intermediate
guided and supported by the plurality of pairs of guide point pivotally connected to an upstanding bracket 162
rollers 131 and UIA. mounted on the shelf 153. Thus, actuation of the brake
The rotating frame 137 includes the vertical rotating cylinder 154 by the application of air, at reduced pres-
hub shaft 122 having the horizontal spokes 124 rigidly sure, through the line 86 and the flow restrictors 74 will
mounted thereto, as by brackets 141, at spaced points 10 project the cylinder rod upward to simultaneously urge
along the length of the shaft 122, and the outer ends of brake shoes into frictional contact with both the upper
the spokes, at each level, are connected by horizontal and lower flanges of the track 140, on each side thereof,
girts 142 extending around the periphery of the rotating and at spaced points around the periphery of the turbine
frame, and the respective levels of spokes are joined by frame assembly. As described hereinabove, upon leak-
vertical columns 143, as best seen in FIGS. 11 and 13. 15 age of the air pressure from the line 86, the brakes will
As previously indicated, the fixed vertical turbine automatically be released by the spring biased brake
blades are mounted on the outer ends of the spokes 124 cylinder.
for rotation therewith about the vertical axis of the Referring now to FIG. 14, 15 and 16 of the drawings,
assembly, with the vertical turbine blades extending, in it is seen that the upper bearing assembly 138 comprises
effect, throughout the heights of the rotating frame 20 a lower annular ball race 200 supported on the top inner
assembly 137. peripheral portion of the rotatable hub shaft 122. The
A plurality of adjustable sag rods, or braces 144 pro- lower bearing race 200 is accurately positioned by an
vide structural integrity for the rotating frame assem-
adjusting bracket assembly 201 which is vertically mov-
bly. A fixed catwalk assembly 145 is mounted on the
able by nuts 202 which engage a fixed flange 203. Once
upper end of the fixed shaft 123 which projects above 25
the race 200 is accurately positioned, it is locked in
the top of the rotating frame assembly, with the catwalk
place by suitable set screws 204. The bottom race and
assembly 145 being supported by a suitable conical truss
the adjusting bracket assembly is accessible from the
frame assembly 146. The catwalk and truss assembly
provides access for maintenance at the top of the assem- interior of the fixed shaft 123 through the door opening
bly, and provides anchorage at the outer periphery of 30 127.
the assembly for a plurality of guide lines 147 which The upper race 205 is mounted on the outer periph-
extend to suitable anchors 148 at spaced points around eral surface the fixed shaft 123 in position to roll on
the periphery of the turbine structure. spherical ball bearing elements 206 disposed between
Referring now to FIGS. 17 through 20, the brake the upper and lower races. A second adjustable bracket
system is illustrated as including a plurality of pneumati- 35 assembly 207 supported from an annular flange 208 on
cally actuated opposed action brake assemblies 87 shaft 123 provides means for adjusting the position of
mounted in pairs at spaced intervals around the frame the bracket 207, and set screws 209 are provided to
130 in position to engage the top and bottom flanges firmly anchor the mounting bracket in position.
150, 151 respectively, of track 140, with the brake as- The lower bearing assembly 139 is preferably posi-
semblies in the respective pairs engaging the flanges on 40 toned at the base of the fixed shaft 122 and runs in an oil
opposed sides of the central web 152. The brake assem- bath 210 within a sump in the foundation 126. The
blies are identical in structure and operation and ac- lower bearing race 211 is mounted on the outer periph-
cordingly only one will be described in detail, it being ery of the inner fixed shaft 123 by an adjustable support
understood that the description applies equally to the bracket assembly 212 substantially identical to the sup-
remaining brake assemblies. 45 port bracket assembly 201 but adapted to be mounted
As best seen in FIGS. 17 and 18, the bracket assembly on the outer rather than the inner surface of the support-
133 includes, in its central portion, a fixed shelf 153 ing shaft. Positioning of the lower race 211 may be
having mounted, on its bottom surface, a spring-biased, accomplished by the adjustable bracket 212, which is
pneumatically actuated brake cylinder 154, the rod of accessible through the oil sump 210.
which projects upwardly through the shelf to actuate 50 The upper race 213 of the lower bearing 139 is
the brakes. Mounted on the top of the brake cylinder mounted on the inner periphery of the rotatable shaft
rod is a top actuating arm 155 retained in position by a 122, adjacent the bottom thereof, by a second adjustable
pair of locking nuts 156 on the upper end of the rod. A mounting bracket assembly 201 mounted in inverse
pair of horizontally extending bolts 157 are mounted, relation to the mounting bracket 201 supporting the
one in each end of the arm 155, with the bolts projecting 55 race 200 of bearing 138. Access to the top bearing race
inwardly through slots in the vertical web of bracket 213, and its supporting bracket 201 is through the access
133. Supported on the distal ends of bolts 157 is a brake openings 127 which, as shown in FIG. 14, may be
shoe mounting bracket 158 for sliding movement along closed by the movable door assembly 214.
the vertical face of the web of bracket 133. A brake shoe Preferably, the bearing races of both the upper and
159 mounted on the top surface of bracket 158 is 60 lower turbine bearings are fabricated in arcuate sections
adapted to engage the undersurface of the top flange which are mounted in position and welded together,
150 to brake the rotating turbine support frame assem- with the welded joint being subsequently ground to
bly. provide a continuous smooth race for the balls 206. This
At the same time, a lower brake shoe 160, mounted enables assembly of the respective races, or sections
on a second mounting bracket 161, is pressed down- 65 thereof, as necessary, through the access openings 127,
wardly into engagement with the top surface of the with the welded joints, indicated generally at 216 in
lower flange 151 by a second pair of the horizontal bolts FIG. 5, being accomplished in the space between the
157 projecting through a second pair of slots in the web concentric shafts 122 and 123.
4,118,637
15 16
Referring now to FIG. 25, a section of a national grid in the event of a line break, on either side of the particu-
system is schematically illustrated to indicate the isola- lar valve 170, a sudden increase in flow rate through the
tion cut-off valves within the over-all system, and the pipe will push the rod 176 upward to move the valve
manner in which these valves are located to isolate 174 into position to drive motor 173 in a direction to
sections of the grid in which trouble may develop. Also 5 close the valve 170. At the same time, a detent on the
illustrated schematically on FIG. 25 is the manner in valve actuating rod 176 engages a switch 177A which,
which the individual small or large modules such as through normal electrical circuits (not shown) transmits
those illustrated in greater detail in FIGS. 1 and 2 are a signal to a control panel in the manhole and simulta-
tied into the larger regional, national or continental grid neously to a regional and a national monitoring center.
system whereby excess air from such a module may 10 This enables immediate identification of trouble spots
flow, via the grid system plumbing, to adjacent mod- and enables immediate dispatch of maintenance person-
ules, or whereby air may be drawn from adjacent mod- nel from each adjacent region in the grid serviced by
ules in times of insufficient air pressure at a particular the line in question.
module. Preferably, two-way meters are connected in Main line pressure is supplied to a pipe 177 through a
the grid lines at the extremities of grid sections such as 15 pair of cut-off valves 177B and check valves 178 con-
Section G 192 to measure the flow of air where needed. nected one each in line 18 on each side of the valve 170.
As shown in FIG. 21, each module is connected to a A pressure reducer 180 in line 177 reduces the main line
pipe 18 of the grid system through a pipe 16 having pressure to that required to operate the motor, and
connected therein a two-way meter assembly 17 for directs the reduced air pressure into a T-joint which
measuring the flow both from the module to the grid 20 directs the air through a conduit 181 through a flow
and from the grid into the module. The meter assembly control regUlating orifice 182 to valve 174, and to a
consists of a pair of automated cut-off valve assemblies three position manual pilot valve 183. From valve 183,
163 located in the line 16 at each end of the flow mea- air may be directed, depending upon the position of the
suring system. The pipe 16 adjacent each valve 163 is valve, to a pneumatic operating cylinder 184 through
connected to aT-joint, with the open ends of the T 25 conduit 185 to shift the valve upward to direct air to
being connected by parallel pipe sections 164, 165. Con- motor 173 to drive the valve 170 to the closed position,
nected in the pipe section 165 is a one-way check valve or alternatively to direct air through line 186 to the
166 permitting flow from the module to the grid pipe operating cylinder 187 to shift the valve to the position
only, through a flow meter 167 which measures the to drive motor 173 to move the valve to the open posi-
quantity of air flowing into the grid. Check valve 166 is 30 tion. In the tird, or null position, of valve 183, air in the
spring biased to require a substantial predetermined lines 185 and 186 are vented to atmosphere.
pressure differential between the pressure in the module As shown in FIG. 23, at all low points in the transmis-
and that in the grid to thereby assure, particularly for sion and storage pipe system, condensation drains are
smaller modules, an ample reserve supply of air by provided. These condensation drains include an isola-
preventing the larger grid from drawing air from these 35 tion valve 188 in a line from the bottom of the pipe, for
smaller modules down below a required minimum oper- example, the main grid pipe 18, leading to a collection
ation level. chamber 189. A conventional ball float valve is
A second one-way check valve 168 is connected in mounted in the collection chamber 189 and operates,
the branch line 164 to permit flow only in the direction when the condensation reaches a predetermined level,
from the main grid piping into the module in question. 40 to permit main line pressure to blow the condensate,
Preferably, check valve 168 is also spring loaded, with through It check valve 190 and drain line 191, to a con-
the spring loading being relatively small, functioning densate storage tank 192.
primarily to assure against reverse flow through a sec- Due to the large diameter and heavy wall thickness of
ond meter 169 connected in branch pipe 164 to measure the main grid piping conventional expansion loops may
the flow of air from the grid into the module. It is be- 45 not be deemed practical. However, to accommodate
lieved apparent that, by integrating the readings from inevitable expansion and contraction of the pipe, 0-
meters 167 and 169, the net air flow from or to a module rings sealed sliding expansion joints are provided at
for any given time period may be determined. spaced intervals, as required. These expansion joints,
FIG. 22 illustrates schematically the operation of the illustrated in FIG. 24, comprise mating male and female
automated grid isolating shut-off valves 170. These 50 bolted welding flanges 193, 194 respectively, with
isolation valves are connected in each grid line 18 be- spring loaded bolt connections therebetween, welded
tween the points interconnection with grid lines run- one to each end of the adjacent pipe sections 18.
ning in the transverse direction as shown in FIG. 25. The spring loading is provided by opposed springs
The respective valves 170 are located in manholes 171 195 retained by bolts 196 through outwardly projecting
and are actuated, through a suitable gear drive train 172 55 annular flanges. A plurality of O-ring seals 198 are pro-
by a motor 173 which preferably is an air-actuated mo- vided within the telescoping overlap portion of the
tor. respective well flanges 193, 194. To prevent foreign
Actuation of the motor 173 is controlled by a three material from interferring with the telescoping action of
position, four-way closed-center slave valve 174. A the expansion joint, an annular gasket in the form of a
spring biased damper assembly 175 mounted in the grid 60 soft rubber hose is positioned between the overlying
pipe 18 adjacent the valve 170 has a cam surface bearing end of well flange 193 and the outwardly projecting
upon one end of a spring-biased push rod assembly 176 bolt flange portion of the element 194.
extending outwardly through the side wall of the pipe While I have disclosed and described preferred em-
18 in position to engage an actuating rod for valve 174. bodiments of my invention, I wish it understood that I
The spring biasing pressure on rod 176 is such that a 65 do not intend to be restricted solely thereto, but rather
predetermined minimum flow rate of air through pipe that I intend to include all embodiments thereof which
18, in either direction, will be required to tilt the damper would be apparent to one skilled in the art and which
and cause the cam to press the push rod upward. Thus, come within the spirit and scope of my invention.
4,118,637
17 18
What is claimed is: iocated within said wide geographic area, conduit
1. A system for collecting, storing and distributing means connecting each said module to said grid, said
energy comprising a transmission-storage pipe system modules each comprising a plurality of said collector-
including an interconnected network of large diameter converters and at least one said generator station,
high pressure conduit for storage and transmission of 5 whereby compressed air may flow into said modules
large volumes of compressed air throughout a predeter- from said grid and out of said modules into said grid.
mined wide geographical area, a plurality of energy 7. The energy collecting, storing and distributing
collector-converters including air compressor means system as defined in claim 6 further comprising an inte-
operatively connected to said pipe system and utilizing grating meter assembly connecting each said module
available energy to compress air and deliver the com- 10 with said grid, said integrated meter assembly being
pressed air to said pipe system, said air compressor operable to measure the net flow of air between the grid
means including a plurality of separate compressor and the respective associated modules.
stages, pressure responsive control means operatively 8. The energy collecting, storing and distributing
interconnecting said compressor stages for automati- system as defined in claim 7 wherein said means con-
cally delivering low, intermediate or high pressure air at 15 necting each said module to said grid further comprises
inversely varying flow rates to the pipe system in re- valve means preventing air flow from said modules into
sponse to the pressure in the system, at least one air- said grid until a predetermined minimum pressure dif-
actuated generator station, conduit means operatively ferential is established therebetween.
connecting said at least one generator station to said 9. The energy collecting, storing and distributing
pipe system for withdrawing compressed air therefrom 20 system as defined in claim 8 wherein said valve means
for operating said at least one generator station, said at includes a spring loaded one-way check valve operable
least one generator station including air motor means to prevent compressed air from flowing from said mod-
operably connected to said conduit means and operated ules when the pressure therein is below a predetermined
by the compressed connected to said conduit means and
minimum to thereby assure a minimum reserve of com-
operated by the compressed air for driving an electric 25
pressed air in each said module.
generator, and air pressure and air volume control
means connected in said conduit means and operable 10. The energy collecting, storing and distributing
system as defined in claim 6 further comprising at least
simultaneously to control operations of said air motor
means, said air pressure and air volume control means one isolating valve located in each pipe section of said
being capable of varying the work output of said air 30 grid which bounds each generally rectangular section
motor means in accordance with a demand signal to encompassed by said grid, and means responsive to the
thereby accurately control the rate of rotation of said rate of flow of air through the respective pipe sections
air motor means to drive an electric generator at its of said grid for closing said isolating valves therein to
optimum speed. thereby isolate predetermined sections of said grid.
2. The energy collecting, storing and distributing 35 11. The energy collecting, storing and distributing
system as defined in claim 1 wherein at least a portion of system as defined in claim 11 further comprising two-
said plurality of energy collector-converters are non- way metering means located in the pipe of said grid at
polluting, natural energy collector-converters operable the boundries of predetermined sections thereof, said
to collect and convert natural energy to rotational force two-way metering means being operable to measure the
for driving said ccompressor means. 40 net air flow into or out of the respective sections of said
3. The energy collecting, storing and distributing grid.
system as defined in claim 1 wherein at least a portion of 12. The energy collecting, storing and distributing
said plurality of energy collector-converters comprise a system as defined in claim 1 wherein said air compressor
wind turbine including a plurality of generally verti- means comprises respective first, second and third
cany extending turbine blades mounted to rotate in a 45 stages, an ambient pressure suction source, a first stage
horizontal plane about a fixed vertical axis, said turbine discharge line, a second stage discharge line, a third
blades being adapted to be driven by wind force. stage discharge line, a discharge sink connected with
4. The energy collecting, storing and distributing said pipe system, first suction selector means for con-
system as defined in claim 1 wherein each of said at least necting the inlet of said second stage with one of said
one generator stations comprise a plurality of air motors 50 ambient pressure suction source and said first discharge
each operable to drive a separate electric generator at line; said first suction selector including pressure re-
its optimum speed, and wherein said air pressure and air sponsive means for automatically changing the suction
volume control means include means responsive to the of said second stage from said ambient pressure suction
demand for electrical energy for sequentially activating source to said first stage discharge line upon the occur-
said plurality of air motors to drive an electric generator 55 rence of a first predetermined pressure in said discharge
at its optimum speed to generate electricity in accor- sink, second suction selector means for connecting the
dance with the demand therefor. inlet of said third stage with one of said ambient pres-
5. The energy collecting, storing and distributing sure suction source and said second stage discharge line;
system as defined in claim 4 further comprising air flow said second suction selector means being operable to
meter means connected in said conduit means for mea- 60 automatically effect change of the inlet of said third
suring the quantity of compressed air utilized by each stage from said ambient pressure suction source to said
said generator station. second stage discharge line upon the occurrence of a
6. The energy collecting, storing and distributing second predetermined pressure higher than said first
system as defined in claim 1 wherein said transmission- predetermined pressure in said discharge sink, and first
storage pipe system comprises a system of large diame- 65 and second stage check valves disposed respectively in
ter high pressure widely spaced pipe disposed in a gen- said first and second stage discharge lines for preventing
erally rectangular grid covering said predetermined air flow from said discharge sink back into said first and
wide geographic area, and a plurality of area modules second stages when said first and second stage dis-
4,118,637
19 20
charge lines are connected respectively with the suc- the compressor stages for automatically delivering low,
tions of said second and third stages. intermediate or high pressure air at inversely varying
13. A system for collecting, storing and distributing flow rates to the pipe system in response to the pressure
energy comprising a transmission-storage pipe system in the system, providing at least one air-actuated gener-
including an interconnected network of large diameter 5 ator station operatively connected to the pipe system
high pressure conduit for storage and transmission of through conduit means permitting the withdrawal of
large volumes of compressed air throughout a predeter- compressed air therefrom for operating said at least one
mined wide geographical area, said system comprising a generator station, said at least one generator station
floating storage means including a plurality of loops of including air motor means operably connected to the
high pressure pipe rigidly joined together in a plurality 10 conduit means for operation by the compressed air and
of superimposed layers and interconnected to form an driving an electric generator to convert the energy in
auxiliary compressed air storage source, said floating said compressed air to electrical energy, and providing
storage means including means for anchoring to the air pressure and air volume controls connected in the
bottom of a body of water in which it is floating, and conduit means and operable simultaneously to control
flexible connection means for connecting said floating 15 the operation of the air motor means, said air pressure
storage means with high pressure pipe on shore, said and air volume control means being capable of varying
flexible connection means being weighted heavily the work output of the air motor means in accordance
enough to overcome byoyancy and lie along said bot- with a demand signal to thereby accurately control the
tom between said floating storage means and said high rate of rotation of the air motor means to drive the
pressure pipe on shore, said floating storage means con- electric generator at its optimum speed regardless of the
taining at least one said energy collector-converter 20 load on the generator.
supported thereon, a plurality of energy collector-con- 16. The method defined in claim 15 wherein at least a
verters including air compressor means operatively portion of said plurality of energy collector-converters
connected to said pipe system and utilizing available are non-polluting, natural energy collector-converters
energy to compress air and deliver the compressed air operable to collect. and convert natural energy to rota-
to said pipe system, said air compressor means including 25 tional force for driving the compressor means for com-
a plurality of separate compressor stages, pressure re- pressing air.
sponsive control means operatively interconnecting 17. The method defined in claim 15 wherein at least a
said compressor stages for automatically delivering portion of said plurality of energy collector-converters
low, intermediate or high pressure air at inversely vary- are wind turbines each including a plurality of generally
ing flow rates to the pipe system in response to the 30 vertically extending turbine blades mounted to rotate in
pressure in the system, at least one air-actuated genera- a horizontal plane about a fixed vertical axis, said tur-
tor station, conduit means operatively connecting said bine blades being adapted to be driven by wind force.
at least one generator station to said pipe system for 18. The method defined in claim 15 wherein each of
withdrawing compressed air therefrom for operating the generator stations comprise a plurality of air motors
said at least one generator station, said at least one gen- 35 each connected with and operable to drive a separate
erator station including air motor means operably con- electric generator at its optimum speed, and wherein the
nected to said conduit means and operated by the com- air pressure and air volume control means include
pressed air for driving an electric generator, and air means responsive to the demand for electrical energy
pressure and air volume control means connected in for sequentially activating said plurality of air motors to
said conduit means and operable simultaneously to con- 40
drive an electric generator at its optimum speed to gen-
trol operations of said air motor means, said air pressure erate electricity in accordance with the demand there-
and air volume control means being capable of varying
the work output of said air motor means in accordance for.
with a demand signal to thereby accurately control the 19. The method defined in claim 15 wherein transmis-
rate of rotation of said air motor means to drive an 45 sion-storage pipe system is constructed to include a
electric generator at its optimum speed. system of large diameter high pressure widely spaced
14. The energy collecting, storing and distributing pipe disposed in a generally rectangular grid covering
system of claim 13 wherein said floating storage means the predetermined wide geographic area and a plurality
is a shallow water type installation and said anchoring of area modules located within the wide geographic
means comprises multiple pilings having vertically dis- .50 area, and conduit means are provided to connect each
posed, slidable sleeves on each said pile, said sleeves module to the grid, and wherein each of the modules
being connected with said floating storage means so as each include a plurality of collector-converters and at
to allow said storage means to rise and fall with changes least on said generator station, whereby compressed air
in level of said water. may flow into the modules from the grid and out of said
15. A method for collecting, storing and distributing modules into the grid.
energy throughout a wide geographical area, said 55 20. The method defined in claim 19 further compris-
method comprising the steps of constructing a transmis- ing the steps of connecting an integrating meter assem-
sion-storage pipe system including an interconnected bly in the conduit between each module and the grid,
network of large diameter high pressure conduit for and measuring the net flow of air between the grid and
storage and transmission of large volumes of com- the respective associated modules by use of said inte-
pressed air throughout said wide geographical area, 60 grating metering assembly.
providing a plurality of energy collector-converters 21. The method defined in claim 20 further compris-
each including air compressor means operatively con- ing the steps of monitering the pressure in each module
nected to the pipe system and utilizing available energy and in the pipe grid, and controlling the flow of com-
to compress air and deliver the compressed air to the pressed air therebetween to prevent air flow to the
pipe system, said air compressor means including a 65 respective modules into the grid until a predetermined
plurality of separate compressor stages, regulating the minimum pressure differential is established therebe-
operation of said compressor means by providing pres- tween.
sure responsive controls operatively interconnecting ... ... . . ...
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Page 1 of 2
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
Patent No. 4,118,637 Dated: October 3, 1978

Inventor(s) LOUIS EUGENE TACKETT

It is certified that error appears in the above~identified patent


and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
IN THE DRAWINGS:

FIG. 3, the flow direction of check valve 92 should be


reversed.

FIG. 10, the flow direction of check valves 64 and 68


should be reversed.

FIG. 12, reference No. "30" should be -- 130 --.

FIG. 14, reference No. "139" should be 203

IN THE SPECIFICATION AND CLAIMS:

Column 1, line 39, after "storage", "pf" should be


-- of

Column 3, line 66, "12"should be 11

Column 5, line 20, "air ll should be or --

Column 6, line 7, "13" should be -- 14 -- .


Column 7, line 62, lI av ialable" should be -- available --i
Line 63, "marin" should be -- .
marille

Column 9, line 21, "which" should be with -- . I

Line 56, aft.er "82, " , "in" should be -- is -- ,.


Line 64, IIin" should be -- is -- . and I

Line 67, "ofifice" should be -- orifice


UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Page 2 of 2
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
Patent No. 4,118,637 Dated: October 3, 1978

Inventor(s) LOUIS EUGENE TACKETT

It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent


and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column 10, line 8, "by" should 'be -- to -- i '
Line 14, "84" should be -- 48 --1 and
Line 5~, after "only", "in" should be'
- for

Column 12; line 65, "brake" should be -- bracket --.

Column 15, line 52, after "points" insert -- of --.

Column 16, line 57, !lwell" should·be -- weld

Column 17, lines 23 and 24, delete "operated by the


ompressed connected to said conduit means and"; and
Line 40, correct the spelling of "compressor".

Column 19, line 18, "byoyancy" should be buoyancy

Column 20, line 52, lion II should be -- on.e --: and


Line 64, II to II (second occurrence) should be ~- of --.

eigncd and ecalcd this


Twelfth Day of Ju," 1979
[SEAL]
Attest:

DONALD W. BANNER
RUTH C. MASON
Attesti", Officer
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US005810141A
United States Patent [19] [11] Patent Number: 5,810,141
Organek et al. [45] Date of Patent: Sep. 22, 1998

[54] DRIVELlNE CLUTCH WITH 5,469,948 11/1995 Organek et al. .......................... 192/35
UNIDIRECTIONAL APPLY BALL RAMP 5,482,512 111996 Stevenson ................................... 475/5
5,503,602 4/1996 Dick ...................................... 192/35 X
[75] Inventors: Gregory J. Organek, Detroit; David 5,651,437 7/1997 Organek et al. ................... 192/84.7 X
M. Preston, Clarkston, both of Mich. Primary Examiner--Charles A. Marmor
Assistant Examiner-Marcus Charles
[73] Assignee: Eaton Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio Attorney, Agent, or Firm-I,oren H. Utho/I, Jf.; Howard D.
Gordon
[21] Appl. No.: 766,838
[57] ABSTRACT
[22] Filed: Dec. 13, 1996
A ball ramp mechanism having a control ring acting with an
[51] Int. CI.6 ............................ F16D 13/04; F16D 11/00; actuation ring to apply a clamping force on a driveline clutch
F16D 19/00 during both a vehicle driving mode and a vehicle coast mode
[52] U.S. CI. ........................ 192/35; 192/54.52; 192/84.7; using a planetary gearset acting with a one-way clutch
192/93; 192/40; 475/149 between a sun gear and meshing planetary gears to define
[58] Field of Search ..................................... 475/154, 149, rotation of the control ring with respect to the actuation ring
475/318, 5, 151, 453; 192/54.5, 35, 84.7, in a direction tending to further activate the ball ramp
54.52, 93 mechanism. In the vehicle drive mode the planetary gearset
is locked by the one-way clutch and in a vehicle coast mode
[56] References Cited the one-way clutch releases and the planetary gearset rotates
the control ring through a coil pole in a direction to further
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
activate the ball ramp mechanism.
5,078,248 1/1992 Yesnik ................................ 192/84.7 X
5,441,137 8/1995 Organek et al. ...................... 192/93 A 11 Claims, 3 Drawing Sheets

31

32A
44
42

16
u.s. Patent Sep. 22, 1998 Sheet 1 of 3 5,810,141

lOB
32A
44
42
40 47
---~.
( )

\
)

CLUTCH 16
CONTROL 101&--"-
UNIT
15
u.s. Patent Sep. 22, 1998 Sheet 2 of 3 5,810,141

FIG 2

FIG 3

14

64/ 23A

22A,
20A FIG 4
/62
/1
I 12
\ I
\ 22C
.-L- -1.
'\

,--\-
}
\ /

) 14
45 64/ 23A
u.s. Patent Sep. 22, 1998 Sheet 3 of 3 5,810,141

FIG 5
5,810,141
1 2
DRIVELlNE CLUTCH WITH In other words, this type of ball ramp actuated clutch
UNIDIRECTIONAL APPLY BALL RAMP using a unidirectional ball ramp having only a single ramp
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION angle, will cause the clutch to disengage when the engine is
not supplying rotational energy into the transmission such as
The present invention relates to a vehicle drive line clutch 5 when the vehicle is coasting. When coasting, the flywheel is
and, more particularly, to a driveline clutch where a friction
no longer supplying rotational energy to either the transmis-
disc is clamped to an engine flywheel using a ball ramp
sion or to the ball ramp actuator. In this circumstance, the
actuator where a one-way clutch and a planetary gearset are
relative rotation of the actuation ring and control ring has
used to provide both drive and coast driveline clutch lock-
been reversed such that the ball ramp axial displacement is
up.
10 collapsed thereby allowing the pressure plate to pull away
Driveline clutches commonly use a plurality of springs to from the clutch disc. The result is that the engine is disen-
clamp a friction disc to an engine flywheel. The springs are gaged from the transmission and any engine braking effect
disposed within a pressure plate assembly which is bolted to is eliminated.
the flywheel. A mechanical linkage that controls the pressure
plate spring mechanism is displaced by the operator to A bidirectional ball ramp actuated clutch is disclosed in
15 U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,937,729 and 5,505,285. Using this more
control the lock-up and release of the clutch.
expensive and complicated technology, the ball ramp actua-
Efforts to automate the operation of the clutch using
tor incorporates bidirectional ramps which provide activa-
electronics are currently underway. It is known to use an
tion when there is relative rotation between the control ring
electromechanical or hydraulic actuator connected to the
and the actu ation ring in either direction. However, the ball
mechanical linkage to, in essence, replace the operator for
20 ramp must transition through the nonactivated state which
more accurate clutch operation during transmission shifting.
will result in temporary undesirable clutch slippage and the
Using such an actuator, the mechanical linkage is moved in
components are more expensive to fabricate than a unidi-
response to an electrical control signal generated by a central
rectional unit. Also, a bidirectional ball ramp will have
microprocessor used to process a variety of vehicle sensor
reduced rotational travel between the control ring and the
inputs based on operating conditions to determine when and
25 actuation ring in a given package size as compared to a
in what manner the driveline clutch should be activated, or
unidirectional ball ramp mechanism. Thus, a unidirectional
deactivated.
ball ramp mechanism is preferred if it can be made to
The use of a ball ramp actuator to load a clutch pack in a activate in both vehicle drive and coast operating modes.
vehicle driveline differential is known. U.s. Pat. Nos. 4,805,
486 and 5,092,825, the disclosures of which are hereby The ball ramp actuator comprises a plurality of roller
30 elements, a control ring and an opposed actuation ring where
incorporated by reference, disclose limited slip differentials
where a clutch pack is loaded in response to the activation the actuation ring and the control ring define at least three
of a ball ramp actuator initiated by rotation of a servo motor opposed single ramp surfaces formed as circumferential
or a solenoid driven brake shoe on an activating ring. The semi-circular grooves, each pair of opposed grooves con-
advantage of the ball ramp mechanism over other actuators taining one roller element. A plurality of thrust rollers (or
35 other type of thrust bearing) are interposed between the
is that it converts rotary motion into axial motion with a very
high force amplification, often 100: 1 or greater. A ball ramp control ring and a housing member, rotating with and
actuator has also been utilized in a vehicle transmission to connected to the input member such as a flywheel. An
engage and disengage gearsets by loading a gear clutch pack electromagnetic coil is disposed adjacent to one element of
in response to a signal as disclosed in U.s. Pat. No. 5,078, a control clutch so as to induce a magnetic field that loads
249, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by 40 the control clutch which in turn applies a force on the control
reference. ring of the ball ramp actuator. The control clutch can be
similar to those commonly used for vehicle air conditioning
In both of these vehicle applications, one side of the ball
compressors.
ramp actuator, commonly called a control ring, reacts
against case ground through the force induced by an elec- 45 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
tromagnetic field generated by a coil or is rotated by an
electric motor relative to case ground. To generate greater The present invention is characterized by a Hywheel
clamping forces, the electrical current supplied to the coil or driven by a prime mover and a transmission input shaft
motor is increased thereby increasing the reaction of the coupled through a ball ramp actuated clutch. The ball ramp
control ring to case ground which rotates the control ring 50 mechanism has a plurality of unidirectional variable depth
relative to an actuation ring thereby causing rolling elements grooves (ramps) and an actuation ring having single direc-
to engage ramps in the control and actuation ring which tion variable depth grooves at least partially opposed and
increase the axial movement and clamping force on the substantially similar in geometry to those of the control ring.
clutch pack. Examples of ball ramp actuator clutch systems are shown in
It is also known to use a ball ramp actuator to load a 55 U.s. Pat. Nos. 1,974,390; 2,861,225; 2,937,729; 3,000,479;
vehicle master clutch as disclosed in u.s. Pat. Nos. 1,974, 5,485,904 and 5,505,285. The actuation ring is prevented
390; 2,861,225; 3,000,479; 5,441,137; 5,469,948; 5,485,904 from counter rotating upon clutch lock-up in the vehicle
and 5,505,285, the disclosures of which are hereby incor- coast mode through the use of a one-way clutch. A planetary
porated by reference. One problem with the use of a ball gearset is used to allow the ball ramp actuator to increase the
ramp actuator to supply the vehicle driveline clutch clamp- 60 clamping force on the clutch friction disc in the coast mode.
ing force is that the mechanics of prior art unidirectional ball Thus, using the present invention, the ball ramp mechanism
ramp mechanisms result in a loss of clamping force when the does not transition through the nonactivated state when the
vehicle is in a coast mode. Once the engine power is reduced vehicle goes from a drive to a coast mode and clutch
and the driveline is actually overrunning the engine (coast slippage is reduced.
mode), the prior art ball ramp actuator with single ramp 65 An electromagnetic coil is used to activate a control
unidirectional actuation will disengage the clutch thereby clutch which frictionally couples the control ring through the
eliminating the potential for engine braking of the vehicle. planetary gearset to the transmission input shaft. When
5,810,141
3 4
energized by the coil, the ball ramp mechanism provides a the embodiment illustrated in the drawings and specific
clamping force on the clutch friction disc where the ampli- language will be used to describe the same. It will never-
tude of the clamping force immediately increases whenever theless be understood that no limitation on the scope of the
there exists a rotational speed differential between the input invention is thereby intended, such alterations and further
flywheel and the input shaft of the vehicle transmission. 5 modifications in the illustrated device, and such further
According to the present invention, the amplitude of the applications of the principles of the invention as illustrated
clamping force is held at a given level as long as the coil is therein being contemplated as would normally occur to one
energized by action of a one-way clutch so that when the skilled in the art to which the invention relates.
vehicle enters a coasting mode where the engine is braking Certain terminology will be used in the following descrip-
as opposed to driving the vehicle, the ball ramp actuator 10 tion for convenience in reference only and will not be
remains fully activated. Clutch slippage in the drive mode limiting. For example, the terms "forward" and "rearward"
will cause the ball ramp mechanism to increase the clamping will refer to directions forward and rearward of the clutch
force on the clutch disc. Also, in the coasting mode, if for assembly as normally mounted in a vehicle. The terms
some reason there is clutch slippage, the planetary gearset "rightward" and "leftward" will refer to directions in the
provides for additional relative rotation between the control 15 drawings in connection with which the terminology is used.
ring and the actuation ring in the proper direction to increase The terms "inwardly" and "outwardly" will refer to direc-
the clamping force on the clutch friction plate. tions toward and away from respectively, the geometric
center of the apparatus. The terms "upward" and "down-
One provision of the present invention is to prevent a ball
ward" will refer to directions as taken in the drawings in
ramp actuated clutch from disengaging when the input
20 connection with which the terminology is used. All forego-
torque is reversed.
ing terms mentioned above include the normal derivatives
Another provision of the present invention is to prevent a and equivalents thereof.
ball ramp actuated clutch having unidirectional ramps from
Referring now to the drawings, which are not intended to
disengaging when the driveline torque is in a coast mode by
limit the present invention, FIG. 1 is an axial cross-sectional
locking the rotational orientation between a control ring and
25 view of a main drive line clutch assembly 2 of the type in
an actuation ring using a one-way clutch.
which the present invention may be utilized. The main
Another provision of the present invention is to allow a driveline clutch assembly 2 includes a flywheel 4 rotatably
ball ramp actuated clutch having unidirectional ramps to driven by a prime mover (not shown) such as an internal
increase its engagement level when the drive line torque is in combustion engine by its output crankshaft 3 which is
a coast mode utilizing a planetary gearset. 30 coupled to a transmission 7 by a clutch assembly 2. A
Another provision of the present invention is to allow a bellhousing 6 surrounds the flywheel 4 having a flywheel
drive line clutch actuated by a ball ramp actuator having friction surface 4A and supports the transmission 7 including
unidirectional ramps to increase its actuation force when the the transmission input shaft 8 which extends to nonrotatably
transferred driveline torque reverses direction utilizing a engage a clutch disc 10 having friction pad lOA and friction
planetary gearset incorporating a one-way clutch acting 35 pad lOB through splines 10C at the left end of the trans-
between the control ring and the transmission input shaft. mission input shaft of where the transmission input shaft 8
Still another provision of the present invention is to allow then extends rightward to drive the transmission gearing. An
a driveline clutch actuated by a ball ramp actuator having actuation ring 12, which also functions as a pressure plate
unidirectional ramps to increase its actuation force when the and is rotatably connected to the pressure plate housing 16,
transferred driveline torque reverses direction utilizing a 40 is used to clamp the clutch disc 10 through the attached
planetary gearset acting between the control ring and the friction pads lOA and lOB to the Hywheel 4 at the flywheel
transmission input shaft where a one-way clutch prevents friction surface 4A thereby transferring the rotational power
reverse rotation of the planetary gears relative to the trans- from the prime mover to the transmission 7 through the
mission input shaft. transmission input shaft 8 and eventually to the rest of the
45 vehicle driveline.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
In prior art systems, the clutch pressure plate is forced
FIG. 1 is a partial cross-sectional view of the ball ramp toward the flywheel using a plurality of loading springs.
actuator of the present invention; When the operator wishes to disengage the clutch disc, a
FIG. 2 is an axial cross-sectional view of the ball ramp mechanical release mechanism is activated by the operator's
mechanism of the present invention taken along line II-II 50 foot and leg overcoming the force of the springs thereby
of FIG. 1; allowing the clutch disc to slip relative to the flywheel. It
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the ball ramp mecha- should be understood, however, that neither the activation
nism of the present invention taken along line III-III of springs nor the mechanical release mechanism are features
FIG. 2 with the ball ramp mechanism in a nonenergized of the present invention. According to the present invention,
state; 55 a ball ramp mechanism 11 is used to force the actuation ring
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the ball ramp meclla- 12 toward the flywheel 4 which is controlled by the clutch
nism of the present invention taken along line III-III of control unit 15 electronically taking the place of an operator
FIG. 2 with the ball ramp mechanism in an energized state; during transmission shifting sequences.
and The clutch bellhousing 6 partially encloses the clutch
FIG. 5 is an axial cross-sectional view of the ball ramp 60 assembly 2 including the ball ramp mechanism 11 of the
actuator of the present invention taken along line V-V of present invention. Ball ramp actuators that react a control
FIG. 1. ring to ground are well known in the art and have been used
to load transmission gear clutches as disclosed in u.S. Pat.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ruE No. 5,078,249, and differential clutch packs as disclosed in
PREFERRED EMBODIMENT 65 U.S. Pat. No. 5,092,825 where a ball ramp control ring is
For purposes of promoting the understanding of the reacted against case ground by a coil or motor. In essence,
principles of the invention, reference will now be made to relative rotational motion between the control ring 14 and
5,810,141
5 6
the actuation ring 12 causes one or more rolling elements art, the control ring 14 can be reacted against a ground
20A, 2013 and 20C, which can be spherical elements or surface, such as the clutch bellhousing 6, although continu-
cylindrical rollers, to be moved along a like number of ous slipping would occur between the control ring 14
opposed ramps 22A, 22B and 22C formed in the control ring through the control friction disc 37 and the coil pole 32
14 and ramps 23A,23B and 23C formed in the actuation ring 5 resulting in high parasitic energy losses and no automatic
12 respectively. Ramps 22A,22B,22C,23A,23B and 23C activation of the ball ramp mechanism 11 upon clutch slip.
have variable axial depth which is unidirectional. FIG. 2 A'S illustrated in the present application, by attaching the
illustrates this geometry with more detail and precision, control ring 14 to the transmission input shaft 8 through the
reference to which is made subsequently. control friction disc 37 and the planetary gearset 39 con-
A plurality of thrust elements 27 reacting against the 10 trolled by action of a one-way clutch 46, very little clutch
thrust ring 34, which can be any type of suitable thrust slip occurs when the ball ramp mechanism 11 is energized
bearing, are used to contain the axial forces generated by the thereby minimizing energy losses. Also, the reaction time to
ball ramp rolling elements 20A,20B and 20C as they engage even minimal slipping of the clutch disc 10 when in either
the ramps 22A,22B,22C,23A,23B and 23C in the control the vehicle drive or coast mode using the present invention
ring 14 and the actuation ring 12 respectively. The thrust ring is virtually instantaneous since slippage of the clutch disc 10
15 results in relative motion between the actuation ring 12, and
34 is connected to the pressure plate housing 16. Rotation of
the control ring 14 relative to the actuation ring 12 causes the the control ring 14 through the control clutch 37 and the
actuation ring 12 to move axially toward the flywheel 4 planetary gearset 39 on the control ring 14 side and through
thereby clamping the clutch disc 10 between the actuation the pressure plate housing 16 to the actuation ring 12. The
ring 12 and the flywheel 4. The actuation ring 12 is rotatably actuation ring 12 is rotationally coupled to the clutch pres-
connected to the pressure plate housing 16 but can move 20 sure plate housing 16 which is in turn connected to the
axially with respect thereto. Attached to the control ring 14 flywheel 4 all rotating together.
is a somewhat flexible annular ring extension 1413 which The centering spring 41 functions to control the rotational
supports a primary control friction disc 37 made of a friction position of the control ring 14 relative to the actuation ring
material. The ball ramp section 14A of the control ring 14 12 when the electrical coil 30 is not energized such that very
contains the ramps 22A, 22B and 23C and is rotatably 25 little axial force is applied through the ball ramp mechanism
supported by the transmission input shaft 8 by bearing 13. 11, especially when the engine is rapidly accelerated causing
The control friction disc 37 is drawn against the coil pole 32 inertia forces of the components to come into play and no
when the coil 30 is energized by the clutch control unit 15 clutch activation is desired. The centering spring 41 is
through connectors 17. The annular electrical coil 30 shown as a torsional spring only on one side of the ball ramp
encircles the transmission input shaft 8 and is supported by 30 mechanism 11 but actually extends to encircle the control
the transmission case extension 31 attached to the transmis- ring 14 and has one end attached to the control ring 14 and
sion 7. The electrical coil 30 is positioned in close proximity a second end attached to the actuation ring 12. Rotation of
to the coil pole 32 separated by an air gap from the coil 30 the control ring 14 relative to the actuation ring 12 causes the
and is rotatably supported on the transmission input shaft 8 centering spring 41 to be stressed and to thereby generate a
on sun gear 40. The electrical coil 30 is positioned to be centering force between the actuation ring 12 and the control
partially enclosed by the coil pole 32 and is separated from 35 ring 14 that tends to return them to a rotational orientation
it by a small air gap. The coil 30 is mounted to the where no axial force is generated by the ball ramp mecha-
transmission case extension 31 and therefore held stationary nism 11.
while the coil pole 32 rotates according to the action of the A plurality of pressure plate springs (not shown) act to
planetary gearset 39. The coil 30 generates an electromag- pull the actuation ring 12 away from the clutch friction disc
netic Hux 36 shown by arrows in FIG. 1 which travel through 40 10 and the flywheel 4 by acting as spring elements between
the coil pole 32 into the ring extension 14B and back through the pressure plate housing 16 and the actuation ring 12
the coil pole 32 into the coil 30. This electromagnetic flux 36 thereby biasing the actuation ring 12 away from the flywheel
creates a force tending to draw the ring extension 14B into 4. The pressure plate housing 16 is attached to the flywheel
the coil pole 32 thereby creating a frictional force through 4 such that the actuation ring 12 rotates with the flywheel 4
contact of the friction disc 37 on coil pole 32 and a resulting 45 but can move axially relative to the flywheel 4 as controlled
torque in the control ring 14 (assuming a rotational speed by action of the ball ramp mechanism 11 acting to compress
differential between the flywheel 4 and the transmission the pressure plate springs.
input shaft 8) which activates the ball ramp mechanism 11 A planetary gearset 39 is disposed between coil pole 32
through the one-way clutch 46 which is loaded in a locking and the transmission input shaft 8. The planetary gearset 32
direction. 50 is comprised of a sun gear 40 driven by the transmission
When the clutch disc 10 is unclamped or starts to slip due input shaft 8 and meshing with a plurality of planet gears 42
to excessive torque supplied by the prime mover (engine) which each rotate on a respective support pin 44. The planet
through the flywheel 4, there is relative rotation between the gears 42 then mesh with the coil pole 32 at extension ring
control ring 14 and the actuation ring 12 thereby forcing the 32A The coil pole 32 is rotatably supported on the sun gear
rings 12 and 14 axially further apart (as described in further 40.
55
detail infra) thereby increasing the clamping force of the The planet gears 42 are circumferentially spaced from one
actuation ring 12 on the clutch disc 10 at the friction pad lOB another by carrier ring 48. A one-way clutch 46 is disposed
and between the friction pad lOA and the flywheel 4. This between the carrier ring 48 and the sun gear 40 and com-
occurs through a small range of rotational motion of the prises the carrier ring 48 acting through clutch elements 52
control ring 14 relative to the actuation ring 12 and provides to the inner ring 50. The one-way clutch 46 prevents the
an automatic, virtually instant, clamping force adjustment 60 control ring 14 from rotating relative to the actuation ring 12
should any rotational slipping occur between the flywheel 4 in a direction that would deactivate the ball ramp mechanism
and the transmission input shaft 8. 11 as long as the coil 30 is energized by preventing rotation
According to the present invention, once the clutch of the carrier ring 48 relative to the sun gear 40 in that
assembly 2 is locked-up, the coil pole 32 rotates at the same direction.
speed as the flywheel 4 and minimal parasitic electrical 65 Upon energization of the coil 30, the planetary gearset 39
power is required to be delivered to the coil 30 to maintain and the one-way clutch 46 provide for relative rotation of the
lock-up of clutch assembly 2. Using the teaching of the prior control ring 14 and the actuation ring 12 only in a direction
5,810,141
7 8
which results in further activation of the ball ramp mecha- Referring now to FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 to describe the
nism 11 and increased clamping force on the clutch disc 10 operation of the ball ramp mechanism 11, a cross-sectional
irregardless of the operational mode of the vehicle and view of the ball ramp mechanism 11 is shown in FIG. 2 and
torque flow through the driveline. views taken along line III-III of the actuation ring 12 and
A'Cial forces generated by the ball ramp mechanism 11 are 5 the control ring 14 separated by a spherical element 20A are
transmitted by the thrust elements 27 into the thrust ring 34 shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. Three spherical rolling elements
which is attached to the flywheel 4 through the pressure plate 20A,20B and 20C are spaced approximately 120° apart
housing 16. In the opposite direction, the force generated by rolling in three ramps 22A,22B and 22C having a variable
the ball ramp mechanism 11 is transmitted to the clutch disc axial depth respectively as the control ring 14 is rotated
10 and the flywheel 4. relative to the actuation ring 12. Any number of spherical
The one-way clutch 46 is positioned to operate between 10 rolling elements 20A,20B and 20C and respective ramps
the coil pole extension ring 32A of the coil pole 32 and the 22A,22B,22C,23A,23B and 23C could be utilized depend-
sun gear 40 of the planetary gearset 39. The sun gear 40 is ing on the desired rotation and axial motion of the ball ramp
driven by the transmission input shaft 8 and then meshes mechanism 11. It is mandatory to employ at least three
with planet gears 42 which then in turn mesh with the pole spherical rolling elements 20A,20B and 20C travelling on a
extension ring 32A of the coil pole 32 which is electromag- 15 like number of identical equally spaced opposed ramps
netic ally and frictionally coupled to the control ring 14 of the 22A,22B,22C,23A,23B and 23C formed respectively in
ball ramp mechanism 11. Acoi130 positioned adjacent to the both the control ring 14 and the actuation ring 12 to provide
coil pole 32 creates an electromagnetic field when the coil 30 axial and radial stability to the control ring 14 and the
is energized with an electrical current from the clutch control actuation ring 12. As mentioned previously, any type of
unit 15 through connecting leads 17. Additional vehicle rolling elements could be utilized such as a ball or a
electronic systems provide inputs via line 16 to the clutch 20 cylindrical roller. The actu ation ring 12 is shown which
control unit 15. rotates with the flywheel 4, the pressure plate housing 16 and
When the engine is supplying power to the vehicle the thrust ring 34 turning about axis of rotation 47 coincident
driveline herein referred to as a drive mode, the coil 30 is with the axis of rotation of the transmission input shaft 8.
energized and the ring extension 14B is electromagnetically Three semi-circular, circumferential ramps 23A,23B and
coupled to the coil pole 32 thereby rotationally coupling the 25 23C are shown formed in the face of the actuation ring 12
transmission input shaft 8 to the control ring 14 through the with corresponding identical opposed ramps 22A,22B and
sun gear 40 and planet gears 42 of the planetary gearset 39. 22C formed in the face of the control ring 14. TIle control
Any relative rotation between the transmission input shaft 8 ring 14 and the actuation ring 12 are made of a high strength
and the flvwheel 4 results in relative rotation between the steel and the unidirectional tapered ramps 22A,22B,22C,
control ri~g 14 and the actu ation ring 12 in a direction that 30 23A,23B and 23C carburized and hardened, to Rc55-60. The
results in an increase in separation 66 (see FIG. 4) between ramps 22A,22B,22C,23A,23B and 23C are tapered in depth
the control ring 14 and the actuation ring 12. The one-way as more clearly shown in FIG. 3 by references to ramps 22A
clutch 46 prevents the planetary gearset 39 from back and 23A and circumferentially extend for approximately
driving when the engine power is reduced. As long as the 120° (actually less than 120° to allow for a separation
coil 30 remains energized, the ball ramp mechanism 11 is not 35 section between the ramps). The separation 66 between the
allowed to deactivate since the control ring 14 is held control ring 14 and the actuation ring 12 is determined by the
rotationally stationary relative to the actuation ring 12 by the rotational orientation between the two corresponding
one-way clutch 46 acting on the planet gears 42 and sun gear opposed ramps such as 22A and 23A where the spherical
40 of the planetary gearset 39. rolling element 20A rolls on both ramps 22A and 23A as the
When the vehicle transitions to the coast mode, the control ring 14 is rotated relative to the actuation ring 12 on
driveline torque transfer reverses to a state where the wheels 40 the same axis of rotation. In a substantially identical manner,
are driving and the engine is being driven and thus braking rolling element 2013 rolls on both ramps' 2213 and 2313 and
the motion of the vehicle. Unless the ball ramp mechanism rolling element 20C rolls on both ramps 22C and 23C. The
11 has dual acting ramps formed in the control ring 14 and relative rotation forces the two rings 14,12 axially apart or
the actuation ring 12 (see U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,937,729 and allows them to come closer together as determined by the
5,505,285) the unidirectional ball ramp mechanism 11 will 45 position of the rolling elements 20A,20B and 20C or their
normally release and not allow for engine braking when respective ramp pairs 22A,23A and 2213,2313 and 22C, 23C
utilizing prior art systems. According to the present thereby providing an axial movement for clamping and
invention, a planetary gearset 39 along with the one-way releasing the clutch disc 10 between the actuation ring 12
clutch 46 is positioned between the transmission input shaft and the flywheel 4.
8 and the control ring 14 so that when the vehicle is in a 50 FIG. 3 illustrates the rotational orientation of the control
coast mode, relative rotation between the transmission input ring 14 and the actuation ring 12 when the carrier ring 48 is
shaft 8 and the flywheel 4 causes the ball ramp mechanism at a minimum when the ramps 22A and 23A are at one
11 to become increasingly activated. In the coast mode the extreme in alignment and the spherical element 20A is in the
one-way clutch 46 does not lock, and results in rotation of deepest section of the ramps 22A and 23A Assuming there
the planet gears 42 relative to the sun gear 40 thereby 55 is a rotational speed difference the flywheel 4 and the
reversing the rotation of the coil pole relative to the trans- transmission input shaft 8, upon energizing the coil 30, the
mission input shaft 8 which will further activate the ball control ring 14 is rotated relative to the actuation ring 12 by
ramp mechanism 11. Thus, the present invention provides application of a rotational torque input through the control
the feature that whenever the coil 30 is energized and there friction disc 27 and the ramps 22A and 23A move relative to
is relative rotation between the transmission input shaft 8 one another causing the spherical element 20A to roll on
and the flywheel 4 in either direction, the ball ramp mecha- 60 each of the ramp surfaces 22A and 23A moving to a different
nism 11 is increasingly activated and the clamping force on position on both ramps 22A and 23A thereby forcing the
the clutch disc 10 is increased when there is any dilTerence control ring 14 and the actuation ring 12 apart to a wider
in the rotational speed of the flywheel 4 and the transmission separation 66 as shown in FIG. 4. A similar separation force
input shaft 8. The one-way clutch 46 provides a method to is generated by rolling element 2013 rolling on ramp surfaces
prevent the ball ramp mechanism 11 from deactivating 65 22B and 2313 and by rolling element 20C rolling on ramp
whenever the coil 30 is energized by freezing the planetary surfaces 22C and 23C. The rotation of the control ring 14 is
gearset 39. clearly illustrated by reference to FIGS. 3 and 4 by the
5,810,141
9 10
relative shift in position of reference points 62 and 64 from a ball ramp mechanism for generating an axial movement
directly opposed in FIG. 3 to an offset position in FIG. 4 comprising; an annular control ring having an axis of
caused by rotation of the control ring 14 in the direction of rotation, said control ring having a plurality of circum-
the arrow 45. This increase in axial displacement can be used ferential control ramps formed in a first face of said
for a variety of applications, and especially drive line 5 control ring, said control ramps varying in axial depth,
clutches, since the force level relative to the torque applied an equivalent number of rolling elements one occupy-
to the control ring 14 is quite high, typically a ratio of 100:1. ing each of said control ramps, an actuation ring having
This can be used as illustrated in this application to load an an axis of rotation coaxial with said axis of rotation of
actuation ring 12 against a clutch disc 10 and flywheel 4 in said control ring, said actu ation ring having a plurality
a vehicle driveline. Additional illustrative details of opera- 10 of actuation ramps substantially identical in number,
tion of a ball ramp actuator can be found by reference to U.S. shape and radial position to said control ramps where
Pat. No. 4,805,486. said actuation ramps at least partially oppose said
If the flywheel 4 is rotating at the same speed as the control ramps and where each of said rolling elements
transmission input shaft 8, even if the coil 30 is energized, is contained between one of said actuation ramps and a
the control ring 14 rotates at the same speed as the actuation 15 respective control ramp, said control ring being axially
ring 12 and no additional axial force is generated by the ball and rotationally moveably disposed relative to said
ramp mechanism 11 since there is no relative rotation actuation ring;
between the control ring 14 and the actuation ring 12. a planetary gearset having an annulus electromagnetically
Assuming the coil 30 remains energized thereby electro- coupled to said control ring, and a sun gear rotatably
magnetically tying the control ring 14 to the transmission driven by said output element where a plurality of
input shaft 8 through the friction disc 37, coil pole 32 and the 20 planet gears couple said sun gear to said annulus;
planetary gearset 39, according to the present invention, any a coil for inducing an electromagnetic field in said annu-
relative rotation between the flywheel 4 and the transmission
Ius;
input shaft 8, results in relative rotation between the control
ring 14 and the actuation ring 12 in a direction which causes a one-way clutch having an inner ring connected to said
the spherical elements 20A, 20B and 20e to further increase 25 output element and an outer ring connected to said
the separation 66 between the control ring 14 and the planet gears, said inner ring and said outer ring con-
actuation ring 12 thereby generating additional clamping nected by a plurality of clutch elements;
force by the actuation ring 12 so as to use the power of the where said one-way clutch prevents said control ring from
flywheel to increase the lock-up force on the clutch disc 10. rotating in a first direction relative to said actuation ring
Now referring to FIG. 5, a partial cross-sectional view of 30 and said planetary gearset provides rotation of said
the present invention taken along line v-v of FIG. 1 is control ring relative to said actuation ring in a second
shown. The transmission input shaft 8 is nonrotatably con- direction irrespective of the relative rotation of said
nected to the sun gear 40 which meshes with the planet gears input element and said output element.
42 which are rotatably supported on support pins 44. The 2. The ball ramp actuator of claim 1, wherein said rolling
pole extension ring 32A has inward facing gear teeth which 35 elements are spherical.
mesh with the planet gears 42. The coil 30 (not shown) is 3. The ball ramp actuator of claim 1, wherein said rolling
contained within the coil ring 32. Any number of planet elements are rollers.
gears 42 can be utilized. 4. The ball ramp actuator of claim 1, wherein said control
The vehicle drive line clutch actuator can be used to ramps and said actuation ramps have a continuously increas-
couple a rotating input shaft to an output shaft where the ing axial depth.
input shaft would be analogous to the flywheel and the 40 5. The ball ramp actuator of claim 1, wherein said coil is
output shaft would be analogous to the transmission input disposed adjacent to a coil pole.
shaft as shown in FIG. 1. The present invention would 6. The ball ramp actuator of claim 5, wherein said coil
prevent the ball ramp mechanism 11 from retracting and encircles said output element.
disengaging the clutch disc 10 so long as the coil 30 was 7. The ball ramp actuator of claim 6 further comprising a
energized thereby providing a friction coupling between the 45 control unit electrically connected to said coil for supplying
input shaft (flywheel) and the output shaft (transmission electrical energy to said coil.
input shaft) irregardless of the direction of the torque 8. The ball ramp actuator of claim 1, wherein said clutch
transfer. elements are electromagnetically rotationally connected to
This invention has been described in great detail, suffi- said control ring.
cient to enable one skilled in the art to make and use the 50 9. The ball ramp actuator of claim 8, wherein said clutch
same. Various alterations and and understanding of the elements are biased to allow said inner ring to rotate in either
foregoing specijlcation, and it is intended to include all such direction relative to said outer ring when said coil is non-
alterations and modijlcations as part of the invention, insofar energized.
as they come within the scope of the appended claims. 10. The ball ramp actuator of claim 8, wherein said clutch
We claim: 55 elements are biased to prevent said control ring from rotat-
1. A ball ramp actuator for rotationally coupling two ing in a direction relative to said actuation ring tending to
rotating elements comprising: deactivate said ball ramp mechanism.
11. The ball ramp actuator of claim 1, wherein said input
an input element driven by a prime mover and rotating element is a flywheel and wherein said output element is a
about an axis of rotation; transmission input shaft and where said output device is a
an output element having an axis of rotation coaxial with 60 transmission.
said axis of rotation of said input element for rotating
an output device; * * * * *
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US005903069A
United States Patent [19] [11] Patent Number: 5,903,069
Hiterer [45] Date of Patent: May 11, 1999

[54] SYNCHRONOUS RECIPROCATING Attorney, Agent, or Firm-R. Neil Sudol; Henry D.


ELECTRIC MACHINES Coleman

[75] Inventor: Misha Hiterer, leruslaem, Israel [57] ABSTRACT

[73] A'isignee: Medis EI, Ltd., Israel A synchronous reciprocating electric machine includes a
first magnet system having first and second opposing sur-
[21] Appl. No.: 08/933,856 faces forming between them a gap, and a second magnet
system mounted within the gap so as to be displace able
[22] Filed: Sep. 19, 1997
relative to the first magnet system along a line of travel
[51] Int. CI.6 ........................... H02K 33/16; H02K 33/00 through the gap. The the first magnet system is configured
[52] U.S. CI ............................... 310/15; 310/12; 310/162; for generating a magnetic field, referred to as the "gap field",
310/156; 310/36 directed across the gap primarily perpendicular to the first
[58] Field of Search ................................ 310/162, 12, 15, surface. The second magnet system includes two magnetic
310/13, 156, 36; 290/42, 53 elements configured to generate equal but opposite magnetic
fields primarily perpendicular to the first surface. These
[56] References Cited
magnetic elements are spaced from each other along the line
u.s. PATENT DOCUMENTS of travel by a distance b, where b>O. One of magnet systems
produces a non-alternating magnetic field and the other is a
3,891,874 6/1975 Roters et al. ............................. 310/15
4,675,563 6/1987 Goldowsky ............................... 310/15 coil assembly for producing an operating magnetic field. The
4,704,553 11/1987 Resnicow .................................. 310/12 machine also includes electrical connections connecting to
4,945,269 7/1990 Kamm ....................................... 310/15 the coil assembly so as to allow operation of the electric
4,985,652 1/1991 Oudet et al. .............................. 310/15 machine with reciprocation of the second magnet system
5,654,596 8/1997 Nasar et al. .............................. 310/12 relative to the nrst magnet system.
Primary Examiner---Nestor Ramirez
Assistant Examiner----B. Mullins 39 Claims, 11 Drawing Sheets

12~ ,

'V
23--- Nt It (S)
/10

14
------ __ 26
22
8 NL(S) ~ 21
I, I 20

18
Y/24
,
I
I

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LPJ
I ,
I,
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---16

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I

I
, I
til I

I,
!2'5 1 I, I,
! lEe Wo >1 I
I
I I,
I

I~
Wk ~
u.s. Patent May 11, 1999 Sheet 1 of 11 5,903,069
12~ ,

0.J
23--- Nt i t(8) /10

14
--------- _26
22
8
0.J ~21
~
20
, ,
I, I, -----16
18 I• I,
24
I, .I
I, ,
I
I,
Fig. 1 !2~ I ,I
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I, j-c Wo ?ol I,
I, I,
1<:: Wk ~!

12~
r--- ---.,I
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I
I
I
I
0 rv 10
I
--
/
I
~1 1 0
23 --- _/ I
1...--- ----I
I

Fig. 2
u.s. Patent May 11,1999 Sheet 2 of 11 5,903,069

I- =-1, 1< W8
:0>1
, W8 , ,
I I I I
12
12

----
,
I

ji
20
<bi<b
I
~I
1
8 8

I
,,, ---j -
,
I I,
,
I I,
12 . ,
I I, I I.
·I I, I

·I ...... 0 ..... I,
I,
...... 0 ... II,
, I,
·I- 21~ Wk
,
I I 21.---/Wk
~I
:;;..1
k

Fig. 3 Fig. 4
u.s. Patent May 11, 1999 Sheet 3 of 11 5,903,069
C
ID
E
ID
~
0...
o
C\J 1 :fS
I
I
I
C\J I
...-- I
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I

o .----:
Cd II I
I ..0
l() .0 I LO
I
I to
0)
.- ----; ~ 0)
LL I
I LL
I
I

L..r::
C\J

......
C
ID
E
ID
0
CO
0 0...
C\I en
C\J
...-- C\J
...-- • '"0

.0
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<.) to I
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.
s: : -0
LO

§---t----~
0) .0 .
LL + 0)
'+- I
I
I
~ LL
I
I
I

~~l~:i
C\J

tr
~
N
u.s. Patent May 11, 1999 Sheet 4 of 11 5,903,069

N
...-

\
""'0 o
(0
(0
. (J)
0)
LL LL

--il
.....
- ...-
~C\J
N
...-

f; f;

~I ..0 C\J
t}N ~ co
<.0
f; <.0
.
..-
0)
LL
u.s. Patent May 11, 1999 Sheet 5 of 11 5,903,069

40

36

A
38 34 Fig. 7c

30
40

18
Fig.7b Fig.7d
8
r
, l,
Fig.7e I I
/-:/'

29 /
jP

/ ~
31
Fig.7g 44
_________ 18
u.s. Patent May 11, 1999 Sheet 6 of 11 5,903,069

20
\ /
'\
Fig.8b

48

_ --·L------!-I--+-'~----!!
, , I
46 ll2J 50 - ,
I~..::::---~-·~
Wk !

20
<!lpN 1 <!lpsj
/
Fig.9a
54
t I t t t ,, {
56
21
( ....
t t t t t I , , I , 56 ......
52 54
---
20
~ \
/
ic:
/
<I>pN '\ <Dps
Lk 8 c±)
Fig.9b
- -
~
/~ // ~
,56

I
I, I, 1
0

\
54 o

'\,
--I
u.s. Patent May 11, 1999 Sheet 7 of 11 5,903,069

21

Fig. 1Da j ~pN 01 10 ~p~_ \ ~


57 50 59
50
I
I

Fig. 1Db ~v <DpN <DpS 59


57 ~

Iq 8 Cf)
~
~

Fig. 11 a
58 60

58
~50 60
- \ I
/
i
<I>pN <I>ps

8 Cf)
21
Fig. 11 b ( ...
-

.... 1
u.s. Patent May 11, 1999 Sheet 8 of 11 5,903,069

XII
l 62
21 62
<Pps
.... 1

Fig. 12a I,
-J
I, XII
Wk .
1-< :>-1

62
~ 64
66 64
62
.... <PPN <PpN
------ ------
1 ....
21

1,
.I ~
Fig.13a
XIII Wk
l-c ~,

~
<PpN
....
l
21

Fig.14a !-J
!IE XIV ...,.1
u.s. Patent May 11, 1999 Sheet 9 of 11 5,903,069
70 74 72
~./~ 20
l? Iil (!)

68
00
IXXXXx.0X
(!) (!)
YYxx~~
00
/

- --- -- f-.-

68
Fig. 15a I, I,
I, I, Fig. 15b
IE =---1
69
______ 74 72
ss Ltss 00~

69

- -- ---

Fig. 16a I--


I
I
, b' .I
I, ~
.I Fig. 16b
1..- Wk ~I

Fig.17a
k - cl - m
kl me -c=J---CJ-

Fig.17b Fig.17c
u.s. Patent May 11, 1999 Sheet 10 of 11 5,903,069

..

T
movement , ,

.I I
I
Fig.18b
1<: ~I

Fig.18a

k c
m
Fig.18c
Fig. 18d
u.s. Patent May 11, 1999 Sheet 11 of 11 5,903,069

IE:: Wo ;"1
I r--~'-~,r-r-'---'-C-
I

~ ~i ~ ~ ! i ___ 1
!
11 I J~
I
- - -f- -f-
- ~, +- - -- f- - -
12a - -
12 I
j I t i 1i, t t .~
I I,
20 I ,
I, ,

I I
12 tt tt
20 I

t tl t t
12 ---+--~ , '-
t
I L--
-....L.....J

.... 0 .... ...... 0 ....


21~ , ,
21..J
I
Wk IE:: Wk ...,.
IE ::-1

Fig. 19 Fig. 20
5,903,069
1 2
SYNCHRONOUS RECIPROCATING magnet system includes a first magnetic element configured
ELECTRIC MACHINES to generate a magnetic field primarily perpendicular to the
J1rst surface in a first direction and further includes a second
FIELD AND BACKGROUND OF THE magnetic element similar to, and mounted in fixed relation
INVENTION 5 to, the first magnetic element. The second magnetic element
is configured to generate a magnetic field primarily perpen-
The present invention relates to electric machines and, in
dicular to the first surface in a direction opposite to the first
particular, it concerns synchronous reciprocating electric
direction. One of the J1rst and second magnet systems
machines and methods for their design.
produces a non-alternating magnetic field, while the other of
Alternating current electric machines excited by perma- 10 the first and second magnet systems is a coil assembly for
nent magnets or field windings are known in the literature as producing an operating magnetic field. Electrical connec-
synchronous machines (rotating or linear). A rotating or tions connect to the coil assembly so as to allow operation
running field generated by the system of windings attracts of the electric machine with reciprocation of the second
the systems of field poles (excited by windings or permanent magnet system relative to the first magnet system.
magnets). 15 The magnet systems of the present invention are movable
The speed of the movable part of electric machine is equal relative to one another. Generally, one magnet system is
to speed of the rotating (running) magnet J1eld. That is why stationary, while the other moves to define the line or path
these machines are classified as synchronous. Their speed of travel. Of course, it is possible for each magnet system to
does not vary with either an applied load or a supplied have a degree of motion relative to a fixed reference frame.
voltage, being instead fully determined by an external circuit 20
Pursuant to a feature of the present invention, the second
frequency and the pole number. For generators, an induced
magnetic element is spaced from the first magnetic element
voltage frequency depends upon the speed and pole number
along the line of travel by a distance b, where b>O. Where
while the voltage depends upon the design of the windings.
the second magnet system includes a spacer of thickness b
It should be noted that, while the theory and design deployed between the first and second magnetic elements,
methods of rotating synchronous electric machines are well 25 the spacer may include soft magnetic material and/or non-
developed in the literature worldwide, the theory, calculation magnetic material.
methods and constructions of reciprocating machine are all Where the second magnet system is distanced from the
but absent from the literature. first surface of the first magnet system by a clearance gap of
There is therefore a need for e1Ticient compound-moving- width !J., the second magnet system is preferably configured
magnet synchronous machines which make maximal use of 30 such that distance b has a magnitude not significantly less
the available magnetic flux, for linear or arcuate reciprocat- than width !J..
ing movement. It would also be advantageous to provide a In one embodiment of the present invention, the second
method of designing compound-moving-magnet synchro- magnet system is mounted relative to the first magnet system
nous machines which would optimize the design parameters by a mechanical coupling, while the mechanical coupling is
for any given application. 35
conJ1gured to deJ1ne a non-linear travel path.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The first magnet system may be formed as a substantially
closed magnetic circuit. Also, the second magnet system
The present invention is a compound-moving-magnet- may be implemented as the coil assembly.
system synchronous reciprocating electric machine with 40 In some embodiments of the present invention, the first
highly efficient use of magnetic Hux and increased opera- and second surfaces of the first magnet system are shaped
tional amplitude, and capable of arcuate reciprocating move- such that in a plane perpendicular to the line of travel the gap
ment or of employing moving electromagnetic systems. The has a closed annular form. In such cases, the second magnet
invention also relates to a method of designing compound- system is implemented as a corresponding hollow cylindri-
moving-magnet system synchronous machines which opti- 45 cal magnet system.
mizes the design parameters for any given application. Pursuant to a further feature of the present invention, the
The electric machines of the present invention may be second magnet system includes a magnetically passive sup-
used in all electric devices, instruments and tooling where port structure for supporting the J1rst and second magnetic
reciprocating movement is required. The movement can be elements. The support structure may be made from soft
provided along a line of any shape. The shape of the 50 magnetic material and may be implemented as a substan-
movement is determined by suitable mounting of the mov- tiallv continuous laver, the first and second magnetic ele-
able part relative to the fixed one and corresponding con- me~ts being attach~d to at least one surface of the layer.
struction design. The present invention is also directed to an associated
The present invention can be used to good effect for method for designing a synchronous reciprocating electric
design of electric reciprocating generators driven by sea 55 machine of the above described type. The method comprises
waves or wind, as well as for constructing electric actuators determining a maximum intended amplitude A of relative
for replacing piston combustion motors. reciprocal movement, selecting a dimension Wo for the first
A synchronous reciprocating electric machine comprises, and second surfaces of the first magnet system as measured
in accordance with the present invention a first magnet parallel to the line of travel such that the relation wi\+b~2A
system and a second magnet system. The first magnet 60 is applicable, and selecting a dimension W k for the second
system has a J1rst surface and a second surface opposing the magnet system as measured parallel to the line of travel such
first surface so as to define there between a gap. The first that the relation wk~wo+2A holds. Preferably, b is greater
magnet system is configured for generating a magnetic field than or equal to zero and is chosen to be at least about the
directed across the gap primarily perpendicular to the first spacing between the second magnet system and the first
surface. The second magnet system is mounted within the 65 surface of the first magnet system. The second magnet
gap so as to be displace able relative to the first magnet system may be constructed with a magnetically-passive
system along a line of travel through the gap. The second intermediate spacer of width b.
5,903,069
3 4
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 14Ais a schematic longitudinal cross-sectional view
of a hexagonal-section implementation of the second magnet
FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of an electric machine,
system of FIG. 1 employing permanent magnets;
constructed and operative according to the present
invention, having a linear or straight line of relative motion 5 FIGS. 14B is a corresponding schematic transverse cross-
between a first magnet system and a second magnet system; sectional view of the implementation of FIG. 14A, taken
along line XIV-XIV;
FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of an electric machine,
constructed and operative according to the present FIGS. 15A and 16A are schematic longitudinal cross-
invention, having a nonlinear line of relative motion sectional views, respectively, of a cylindrical and a
between a first magnet system and a second magnet system; 10 hexagonal-section implementation of the second magnet
system of FIG. 1 employing coils;
FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of an implementation of
the electric machine of FIG. 1 in a central position; FIGS. 15B and 16B are corresponding schematic trans-
verse cross-sectional views of the implementations of FIGS.
FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration of the implementation of
15A and 16A, respectively;
FIG. 3 in a displaced position;
FIG. 17A is a schematic circuit diagram showing a
FIG. 5A is a schematic illustration of an implementation 15
possible configuration of electrical connections for the
of the electric machine of FIG. 1 with zero spacing between
implementations of FIGS. 15A and 16A;
magnetic elements of the second magnet system;
FIGS. 1713 and 17C are diagrams showing how the
FIG. 5B is a graphic representation of actuating force as
connections of FIG. 17A may be connected in parallel or
a function of displacement for the structure of FIG. 5A;
20 series, respectively;
FIG. 5C is a schematic illustration of an implementation
FIG. 18A is a schematic cut-away side view of a further
of the electric machine of FIG. 1 with non-zero spacing
cylindrical implementation of the second magnet system of
between magnetic elements of the second magnet system;
FIG. 1 employing coils;
FIG. 5D is a graphic representation of actuating force as
FIG. 18B is a schematic end view of the implementation
a function of displacement for the structure of FIG. 5C; 25 of FIG. 18A;
FIGS. 6A-6D are schematic isometric views of a number
FIG. 18C is a schematic side view of the implementation
of implementations of the first magnet system for use in the
of FIG. 18A;
electric machine of FIG. 1;
FIG. 18D is a schematic circuit diagram equivalent of the
FIG. 7Ais a schematic cross-sectional view through a first 30 implementation of FIG. 18A;
construction for the magnet system of FIG. 6D;
FIG. 19 is a schematic cross-sectional view through a
FIG. 713 is a top view of the construction of FIG. 7A;
cylindrically symmetric implementation of the electric
FIG. 7C is a schematic cross-sectional view through a machine of FIG. 1; and
second construction for the magnet system of FIG. 6D;
FIG. 20 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a variant
FIG. 7D is a top view of the construction of FIG. 7C; 35 embodiment of the electric machine of the present invention
FIG. 7E is a schematic cross-sectional view through a in which one pole piece of the first magnet system is made
third construction for the magnet system of FIG. 6D; integral to the second magnet system.
FIG. 7F is a top view of the construction of FIG. 7E;
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED
FIG. 7G is a schematic side view of a lamination layer for 40
EMBODIMENTS
use in a fourth construction for the magnet system of FIG.
6D; The present invention is a compound-moving-magnet-
FIG. 8Ais a schematic cross-sectional view through a first system synchronous reciprocating electric machine with
implementation of the second magnet system of FIG. 1 highly efficient use of magnetic flux and increased opera-
employing permanent magnet elements; tional amplitude, and capable of arcuate reciprocating move-
45 ment or of employing moving electromagnetic systems. The
FIG. 8B is a top view of the implementation of FIG. 8A;
invention also relates to a method of designing compound-
FIG. 9A is a schematic cross-sectional view through
moving-magnet synchronous machines which optimizes the
another implementation of the second magnet system of
design parameters for any given application.
FIG. 1 employing permanent magnet elements;
50 The principles and operation of machines and methods
FIG. 9B is a top view of the implementation of FIG. 9A;
according to the present invention may be better understood
FIG. lOA is a schematic cross-sectional view indicating with reference to the drawings and the accompanying
the principles of an implementation of the second magnet description.
system of FIG. 1 employing coils;
Referring now to the drawings, FIGS. 1 and 2 show a
FIG. lOB is a top view corresponding to FIG. lOA; 55 generalized representation of an electric machine, desig-
FIG. HA is a schematic cross-sectional view through an nated 10, constructed and operative according to the teach-
implementation of the second magnet system of FIG. 1 ings of the present invention.
employing coils; Electric machine 10 includes a first magnet system 12
FIG.HB is a top view of the implementation ofFIG.llA; having opposing surfaces 14 and 16 defining therebetween
FIGS. 12A and 13A are schematic longitudinal cross- 60 a gap 18. First magnet system 12 is configured so as to
sectional views of two cylindrical implementations of the produce a magnetic field, referred to as the ""gap field",
second magnet system of FIG. 1 employing permanent directed across gap 18 primarily perpendicular to first sur-
magnets; face 14.
FIGS. 12B and 13B are corresponding schematic trans- Within gap 18 is positioned a second magnet system 20.
verse cross sectional views of the implementations of FIGS. 65 Second magnet system 20 is mounted within gap 18 by any
12A and 13A, taken along lines XII-XII and XIII-XIII, suitable mechanism (represented schematically by a drive
respectively; rod 22) so as to be displaceable relative to first magnet
5,903,069
5 6
system 12 along a line of travel within gap 18, typically With reference specifically to FIG. 2, it is a further
substantially parallel to first surface 14. Second magnet particular feature of certain preferred embodiments of the
system 20 includes a first magnetic element 24 and a second present invention that the line of travel of second magnet
magnetic element 26. Magnetic elements 24 and 26 are system 20 relative to first magnet system 12 is non-linear,
similar and are both configured to generate a magnetic field 5 typically in the form of an arc of radius R. In this case,
primarily perpendicular to first surface 14, but in opposite surfaces 14 and 16, and hence gap 18, are preferably
directions. Magnetic elements 24 and 26 are preferably designed to run parallel to the line of travel. Second magnet
spaced from each other along the line of travel by a distance system 20 is also preferably designed with a corresponding
b as will be described below. curvature to match that shape of the gap.
The electric machines of the present invention may be 10 At this stage, it will be useful to define certain terminol-
either motors or generators. In either case, one of first and ogy to be employed below in the description and claims to
second magnet systems 12 and 20 is either a permanent refer to various parameters and dimensions of the electric
magnet system (represented by N(S) or SeN)) or an electro- machines of the present invention. Firstly, the total height of
magnet system supplied by a source of direct current gap 18 measured perpendicular to the line of travel is
(represented schematically by a "=" symbol). In the case of 15 denoted 0, while the minimum clearance gap between first
a motor, the other magnet system is an electromagnet system and second surfaces 14 and 16 and second magnet system 20
supplied by a source of alternating current (represented is denoted L',.. The width of first and second surfaces 14 and
schematically by a "-" symbol). This results in a recipro- 16 measured parallel to the line of travel is denoted WOo An
cating motion of second magnet system 20 relative to first internal spacing between magnetic elements 24 and 26 of
magnet system 12, as indicated by arrows 21. In the case of 20 second magnet system 20 as measured along the line of
a generator, the other magnet system is a coil arrangement travel is denoted b. The width of second magnet system 20,
with appropriate electrical connections. made up of the combined width of the two magnetic
In this context, it should be noted that the power supplies elements and spacing b, measured parallel to the line of
used in the present invention and the corresponding mag- travel is denoted Wk. Finally, the maximum intended dis-
netic fields need not correspond to constant DC or sinusoidal 25 placement or motion amplitude of second magnet system 20
AC. It is sufficient that one magnet system produces a relative to first magnet system 12 in either direction from its
non-alternating, non-zero magnetic field and that the other equilibrium position as measured along the line of travel is
produces an operating magnetic field. The phrase "operating denoted A.
magnetic field" is used herein in the description and claims Particular care must be taken in defining these terms in the
to refer to any magnetic field which varies substantially 30 case of a non-linear line of travel (FIG. 2). In this case,
cyclically between a maximum value in one direction and measurements are preferably made along, or parallel to, the
either a maximum value in the reverse direction or zero. line of travel or along a local perpendicular thereto.
Thus, the operating current which generates the operating Alternatively, widths w'" and w k , amplitude A and spacing b
magnetic field may be any conventional AC supply, a pulsed can be expressed in angular units.
supply or any other reversing or intermittent cyclic form. For 35 Turning now to the features of electric machine 10 in
convenience of reference, the following description will more detail, the principles of operation will be best under-
refer to the preferred non-limiting example in which stan- stood with reference to FIGS. 3 and 4.
dard sinusoidal AC and, where applicable, constant DC are For convenience of reference, we consider second magnet
used. 40 system 20 to be a moving element excited by a direct current
It should also be noted that the phrases "magnet system" and first magnet system 12 to be fixed and supplied by an
and "magnetic elements" are used herein to refer to systems alternating current. FIG. 3 shows a first position of the
and elements which either actually produce a magnetic field machine in which the instantaneous current in first magnet
or would, if connected to an electrical power source, pro- system 12 is zero. Under these conditions, second magnet
duce a magnetic field. Thus, these terms may relate to 45 system 20 is self-adjusted to occupy a central position where
permanent magnets, electromagnets provided with either AC symmetry axes of second magnet system 20 and of J1rst
or DC, e.g., via coils 23 and 25, and to corresponding coil magnet system 12 coincide. This means that the middle of
arrangements used in a generator. Similarly, the structure of spacer b (or the butt-joint point of pole pieces if b=O) is
coils in a generator will be described as configured to centrally positioned relative to the width of surfaces 14 and
generate a certain magnetic field, meaning that the coil 50 16 of J1rst magnet system 12.
structure used is such that, if a current was supplied to the This self-centering results from the non-alternating mag-
coil structure, the stated field would be produced. netic J1eld of second magnet system 20 tending to a lowest
Furthermore, it should be noted that the coils of a generator energy symmetrical configuration relative to the magnetic
can also be correctly described as generating a magnetic circuit of first magnet system 12. For this reason, the
field whenever a current is drawn from the generator. 55 machine described here does not require use of springs to
Although most implementations of electric machine 10 return the movable part to its initial position.
employ a fixed first magnet system 12 and moving second FIG. 4 shows the machine in a second position in which
magnet system 20, it should be noted that the invention is not the instantaneous current in J1rst magnet system 12 and its
limited to this configuration. Thus, in alternative corresponding magnet flux 1> are maximum. Under currents
implementations, second magnet system 20 is fixed and first 60 and magnet fluxes as shown, the movable magnet system 20
magnet system 12 moves. For convenience of reference, is maximally displaced to the left by amplitude A (the
both of these possibilities are referred to generically as maximum displacement of the reciprocating movement). As
"motion of second magnet system 20 relative to first magnet the current decreases and reverses polarity to its maximum
system 12". reverse voltage, second magnet system 20 reaches its maxi-
It is a particular feature of certain preferred embodiments 65 mum displacement to the right as shown. Thus, the oscil-
of the present invention that the second magnet system 20 is lating will occur at the frequency of the voltage supplied to
the alternating electromagnet system. first magnet system 12.
5,903,069
7 8
It should be appreciated that the operation described here It will be clear that, in the limit as w k--" oo
is independent of which of magnet systems 12 and 20
generates the alternating or nonalternating field and which of
them is fixed or movable. The only necessary conditions are
as follows: 5 It is to be noted that efi1ciency of the electric machine
rapidly decreases as soon as the borders of two poles of
one of the systems generates a non-alternating Jleld while
second magnet system 20 reach the ends of surfaces 14 and
the other one generates an alternating or pulsed Jleld;
16 (magnetic circuit or permanent magnet). In other words,
and
it is not expedient to design the amplitude of reciprocating
system 20 is mounted within the gap of system 12 so as 10 movement to be more than (w,,+b)/2. This means that the
to allow relative motion up to maximum displacement maximum value of amplitude A of reciprocating movement
or amplitude A. is preferably related to width Wo of Jlrst magnet system
Il follows from the above that design of both magnet according to:
systems can be of any shape (plane, round, polygon, etc.). At
the same time it should be noted that: 15
(1)
one of the magnet systems is to move free in the other one
with maximum desirable amplitude A; that is, a sum of width of magnet system 12; and a clearance
it is expedient to design the structure such that magnetic b is to be not less than double the maximum electric
fluxes pass through a minimum total air gap. 20 machine.
The present invention provides a number of preferred Thus the degree of inHuence of the boundary e1Tect is
directly correlated with values of amplitude A, spacing b,
relations between the dimensions of parts of the machine so
width W k and width WOo It is recommended that width is
as to optimize the design and construction for a given
chosen to satisfy the relation:
application. Some of these relations depend upon an
intended maximum amplitude of movement A for which 25
electric machine 10 is to be used. In the case of a motor (2)
application, the amplitude is limited to this value in use by
that is, width w k of the pole couple of second magnet system
providing an electrical supply conJlgured to generate a
20 (including clearance or spacing b) is to be not less than
maximum voltage corresponding to this value. In the case of the sum of the width of system 12 and double the maximum
a generator, the mechanical linkage for driving the moving 30
amplitude of reciprocating movement of electric machine.
part of the machine is preferably designed to deJlne the It is evident from FIG. 3 that the more each pole of system
maximum intended amplitude. 20 extends beyond the ends of system 12, the smaller will be
Once the intended maximum amplitude A has been the boundary forces Fb(r) and Fb(l) and the corresponding
determined, the dimensions of the components of electric influence of the boundary effect on performance (efi1ciency,
machine 10 are preferably designed such that: 35
outer dimensions, weight, etc.) of the electrical reciprocating
The common width w" of surfaces 14 and 16 of Jlrst machine. On another hand, over-extension of the width w k
magnet system 12 plus spacing b is chosen to be not of the poles of system 20 results in increase in the weight,
less than double the maximum intended amplitude 2A cost and dimensions of the electric machine. Design opti-
of the reciprocating movement, i.e., wo+b~2A. 40 mization regarding widths w" and w k , i.e., the degree to
The width w k of second magnet system 20 is chosen to be which they exceed the aforementioned limitations, is to be
not less than a sum of width w" and double the intended performed by an engineer at the design stage depending
maximum amplitude 2A of the reciprocating upon each particular project's requirements.
movement, i.e., wk~w,,+2A. The lengths of magnet systems, i.e., their dimensions
In the case of an open-sided air gap structure, the length 45 perpendicular to both the line of travel and the height of the
of second magnet system 20 is preferably chosen to be gap, for the open operating air gap design (FIGS. 6A and 613
greater than a common length of the surfaces 14 and 16 below), are determined by minimum magnetic leakage cri-
of first magnet system 12 by at least half the size of the teria for the closed magnet system (preferably system 12).
gap, i.e., L,,~(Lk+I\;2). Preferably, the lengths satisfy the relation:
In order to present a treatment of the design consider- 50
ations for electric machines according to the present (3)
invention, reference will be made to various forces illus-
trated in FIG. 4. Specijlcally, the reference designation FM The lengths of magnet systems 12 and 20 for closed
represents a maximum force produced by a movable magnet operating air gap designs (FIGS. 6C and 6D below) are
system 20 at a time when the current in the winding of 55 determined by the dimensions of the electric machine.
system 12 is maximum; reference Fb(r) represents a force Turning now to FIGS. 5A-5D, the signijlcance of spacing
caused by the boundary effect produced by system 20 from b will now be described. The value of spacing b may
its right edge at that time; and reference Fb(l) designates a essentially be chosen anywhere in the range from zero up to
force caused by the boundary effect applied to system 20 the width of surfaces 14 and 16. FIG. SA illustrates the
from its left edge at that time. 60 structure of electric machine 10 with b=O, i.e., with second
From FIG. 3, it is evident that the currents at the ends of magnet system 20 formed as buttjointed adjacent poles. FIG.
system 20 flow in directions opposite to those that generate 5B shows the corresponding variation of force with dis-
the main tracking force FA.,. As a result of interaction placement from the central position. As can be seen here, the
between the main flux with these end currents, boundary force exerted by the machine is substantially constant at a
forces F b(r) and Fbel) act to oppose main tracking force FM. 65 value designated 2h over a range of movement equal to WOo
The less the sum of Fb(r) and Fb(l) the higher the efi1ciency Outside this range of movement, the force drops abruptly to
of the electric machine. zero.
5,903,069
9 10
In contrast, FIGS. 5C and 5D show a parallel structure and the U-section annular base element 29 is formed with one
force diagram for a construction with b>O. In this case, a side wall extended upwards to form one side of a gap. In this
stepped form is introduced into the force diagram such that case, only one annular cover portion 31 is required.
the maximum value 211 is provided over a smaller range FIGS. 7C and 7D show an implementation in which the
wo-b and a lower value h is provided over additional side 5 hollow annular box is constructed from two cylindrical
regions of width b. As a result, the total operative amplitude portions 34 and 36, and three annular portions 38, 40 and 42
for a given width Wo of surfaces 14 and 16 and for a given connected together by any known method (welding, brazing,
design of magnetic elements 24 and 26 is increased by width pasting, etc.). All these parts can be made from any magnetic
b. In addition, the form of the force diagram becomes a material. Particularly advantageous for this design is the use
much closer approximation to a sinusoidal form. In genera- 10 of reeled steel band or laminated steel sheets, laminated in
tor applications, the output voltage assumes a corresponding the directions shown.
form, thereby also approximating better to a sinusoidal form. The cylindrical and the annular portions preferably have
The use of a non-zero spacing b also ensures more beveled edges for forming oblique-angled buUjoints, pref-
efficient use of the fiux of magnet system 20. When b=O, erably at about 45°. Particularly in the case of components
significant leakage of magnetic fiux occurs due to closure 15 made from laminated sheet materials, this ensures that a
between the pole pieces of system 20. By increasing spacing minimum transient magnetic resistance is encountered.
b to be at least about equal to, and preferably greater than, A further possibility is that the hollow annular box may be
the air gap i\ between surfaces 14 and 16 of system 12, constructed from a plurality of laminations, each corre-
leakage of magnetic fiux is substantially reduced. sponding to a radial segment of the hollow annular box. FIG.
Increased spacing b also serves to decrease the negative 20 7G illustrates a preferred shape of lamination 44 for such an
influence of the boundary dIect for otherwise constant implementation. The laminations may be of a one-piece or
parameters by expanding the pole zone of system 20. composite design.
Clearance b between buttjointed pole pieces of system 20 It should be appreciated that first magnet system 12 may
can be filled by any material: magnetic or non-magnetic as be shaped to form with a wide range of other shapes of the
well as by any combination of those, or the clearance may 25 operative air gap including, but not limited to, arcuate and
be maintained by a hollow frame. The use of soft magnetic rounded forms, and polygonal gaps.
material for the spacer may be advantageous in the case that Turning now to the features of second magnet system 20
system 20 is implemented with permanent magnets. Induced in more detail, these will be described with reference to
magnetization of the spacer provides magnetic attachment of FIGS. 8-18. System 20 includes two buttjointed spaced
each of the magnetic elements to the spacer, thereby helping 30 poles generating parallel but substantially opposite magnetic
to maintain firm internal mechanical unity of the compo- fields. This system is open in order to be placed in the air gap
nents of system 20. of the system 12. The mechanical configurations of the two
Turning now to the details of first magnet system 12, a magnet systems are to be formed to make possible mutual
number of different implementations will now described movement up to maximum displacement or amplitude A.
with reference to FIGS. 6 and 7. The magnetic circuit of 35 The shape of system 20 is chosen to match to the shape
system 12 is produced from laminated electric steel, soft of system 12. FIGS. 8-11 illustrate a number of alternative
ferrite, solid steel parts or the like. Its windings (or configu- structures for use with a magnet system 12 with fiat pole
ration of permanent magnets) are chosen depending on the surfaces (FIGS. 6A and 613). FIGS. 8A and 813 show a basic
design of the magnetic circuit of this system. implementation in which the two magnetic elements are two
FIG. 6A shows a fiat-surface pole structure for an open 40 permanent magnets 46, 48 magnetized in opposite directions
magnetic circuit implementation of system 12. FIG. 613 parallel to the height of gap 18. The two magnets are
shows an equivalent structure formed as a closed magnetic preferably spaced apart by a spacer 50 of width b, as
circuit, thereby decreasing flux leakage and improving effi- described above.
ciency. The closed magnetic circuit of FIG. 613 includes a FIGS. 9A and 913 show a variation of this implementation
space 27 for coils or windings 23, 25 (see FIGS. 1 and 2). 45 employing a magnetically passive support structure 52 for
While the structure of FIG. 613 is clearly advantageous, less supporting the first and second magnetic elements. Support
optimal designs with open magnetic circuits or no magnetic structure 52 may be made from either magnetic or non-
circuit at all may be used according to the conditions magnetic material, or a combination thereof. Preferably, soft
imposed by mechanical attachment requirements. magnetic material, such as iron, is used. The use of an
The operating air gap can be of any shape desired. One 50 additional support structure is particularly valuable for pro-
example shown in FIGS. 6C and 6D is a cylindrical or viding internal mechanical strength to second magnet sys-
annular gap. Here too, the structure can be formed either as tem 20 and for facilitating mechanical connection to the
an open magnetic circuit (FIG. 6C) or, in preferred system by conventional techniques such as welding.
implementations, as a closed magnetic circuit (FIG. 6D) Preferably, support structure 52 is implemented as a
corresponding to a hollow annular box of soft magnetic 55 substantially continuous layer, as shown. The magnetic
material containing coils or windings 23, 25 (see FIG. 2) in elements can then be formed by attaching magnets 54, 56 to
an annular space 29. at least one and preferably both surfaces of the layer. The
FIGS. 7A-7G illustrate, by way of example, four possible magnets forming a common pole are magnetized in the same
constructions which can be used to implement the magnet direction while the magnets forming the other pole are
system of FIG. 6D. 60 magnetized in the opposite direction. Spacer 50 may advan-
FIGS. 7A and 713 show an implementation in which the tageously be integrally formed with support structure 52.
hollow annular box is constructed from a unitary U-section The surface portion of spacer 50 may advantageously be
annular base element 28 and two annular cover portions 30 implemented as a non-magnetic layer to further reduce
and 32. The parts are connected to each other by any known internal closure of magnetic fiux within system 20.
method (pasting, mechanical attachment, etc.). This imple- 65 It should be noted that the support structure can be cast
mentation is most advantageously constructed from ferrite. from an appropriate material either before or after prelimi-
FIGS. 7E and 7F show a similar implementation in which nary assembly of poles relating to system 20. Optionally, the
5,903,069
11 12
support structure can feature one or more holes serving to FIG. 20 shows a variant embodiment in which part of the
decrease magnetic flux leakage between poles of system 20, magnetic circuit of first magnet system 12a is formed of a
minimize electromagnetic losses, and reduce overheating of movable part of width approximately W k formed as a core of
windings. cylindrical second magnet system 20.
FIGS. lOA and lOB show a schematic representation of an 5 It will be appreciated that the above descriptions are
implementation in which the two magnetic elements are two intended only to serve as examples, and that many other
coils 57, 59 wound/connected to produce magnetic fields in embodiments are possible within the spirit and the scope of
opposite directions primarily parallel to the height of gap 18. the present invention.
I! will be clear that for analytical purposes, this arrangement What is claimed is:
may be considered fully analogous to the permanent magnet 10 1. Asynchronous reciprocating electric machine compris-
implementation of FIGS. 8A and 813. ing:
As mentioned earlier, the coils may be supplied with (a) a first magnet system having a first surface and a
either the non alternating or the operating current, according second surface opposing said first surface so as to
to the implementation of first system 12. Here too, the coils define therebetween a gap, said first magnet system
are preferably spaced apart by a spacer 50 of width b. being configured for generating a substantially uniform
The windings of system 20 may be attached to a base, 15 magnetic field in said gap extending substantially
encapsulated, molded or the like, to form a rigid construc- solely perpendicular to said first surface;
tion. Alternatively, they may be mounted through any insu- (b) a second magnet system mounted within said gap so
lation on a common part of the magnetic circuit of width Wk. as to be displace able relative to said first magnet system
The windings can be located either on one side or both along a line of travel through said gap, said second
sides of a base. The base itself can be made from either from 20 magnet system including a first magnetic element con-
electrically and/or magnetically insulating materials or from figured to generate a magnetic field oriented primarily
electrically and/or magnetically conducting materials. perpendicular to said first surface and extending in said
FIGS. HA and HB show a practical coil implementation gap in a first direction only, said second magnet system
using hollow core coils 58 and 60. Optionally, coils 58 and further including a second magnetic element similar to,
60 may be filled with magnetic pole pieces or other material. 25 and mounted in fixed relation to, said first magnetic
FIGS. 12A-18D illustrate a number of implementations element, said second magnetic element being config-
of magnet system 20 for use with a first magnet system 12 ured to generate a magnetic field oriented primarily
having an annular or, in the case of FIGS. 14 and 16, a perpendicular to said first surface and extending in said
polygonal gap (FIGS. 6C and 6D). gap in a second direction only, said second direction
FIGS. 12A and 12B show a basic permanent magnet 30 being opposite to said first direction,
implementation employing two cylindrical, oppositely radi- wherein one of said first and second magnet systems pro-
ally magnetized permanent magnets 62 and 64. FIGS. 13A duces a non-alternating magnetic field and the other of said
and 13B show a similar implementation employing a cylin- first and second magnet systems is a coil assembly for
dricallayer support structure 66 with internal and external producing an operating magnetic field; and
cylindrical magnets. FIGS. 14A and 14B show a basic 35 (c) electrical connections connected to said coil assembly
implementation of a hexagonal-section magnet system for for supplying an electrical current to said coil assembly
use with a hexagonally shaped gap. In each of these cases, to produce a reciprocation of said second magnet
each of the permanent magnets forming a pole may be system relative to said first magnet system.
unitary or may be composed from several pieces of any 2. The electric machine of claim 1, wherein said second
shape. The above systems may advantageously be adapted to 40 magnetic element is spaced from said first magnetic element
include a non-zero spacer between the magnetic elements. along said line of travel by a distance b, where b>O.
FIGS. 15A-18D relate to coil implementations of system 3. The electric machine of claim 2, wherein said second
20. It will be clear that a coil extended around the circum- magnet system includes a spacer of thickness b deployed
ference of a cylinder 68 (or hexagonal base 69) is essentially between said first and second magnetic elements, said spacer
equivalent to two sets of circumferential windings carrying 45 including soft magnetic material.
current in opposite directions. Thus, two coils 70, 72 for 4. The electric machine of claim 2, wherein said second
producing opposing radial fields have adjacent windings magnet system includes a spacer of thickness b deployed
carrying similarly directed currents either side of a spacer between said 11rst and second magnetic elements, said spacer
74. FIG. 17Aillustrates schematically a possible scheme for including non-magnetic material.
connecting the windings in which the adjacent windings of 50 5. The electric machine of claim 2, wherein said second
the two coils are connected continuously and the outer magnet system is distanced from said first surface by a
windings are connected together. FIGS. 17B and 17C illus- clearance gap of width L',., said second magnet system being
trate possible parallel and serial connections, respectively, configured such that distance b has a magnitude greater than
for such a scheme. In FIGS. 17A-17C, terminals or coil width L',..
connections bear designations c, k, 1, and m. 55 6. The electric machine of claim 2, further comprising
FIGS. 18A-18D illustrate an alternative implementation means for defining a given maximum amplitude A of recip-
in which each coil is formed as an independent component. rocal motion of said second magnet system relative to said
In this case, the magnetic elTects of the short sections of each 11rst magnet system, wherein said 11rst and second surfaces
coil running parallel to the direction of motion cancel out. have a dimension w'" as measured parallel to said line of
FIGS. 19 and 20 illustrate the constructions of magnetic 60 travel and said second magnet system has a dimension W k as
circuits for two implementations of the electric machine of measured parallel to said line of travel, said first and second
the present invention having cylindrical symmetry. FIG. 19 magnet systems being designed such that w,,+b?::2A and
corresponds to a first magnet system structure of FIGS. 6C wk?::wo+2A.
or 6D together with a second magnet system as in one of 7. The electric machine of claim 1, wherein said second
FIGS. 12, 13, 15 and 18. In this case, first magnet system 12 65 magnet system is mounted relative to said first magnet
preferably has a constant width W k along the entire gap system by a mechanical coupling, said mechanical coupling
perimeter. being configured to de11ne a non-linear line of travel.
5,903,069
13 14
8. The electric machine of claim 1, wherein said first said second magnetic element is disposed mostly out-
magnet system is formed as a substantially closed magnetic side of said gap while said J1rst magnetic element is
circuit. disposed mostly within said gap,
9. The electric machine of claim 1, wherein said second wherein one of said J1rst and second magnet systems pro-
magnet system is implemented as said coil assembly. S duces a non-alternating magnetic J1eld and the other of said
10. The electric machine of claim 1, wherein said first and J1rst and second magnet systems is a coil assembly for
second surfaces are shaped such that in a plane perpendicu- producing an operating magnetic J1eld; and
lar to said line of travel said gap has a closed annular form, (c) electrical connections connected to said coil assembly
said second magnet system being implemented as a corre- for supplying an electrical current to said coil assembly
sponding hollow cylindrical magnet system. 10 to produce a reciprocation of said second magnet
11. The electric machine of claim 10, wherein said first system relative to said first magnet system along said
magnet system is implemented as a hollow annular box of line of travel between said J1rst extreme position and
soft magnetic material containing windings. said second extreme position.
12. The electric machine of claim 11, wherein said hollow 21. A synchronous reciprocating electric machine com-
annular box is constructed from at least two cylindrical 15 prising:
portions and an least three annular portions, said cylindrical
and said annular portions having beveled edges for forming (a) a J1rst magnet system having a J1rst surface and a
oblique-angled butt-joints. second surface opposing said J1rst surface so as to
13. The electric machine of claim 11, wherein said hollow define therebetween a gap, said J1rst magnet system
annular box is constructed from a unitary U-section annular 20 being conJ1gured for generating a magnetic J1eld in said
base element and at least one annular cover portion. gap extending substantially solely perpendicular to said
14. The electric machine of claim 11, wherein said hollow first surface;
annular box is constructed from a plurality of laminations (b) a second magnet system mounted within said gap so
each corresponding to a radial segment of said hollow as to be displace able relative to said J1rst magnet system
annular box. along a line of travel through said gap, said second
25
15. The electric machine of claim 10, wherein said second magnet system including a first magnetic element con-
magnet system is implemented as said coil assembly having figured to generate a magnetic field oriented primarily
windings arranged primarily circumferencially in said cylin- perpendicular to said first surface and extending in said
drical magnet system. gap in a J1rst direction only, said second magnet system
16. The electric machine of claim 1, wherein said second 30 further including a second magnetic element similar to,
magnet system includes a magnetically passive support and mounted in J1xed relation to, said first magnetic
structure for supporting said first and second magnetic element, said second magnetic element being conJ1g-
elements. ured to generate a magnetic J1eld oriented primarily
17. The electric machine of claim 16, wherein said perpendicular to said J1rst surface and extending in said
support structure is made from soft magnetic material. gap in a second direction only, said second direction
35
18. The electric machine of claim 15, wherein said being opposite to said J1rst direction,
support structure is implemented as a substantially continu- wherein one of said J1rst and second magnet systems pro-
(JUs layer, said J1rst and second magnetic elements being duces a non-alternating magnetic J1eld and the other of said
attached to at least one surface of said layer. J1rst and second magnet systems includes a coil for produc-
19. The electric machine of claim 1, wherein said J1rst 40 ing an operating magnetic J1eld, said coil being wound in a
surface and said second surface are stationary, said first plane extending parallel to said line of travel,
magnetic element and said second magnetic element moving (c) electrical connections connected to said coil assembly
relative to said first surface and said second surface. for supplying an electrical current to said coil assembly
20. A synchronous reciprocating electric machine com- to produce a reciprocation of said second magnet
prising: 45 system relative to said first magnet system.
(a) a J1rst magnet system having a J1rst surface and a 22. A synchronous reciprocating electric machine com-
second surface opposing said J1rst surface so as to prising:
deJ1ne therebetween a gap, said first magnet system (a) a J1rst magnet system having a J1rst surface and a
being conJ1gured for generating a magnetic J1eld in said second surface opposing said J1rst surface so as to
gap extending substantially solely perpendicular to said 50 deJ1ne therebetween a gap, said J1rst magnet system
first surface; being configured for generating a magnetic field in said
(b) a second magnet system mounted within said gap, said gap extending substantially solely perpendicular to said
second magnet system including a first magnetic ele- J1rst surface;
ment configured to generate a magnetic field primarily (b) a second magnet system mounted within said gap so
perpendicular to said J1rst surface in a J1rst direction and 55 as to be displace able relative to said J1rst magnet system
a second magnetic element similar to, and mounted in along a line of travel through said gap, said second
J1xed relation to, said J1rst magnetic element, said magnet system including a J1rst magnetic element con-
second magnetic element being configured to generate J1gured to generate a magnetic J1eld oriented primarily
a magnetic J1eld primarily perpendicular to said J1rst perpendicular to said first surface and extending in said
surface in a direction opposite to said J1rst direction, 60 gap in a J1rst direction only, said second magnet system
said second magnet system being mounted within said further including a second magnetic element similar to,
gap so as to be displaceable relative to said J1rst magnet and mounted in J1xed relation to, said J1rst magnetic
system along a line of travel through said gap between element, said second magnetic element being config-
a first extreme position wherein said J1rst magnetic ured to generate a magnetic J1eld oriented primarily
element is disposed mostly outside of said gap while 65 perpendicular to said J1rst surface and extending in said
said second magnetic element is disposed mostly gap in a second direction only, said second direction
within said gap and a second extreme position wherein being opposite to said J1rst direction,
5,903,069
15 16
wherein one of said first and second magnet systems pro- the first direction, the second magnetic element being
duces a non-alternating magnetic field and the other of said spaced from the first magnetic element along the line of
first and second magnet systems is a coil assembly for travel bv a distance b, wherein one of the J1rst and
producing an operating magnetic field, said gap being free of second "magnet systems produces a non-alternating
any magnetic core windings of said first magnet system, 5 magnetic field and the other of the first and second
thereby minimizing a width of said gap; and magnet systems is a coil assembly for producing an
operating magnetic field;
(c) electrical connections connected to said coil assembly
determining a maximum intended amplitude A of relative
for supplying an electrical current to said coil assembly
reciprocal movement of said second magnet system
to produce a reciprocation of said second magnet
10
relative to said J1rst magnet system;
system relative to said first magnet system.
providing the J1rst and second surfaces of the J1rst magnet
23. A synchronous reciprocating electric machine com-
system with a dimension We as measured parallel to the
prising: line of travel of the second magnet system such that
(a) a first magnet system having a J1rst surface and a wo+b~2A;
second surface opposing said first surface so as to providing the second magnet system with a dimension w k
define therebetween a gap, said first magnet system 15 as measured parallel to the line of travel of the second
being configured for generating a magnetic field in said magnet system such that wk~we+2A; and
gap extending substantially solely perpendicular to said coupling electrical connections to the coil assembly for
first surface; supplying an electrical current to said coil assembly to
(b) a second magnet system mounted within said gap so 20 produce a reciprocation of the second magnet system
as to be displace able relative to said first magnet system relative to the J1rst magnet system.
along a line of travel through said gap, said second 25. The method of claim 24, wherein where b>O.
magnet system including a first magnetic element con- 26. The method of claim 24, wherein where distance b is
figured to generate a magnetic field oriented primarily chosen to be at least about the spacing between said second
perpendicular to said J1rst surface and extending in said 25 magnet system and said first surface.
gap in a J1rst direction only, said second magnet system 27. The method of clam 26, wherein the second magnet
further including a second magnetic element similar to, system is constructed with a magnetically-passive interme-
and mounted in fixed relation to, said first magnetic diate spacer of width b.
element, said second magnetic element being config- 28. A synchronous reciprocating electric machine com-
ured to generate a magnetic field oriented primarily 30 prising:
perpendicular to said first surface and extending in said (a) a first magnet system having a first surface and a
gap in a second direction only, said second direction second surface opposing said first surface so as to
being opposite to said first direction, define therebetween a gap, said J1rst magnet system
wherein one of said first and second magnet systems pro- being configured for generating a substantially uniform
duces a non-alternating magnetic field and the other of said 35 magnetic field in said gap extending substantially
first and second magnet systems is a coil assembly for solely perpendicular to said first surface;
producing an operating magnetic J1e1d; and (b) a second magnet system mounted within said gap so
(c) electrical connections connected to said coil assembly as to be displace able relative to said first magnet system
for supplying an electrical current to said coil assembly along a line of travel through said gap, said second
to produce a reciprocation of said second magnet 40 magnet system including a first magnetic element con-
system relative to said first magnet system, figured to generate a first respective magnetic field
wherein said first and said second magnet systems are primarily perpendicular in said gap to said first surface
configured to provide said second magnet system with a in a first direction and a second magnetic element
magnetically induced equilibrium position substantially cen- similar to, and mounted in fixed relation to, said first
trally located with respect to said gap when said coil 45 magnetic element, said second magnetic element being
assembly is de-energized. configured to generate a second respective magnetic
24. A method for building a synchronous reciprocating field primarily perpendicular in said gap to said first
electric machine, comprising: surface in a direction opposite to said first direction,
providing a first magnet system having a first surface and said first respective magnetic field and said second
a second surface opposing said first surface so as to 50 respective magnetic field having respective axes of
define therebetween a gap, said first magnet system symmetry which are substantially spaced from one
being conJ1gured for generating a magnetic J1e1d in said another along said line of travel, said second magnet
gap extending substantially solely perpendicular to said system having exactly two magnetic fields,
first surface; wherein one of said first and second magnet systems pro-
disposing a second magnet system within the gap so as to ss duces a non-alternating magnetic field and the other of said
be displaceable relative to the first magnet system along J1rst and second magnet systems is a coil assembly for
a line of travel through the gap, the second magnet producing an operating magnetic field; and
system including a first magnetic element configured to (c) electrical connections connected to said coil assembly
generate a magnetic field oriented primarily perpen- for supplying an electrical current to said coil assembly
dicular to the first surface and extending in said gap in 60 to produce a reciprocation of said second magnet
a first direction only, the second magnet system further system relative to said J1rst magnet system.
including a second magnetic element similar to, and 29. The electric machine of claim 28, wherein said second
mounted in fixed relation to, the first magnetic element, magnet system includes a spacer of thickness b deployed
the second magnetic element being configured to gen- between said first and second magnetic elements, where
erate a magnetic field oriented primarily perpendicular 65 b>O.
to the J1rst surface and extending in said gap in a second 30. The electric machine of claim 29, wherein said second
direction only, said second direction being opposite to magnet system is distanced from said first surface by a
5,903,069
17 18
clearance gap of width t., said second magnet system being said first respective magnetic field and said second
configured such that thickness b has a magnitude at least respective magnetic J1eld occupying adjacent regions of
about width t.. space essentially without overlap, said second magnet
31. The electric machine of claim 28, wherein said first system having exactly two magnetic fields,
and second surfaces are shaped such that in a plane perpen- 5 wherein one of said first and second magnet systems pro-
dicular to said line of travel said gap has a closed annular duces a non-alternating magnetic field and the other of said
form, said second magnet system being implemented as a first and second magnet systems is a coil assembly for
corresponding hollow cylindrical magnet system. producing an operating magnetic field; and
32. The electric machine of claim 31, wherein said first (c) electrical connections connected to said coil assembly
magnet system is implemented as a hollow annular box of 10 for supplying an electrical current to said coil assembly
soft magnetic material containing windings. to produce a reciprocation of said second magnet
33. The electric machine of claim 28, wherein said first system relative to said first magnet system.
surface and said second surface are stationary, said first 35. The electric machine of claim 34, wherein said second
magnetic element and said second magnetic element moving magnet system includes a spacer of thickness b deployed
relative to said first surface and said second surface. 15 between said first and second magnetic elements, where
34. A synchronous reciprocating electric machine com- b>O.
prising: 36. The electric machine of claim 35, wherein said second
(a) a first magnet system having a J1rst surface and a magnet system is distanced from said J1rst surface by a
second surface opposing said first surface so as to clearance gap of width t., said second magnet system being
define therebetween a gap, said first magnet system 20 configured such that thickness b has a magnitude at least
being configured for generating a substantially uniform about width t..
magnetic field in said gap extending substantially 37. The electric machine of claim 34, wherein said first
solely perpendicular to said J1rst surface; and second surfaces are shaped such that in a plane perpen-
(b) a second magnet system mounted within said gap so dicular to said line of travel said gap has a closed annular
as to be displace able relative to said first magnet system 25 form, said second magnet system being implemented as a
along a line of travel through said gap, said second corresponding hollow cylindrical magnet system.
magnet system including a first magnetic element con- 38. The electric machine of claim 37, wherein said first
figured to generate a first respective magnetic field magnet system is implemented as a hollow annular box of
primarily perpendicular in said gap to said first surface soft magnetic material containing windings.
in a first direction and a second magnetic element 30 39. The electric machine of claim 34, wherein said first
similar to, and mounted in fixed relation to, said first surface and said second surface are stationary, said first
magnetic element, said second magnetic element being magnetic element and said second magnetic element moving
configured to generate a second respective magnetic relative to said first surface and said second surface.
field primarily perpendicular in said gap to said first
surface in a direction opposite to said J1rst direction, * * * * *
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US006084322A
United States Patent [19] [11] Patent Number: 6,084,322
Rounds [45] Date of Patent: .luI. 4, 2000

[54] AMPLIFYING MECHANICAL ENERGY FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


WITH MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCE
62-114466 of 0000 Japan.
62-81972 of 0000 Japan.
[76] Inventor: Donald E. Rounds, 3111 NW.
Norwood PI., Corvallis, Oreg. 97330
OTHER PUBLICATIONS

[21] Appl. No.: 09/294,078 "Electric Motors & Electronic Motor Techniques" by J. M.
[22] Filed: Apr. 19, 1999 Gottlieb; 1st Ed.; 1976 Howard M. Sims & Co., Inc.; The
Bobs-Merrill Co., Inc.; Indianapolis, Kansas City, New
[51] Int. CI? ........................... H02K 37/00; H02K 49/00 York.
[52] U.S. CI. ............................ 310/46; 310/103; 310M2;
310/114 Primary Examiner-Nestor Ramirez
[58] Field of Search ..................................... 310/152, 156, Assistant Examiner--':'Tran N Nguyen
310/154, 162, 103, 83, 80, 46, 92, 75 D, Attorney, Agent, or Firm-William W. Haefiiger
114, 112; 464/29; 74/63, 37
[57] ABSTRACT
[56] References Cited
A magnetically operating device comprises a driven magnet
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS having magnetically opposite poles which are separated, a
driver magnet having magnetically opposite poles, and the
Re.29,165 3/1977 Bode ......................................... 310/46
magnets are mounted for relative movement to maintain one
2,243,555 5/1941 FallS ........................................ 172/284
2,378,129 6/1945 Chamber ................................. 172/284 of the driver magnet's poles substantially equidistant from
3,267,310 8/1966 Ireland .................................... 310/103 the poles of the driven magnets as the driven magnet moves
3,355,645 11/1967 Kawakami et al. . relative to the driver magnet. A first rotor may mount the
3,790,833 2/1974 Rasebe.. ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... ...... 310/162 driven magnet or magnets for rotation about a first axis, and
4,074,153 2/1978 Baker . ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... ........ 310/12 a second rotor may mount the driver magnet or magnets for
4,151,431 4/1979 Johnson .................................. 310/152 rotation about a second axis, and such axes are typically non
4,169,983 10/1979 Felder ....................................... 310/46 intersecting and skewed, the rotors being intercoupled. A
4,751,486 6/1988 Minalo .................................... 310/156 source of torque such as a motor may be coupled to the
4,877,983 10/1989 Johnson .................................. 310/152
second rotor to effect torque input to the second rotor.
5,034,642 7/1991 Roemann et al. ...................... 310/156
5,569,967 10/1996 Rode ....................................... 310/103
5,886,608 3/1999 Chabay ................................... 310/103 22 Claims, 7 Drawing Sheets

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6,084,322
1 2
AMPLIFYING MECHANICAL ENERGY c) means for mounting the rotor and wheel for relative
WITH MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCE movement, to maintain the single pole of each driver
magnet or magnets substantially equidistant from the
FIELD OF THE INVENTION separated magnetic poles of the driven magnet or
5 magnets as the driven magnet or magnets moves rela-
This invention relates generally to the utilization of the
tive to the driver magnet or magnets.
potential energy in magnets, as for example permanent
As will be seen, the rotor typically mounts the driven
magnets; and more particularly to a device wherein one or
magnet or magnets for rotation about a first axis; and the
more magnets is caused to move unimpeded past a second
wheel typically mounts the driver magnet or magnets for
magnet or magnets, while creating a strong unidirectional
10 rotation about a second axis. The two axes are typically
movement of the second magnet or magnets.
skewed, as will appear.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION It is another object of the invention to include the provi-
sion of means operatively coupled to the rotor and wheel for
More than 85% of energy being consumed today is that synchronizing rotation thereof.
from fossil fuels. Although this has many advantages, it has 15 Yet another object is the provision of a train of such driven
been estimated that the world's reserves of both oil and magnets on the rotor. Typically, the driven magnets in the
natural gas will be depleted, at the current rate of train have north and south poles located in alternating rotary
consumption, by the year 2024 (Science, vol. 245, pp. sequence. Such driven magnets may be generally bar-shaped
1330-1331, 1989). Moreover, the burning of fossil fuel and elongated, as well as uniformly spaced apart along the
produces both gaseous and particulate pollutants which 20 periphery of the first rotor, such as a flywheel. The driven
cause extensive damage to crops and plants, deterioration of magnets can alternatively be mounted radially, like spokes in
paint, rubber and textiles, and contributes signijlcantly to a wheel, with alternating north and south poles at the
reduced respiratory function and production of cancer in periphery of the rotor. Typically, bipoles of driven magnets
humans. There is also strong evidence that the gaseous form force zones consisting of north-south regions followed
byproducts of this energy source are contributing to global 25 by south-north regions, each of equal length around the
warming and acid rain. The magnitude of these economic circumference of the rotor.
and environmental problems has become so serious that it is The invention also basically allows one driver magnet to
imperative that the use of fossil fuels be reduced without move unimpeded between bipoles defined by the driven
compromising the application of this energy source. magnets, whereby unidirectional movement of the driven
Permanent magnets have long been known to contain 30 magnet rotor is magnetically created. In order to maintain a
strong potential energy, but this has only been used in motors unidirectional rotation, (e.g. clockwise), the north pole of a
or generators, to date, in the form of stators which create or driver magnet typically drives a north-south bipole of the
direct electromotive forces, not as a physical supplement to driven magnets, while a south pole of a driver magnet
those forces. The present invention has potential for gener- typically drives a south-north bipole of the driven magnets.
ating greater forces in existing electric or gasoline motors, 35 Magnets can be replaced, or re-charged, after energy
wind powered generators, human powered bicycles or other depletion, or the device can simply be allowed to "run-
such devices without using additional fuel or creating addi- down", it having expanded its utility over a useful time
tional environmental pollutants. interval.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention,
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 40 as well as the details of an illustrative embodiment, will be

Although the basic principles of magnetic force are well more fully understood from the following specification and
known, it is helpful to briefly summarize these principles as drawings, in which:
background to describe the method of developing magne- DRAWING DESCRIPTION
tomotive force in terms of the present invention. Basically,
permanent magnets are polar, in that such a magnet always 45 FIG. 1 is a diagram showing principles of the invention;
has a north pole and a south pole. Opposite poles strongly FIGS. 2A, 213 and 2C are likewise diagrams showing
attract each other while like poles repel each other. The force principles of the invention;
of attraction between any two magnets is the result of the FIG. 3 is a diagram showing basic elements of the
force of one magnet (M 1 ) multiplied by the force of the other invention;
(M2)' divided by the square of the distance between them 50 FIGS. 4(A)-4(E) are views showing skewed angularity of
(d2 ). This formula: F=MlxM2/d2, is known as Coulomb's driver magnet motion relative to driven magnet motion,
law for magnetic poles. where a pole of the driver magnet is always maintained
It is a major object of the invention to take advantage of equidistant from bipoles of the rotating train magnets;
this law by providing a permanent magnet rotor which turns 55 FIG. 5 is a graph of torque values generated at each force
in a unidirectional motion by interaction with a driver zone at the time single driver magnets pass between the
magnet or magnets, which can be made to rotate with a bipoles of the driven magnets;
negligible amount of force from any form of engine, but in FIG. 6 is a graph of torque values generated at each force
doing so, it can cause a significant amount of force in the zone by two sets of three driver magnets at the time they pass
rotor. 60 between the bipoles of the driven magnets;
Basically the invention is included in a combination of FIG. 7 is a graph of the amount of rotation counterbalance
elements, which includes: required at force zones on the driven rotor with a range of
a) a rotor incorporating a driven magnet or magnets, torques being applied to the driver magnet when driven
positioned with alternately opposite and separated magnets are either absent or present;
magnetic poles, 65 FIG. 8 is a graph of the battery voltage decay rate for the
b) a driver wheel incorporating a driver magnet or electric motor which activates the driver wheel when driven
magnets, each with a single pole facing the rotor, and magnets are either absent or present.
6,084,322
3 4
DETAILED DESCRIPTION extending diametrically opposite magnet 10, and having its
south pole (S) at the periphery of 15. Bar magnets 10 and
Referring to FIG. 1, it shows a driver magnet 10 having
lOa extend radially. Maintaining the peripheral pole of the
opposite, as for example north and south poles lOa and lOb.
driver magnet in the neutral corridor requires that the two
A second magnet 11 is provided on a rotor 12 mounted by
5 rotors or wheels 12 and 15 be synchronized as through a
an axle 13 to rotate about an axis 14. Multiple second
chain drive 18 (FIG. 3) or other timed drive (timing belt and
magnets 11 and 11a are depicted in a "train", i.e. at the
sprockets or a set of gears), to produce the following
periphery of the circular rotor, and they are alike and curved,
conditions: (1) the turning ratio of the train-to-driver wheels
as shown, and spaced along the circular periphery of 12,
12 and 15 is typically 1:4; (2) the train magnets must have
which may constitute a flywheel. In this configuration, the
10 poles uniformly spaced in Nand S sequence on the circum-
bar magnets 11 and 11a create north-south force zones while
ference of the train flywheel; (3) the driver wheel must be
the air gaps between them create south-north force zones.
mounted on an angle (FIG. 4) described by the hypotenuse
When the north pole (N) of a bar magnet (the driver of a right triangle, where the base is equal to 0.5 times the
magnet) is brought into close proximity to the middle of one distance between the bipoles on the train wheel, while the
of the train magnets on the rotor or flywheel, the north pole 15 altitude of the right triangle is equal to 0.25 times the
(N) of the driver magnet repels the north pole of the train circumference of the driver wheel; and (4) the driver magnet
magnet and it simultaneously attracts the south pole (S) of is carefully positioned within the neutral corridor on one
that train magnet. When the driver magnet is held stationary, train magnet before starting the motion of the external
the train magnet 11 moves with respect to the driver, motor.
resulting in an angular displacement (or rotary motion) of 20
In FIG. 3, the drive 18 is depicted as an endless chain or
the flywheel 12 (FIG. 1) until the south pole of the train
timing belt 19, entraining small sprocket or pulley 20 on axle
magnet stops at its closest point to the north pole of the
16, large sprocket or pulley 21 on axle 13, and idler pulleys
driver magnet. If, however, the driver magnet is moved away
22 and 23 that turn the direction of the chain or belt. The
before the south pole of the train magnet reaches that
small sprocket or pulley 20 and the large sprocket or pulley
position, the square of the distance between the two magnets 25
21 define the turning ratio of the driver wheel 15 and train
is sufficiently great to reduce the force between them to a
wheel 12. A driven device 140 may be coupled to driven
negligible level. At that point the momentum of the flywheel
shaft 13; and all elements are properly sized. Device 140
continues to carry the train magnet along its rotary motion
may comprise the drive train of a vehicle such as an
for a period of time. FIG. 1 also shows a second driven
automobile.
magnet 11a, like 11, but at the diametrically opposite rim 30
portion of 12. This can also be acted on by driver magnet 10 It should be noted that since the force of the driver magnet
when it replaces driven magnet 11 during the rotation. on the train magnet is inversely proportional to the square of
the distance between them, the greatest force on the train
If the driver magnet 10 is mounted radially on a second
wheel will occur at the time the driver magnet is close to
rotor or Hywheel, designated as 15 in FIG. 2(A), the plane
each train magnet. This was confirmed by Example 1.
of which is approximately perpendicular to that of the first, 35
with the north pole (N) of the driver magnet 10 extending to EXAMPLE 1
the margin of the wheel, its rotation will be influenced by the
position of the train magnet 11. Again, if the north pole of A 6.625 inch diameter train wheel 12 was constructed
the driver magnet is in close proximity to the north pole of with eight (8) two inch long driven rod magnets, 0.75 inches
the train magnet (when the train is held in a stationary 40 in diameter, mounted radially, with approximately 1.875
position), the driver magnet is repelled (see arrow 40 in FIG. inches between each pole at the periphery of the wheel. The
2A). If the north pole of the driver magnet is in close margin of the wheel was marked at 5 degree increments
proximity to the south pole of the train magnet (when the around its circumference and it was placed vertically in a
train is held in a stationary position), the driver magnet is cradle mounted on the pan of a triple beam balance.
attracted (see arrow 41 in FIG. 2B). However, more 45 A 10 inch diameter driver wheelIS was constructed with
importantly, if the train magnet 11 is held so that the north 2 one inch long driver rod magnets, 0.75 inches in diameter,
pole of the driver magnet is equidistant between the two N-S mounted on opposite sides of the wheel. One driver magnet
poles of the train magnet, the attraction and the repulsion of 10 was mounted with its north pole at the periphery of the
the poles of the train magnet cancel each other and they wheel and the other lOa was mounted with its south pole at
cannot act to influence the plane of rotation of the vertical 50 the periphery of the wheel. The margin of the driver wheel
wheel holding the driver magnet (FIG. 2C). As a result, the was marked at 20 degree increments around its circumfer-
driver wheelIS can rotate freely through a neutral angular ence to simulate a 1 :4 turning ratio. The driver wheelIS was
corridor (i.e. angle), without being influenced by the lateral mounted horizontally so that the driver magnets 10 and lOa
forces of the train magnet 11. Thus, when one pole of the would pass through the neutral corridor of each of the
driver wheel magnet is always maintained equidistant from 55 bipoles on the train wheel 12, which was mounted vertically
the two poles of each train magnet, there is no effect on the on the pan of the balance. The distance between the two
motion of the driver magnet's wheel, but under these same wheels was 0.5 inches. Net vertical forces, in grams, were
conditions the driver magnet exerts a maximum effect on the measured on the triple beam balance at each of the 72
train magnet's wheel 12. When a small external motor (as at marked increments to indicate the force exerted on the
24 in FIG. 3) is used to rotate the axle 16 of driver wheelIS, 60 periphery of the train wheel 12.
the resulting rotary force of the train magnets strongly The results are shown in FIG. 5. The angular rotation
ampliJles the force of the external motor. This circumstance forces were recorded as a series of pulses which occurred
is the basic principle that permits utilizing the potential when a pole of a driver magnet came into position between
energy in permanent magnets for this purpose. Motor 24 is the bipoles of the train magnets, as in FIG. 4C. In a second
energized by a battery 24a. 65 version of this experiment, six north pole driver magnets and
FIGS. 2(A), (B) and (C) also show axle 16 for rotor 15; six south pole driver magnets were used instead of one of
axis 17 of rotation of 15; and a second driver bar magnet lOa each. The distance between the two wheels was one inch.
6,084,322
5 6
FIG. 6 shows that under these conditions the pulse widths of With all magnets in place, the electric motor 24 moved the
the forces could be broadened in order to smooth the driven wheel 12 at 64 rmp and the driver wheel 15 at 256
rotation. In other experiments it was observed that increas- rpm. At this speed the generator produced an output of 2.9
ing the number of train magnets could further broaden the volts. Although this model was far from being optimized,
pulse widths at the force zones. 5 this experiment supports the premise that magnetomotive
force could amplify the electromotive force to produce work
EXAMPLE 2 in the form of voltage generation.
A simple working model of the system as shown in FIG. EXAMPLE 5
3 was constructed using a system of gears instead of an 10
endless belt with pulleys. The train wheel 12 was a 7 inch The same model described in Example 2 was used to
diameter rotor with 8 radially positioned rare earth (NdFeB) compare the rates at which size AA 1.5 volt DC batteries
rod magnets, 0.75 inches long and 0.75 inches in diameter. being used to drive the electric motor 24 decayed, with and
The driver wheel 15 was 10 inches in diameter and had without the driven magnets in place. The system was oper-
single NdFeB magnets on opposite sides of the wheel. One ated for one minute intervals for a total of five minutes for
driver magnet 10 was mounted with a north pole moving 15 each condition, with the DC voltage of the batteries being
through each neutral corridor of the north-south bipoles recorded at the end of each minute. Fresh batteries were used
while the second magnet lOa was mounted with a south pole at the beginning of each series.
moving through the neutral corridor of each of the south- The data in FIG. 8 show that the battery decay rate when
north bipoles of the driven magnets while the driver wheel 20 magnetomotive amplijlcation was used was signijlcantly
15 was moving at a 4.1 ratio with respect to the driven wheel slower than when electromotive force was used alone. 111is
12. The distance between the two wheels was 1.25 inches. principle could be important for applications such as electric
In order to evaluate the net torque of the force zones, a automobiles, where batteries need to be recharged at fre-
series of weights were placed on one side of the driver wheel quent intervals.
15 which was positioned with a driver magnet at its closest 25 New magnets can be substituted for any of the magnets on
proximity to the bipoles of a force zone. Counterbalance the rotor, as indicated at 150 and 151 in FIG. 3.
weights were placed on the driven magnet rotor 12, just Usable magnets consist of a material or materials selected
sufficient to stop the forward rotation of this rotor. The same from the group that includes NdFeB, alnico, ceramic, iron-
measurements were made when the driven magnets were chromium-cobalt (FeerCo), rare earth, samarium cobalt
removed, to determine how much of the torque on the driven 30
(SmCo), other magnetic material. Of these NdFeB is pre-
magnet rotor 12 was due to the magnetomotive force. ferred.
The data in FIG. 7 show that the increase in torque of the Usable sources of torque comprise one or more of the
driven rotor when no magnets were present could be attrib- following:
uted to the 4:1 gear ratio. When the driven magnets were in
i) an electric motor
place, the torque on the driven wheel increased by approxi- 35
mately 120 grams. ii) an internal combustion engine
iii) wind
EXAMPLE 3 iv) flowing water
A modified model described in Example 2 was outfitted v) manual or foot power
with a small DC electric motor 24 which was made to 40 vi) other power source.
operate the wheels using two D size batteries. Instead of I claim:
single driver magnets on each side of the driver wheel 15, 1. A device comprising, in combination:
four north pole rare earth (NdFeB) driver magnets and four a) a train of driven magnets on a first rotor, each driven
south pole rare earth (NdFeB) driver magnets were used. magnet having magnetically opposite poles which are
The driven rotor 12 was 6.125 inches in diameter and 45 separated,
contained 8 sets of 3 magnets with each set uniformly spaced b) a circularly spaced sequence of driver magnets on a
and alternating north and south poles around the circumfer- second rotor, each driver magnet having magnetically
ence of the rotor. The distance between the two wheels was opposite poles,
1.25 inches.
50 c) means for mounting said first and second rotors to have
Rates of rotation of the driver wheel were determined planes of rotation defined by said magnets, said planes
with and without driver magnets in the driver magnet wheel being substantially perpendicular, for relative move-
15. With all other conditions being equal, the rate of rotation ment of the magnets to maintain driver magnet's poles
produced by the electrical energy source (2.57 volts DC) substantially equidistant from the poles of the driven
when driver magnets were present was 65 rpm for the driven 55 magnet as the driven magnets move relative to the
rotor 12 and 260 rpm for the driver wheel 15. When the driver magnets, and as the rotors rotate in synchronism,
driver magnets were removed, even increasing the voltage d) and a source of torque coupled to said second rotor to
from 2.5 to 4.0 volts could not sustain continual rotation of effect torque input to the second rotor, as may he
the two wheels. Under this set of conditions, magnetomotive needed for driving of the first rotor by the second rotor.
force was required to supplement the electromotive force to 60 2. The combination of claim 1 wherein at least one of said
produce continual rotation. magnets is a permanent magnet.
3. The combination of claim 1 wherein both of said
EXAMPLE 4
magnets are permanent magnets.
A small electric generator was added to the model 4. The combination of claim 1 wherein said first rotor is
described in Example 3 and the electric motor was energized 65 mounted for rotation about a first axis.
with three 1.5 volt DC batteries in order to compensate for 5. Ibe combination of claim 4 wherein said second rotor
the increased friction caused by the generator installation. is mounted for rotation about a second axis.
6,084,322
7 8
6. The combination of claim 5 wherein said first and 19. The combination of claim 18 wherein the minimum
second axes are non-intersecting and are skewed. distance "d" between driver and driven magnets being
7. The combination of claim 5 wherein said c) means rotated on said rotor is MJxM2/d2=O, where
includes means operatively coupled to said first and second M 1 =magnetic force of 10
rotors for synchronizing rotation thereof. 5
8. The combination of claim 6 wherein said second rotor M 2=magnetic force of 1l.
is a driver rotor, said skewing of said axes characterized in 20. A device comprising, in combination:
that they form a right triangle having a base and altitude a) a driven magnet having magnetically opposite poles
where: which are separated,
base=O.5 times distance between north-south poles on the 10 b) a driver magnet having magnetically opposite pole,
driven rotor c) means for mounting said magnets for relative move-
altitude=O.25 times circumference of the driver rotor. ment to maintain one of the driver magnet's poles
9. The combination of claim 1 wherein said driver mag- substantially equidistant from the poles of the driven
nets in said train have north and south poles located in rotary
magnet as the driven magnet moves relative to the
sequence. 15
driver magnet,
10. The combination of claim 1 wherein said magnets
consist of a material or materials selected from the group d) there being a train of said driven magnets, and said c)
that includes NdFeB, alnico, ceramic, iron-chromium-cobalt means including a J1rst rotor mounting said train of
(FeCreo), samarium cobalt (SmCo), other magnetic mate- driven magnets for rotation abut a first axis,
rial. e) there being a circularly spaced sequence of said driver
11. The combination of claim 1 wherein said rotors define 20 magnets, and said c) means also including a second
a turning ratio having a value which is about 1:4. rotor mounting the driver magnets for rotation about a
12. The combination of claim 1 wherein there are multiple second axis,
driven magnets on said first rotor, said driven magnets
having poles that are uniformly spaced apart in north and 1) and wherein said J1rst rotor is a flywheel, and said train
south pole sequence along the periphery of the train rotor. 25 of magnets is located at the circumference of the
13. The combination of claim 1 wherein said source of flywheel.
torque comprises one of the following: 21. A device comprising, in combination:
i) an electric motor a) a driven magnet having magnetically opposite poles
ii) an internal combustion engine which are separated,
iii) wind 30 b) a driver magnet having magnetically opposite poles,
iv) flowing water c) means for mounting said magnets for relative move-
v) manual or foot power ment to maintain one of the driver magnet's poles
vi) other power source. su bstantially equidistant from the poles of the driven
14. The combination of claim 13 wherein said motor is magnet as the driven magnet moves relative to the
battery driven. 35 driver magnet,
15. The combination of claim 14 including a driven d) there being a train of said driven magnets, and said c)
device coupled in driven relation with said driven rotor. means including a J1rst rotor mounting said train of
16. The combination of claim 15, wherein said device is driven magnets for rotation abut a J1rst axis,
the drive train of an automobile.
17. A device comprising. in combination: 40
e) there being a circularly spaced sequence of said driver
magnets, and said c) means also including a second
a) a driven magnet having magnetically opposite poles
rotor mounting the driver magnets for rotation about a
which are separated,
second axis,
b) a driver magnet having magnetically opposite poles,
f) and wherein said driven magnets in the train are
c) means for mounting said magnets for relative move-
relatively narrow bar-shaped permanent magnets.
ment to maintain one of the driver magnet's poles 45
22. A device comprising, in combination:
substantially equidistant from the poles of the driven
magnet as the driven magnet moves relative to the a) a driven magnet having magnetically opposite poles
driver magnet, which are separated,
d) there being a train of said driven magnets, and said c) b) a driver magnet having magnetically opposite poles,
means including a J1rst rotor mounting said train of 50 c) means for mounting said magnets for relative move-
driven magnets for rotation abut a J1rst axis, ment to maintain one of the driver magnet's poles
e) there being a circularly spaced sequence of said driver substantially equidistant from the poles of the driven
magnets, and said c) means also including a second magnet as the driven magnet moves relative to the
rotor mounting the driver magnets for rotation about a 55 driver magnet,
second axis, d) there being a train of said driven magnets, and said c)
t) and wherein said driven magnets extend circularly on means including a first rotor mounting Raid train of
said J1rst rotor, and said driver magnets extend radially driven magnets for rotation abut a J1rst axis,
on said second rotor. e) there being a circularly spaced sequence of said driver
18. The combination of claim 17 wherein 60 magnets, and said c) means also including a second
i) the first rotor has circumference along which said rotor mounting the driver magnets for rotation about a
driven magnets extend, in a train, second axis,
ii) the driven magnets have equal lengths, f) and wherein the J1rst rotor is a flywheel, and said driven
iii) said circumference is twice the length of each driven magnets in the train are lengthwise substantially rect-
magnet multiplied by the number of said driven 65 angular permanent magnets.
magnets,
iv) the driven magnets being spaced apart. * * * * *
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US006356000Bl

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 6,356,000 BI


Ho et ai. (45) Date of Patent: Mar. 12,2002

(54) MAGNETICALLY AUGMENTED ROTATION 5,182,533 A * 1/1993 Ritts .......................... 335/306


SYSTEM 5,481,146 A * 1(1996 Davey ................... 310/154.05
5,514,926 A * 5/1996 Bushman .................... 310/105
(76) Inventors: Clmn-Yuan Ho; Tien-See Chow, both 5,788,007 A * 8/1998 Miekka ...................... 180/205
of 10 Confucius Plz. #5 F, New York, 6,137,194 A * 10/2000 Haugseth ....................... 310/1
6,163,148 A * 12/2000 Takada et al. .............. 180/206
NY (US) 10002 6,274,959 Bl * 8/2001 Uchiyama ................... 310/152
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.c. 154(b) by 0 days. DE 3422280 A1 * 4/1986 H02K/53/00
DE 3931611 Al * 3/1990 H02K/21/00
JP 359117449 A * 7/1984 H02K/21/00
(21) Appl. No.: 09/775,437 JP 362247755 A * 10/1987 H02K/53/00
JP 406245483 A * 9/1994 H02K/53/00
(22) Filed: Feb. 2, 2001
* cited by examiner
(51) Int. cl? ............................ H02K 7/10; H02K 7/09;
H02K 1/17; H02K 1/27 Primary Examiner---Nestor Ramirez
(52) U.S. CI ............................. 310/154.01; 3101156.01; Assistant Examiner--Guillermo Perez
310/90.5; 310180 (57) ABSTRACT
(58) Field of Search ......................... 310/152, 90, 90.5,
310/1, 154.Q1, 154.04, 154.24, 154.23, A magnetically augmented rotation system for improving
154.22, 154.21, 154.29, 154.28, 156.01; the efficiency of drive wheel and prime mover efficiency.
180/205,220,206,214, 65.1, 65.2,76, The magnetically augmented rotation system includes
84, 80, 75 E, 75 C, 78 includes a wheel assembly having a central portion, a first
magnetic assembly with a first magnetic polarity, and a
(56) References Cited second magnetic assembly having a second magnetic polar-
ity opposite the polarity of the first magnetic assembly; a
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
bearing assembly for facilitation the rotation of the wheel
2,351,424 A 6/1944 Hansen, Jr. assembly and comprised of non-magnetic material; a mag-
3,734,565 A 5/1973 Mulasmajic netic biasing assembly positioned such that a torquing force
3,768,532 A 10/1973 Arai is applied to the wheel assembly by an interaction between
4,062,421 A * 12/1977 Weber ........................ 180/205 the magnetic biasing assembly and the first and second
4,095,663 A * 6/1978 Gaffney ...................... 180/205 magnetic assemblies; and an anti-reversing gear assembly
4,179,633 A 12/1979 Kelly
coupled to the wheel assembly allowing the magnetically
4,571,528 A * 2/1986 McGee et al. ......... 310/154.29
D289,512 S 4/1987 Fukuchi
augmented rotation system to rotate in a first direction while
4,833,351 A * 5/1989 Forys et al. .................. 310/12 preventing it from rotating in a second direction.
5,002,296 A 3/1991 Chiu
5,118,977 A * 6/1992 Bertram el al. ........... 310/49 R 8 Claims, 2 Drawing Sheets

21
23
35----... )
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25 26
______S-t- - - ~ 28
27

54 .J...l-l-64
LJ....!---60
52 1A---62

44
42 41
u.s. Patent Mar. 12, 2002 Sheet 1 of 2 US 6,356,000 BI

~20
35--- 10
-22
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40

)
21

35 _2_3------...~)
S-=-=-=N
25----- 26
27 S- -~28
I-===~S ~N...::::::::::==1
54 64
50 60
52 62

-44
42
u.s. Patent Mar. 12,2002 Sheet 2 of 2 US 6,356,000 BI

.
CJ
-LL
US 6,356,000 Bl
1 2
MAGNETICALLY AUGMENTED ROTATION bearing assembly for facilitation the rotation of the wheel
SYSTEM assembly and comprised of non-magnetic material; a mag-
netic biasing assembly positioned such that a torquing force
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION is applied to the wheel assembly by an interaction between
5 the magnetic biasing assembly and the first and second
1. Field of the Invention magnetic assemblies; and an anti-reversing gear assembly
The present invention relates to magnetic drive systems coupled to the wheel assembly allowing the magnetically
and more particularly pertains to a new magnetically aug- augmented rotation system to rotate in a first direction while
mented rotation system for improving the efficiency of drive preventing it from rotating in a second direction.
wheel and prime mover efficiency. 10 There has thus been outlined, rather broadly, the more
2. Description of the Prior Art important features of the invention in order that the detailed
description thereof that follows may be better understood,
The use of magnetic drive systems is known in the prior
and in order that the present contribution to the art may be
art. More specifically, magnetic drive systems heretofore better appreciated. There are additional features of the
devised and utilized are known to consist basically of invention that will be described hereinafter and which will
familiar, expected and obvious structural configurations, 15 form the subject matter of the claims appended hereto.
notwithstanding the myriad of designs encompassed by the In this respect, before explaining at least one embodiment
crowded prior art which have been developed for the ful- of the invention in detail, it is to be understood that the
fillment of countless objectives and requirements. invention is not limited in its application to the details of
Known prior art includes U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,062,421; 3,768, constmction and to the arrangements of the components set
532; 4,179,633; 3,734,565; 5,002,296; 2,351,424; and U.S. 20 forth in the following description or illustrated in the draw-
Pat. No. Des. 289,512. ings. The invention is capable of other embodiments and of
While these devices fulfill their respective, particular being practiced and carried out in various ways. Also, it is
objectives and requirements, the aforementioned patents do to be understood that the phraseology and terminology
not disclose a new magnetically augmented rotation system. employed herein are for the purpose of description and
The inventive device includes a wheel assembly having a 25 should not be regarded as limiting.
central portion, a first magnetic assembly with a first mag- As such, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the
netic polarity, and a second magnetic assembly having a conception, upon which this disclosure is based, may readily
second magnetic polarity opposite the polarity of the first be utilized as a basis for the designing of other structures,
magnetic assembly; a bearing assembly for facilitation the methods and systems for carrying out the several purposes
rotation of the wheel assembly and comprised of non- 30 of the present invention. It is important, therefore, that the
magnetic material; a magnetic biasing assembly positioned claims be regarded as including such equivalent constmc-
such that a torquing force is applied to the wheel assembly tions insofar as they do not depart from the spirit and scope
by an interaction between the magnetic biasing assembly of the present invention.
and the first and second magnetic assemblies; and an anti- 35 Further, the purpose of the foregoing abstract is to enable
reversing gear assembly coupled to the wheel assembly the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and the public
allowing the magnetically augmented rotation system to generally, and especially the scientists, engineers and prac-
rotate in a first direction while preventing it from rotating in titioners in the art who are not familiar with patent or legal
a second direction. terms or phraseology, to determine quickly from a cursory
In these respects, the magnetically augmented rotation 40 inspection the nature and essence of the technical disclosure
system according to the present invention substantially of the application. The abstract is neither intended to define
departs from the conventional concepts and designs of the the invention of the application, which is measured by the
prior art, and in so doing provides an apparatus primarily claims, nor is it intended to be limiting as to the scope of the
developed for the purpose of improving the efficiency of invention in any way.
drive wheel and prime mover efficiency. 45 It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide
a new magnetically augmented rotation system apparatus
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION and method which has many of the advantages of the
In view of the foregoing disadvantages inherent in the magnetic drive systems mentioned heretofore and many
known types of magnetic drive systems now present in the novel features that result in a new magnetically augmented
prior art, the present invention provides a new magnetically 50 rotation system which is not anticipated, rendered obvious,
augmented rotation system construction wherein the same suggested, or even implied by any of the prior art magnetic
can be utilized for improving the efficiency of drive wheel drive systems, either alone or in any combination thereof.
and prime mover efficiency. It is another object of the present invention to provide a
The general purpose of the present invention, which will new magnetically augmented rotation system which may be
be described subsequently in greater detail, is to provide a 55 easily and efficiently manufactured and marketed.
new magnetically augmented rotation system apparatus and It is a further object of the present invention to provide a
method which has many of the advantages of the magnetic new magnetically augmented rotation system which is of a
drive systems mentioned heretofore and many novel features durable and reliable constmction.
that result in a new magnetically augmented rotation system An even further object of the present invention is to
which is not anticipated, rendered obvious, suggested, or 60 provide a new magnetically augmented rotation system
even implied by any of the prior art magnetic drive systems, which is susceptible of a low cost of manufacture with
either alone or in any combination thereof. regard to both materials and labor, and which accordingly is
To attain this, the present invention generally comprises then susceptible of low prices of sale to the consuming
includes a wheel assembly having a central portion, a first public, thereby making such magnetically augmented rota-
magnetic assembly with a first magnetic polarity, and a 65 tion system economically available to the buying public.
second magnetic assembly having a second magnetic polar- Still yet another object of the present invention is to
ity opposite the polarity of the first magnetic assembly; a provide a new magnetically augmented rotation system
US 6,356,000 Bl
3 4
which provides in the apparatuses and methods of the prior 26. The first magnetic assembly 25 has a first magnetic
art some of the advantages thereof, while simultaneously polarity. The second magnetic assembly 26 has a magnetic
overcoming some of the disadvantages normally associated polarity opposite the polarity of the first magnetic assembly
therewith. 25.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide 5 The bearing assembly 30 is used to for facilitate the
a new magnetically augmented rotation system for improv- rotation of the wheel assembly 20. The bearing assembly 30
ing the efficiency of drive wheel and prime mover efficiency. being comprised of non-magnetic material.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a The magnetic biasing assembly 40 is positioned such that
new magnetically augmented rotation system which a torquing force is applied to the wheel assembly 20 by an
includes includes a wheel assembly having a central portion, 10 interaction between the magnetic biasing assembly 40 and
a first magnetic assembly with a first magnetic polarity, and the first 25 and second magnetic assemblies 26.
a second magnetic assembly having a second magnetic The anti -reversing gear assembly 70 is coupled to the
polarity opposite the polarity of the first magnetic assembly; wheel assembly 20. The anti-reversing gear assembly 70
a bearing assembly for facilitation the rotation of the wheel allows the magnetically augmented rotation system 10 to
assembly and comprised of non-magnetic material; a mag- 15 rotate in a 11rst direction while preventing the magnetically
netic biasing assembly positioned such that a torquing force augmented rotation system 10 from rotating in a second
is applied to the wheel assembly by an interaction between direction.
the magnetic biasing assembly and the first and second In an embodiment the 11rst magnetic assembly 25 is a
magnetic assemblies; and an anti-reversing gear assembly single magnetic disk coupled to the center portion 22 and is
coupled to the wheel assembly allowing the magnetically 20
aligned such that a surface 27 of the 11rst magnetic assembly
augmented rotation system to rotate in a first direction while 25 has a first magnetic polarity. The second magnetic
preventing it from rotating in a second direction. assembly 26 is a single magnetic disk coupled to the center
Still yet another object of the present invention is to portion 22 and is aligned such that a surface 28 of the second
provide a new magnetically augmented rotation system that 25 magnetic assembly 26 has a second magnetic polarity.
improves the rotational efficiency of bicycles. In another embodiment the first magnetic assembly 25 is
Even still another object of the present invention is to a plurality of magnets 75 positioned in a uniformly distrib-
provide a new magnetically augmented rotation system that uted relationship around a 11rst side of the wheel assembly
improves the rotational efficiency of motor-generators. 20. Each one of the plurality of magnets 75 is positioned
These together with other objects of the invention, along 30 such that a magnetic polarity of each one of the plurality of
with the various features of novelty which characterize the magnets 75 is aligned. The second magnetic assembly 26 is
invention, are pointed out with particularity in the claims also a plurality of magnets 75 positioned in a uniformly
annexed to and forming a part of this disclosure. For a better distributed relationship around a second side of the wheel
understanding of the invention, its operating advantages and assembly 20. Each one of the plurality of magnets 75 is
the specific objects attained by its uses, reference should be 35 positioned such that a magnetic polarity of each one of the
made to the accompanying drawings and descriptive matter plurality of magnets 75 is aligned and complimentary to the
in which there are illustrated preferred embodiments of the alignment of the first magnetic assembly 25.
invention. An annular groove 23 is positioned around a circumfer-
ence of the central portion 22 of the wheel assembly 20.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 40
A drive belt 35 delivers a primary rotational force to the
The invention will be better understood and objects other wheel assembly 20. The drive belt 35 is positioned in the
than those set forth above will become apparent when annular groove 23. The drive belt 35 may be a belt or a
consideration is given to the following detailed description chain.
thereof. Such description makes reference to the annexed 45 The magnetic biasing assembly 40 further comprises a
drawings wherein: first linear magnet 41, a second linear magnet 50, and a third
FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view of a new mag- linear magnet 60.
netically augmented rotation system according to the present The 11rst linear magnet 41 is positioned such that a
invention. longitudinal axis of the first linear magnet 41 is substantially
FIG. 2 is a schematic front view of an embodiment of the 50 perpendicular with a plane which extends radially from a
present invention. focus of the wheel assembly 20. The 11rst linear magnet 41
FIG. 3 is a schematic side view of multiple embodiments preferably is positioned in a spaced perpendicular relation-
of the present invention in a cascade arrangement. ship with a circumferential edge 21 of the wheel assembly
20.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED
55 The second linear magnet 50 is positioned such that a 11rst
EMBODIMENT
end 52 of the second linear magnet 50 abuts a first end 42
With reference now to the drawings, and in particular to of the first linear magnet 41. The second linear magnet 50
FIGS. 1 through 3 thereof, a new magnetically augmented preferably is positioned at an oblique angle such that the
rotation system embodying the principles and concepts of second linear magnet 50 rises upwardly towards the first
the present invention and generally designated by the ref- 60 magnetic assembly 25 of the wheel assembly 20 and a
erence numeral 10 will be described. second end 54 of the second linear magnet 50 is adjacent to
As best illustrated in FIGS. 1 through 3, the magnetically a surface 27 of the first magnetic assembly 25.
augmented rotation system 10 generally comprises a wheel The third linear magnet 60 is positioned such that a first
assembly 20, a bearing assembly 30, a magnetic biasing end 62 of the third linear magnet 60 abuts a second end 44
assembly 40, and an anti-reversing gear assembly 70. 65 of the 11rst linear magnet 41. The third linear magnet 60
The wheel assembly 20 includes a central portion 22, a preferably is positioned at an oblique angle such that the
first magnetic assembly 25, and a second magnetic assembly third linear magnet 60 rises upwardly towards the second
US 6,356,000 Bl
5 6
magnetic assembly 26 of the wheel assembly 20 and a perpendicular with a plane extending radially from a
second end 64 of the third linear magnet 60 is adjacent to a focus of said wheel assembly, said linear magnet
surface 28 of the second magnetic assembly 26. being positioned in a spaced perpendicular relation-
The first linear magnet 41 is magnetically polarized such ship with a circumferential edge of said wheel
that the first end 42 of the first linear magnet 41 has a first 5 assembly;
magnetic polarity and the second end 44 of the first linear a second linear magnet positioned such that a first end
magnet 41 has a second magnetic polarity. The second linear of said second linear magnet abuts a first end of said
magnet 50 is magnetically polarized such that the first end J1rst linear magnet, said second linear magnet being
52 of the second linear magnet 50 includes a second mag- positioned at an oblique angle such that said second
netic polarity and the second end 54 of the second linear 10 linear magnet rises upwardly and inwardly towards
magnet 50 includes a first magnetic polarity. The third linear said first magnetic assembly of said wheel assembly
magnet 60 is magnetically polarized such that the first end and a second end of said second linear magnet is
62 of the third linear magnet 60 includes a first magnetic adjacent to a surface of said J1rst magnetic assembly;
polarity and the second end 64 of the third linear magnet 60 a third linear magnet positioned such that a first end of
includes a second magnetic polarity. 15 said third linear magnet abuts a second end of said
The second ends 52,62 of the second 50 and third linear first linear magnet, said third linear magnet being
magnets 60 have magnetic polarities corresponding to the positioned at an oblique angle such that said third
first 25 and second magnetic assemblies 26 respectively linear magnet rises upwardly and inwardly towards
such that a repelling force occurs between the second linear said second magnetic assembly of said wheel assem-
magnet 50 and the first magnetic assembly 25 and between 20 bly and a second end of said third linear magnet is
the third linear magnet 60 and the second magnetic assembly adjacent to a surface of said second magnetic assem-
26. bly.
A'i to a further discussion of the manner of usage and 2. The magnetically augmented rotation system of claim
operation of the present invention, the same should be 1 wherein said wheel assembly further comprises:
apparent from the above description. Accordingly, no further 25 an annular groove positioned around a circumference of
discussion relating to the manner of usage and operation will said central portion of said wheel assembly;
be provided. a drive belt for delivering a primary rotational force to
With respect to the above description then, it is to be said wheel assembly, said drive belt being positioned in
realized that the optimum dimensional relationships for the said annular groove.
parts of the invention, to include variations in size, materials, 30 3. The magnetically augmented rotation system of claim
shape, form, function and manner of operation, assembly 1, wherein said magnetic biasing assembly further com-
and use, are deemed readily apparent and obvious to one prises:
skilled in the art, and all equivalent relationships to those said first linear magnet being magnetically polarized such
illustrated in the drawings and described in the specification that said J1rst end of said first linear magnet has a first
are intended to be encompassed by the present invention. 35 magnetic polarity and said second end of said first
Therefore, the foregoing is considered as illustrative only linear, magnet has a second magnetic polarity;
of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous said second linear magnet being magnetically polarized
modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled such that said first end of said second linear magnet
in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact 40 having a second magnetic polarity and said second end
construction and operation shown and described, and of said second linear magnet having a first magnetic
accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents may polarity;
be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention. said third linear magnet being magnetically polarized
We claim: such that said first end of said third linear magnet
1. A magnetically augmented rotation system comprising: 45 having a first magnetic polarity and said second end of
a wheel assembly having a central portion, a first mag- said third linear magnet having a second magnetic
netic assembly, and a second magnetic assembly, said polarity;
first magnetic assembly having a first magnetic said second ends of said second and third linear magnets
polarity, said second magnetic assembly having a mag- having magnetic polarities corresponding to said first
netic polarity opposite the polarity of said first mag- 50 and second magnetic assemblies respectively such that
netic assembly; a repelling force occurs between said second linear
a bearing assembly for facilitation the rotation of said magnet and said first magnetic assembly and between
wheel assembly, said bearing assembly being com- said third linear magnet and said second magnetic
prised of non-magnetic material; assembly.
a magnetic biasing assembly positioned such that a torqu- 55 4. The magnetically augmented rotation system of claim
ing force is applied to said wheel assembly by an 1 wherein said wheel assembly further comprises:
interaction between said magnetic biasing assembly said first magnetic assembly being a plurality of magnets
and said first and second magnetic assemblies; positioned in a uniformly distributed relationship
an anti-reversing gear assembly coupled to said wheel around a first side of said wheel assembly, each one of
assembly, said anti-reversing gear assembly allowing 60 said plurality of magnets being positioned such that a
said magnetically augmented rotation system to rotate magnetic polarity of each one of said plurality of
in a first direction while preventing said magnetically magnets is aligned;
augmented rotation system from rotating in a second said second magnetic assembly being a plurality of mag-
direction; and nets positioned in a uniformly distributed relationship
wherein said magnetic biasing assembly further includes 65 around a second side of said wheel assembly, each one
a first linear magnet positioned such that a longitudinal of said plurality of magnets being positioned such that
axis of said first linear magnet being substantially a magnetic polarity of each one of said plurality of
US 6,356,000 Bl
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magnets is aligned and complimentary to the alignment said J1rst and second magnetic assemblies respec-
of said J1rst magnetic assembly. tively such that a repelling force occurs between said
5. The magnetically augmented rotation system of claim second linear magnet and said J1rst magnetic assem-
4, further comprising: bly and between said third linear magnet and said
an annular groove positioned around a circumference of 5 second magnetic assembly.
said central portion of said wheel assembly; 8. A magnetically augmented rotation system comprising:
a drive belt for delivering a primary rotational force to a wheel assembly having a central portion, a J1rst mag-
said wheel assembly, said drive belt being positioned in netic assembly, and a second magnetic assembly, said
said annular groove; J1rst magnetic assembly having a J1rst magnetic
wherein said magnetic biasing assembly further com- 10 polarity, said second magnetic assembly having a mag-
prises: netic polarity opposite the polarity of said first mag-
said J1rst linear magnet being magnetically polarized netic assembly;
such that said J1rst end of said J1rst linear magnet has a bearing assembly for facilitation the rotation of said
a J1rst magnetic polarity and said second end of said wheel assembly, said bearing assembly being com-
J1rst linear magnet has a second magnetic polarity; 15 prised of non-magnetic material;
said second linear magnet being magnetically polarized a magnetic biasing assembly positioned such that a torqu-
such that said J1rst end of said second linear magnet ing force is applied to said wheel assembly by an
having a second magnetic polarity and said second interaction between said magnetic biasing assembly
end of said second linear magnet having a first and said first and second magnetic assemblies;
magnetic polarity; 20 an anti-reversing gear assembly coupled to said wheel
said third linear magnet being magnetically polarized assembly, said anti-reversing gear assembly allowing
such that said J1rst end of said third linear magnet said magnetically augmented rotation system to rotate
having a J1rst magnetic polarity and said second end in a J1rst direction while preventing said magnetically
of said third linear magnet having a second magnetic augmented rotation system from rotating in a second
polarity; 25 direction;
said second ends of said second and third linear mag- said first magnetic assembly being a single magnetic disk
nets having magnetic polarities corresponding to coupled to said center portion and being aligned such
said J1rst and second magnetic assemblies respec- that a surface of said first magnetic assembly has a J1rst
tively such that a repelling force occurs between said magnetic polarity;
second linear magnet and said J1rst magnetic assem- 30 said second magnetic assembly being a single magnetic
bly and between said third linear magnet and said disk coupled to said center portion and being aligned
second magnetic assembly. such that a surface of said second magnetic assembly
6. The magnetically augmented rotation system of claim has a second magnetic polarity;
1, wherein said wheel assembly further comprises: an annular groove positioned around a circumference of
said J1rst magnetic assembly being a single magnetic disk 35 said central portion of said wheel assembly;
coupled to said center portion and being aligned such a drive belt for delivering a primary rotational force to
that a surface of said J1rst magnetic assembly has a J1rst said wheel assembly, said drive belt being positioned in
magnetic polarity; said annular groove;
said second magnetic assembly being a single magnetic said magnetic biasing assembly further comprises:
disk coupled to said center portion and being aligned 40 a J1rst linear magnet positioned such that a longitudinal
such that a surface of said second magnetic assembly axis of said J1rst linear magnet being substantially
has a second magnetic polarity. perpendicular with a plane extending radially from a
7. The magnetically augmented rotation system of claim focus of said wheel assembly, said linear magnet
6, further comprising: being positioned in a spaced perpendicular relation-
an annular groove positioned around a circumference of 45 ship with a circumferential edge of said wheel
said central portion of said wheel assembly; assembly;
a drive belt for delivering a primary rotational force to a second linear magnet positioned such that a J1rst end
said wheel assembly, said drive belt being positioned in of said second linear magnet abuts a first end of said
said annular groove; J1rst linear magnet, said second linear magnet being
wherein said magnetic biasing assembly further com- 50 positioned at an oblique angle such that said second
prises: linear magnet rises upwardly and inwardly towards
said J1rst linear magnet being magnetically polarized said J1rst magnetic assembly of said wheel assembly
such that said J1rst end of said first linear magnet has and a second end of said second linear magnet is
a J1rst magnetic polarity and said second end of said adjacent to a surface of said J1rst magnetic assembly;
J1rst linear magnet has a second magnetic polarity; 55 a third linear magnet positioned such that a J1rst end of
said second linear magnet being magnetically polarized said third linear magnet abuts a second end of said
such that said J1rst end of said second linear magnet J1rst linear magnet, said third linear magnet being
having a second magnetic polarity and said second posi tioned at an oblique angle such that said third
end of said second linear magnet having a J1rst linear magnet rises upwardly and inwardly towards
magnetic polarity; 60 said second magnetic assembly of said wheel assem-
said third linear magnet being magnetically polarized bly and a second end of said third linear magnet is
such that said J1rst end of said third linear magnet adjacent to a surface of said second magnetic assem-
having a J1rst magnetic polarity and said second end bly;
of said third linear magnet having a second magnetic wherein said magnetic biasing assembly further com-
polarity; 65 prises:
said second ends of said second and third linear mag- said J1rst linear magnet being magnetically polarized
nets having magnetic polarities corresponding to such that said J1rst end of said first linear magnet
US 6,356,000 Bl
9 10
has a first magnetic polarity and said second end second end of said third linear magnet having a
of said first linear magnet has a second magnetic second magnetic polarity; and
polarity; said second ends of said second and third linear
said second linear magnet being magnetically polar- magnets having magnetic polarities corresponding
ized such that said first end of said second linear 5 to said J1rst and second magnetic assemblies
magnet having a second magnetic polarity and respectively such that a repelling force occurs
said second end of said second linear magnet between said second linear magnet and said J1rst
having a J1rst magnetic polarity; magnetic assembly and between said third linear
said third linear magnet being magnetically polar- magnet and said second magnetic assembly.
ized such that said J1rst end of said third linear 10
magnet having a J1rst magnetic polarity and said * * * * *
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US006396180Bl

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 6,396,180 Bl


Blakesley (45) Date of Patent: May 28, 2002

(54) CONTROL DEVICE USING MAGNETIC 4,877,983 A * 10/1989 Johnson ....................... 310/12
FORCE TO CREATE FORCE VECTOR TO 5,289,071 A * 2/1994 Taghezout .................. 310/254
CONTROL AN OBJECT 5,569,967 A * 10/1996 Rode .......................... 310/103
6,084,322 A * 7/2000 Rounds ....................... 310/46
(76) Inventor: Clarence S. Blakesley, 1141 E. Brian * cited by examiner
Rd., Pahrump, NV (US) 89048
Primary Examiner--Nestor Ramirez
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this Assistant Examiner-Thanh Lam
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.c. 154(b) by 0 days. (57) ABSTRACT
A control device for an object includes a J1rst wheel and a
(21) Appl. No.: 09/875,193 second wheel that rotate in opposite directions on a shaft
affixed to a frame. The J1rst and second wheels have open-
(22) Filed: Jun. 7, 2001
ings to accept magnets that are free to slide up and down in
(51) Int. cl? ................................................ H02K 21/12 the openings. As the wheels rotate, the magnets are urged
(52) U.S. CI ..................... 310/156.08; 310/46; 310/103; outwards due to centrifugal force. The wheels have titanium
310/112 sleeves J1tted around the outer surfaces of the wheels, which
(58) Field of Search ....................... 310/156.08, 156.12, have openings smaller in size than the openings of the
310/156.13, 156.28, 156.29, 156.53, 46, wheels, so as to maintain the magnets within the openings
36, 103, 112, 108, 162 even as the wheels rotate. Solenoid stations are provided
around the wheels, and as a result of magnetic pulses
(56) References Cited provided from at least one of the solenoid stations, in
synchronism with rotation of the wheels, a magnet is urged
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS inwards to a center of the wheel in which it is disposed, to
3,790,833 A * 2/1974 Hasebe ....................... 310/162 thereby result in a force vector that causes movement of the
RE29,165 E * 3/1977 Bode ........................... 310/46 frame to thereby control the object.
4,169,983 A * 10/1979 Felder ......................... 310/46
4,751,486 A * 6/1988 Minato ....................... 335/272 6 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets

105

110A
110B

140

+-__~+o~ __~~
+ 310
320
210

110C
u.s. Patent May 28, 2002 Sheet 1 of 8 US 6,396,180 Bl

FIGURE 1

MOTOR
100
/'

110
u.s. Patent May 28, 2002 Sheet 2 of 8 US 6,396,180 Bl

FIGURE 2

105
MOTOR

110A
110B

------
------ 0
+ 310
320
210

110C
u.s. Patent May 28, 2002 Sheet 3 of 8 US 6,396,180 Bl

0
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en
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u.s. Patent May 28, 2002 Sheet 5 of 8 US 6,396,180 Bl

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u.s. Patent May 28, 2002 Sheet 6 of 8 US 6,396,180 Bl

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u.s. Patent May 28, 2002 Sheet 7 of 8 US 6,396,180 Bl

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u.s. Patent May 28, 2002 Sheet 8 of 8 US 6,396,180 Bl

0 0
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US 6,396,180 B1
1 2
CONTROL DEVICE USING MAGNETIC FIG. 5 is a side view of one of the wheels according to the
FORCE TO CREATE FORCE VECTOR TO first embodiment of the invention;
CONTROL AN OBJECT FIG. 6 is a front on view of a wheel without the titanium
sleeve fitted thereon, according to the first embodiment of
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 5 the invention;

A. Field of the Invention FIG. 7 is a diagram showing the magnetic repelling force
provided by way of a pulsing station, according to the first
The invention relates generally to a control device for embodiment of the invention;
controlling and/or for providing propulsion for various
FIG. 8 is a diagram showing a ceramic magnet that may
devices, such as for controlling an orbit of a satellite in space 10
be utilized in a device according to the first embodiment of
or for controlling a steering of a vehicle or for providing
the invention;
propulsion for the vehicle.
FIG. 9 is a diagram showing the force provided by the
B. Description of the Related Art device according to the first embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 10 is a side view of one of the wheels that is included
Conventional control devices, such as gyroscopes or 15
in a control device according to a second embodiment of the
steering mechanisms, require precise control to perform
invention; and
their functions. Also, conventional propulsion devices are
complex and fairly costly. FIG. 11 is a front on view of a solenoid station according
to a fourth embodiment of the invention.
There is a need to provide a control device that is fairly 20
simple to construct and operate. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC
There is also a need to provide a propulsion device that is EMBODIMENTS
fairly simple to construct and operate. The present invention will be described in detail below,
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION with reference to the accompanying figures.
25 FIG. 1 shows a front view of a control device 100 for
The present invention is directed to a control device, controlling an object, according to the invention. The device
which includes a motor that provides power. The motor is may also be utilized for propulsion or movement of an object
coupled to a first wheel and a second wheel by a pinion/gear from one location to another location. In FIG. 1, there is
arrangement, whereby the first wheel is made to rotate in a provided a motor 105, which is preferably an electric motor
first direction (e.g., clockwise) while the second wheel is 30 that may be powered by a generator, for example. The motor
made to rotate in a second direction (e.g., counterclockwise). 105 is controlled by a computer, not shown. Such a com-
The first and second wheels are coupled to the motor via first puter may be a conventional personal computer, such as one
and second ring gears. The first and second wheels and first powered by an Intel Pentium™ IV chip or anAMK7™ chip,
and second ring gears are coupled to a shaft, which does not for example. The motor 105 may alternatively be powered
rotate. As the wheels rotate in opposite directions, magnetic 35 by batteries, or by AC.
pulses are provided from at least one location, so as to
The motor 105 is mounted onto a frame 110, which is
provide a magnetic force to the wheels at the same time.
made of aluminum alloy in the first embodiment, but which
Each of the wheels has magnets that are 11tted into various
may be made out of any suitable material for holding the
locations within the wheels, whereby the magnets are
various elements making up the control device 100.
capable of sliding up and down within those locations. As 40
the wheels spin, the magnets are urged outwards due to Also shown in FIG. 1 is a 11rst pulsing (or solenoid) station
centrifugal force. The magnetic pulses provided at precise 120 and a second pulsing (or solenoid) station 130, which
instants in time provide a same-polarity force to the provide magnetic pulses at precise instants in time, under
magnets, forcing them inwards to somewhat counteract the control of the computer. The two pUlsing stations 120, 130
centrifugal force due to the spinning of the wheels. This 45
are positioned 180 degrees apart from each other on a top
creates an imbalance in the wheels, whereby that imbalance surface of a bottom plate of the frame 110. The frame 110
can be used to provide control, such as for repositioning a also includes two vertical portions 110A, 11013, which
satellite that has drifted from its proper orbit. extend upwards from the top surface of the bottom plate
110C of the frame 110 (see FIG. 2).
The present invention is also directed to a propulsion
device having elements as described above. 50
A first wheel 140 is shown in FIG. 1, whereby a second
wheel (150, see FIG. 2) is hidden from view in FIG. 1, since
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS it is disposed directly behind the first wheel 140 (with
respect to the front view of FIG. 1). The two wheels 140, 150
The foregoing advantages and features of the invention rotate about a shaft 210.
will become apparent upon reference to the following
FIG. 2 shows a side view of the control device 100
detailed description and the accompanying drawings, of 55
according to a 11rst embodiment of the invention, whereby
which:
the shaft 210 is shown mounted to the frame 110. The two
FIG. 1 is a front view of a control device according to a wheels 140, 150 can be seen in FIG. 2, whereby one wheel
first embodiment of the invention; is caused to rotate in a first direction, e.g., clockwise, while
FIG. 2 is a side view of the control device (as viewed from 60 the other wheel is caused to rotate in a second direction, e.g.,
a pulsing station) according to the first embodiment of the counterclockwise. The two wheels 140, 150 rotate at the
invention; same speed, e.g., 1000 revolutions per minute (rpm), or fixed
FIG. 3 is a view of the elements coupled to the shaft of the a value between 500 rpm and 10,000 rpm.
control device according to the first embodiment of the The wheels 140,150 rotate due to power supplied by way
invention; 65 of the motor 105. The motor 105 is coupled to the two
FIG. 4 is a front on view of a titanium sleeve 11tted onto wheels 140, 150 by a pinion and gear assembly 235, as seen
a wheel, according to the first embodiment of the invention; in FIG. 2. FIG. 3 shows the various elements coupled to the
US 6,396,180 B1
3 4
shaft 210. The first wheel 140 is coupled to a pinion (part of the shaft 210. A hole 520 is provided in the middle of the
the pinion and gear assembly 235) by way of a first ring gear wheel 140 (giving it a somewhat donut shape), which is a
310, which causes the first wheel 140 to rotate in a first region by which the wheel 140 is fitted onto the shaft 210.
direction (due to the rotational force imparted on the first Each wheel 140, 150 is preferably made out of aluminum
ring gear 310 by the pinion). The second wheel 150 is 5 alloy. Alternatively, the wheels 140, 150 may be made out of
coupled to the pinion by way of a second ring gear 320, a hard plastic composition. The size of the wheels 140, 150
which causes the second wheel 150 to rotate in a second may vary, whereby the size of the wheels 140, 150 is
direction opposite the J1rst direction. Alternatively, hypoid determined based on the intended use of the control device
gears or face gears may be utilized instead of ring gears, for 100 and the amount of force required by the control device
translating the power from the motor 105 to cause rotation 10
100 in order to control or to propel an object (which is
of the J1rst and second wheels 140, 150. The pinion and the coupled to the control device 100 so that the control force is
translated to the object so as to control the object). For
gears 310, 320 should preferably have about 4 to 6 thou-
example, a wheel of a size of from 1 inch up to 12 inches or
sandths of an inch play, to provide a good J1t between these
more may be contemplated for providing attitude control of
elements.
15 a satellite. In the J1rst embodiment, each wheel 140, 150 has
The shaft 210 is coupled to the frame 110 by way of nuts four cylindrical regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D provided
350, 360, as seen best in FIGS. 2 and 3. The nuts 350, 360 at 90 degree offset locations, as seen best in FIG. 5. These
rigidly couple the shaft 210 to the frame 110, whereby the regions 525A, 52513, 525C, 525D are locations where four
wheels 140, 150 rotate on the shaft 210 and cause little if any cylindrically-shaped magnets are respectively disposed.
vibration as they rotate. To accomplish this, the wheels 140, 20 FIG. 8 shows a magnet 800 that is sized so that it can be
150 are symmetrical in shape (center of gravity at the center slidably disposed within one of the regions 525A, 52513,
of the wheels 140, 150), thereby providing a balanced set of 525C, 525D of the wheels 140, 150. Preferably, the fit is
wheels 140, 150 that rotate on the shaft 210.
such that there is some amount of play from allowing the
Also shown in FIG. 3 are J1rst and second spacers 370, magnets 800 to slide up and down within the regions 525A,
380, which are provided on the shaft 210 and which are 25 52513, 525C, 525D with little if any friction being imparted
coupled to outer surfaces of the two wheels 140,150. A third on the magnets 800 to hamper their movement. Since two
spacer 385 is also provided between the two ring 310, 320, wheels 140, 150 are utilized in the J1rst embodiment of the
at a location where the pinion couples (by way of a tooth- present invention, eight magnets are used-four per wheel.
to-tooth engagement) to the ring gears 310, 320. FIG. 3 also Preferably, the magnets 800 are ceramic magnets, but other
shows mount gaps 392, 394 which are regions on the shaft 30 types of magnets that are made of a hard material may be
210 where the vertical portions 110A 11013 of the frame 11 0 utilized while remaining within the scope of the invention as
are disposed when the shaft 210 is J1tted onto the frame 210, described herein. A hard material magnet is preferably
as seen best in FIG. 2. In the present invention, a hole is utilized so that it will not wear down due to its sliding up and
provided on each of the vertical portions 11A, 11013 of the down within the regions 525A, 52513, 525C, 525D. This
frame 110, which is sized to accept the shaft 210 when the 35 allows for a long-lasting control device 100.
shaft 210 is J1Ued therein. Tbe shaft 210 is fitted through the The magnets 800 are free to slide up and down within the
holes on the two vertical portions 110A, 11013 of the frame regions 525A, 52513, 525C, 525D, similar to how a piston
110 and is secured to the frame 110 by way of the nuts 350, moves up and down in a cylinder of an internal combustion
360. engine. The regions 525A, 52513, 525C, 525D extend all the
In the present invention, each of the elements that rotate 40 way to the outer peripheral surface of the wheels 140, 150.
on the shaft 210 have bearings, which allow those elements FIG. 6 shows three of the holes 535A, 53513, 535]) (one hole
to turn or rotate relative to the shaft 210 on which they are 535C is not shown since it is blocked from view), which are
disposed. Preferably, the bearings are made out of a very provided on sleeves 833 (to be described in more detail
hard material, such as by utilizing a TACO process to make below). The holes 535A, 53513, 535C, 535]) are sized to be
the bearing of sufficient hardness. Other processes for form- 45 smaller in diameter (e.g., 5% to 50% smaller) than the
ing bearings made of hard material in the present invention diameter of the regions 525A, 52513, 525C, 525D and thus
may be utilized, as are known to those skilled in the art. smaller than the size of the magnets 800 that are disposed
The shaft 210 is preferably made out of steel, to provide within the regions 525A, 52513, 525C, 525D.
strong support for the control device 100 according to the The regions 525A, 52513, 525C, 525D also preferably
present invention. Other hard metal compositions may alter- 50 have titanium or brass sidewalls, which allow the magnets
natively be utilized for forming the shaft 210. 800 to readily slide up and down within the regions 525A,
An important feature of the invention is the structure of 52513, 525C, 525D, while not providing any magnetic J1eld.
the wheels 140, 150. FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 show various views The sidewalls are preferably from 5 to 100 thousandths of an
of the wheels 140, 150, which make up part of the wheel/ inch in thickness. FIG. 5 shows sidewalls 505 for regions
sleeve conJ1guration 610. The wheel/sleeve conJ1guration 55 525A, whereby the other regions 52513, 525C, 525D also
610 is included in the control device 100 according to the preferably have titanium or brass sidewalls.
invention so as to provide control of an object, such as Once the magnets 800 are inserted into the regions 525A,
control of a satellite or control of an airplane or a vehicle 52513, 525C, 525D of the wheels 140, 150, a sleeve 833 is
(e.g., steering control). Alternatively or additionally, the then fitted onto the outer surface of each of the wheels 140,
control device 100 may be operable as a propulsion device 60 150, whereby two sleeves 833 as required (one for each
for providing movement of an object. The wheels 140, 150 wheel). Each sleeve 833 is made out of a hard metal
are preferably made out of an aluminum alloy. composition, such as titanium, brass or graphite (similar to
Referring now to FIG. 5, one wheel 140 of the control the composition of the sidewalls 505). The sleeve 833 is
device 100 is shown, whereby the other wheel 150 of the formed as a circular band, with a narrow thickness (e.g., Y4
control device 100 has a similar construction. The wheel 140 65 to Y2 inch thickness).
has a ring gear portion 510 (with not shown teeth that engage The sleeve 833 has four holes 535A, 535B, 535C, 535D
teeth on the pinion), which allows the wheel 140 to rotate on provided 90 degrees apart from each other, so as to be
US 6,396,180 B1
5 6
co-located with the cylindrical regions 525A, 525B, 525C, magnets 800, the magnets are maintained within the regions
525D of the wheels 140, 150. FIG. 4 shows a side view of 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D.
the sleeve 833, and FIG. 6 shows a side view of the sleeve When the wheels 140, 150 are rotating and with no pulses
833 fitted onto the wheel 140. Since the holes 535A, 535B, being output by the pulsing stations 120, 130, an equilibrium
535C, 535D of the sleeve 833 are sized to be smaller than 5 state is achieved, whereby each of the magnets 800 (and
the diameter of the magnets 800, the magnets 800 are their corresponding masses in each wheel 140, 150) move
prevented from exiting from their respective cylindrical outwards, but in a symmetrical manner (since there are four
regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 5251) in which they are disposed magnets 800 spaced 90 degrees apart within each of the
when the wheels 140, 150 rotate. The centrifugal force wheels 140, 150).
caused by wheel spinning results in a force vector that urges 10 In order to provide control of an object, pulses are
the magnets 140, 150 outwards to thereby want to exit out provided (under control of the computer) to one of the
of the regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D of the wheels 140,
pulsing stations 120, 130, in order to create a desired force
150. vector. For example, magnetic pulses may be provided at the
The titanium or brass sidewalls 505 disposed on the left side station 120 shown in FIG. 1, whereby those pulses
regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D of the wheels 140, 1500 15 are of a particular polarity (e.g., that create aN-polarized
are preferably micro-finished, to allow the magnets 800 to magnetic field at the pulsing station 120) This results in a
move up and down within those regions 525A, 525B, 525C, force vector urging the magnet 800 facing the solenoid
5251) with little if any friction counteracting that movement. station 120 to move away from the solenoid station 120,
With the magnets 800 in place within the regions 525A, since the surface of the magnet 800 facing the solenoid
525B, 525C, 525D, the sleeves 833 are fitted around the 20 station 120 is of the same polarity as the pulse emitted by the
wheels 140, 150, preferably by a press fitting process. Two solenoid station 120. The repelling force provided by the
sleeves are required-one per wheel. N-N magnetic fields is made so as to be slightly stronger
The band-shaped sleeves 833 are sized to be slightly than the centrifugal force that is acting to urge the magnets
larger in size than the diameter of the wheels 140, 150 (e.g., 800 outwards. The centrifugal force is proportional to the
1 to 5 thousandths of an inch larger). When the sleeves 833 25 rotational rate of the wheels 140, 150, and the magnetic field
are fitted around the wheels 140, 150, they are then subjected strength output by the pulses of the pulsing station 120 is
to heat (e.g., 800 to 1000 degrees C.), and then allowed to determined accordingly. One of ordinary skill in the art can
cool (to room temperature for 1 to 4 hours), to thereby obtain readily determine the necessary magnetic field force needed
a press fit of the sleeve 833 around each wheel 140, 150. to accomplish this.
That way, the sleeves 833 are firmly fitted in place around 30 A'isume that the magnets 800 are inserted into the regions
the wheels 140, 150, whereby they are placed such that the 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D of the wheels 140, 150 such that
four holes 535A, 535B, 535C, 535D of the sleeves 833 and the North pole surface of each of the magnets 800 is facing
the cylindrical regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D of the outwards, and whereby the South pole surface of each of the
wheels 140, 150 are aligned (see FIG. 5, for example, magnets 800 is facing the shaft 210. Now, assume that the
showing such an alignment). 35 wheels 140, 150 are each rotating at a rate of 1000 rpm. In
In the present invention, one wheel 140 rotates clockwise that case, pulses are applied to the left-side pulsing station
and one wheel 150 rotates counterclockwise. The wheels 120 (with respect to the front view of FIG. 1) at a rate of
140, 150 rotate in synchronism at the same frequency and 4000 rpm, in synchronism with the rotation of the wheels
in-phase, thereby forming a stable control device 100. The 40 140, 150. As a result, as each pulse is output from the
oppositely rotating wheels 140, 150 provides for a stable left-side pulsing station 120, that pulse is output at the same
control device 100, while also allowing for the control time a magnet 800 passes across the left-side pulsing station
device 100 to precisely control an object such as a satellite 120 (e.g., the left-side pulsing station 120 directly faces one
or a steering mechanism for a motor vehicle. The control of the cylindrical regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D of the
device 100 can also be used to propel an object. 45 wheels 140, 150 as shown in FIG. 4 at the instant the pulse
Referring back to FIGS. 1 and 2, the control device 100 is output). Each pulse is output to create a magnetic field
of the present invention also includes two pulsing or sole- having the same polarity as the polarity of the surface of the
noid stations 120, 130, which are disposed 180 degrees apart magnet 800 facing the left-side pulsing station 120. This
from each other on the bottom portion HOC of the frame 100 creates a repelling force between the pUlsing station 120 and
of the control device 100. The wheels 140, 150 are posi- 50 the magnet 800. Since the pulsing station 120 is fixed in
tioned between the pulsing stations 120, 130. Each pulsing position on the frame 110, and since the magnet 800 is not
station 120, 130 includes a coil (wire windings) and is fixed but instead can slide within the cylindrical region
capable of outputting pulses that have a magnetic field 525A, the N-N repelling force causes the magnet 800 to
associated with them. The pulses are outputted at a con- move away from the pulsing station 120 and thereby move
trolled rate, based on control signals provided to the pulsing 55 further in the cylindrical region 525A.
stations 120, 130 from the computer. Ibe computer also Alternatively, if the magnets 800 are disposed within the
controls the rpm of the motor that is providing the power to cylindrical regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D such that their
cause the wheels 140, 150 to rotate at a precise rate. surface facing the pulsing stations 120, 130 has South (S)
A'S the wheels 140, 150 rotate, the respective magnets 800 polarity, the pulses emitted by the pulsing stations would
within the wheels 140, 150 are urged outwards to the 60 create a S polarity magnetic field to achieve the desired
outermost ends of their cylindrical openings 525A, 525B, repelling force.
525C, 525D due to the centrifugal force caused by the As a result of the repelling force, the weight distribution
rotation of the wheels 140,150. This causes the magnets 800 of the wheels 140, 150 with respect to the shaft 210 is no
to impact an inner surface of the sleeves 833 fitted around longer symmetric, but is changed such that the weight
the wheels, 140, 150. However, since the sleeves 833 are 65 distribution is more towards the right side of the wheels 140,
press HUed onto the wheels 140, 150, and since the holes 150 than to the left side of the wheels 140, 150. This occurs
535A, 535B, 535C, 535D are smaller than the size of the because one of the four magnets 800 on each of the wheels
US 6,396,180 B1
7 8
140, 150 that faces the left-side solenoid 120 has been The magnets 910 are Hxed in position at one end of each
pushed inwards (towards the shaft 210), while the other of the regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D. The magnets 910
three magnets 800 on each of the wheels 140, 150 are at the have an outer-facing surface with a polarity of opposite
outermost portions of their respective regions 525A, 525B, polarity to a nearest-facing surface of the magnet 800. This
525C, 525D within the wheels 140, 150 (and thereby 5 results in an attraction force that helps pull the magnets 800
pushing against the sleeve 833) due to the centrifugal force towards the center of the wheels 140, 150, thereby providing
caused by the rotation of the wheels 140, 150. FIG. 7 shows better balance of the wheels 140, 150 as they rotate.
an arrow 830 which denotes the direction that the magnet
The magnets 910 are locked in place within the regions
800 moves due to the N-N repelling force.
525A, 52513, 525C, 5251) by a lockdown element 920,
FIG. 9 shows a phantom force rotation path 935 that is 10
which is preferably made of brass or titanium. The North-
obtained due to the North-polarity pulse being incident on
the North-polarity surface of the magnet 800, which pushes South facing adjacent surfaces of the magnets 800, 910
the magnet 800 away from the pulsing station 120. Since the results in a force vector that urges the magnets 800 towards
wheels 140, 150 are rotating on the shaft 210 that is afi1xed the magnets 910. As the wheels 140, 150 rotate, the cen-
to the frame 110, this force is translated to the frame 110 to 15 trifugal force causes the magnets 800 to want to move away
thereby cause movement of the frame 110 (in a direction in from the magnets 910, and when the pulses from one of the
which the magnet 800 is repelled), and thus to cause solenoid stations 120, 130 are incident on the magnets 800,
movement of an object coupled to the frame 110 by an the repelling force that results pushes the magnets 800 back
amount shown by the dilTerence between the wheel position towards the magnets 910.
140 shown in FIG. 9 and the phantom force rotational path FIG. 10 also shows the sleeves 833 that are Htted around
935. 20 each of the wheels 140, 150, to prevent the magnets 800

Since the wheel 140 rotates around the shaft 210, the shaft from exiting the regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D. Also
210 is also urged in the same direction. Since the shaft 210 shown in FIG. 10 is a core of the solenoid station 120 that
is Htted onto the frame 110 by way of the vertical portions is used to create a magnetic Held, which is imparted onto the
110A, 110B of the frame 110, the frame 110 is also urged in 25 pulses output by the solenoid station 120.
that same direction. In an alternative configuration, the wheels 140, 150 rotate
A weight distribution change occurs on each wheel 140, co-planar with the top surface of the bottom portion 110C of
150, by way of the pulsing station 120 providing pulses at the frame 110 (as opposed to rotating along a plane perpen-
precise instants in time to thereby affect the magnets 800 dicular with respect to the bottom portion 110C of the frame
disposed in each wheel 140, 150. This causes the frame 110, 30 100), whereby four pulsing stations ( or more) can be pro-
which may be coupled to a gimbal of a satellite, for example, vided around the wheels 140, 150. This allows for control of
to move in a precise amount and in a precise direction in an object along any radial x,y radial direction, and not just
order to correct an orbit drift of a satellite that is orbi ting the in a forward and backwards direction between the two
Earth. In the present invention, the magnets 800 have a mass pulsing stations 120, 130 as in the first embodiment
and the pulsing stations 120, 130 emit a magnetic Held of an 35 described earlier.
amount to cause the magnets 800 to move a few tenths of an In a third embodiment, the pulsing stations 120, 130 are
inch within the regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D. One of turned on to emit a continuous magnetic Held as soon as the
ordinary skill in the art would readily be able to determine control device 100 is activated. This results in an equilib-
the needed magnetic Held strength to accomplish this rium state with respect to the wheels 140, 150, since the
amount of movement, based on the mass of the magnets 800 40 repelling forces caused by the pulsing stations 120, 130
being moved and the rotational rate of the wheels 140, 150 being on at the same time counteract each other. That is, a
(e.g., 500 to 1000 gauss magnetic Held for 5 ounce magnets magnet 800 on one side of the wheels 140, 150 is pushed
800 that are disposed in wheels 140, 150 rotating at 1500 inwards from pulsing station 120, while a magnet on the
rpm). other side of the wheels 140, 150 is also pushed inwards
In the example provided above, the computer controls 45 from pulsing station 130.
both the rotation speed of the wheels 140, 150, as well as the To cause movement or control of an object in a particular
pulsing rate and magnetic strength output by the pulsing direction in the third embodiment, one of the pulsing stations
stations 120, 130. Only one pulsing station 120, 130 at a time 120, 130 is turned off, which results in movement of the
would output pulses, to cause control (or movement) of an frame 110 in the direction of the pulsing station that has been
object in one direction. 50 turned off.
Due to the use of magnetic force caused by pulsing, there Furthermore, instead of turning off a pulsing station to
is no mass (e.g., no piston or other object) directly provided achieve a desired force vector, a pulsing station may be
to the wheels 140, 150. In the present invention, by utilizing moved away from the wheels 140, 150, such as by pivotably
a magnetic repelling force, a force vector of a particular mounting the pulsing stations to the frame 100. With such a
strength and direction is provided by way of the control 55 pivotable coupling, a pulsing station may be pivoted away
device 100 of the present invention. This force vector can be from the wheels 140, 150, to thereby remove the repelling
used to control an object, or to propel an object. force on the wheels 140, 150 for that pulsing station, while
FIG. 10 shows a second embodiment of the invention, in maintaining the magnetic field of the pivoted pulsing station
which another magnet 910 is disposed within each of the in an ON state.
cylindrical regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D of the wheels 60 FIG. 11 shows a solenoid station 1100 that is included in
140,150. Unlike the magnet 800, the magnet 910 does not a control device (or propulsion device) according to a fourth
move within the regions 525A, 525B, 525C, 525D, and can embodiment of the invention. The solenoid station 1100
be any type of magnet (since wearing out of the magnet is according to the fourth embodiment includes a magnetic
not an issue due to the magnet 910 does not occur due to the ring 1120 that surrounds a solenoid 1110. The solenoid 1110
magnet 910 being Hxed in position within the bottom 65 has windings provided around it, similar to the solenoids
portions of the regions 525A, 52513, 525C, 525D of the used in the solenoid stations of the first, second and third
wheels 140, 150). embodiments. The solenoid station 1100 according to the
US 6,396,180 B1
9 10
fourth embodiment requires less power (less current openings of the first and second wheels, to thereby
required) to operate than the solenoid stations of the first and create a weight distribution change in the first and
second embodiments. In the fourth embodiment, both the second wheels that is used to provide a force vector that
magnetic ring 1120 and the solenoid 1110 provide a mag- is used to control the object.
netic field, which is used to repel magnets 800 disposed 5 2. The control device according to claim 1, wherein the
within wheels 140, 150 that are rotating adjacent to the frame has a bottom surface and two vertical surfaces with at
solenoid station. The solenoid station 1100 may be used least one opening on each of the two vertical surfaces,
instead of the solenoid stations 120, 130 of the first, second the control device further comprising:
and third embodiments, to thereby provide a control device at least two nuts for coupling the shaft to the frame
that requires less power to operate. 10
when the shaft is fitted within the openings of the
frame.
Also, while the present invention has been described as 3. The control device according to claim 2, wherein the
having four magnets per wheel, other numbers of magnets frame moves in a direction of the second pulsing station as
per wheel may be contemplated while remaining within the a result of the weight distribution change of the first and
scope of the invention, such as having as little as two 15 second wheels, to thereby providing the force vector to the
magnets (and corresponding cylindrical regions) per wheel object to be controlled.
to as much as 16 magnets per wheel (or perhaps more, 4. The control device according to claim 2, wherein the
depending on the device to be controlled and the degree of first pulsing station outputs a second pulse at a second
preciseness of the control needed). The only requirement is instant in time, which creates a magnetic field at the first
that the computer has to provide the proper control signals 20 pulsing station of the same polarity as the polarity of the
to the solenoid stations in order to provide the magnetic nearest surface of the second and fourth magnets.
pulses at the precise instants in time to magnets disposed 5. A control device for an object, comprising:
within the rotating wheels.
a frame;
For example, if only back-forth control or propulsion is a shaft mounted on the frame;
needed, then only two oppositely-positioned solenoid sta-
a first wheel that rotates around the shaft in a first
tions would be required. Also, in that case, wheels having 25
direction, the first wheel having at least two openings
only two magnets (respectively disposed in two cylindrical
that extend from an outer peripheral surface of the first
regions) could be utilized.
wheel inwards;
Thus, a control device and a propulsion device has been
a second wheel that rotates around the shaft in a second
described according to the present invention. Many modi- 30
direction opposite to the first direction, the second
fications and variations may be made to the techniques and
wheel having at least two openings that extend to from
structures described and illustrated herein without departing
an outer peripheral surface of the first wheel inwards;
from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, it
a motor which provides force to cause the first and second
should be understood that the methods and apparatuses
wheels to rotate;
described herein are illustrative only and are not limiting
upon the scope of the invention.
35 first and second magnets respectively provided in the at
What is claimed is: least two openings of the first wheel;
1. A control device for controlling an object, comprising: third and fourth magnets respective provided in the at
a frame; least two openings of the second wheel; and
first and second pulsing stations that output pulses having
a shaft mounted to the frame; 40 magnetic 11elds associated therewith,
a first wheel that rotates around the shaft in a first
wherein the first pulsing station is operative to output a
direction, the first wheel having at least two openings
first pulse at a first instant in time that creates a
on an outer peripheral surface thereof;
magnetic field at the first pulsing station of a same
a second wheel that rotates around the shaft in a second polarity as a polarity of a nearest surface of the first and
direction opposite to the first direction, the second 45 third magnets.
wheel having at least two openings on an outer periph-
wherein the first instant in time is a time when the first
eral surface thereof;
magnet on the first wheel and the third magnet on the
a motor that provides force to cause the first and second second wheel are passing in front of the first pulsing
wheels to rotate; station, and
first and second magnets respectively provided in the at 50 wherein a repelling force is provided to thereby urge the
least two openings of the first wheel; first and third magnets inwards within the respective
third and fourth magnets respectively provided in the at openings of the first and second wheels, to thereby
least two openings of the second wheel; and create a weight distribution change in the first and
first and second pulsing stations that output pulses having 55 second wheels that is used to provide a force vector that
magnetic fields associated therewith, is used to control the object.
wherein the first pulsing station is operative to output a 6. A control device for controlling an object, comprising:
first pulse at a first instant in time that creates a a frame having a bottom plate and two vertical plates
magnetic field at the first pulsing station of a same extending upwards from the bottom plate;
polarity as a polarity of a nearest surface of the first and 60 a shaft that is fitted through holes of the two vertical
third magnets, plates, wherein the shaft is held in place onto the frame
wherein the first instant in time is a time when the first as a result;
magnet on the first wheel and the third magnet on the a first wheel that rotates around the shaft in a first
second wheel are passing in front of the first pulsing direction, the first wheel having at least two openings;
station, and 65 a second wheel that rotates around the shaft in a second
wherein a repelling force is provided to thereby urge the direction opposite to the 11rst direction, the second
first and third magnets inwards within the respective wheel having at least two openings;
US 6,396,180 B1
11 12
means for causing the first and second wheels to rotate; associated therewith, having a same polarity as a polar-
first and second magnets respectively provided in the at ity of a surface of the first through fourth magnets
least two openings of the first wheel; facing the first and second pulsing stations, and
third and fourth magnets respectively provided in the at wherein a repelling force is provided to thereby urge the
least two openings of the first wheel; and 5 first through fourth magnets away from the one of the
first and second pulsing stations provided on the bottom first and second pulsing stations, at different instants in
plate of the frame and oppositely positioned with time, to thereby cause a weight distribution change in
respect to each other, wherein the first and second the first and second wheels that is used to move the
wheels are disposed between the first and second 10 frame and thereby create a force vector used to control
pulsing stations, the object.
wherein one of the first and second pulsing stations is
operative to output pulses having a magnetic field * * * * *
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US006851534B2

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 6,851,534 B2


Hock et ai. (45) Date of Patent: Feb. 8,2005

(54) AXIAL SETTING DEVICE WITH A 5,713,445 A * 2/1998 Davis et al. .................. 192/35
SWITCHING COUPLING INCORPORATED 5,810,141 A * 9/1998 Organek et al. .............. 192/35
INTO THE DRIVE RE36,502 E * 1/2000 Organek et al. .............. 192/35
6,302,251 B1 * 10/2001 Fair ct al. ..................... 192/35
(75) Inventors: Michael Hock, Neunkirchen-Seelscheid 6,666,315 B2 * 12/2003 Organek et al. ........... 192/84.7
6,691,845 B2 * 2/2004 Showalter .................... 192/35
(DE); Klaus Matzschker, Neunkirchen
(DE)
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
(73) A'isignee: GKN Automotive GmbH (DE) AI' 004939 lJl 1/2002
DE 3815225 C2 11/1989
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this DE 3909112 C2 9/1990
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.c. 154(b) by 161 days. * cited by examiner
(21) Appl. No.: 10/273,087
Primary Examiner-David M. Fenstermacher
(22) Filed: Oct. 17, 2002
(57) ABSTRACT
(65) Prior Publication Data
US 2003/0089185 A1 May 15,2003
An axial setting device comprising two plates (24, 29) which
are relatively rotatable and coaxially supported relative to
(30) Foreign Application Priority Data one another and between which balls are guided in pairs of
ball grooves (34, 39) in the plates (24, 29), with the depth of
Oct. 20, 2001 (DE) ......................................... 101 51 960
said pairs of ball grooves (34, 39) being circumferentially
(51) Int. CI? ................................................ F16D 13/04 variable; of the plates (24, 29), one is axially supported and
(52) U.S. CI. ........................ 192/35; 192/84.7; 192/48.2 one is axially displaceable against the elastic returning
(58) Field of Search ......................... 192/84.7, 35, 48.2 forces of spring means; at least one of the plates (24, 29) is
drivable via a driveline by a driving motor (11). Within the
(56) References Cited driveline, between the driving motor (11) and the drivable
plates (24, 29), there is inserted a switching coupling (83).
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
5,620,072 A * 4/1997 Engle .......................... 192/35 12 Claims, 6 Drawing Sheets
u.s. Patent Feb. 8,2005 Sheet 1 of 6 US 6,851,534 B2

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u.s. Patent Feb. 8,2005 Sheet 2 of 6 US 6,851,534 B2
u.s. Patent Feb. 8,2005 Sheet 3 of 6 US 6,851,534 B2
u.s. Patent Feb. 8,2005 Sheet 4 of 6 US 6,851,534 B2
u.s. Patent Feb. 8,2005 Sheet 5 of 6 US 6,851,534 B2

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u.s. Patent Feb. 8,2005 Sheet 6 of 6 US 6,851,534 B2

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US 6,851,534 B2
1 2
AXIAL SETTING DEVICE WITH A also further masses of the drive line, are disconnected from
SWITCHING COUPLING INCORPORATED the abutting drivable plate in the sense that the de-energised
INTO THE DRIVE motor or, optionally, the electrically braked motor can
continue to rotate without there being mechanical overloads.
5 In this context, it should be taken into account that, as a rule,
TECHNI CAL FIELD the object is to achieve the quickest possible return
movement, irrespective of whether such a return movement
The invention relates to an axial setting device comprising
is effected actively by the driving motor or, if the driving
two plates which are relatively rotatable and coaxially motor is de-energized, merely by the returning force of the
supported relative to one another and between which balls 10 spring mechanism and by the ramp effect of the ball grooves.
are guided in pairs of ball grooves in the plates, with the According to a first embodiment, the switching coupling
depth of the pairs of ball grooves being circumferentially is effectively incorporated between a motor shaft of the
variable. One of the plates is axially supported and one is driving motor and a coupling shaft. According to a second
axially displace able against elastic retuming forces of a embodiment, the switching coupling is effectively inserted
spring mechanism. At least one of the plates is drivable via between two gearwheels of an intermediate shaft of the
a driveline by a driving motor. 15 driveline, of which one is connected to the intermediate shaft
in a rotationally fast way, with the other one being rotatably
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
supported on the intermediate shaft. According to a third
One rotatingly driven plate can, at the same time, consti- embodiment, the switching coupling is inserted between the
tute the axially displaceable one, but this would be an drivable one of the plates and a gearwheel or tooth segment
exception. Normally, the supported plate is rotatingly driven 20 serving for driving the drivable one of the plates. The
and the axially displaceable plate which, in turn, is sup- reduction in the masses to be braked and thus in the
ported via the balls on the supported plate is held in a momentum when the balls abut the groove ends becomes
rotationally fast way. more effective from embodiment to embodiment.
For actuating the axial setting device, the driving motor is According to a first method according to the present
driven in a first direction of rotation. The at least one plate 25 invention for returning purposes, the driving motor, from the
coupled to the driving motor via reduction stages of the start, is disconnected from the device by the switching
driveline is rotated, and the displaceable plate, which, in coupling in accordance with the invention. The rotatable
turn, axially supports itself on the axially supported plate is plate is turned back from the axially displaceable plate by
axially displaced against elastic returning forces of the the above-mentioned functions of the sprinb<Y mechanism and
30
spring mechanism. ball grooves. When the rotatable plate abuts, the discon-
The balls which, in pairs of ball grooves, rest against end nected motor shaft with the rotor mass can continue to rotate
stops and which, at the same time, are positioned there in the freely, and the way in which the motor shaft is eventually
deepest groove portions are caused, by the relative rotation braked is not significant. The motor shaft is kept completely
of the plates relative to one another, to move towards flatter 35 free from the delaying momentum of the rotatingly drivable
groove portions, as a result of which the plates push each plate.
other away from one another. According to a second method, the device is actively
If the driving motor is driven in the opposite direction or returned by the driving motor, in which case the axially
de-energised, the elastic returning force of the spring mecha- displace able plate only axially follows the rotatingly driven
nism acting on the displaceable plate causes the latter to be 40 plate. When the stops are reached and when the rotatingly
pushed back and the at least one rotatingly drivable plate is drivable plate is stopped, the motor shaft with the rotor mass
rotated backwards, either actively by the driving motor or and, optionally, further parts of rotational masses of the
due to the effect of the spring mechanism by way of the balls driveline can simultaneously be disconnected by the inven-
in the ball grooves until the balls in their pairs of ball tive switching coupling.
grooves simultaneously abut the end stops. As a result of the 45 Other advantages and features of the invention will also
balls abutting the ends of the ball grooves, the rotating become apparent upon reading the following detailed
masses of this system, i.e. the rotatable one of the plates, the description and appended claims, and upon reference to the
gears of the drive line and the motor shaft of the driving accompanying drawings.
motor with the rotor mass are stopped abruptly. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The elastic deformation of the motor shaft caused by 50
For a more complete understanding of this invention,
stopping the rotating masses so abruptly can lead to tooth
reference should now be made to the embodiments illus-
fracture at the pinion or at the gear set because the force
trated in greater detail in the accompanying drawings and
impact points in the too things move outwards due to the
described below by way of examples of the invention.
bending of the motor shaft, as a result of which the pinion
or the gear set are subjected to loads which can exceed the 55 In the drawings:
design loads. FIG. 1 shows an inventive device in a first embodiment
with a switching coupling arranged on the shaft of the
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION driving motor.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide FIG. 2 shows the driving motor with the switching
a design which is capable of accommodating in a damage- 60 coupling according to FIG. 1 in the form of a detail.
free way the momentum generated as a result of the rotating FIG. 3 shows the inventive device in a second embodi-
masses being braked when the balls abut the ends of the ball ment with a switching coupling on an intermediate shaft.
grooves. The objective is achieved in that the present FIG. 4 shows the switching coupling on the intermediate
invention provides a switching coupling inserted between shaft in the form of a detail.
the driving motor and the drivable one of the plates. 65 FIG. 5 shows an inventive device in a third embodiment
The switching coupling of the present invention ensures with a switching coupling arranged in the drive of the first
that at least the motor shaft with the rotor mass, and possibly ramp plate.
US 6,851,534 B2
3 4
FIG. 6 shows the drive of the first ramp plate in the form 19, in turn, engages the tooth segment 22 which is firmly
of an enlarged detail. connected to a first plate 24 of the setting device. By way of
a needle bearing 23, the plate 24 is rotatably supported on a
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF 11m projection of a cover 25 on which it is axially supported by
INVENTION 5 way of an axial bearing 26, a plate 27 and a securing ring 28.
FIGS. 1 and 2 will be described jointly below. They show The plate 24 cooperates with a further plate 29 which is
a first axial setting device in accordance with an embodi- slidingly supported on a projection of the plate 24 and
ment of the invention in a mounted condition. A driving which, by way of an axial bearing 30 and a disc 31, is
motor 11 is shown as provided with a motor shaft 12 and supported via pressure springs 33 on the cover 25. The plate
with a motor housing 13 in which the motor shaft 12 is 10 31 acts on pressure pins 32 which are positioned in the
supported twice. A coupling housing 81 in which there is pressure springs 33. The pressure pins 32 form the direct
supported a coupling shaft 82 is fixed to the motor housing setting members of the device. The surfaces of the plates 24,
13. A first plate 84 of an electro-magnetic switching cou- 29, which face one another, are provided with pairs of
pling 83 is secured to the motor shaft 12 by way of a feather grooves 34, 39 whose depth varies across the circumference
key 85. A second plate 86 of the electro-magnetic switching 15 and in which there rnn balls 35 held in a ball cage 36. The
coupling 83 is secured to the coupling shaft 82 by way of a plate 29 comprises a radial projection 37 with a guiding claw
feather key 87. On the coupling shaft 82 there is secured by 38. The guiding claw 38 slides in a longitudinally displace-
way of a pin 16 a shaft journal 14 which forms a driving able way on a holding pin 40 which is flrmly inserted into
pinion 15. The coupling housing 81 is inserted into a a bore 55 in a housing wall 56 and which, in this way, holds
centering bore 51 in a housing wall 52. Ibe free end of the 20 the axially displace able plate 29 in a rotationally fast way.
shaft journal 14 is supported by a needle bearing 21 in a FIGS. 5 and 6 will be described jointly below. They show
housing wall 54. A bearing journal 18 is inserted into a a third embodiment of an axial setting device in accordance
further bore 53 in the housing wall 52. On the bearing with the invention in a mounted condition. A driving motor
journal 18, there is rotatably supported a sleeve pinion 19 by 11 is shown to be provided with a motor shaft 12 and with
way of two needle bearings 41, 42. A larger gearwheel 20 25 a motor housing 13 in which the motor shaft 12 is supported
which, by way of its gear rim, engages the pinion 15 is twice. The motor housing 13 is inserted into a centering bore
pressed on to the sleeve pinion 19. The sleeve pinion 19, in 51 in a housing wall 52. On the motor shaft 12 there is
turn, engages a tooth segment 22 which is firmly connected secured by way of a pin 16 a shaft journal 14 which forms
to a first plate 24 of the setting device. By way of a needle a driving pinion 15. A bearing journal 18 is inserted into a
bearing 23, the plate 24 is rotatably supported on a projec- 30 further bore 53 in the housing wall 52. A sleeve pinion 19 is
tion of a cover 25 on which it is axially supported by way rotatably supported on the bearing journal 18 by way of two
of an axial bearing 26, a plate 27 and a securing ring 28. The needle bearings 41, 42. A larger gearwheel 20 is pressed on
plate 24 cooperates with a further plate 29 which is slidingly to the sleeve pinion 19 and, by way of its rim gear, engages
supported on a projection of the plate 24 and which is the pinion 15. The sleeve pinion 19, in turn, engages a
supported on the cover 25 by way of an axial bearing 30 and 35 gearwheel 22 which, via a switching coupling 83, can be
a plate 31 via pressure springs 33. The plate 31 acts on connected to a first plate 24 of the setting device. A first plate
pressure pins 32 inserted into the pressure springs 33. The 84 of the electro-magnetic switching coupling 83 is firmly
pressure pins 32 form the direct setting members of the connected to the gearwheel 22, and a second plate 86 of the
device. The surfaces of the plates 24, 29, which face one electro-magnetic switching coupling 83 is welded to the first
another, are provided with pairs of grooves 34, 39 whose 40 plate 24 of the setting device. The first plate 84 of the
depth varies across the circumference and in which there run switching coupling and the plate 24 are rotatably supported
balls 35 held in a ball cage 36. The plate 29 comprises a via a needle bearing 23, 23' each on a projection of a cover
radial projection 37 with a guiding claw 38. The guiding 25 on which they are axially supported by way of an axial
claw 38 slides in a longitudinally displaceable way on a bearing 26, a plate 27 and a securing ring 28. The plate 24
holding pin 40 which is firmly inserted into a bore 55 in a 45 cooperates with a further plate 29 which is slidingly sup-
housing wall 56 and which, in this way, holds the axially ported on a projection of the plate 24 and which, by way of
displace able plate 29 in a rotationally fast way. an axial bearing 30 and a disc 31, is supported via pressure
FIGS. 3 and 4 will be described jointly below. They show springs 33 on the cover 25. The plate 31 acts on pressure
a second embodiment of an axial setting device in accor- pins 32 which are positioned in the pressure springs 33. The
dance with the invention in a mounted condition. A driving 50 pressure pins 32 form the direct setting members of the
motor 11 is shown to be provided with a motor shaft 12 and device. The surfaces of the plates 24, 29, which face one
with a motor housing 13 in which the motor shaft 12 is another, are provided with pairs of grooves 34, 39 whose
supported twice. The motor housing 13 is inserted into a depth varies across the circumference and in which there run
centering bore 51 in a housing wall 52. On the motor shaft balls 35 held in a ball cage 36. The plate 29 comprises a
12, there is secured by way of a pin 16, a shaft journal 14 55 radial projection 37 with a guiding claw 38. The guiding
which forms a driving pinion 15. A bearing journal 18 is claw 38 slides in a longitudinally displaceable way on a
inserted into a further bore 53 in the housing wall 52. A holding pin 40 which is firmly inserted into a bore 55 in a
sleeve pinion 19 is rotatably supported on the bearing housing wall 56 and which, in this way, holds the axially
journal 18 by way of two needle bearings 41, 42. A larger displaceable plate 29 in a rotationally fast way.
gearwheel 20 is rotatably supported on the sleeve pinion 19. 60 The following applies to all three embodiments:
Furthermore, an electro-magnetic switching coupling 83 is When the driving motor 11 is driven for the purpose of
positioned on the sleeve pinion 19. A first plate 84 of an positively setting the device, the electric switching coupling
electro-magnetic switching coupling 83 is secured by pins 83 is energised and thus closed. Driving the driving motor 11
90, 91 on the gearwheel 20, with a second plate 86 of the thus causes the plate 24 to rotate, with the balls 35 moving
electro-magnetic switching coupling 83 being secured by a 65 from deeper ball groove regions to flatter ball groove regions
feather key 87 on the sleeve pinion 19. The gearwheel 20, by in both plates, the result being that the second plate 29 is
way of its gear rim, engages the pinion 15. The sleeve pinion axially displaced on the projection of the plate 24 against the
US 6,851,534 B2
5 6
returning force of the springs 33. The cover 25 normally with the depth of said pairs of ball grooves being
forms part of the clutch carrier of a locking clutch, such as circunferentially variable, one of the plates being axi-
a locking clutch for locking a differential drive. According ally supported and one of the plates being axially
to first variant for returning the device, the driving motor 11 displaceable against elastic returning forces of a spring
is driven in the opposite direction of rotation, so that the 5 mechanism, and at least one of the plates being drivable
plate 24 is rotated in such a way that the balls move from the via a drive line by a driving motor; and
flatter ball groove regions into the deeper ball groove a switching coupling within a driveline between the
regions. The plate 29 follows axially under the influence of driving motor and the drivable one of the plates.
the pressure springs 33 until the balls reach the end stops in 2. A device according to claim 1, wherein the switching
the ball grooves which, at the same time, form the deepest 10
coupling is incorporated between a motor shaft of the
ball groove regions. The abrupt braking of the plate 24 and driving motor and a coupling shaft.
3. A device according to claim 1, wherein the switching
thus of the gearwheel 20, which happens as a result, can
coupling is elIectively inserted between two gears of an
therefore be prevented from affecting the driving motor 11,
intermediate shaft of the drive line, wherein one of the gears
as the electric switching coupling is opened at the same time, is connected to the intermediate shaft in a rotationally fixed
so that the rotor mass which constitutes the largest percent- 15
way, and the other of the gears is rotatably supported on the
age of mass can continue to rotate freely. According to a intermediate shaft.
further variant for returning the device, the electric switch-
4. A device according to claim 1, wherein the switching
ing coupling 83 is opened at the very start, in which case the coupling is inserted between the drivable one of the plates
plate 29 is returned entirely under the influence of the and a gear or tooth segment for driving the drivable one of
pressure springs 33, which plate 29 then forces the plate 24 20
the plates.
to rotate in the opposite direction of rotation in that the balls 5. A device according to claim 2 comprising a coupling
run from the flatter ball groove regions into the deeper ball housing supporting the coupling shaft, the coupling housing
groove regions. When the balls reach the end stops in the being secured to a motor housing containing the drive motor.
ball grooves which, at the same time, form the deepest ball 6. A device according to claim 2 wherein the switching
groove regions, the rotor mass of the electric motor 11 has 25
coupling comprises a 11rst plate secured to the motor shaft
already been disconnected from the rotational masses of the and a second plate secured to the coupling shaft.
setting device. The driving motor is normally a frequency- 7. A device according to claim 6 wherein the first and
modulated electric motor but other types of electric motors second plates of the switching coupling are secured to the
are also contemplated by the present invention. In the first respective motor shaft and coupling shaft by feather keys.
embodiment, the rotor mass, during the return movement, 30
8. A device according to claim 1 wherein the switching
continues to rotate freely. In the second embodiment, the coupling comprises an electro-magnetic switching coupling.
motor mass includes the gearwheels 15, 20 and in the third 9. A device according to claim 3 wherein the switching
embodiment, it additionally includes the mass of the gear- coupling comprises a first plate secured to the rotationally
wheel 22. fixed gear of the intermediate shaft and second plate secured
From the foregoing, it can be seen that there has been 35 to the rotatably supported gear of the intermediate shaft.
brought to the art a new and improved axial setting device 10. A device according to claim 9 wherein the first plate
and switch coupling. While the invention has been described of the switching coupling is secured to the rotationally fixed
in connection with one or more embodiments, it should be gear of the intermediate shaft by pins.
understood that the invention is not limited to those embodi- 11. A device according to claim 9 wherein the second
ments. Thus, the invention covers all alternatives, 40 plate of the switching coupling is secured to the rotatably
modifications, and equivalents as may be included in the supported gear of the intermediate shaft by a feather key.
spirit and scope of the appended claims. 12. A device according to claim 4 wherein the switching
What is claimed is: coupling comprises a first plate secured to the gear or tooth
1. An axial setting device comprising: segment for driving the driveable one of the plates, and a
two plates which are relatively rotatable and coaxially 45 second plate secured to the drive able one of the plates.
supported relative to one another and between which
balls are guided in pairs of ball grooves in the plates, * * * * *
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
US006956300B2

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 6,956,300 B2


Gizara (45) Date of Patent: Oct. 18, 2005

(54) GIMBAL-MOUNTED HYDROELECTRIC 4,258,270 A * 3/1981 Tornkvist. ... ... ..... ... ... ... 290/53
TURBINE 4,266,403 A * 5/1981 Hirbod ........................ 60/698
4,313,059 A * 1/1982 Howard ....................... 290/54
(76) Inventor: Andrew Roman Gizara, 24471 Corta 4,327,296 A * 4/1982 Weyers ........................ 290/53
Cresta Dr., Lake Forest, CA (US) 4,327,297 A * 4/1982 Harrison ...................... 290/53
4,335,319 A * 6/1982 Mettersheimer, Jr. ........ 290/54
92630-3914
4,352,023 A * 9/1982 Sachs et al. .................. 290/42
4,369,375 A * 1/1983 Romano ...................... 290/53
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 (Continued)
U.S.c. 154(b) by 149 days.
Primary Examiner---narren Schuberg
Assistant Examiner--Pedro J. Cuevas
(21) Appl. No.: 10/604,601
(57) ABSTRACT
(22) Filed: Aug. 4,2003
A power plant extracts energy from a free flowing motive
(65) Prior Publication Data
fluid by means of a turbine mounted on a gimbal. The shroud
US 2005/0029817 A1 Feb. 10, 2005 element of the fluid intake has external rudders, in conjunc-
tion with the gimbal mounting, enabling the enclosed tur-
(51) Int. CI. 7 F03B 13/10; F03B 13/12;
..........................
bine to instantaneously respond to changes in the direction
H02P 9/04; F03C 5/02 of the free flowing motive fluid thus ensuring the face area
(52) U.S. CI. ............................. 290/43; 290/42; 290/44; of the intake is always physically orthogonal to the direction
290/53; 290/54; 290/55; 601398 of the motive fluid streamlines. The shroud element may
(58) Field of Search ......................... 290/42-44, 53-55; also be buoyant so as to optimally extract energy from an
601398 upper non-turbulent and higher velocity layer of the free
flowing motive fluid. To function within an inherently
(56) References Cited unsteady source of energy, the preferred embodiment of the
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS turbine is coupled to a DC generator which may further be
coupled to a voltage and current regulating circuit which
3,455,159 A * 7/1969 Gies, Sf. .................. 73/170.16 either charges a battery, performs electrolysis of water to
3,644,052 A * 2/1972 Lininger ........................ 415/7 produce hydrogen fuel, or is further coupled to a DC motor
3,687,567 A * 8/1972 Lininger ........................ 415/7 coupled to an AC generator. Alternatively an AC induction
3,818,703 A * 6/1974 Lapeyre ....................... 60/504
3,818,704 A * 6/1974 Lapeyre ....................... 60(504
generator may be coupled to the turbine. Other mechanical,
3,980,894 A * 9/1976 Vary et al. .................... 290/54 electrical, electronic, or electromechanical features may
4,034,231 A * 7/1977 Conn et al. ................... 290/53 optionally be implemented to perform such tasks as adap-
4,039,847 A * 8/1977 Diggs .......................... 290/42 tively locating the turbine in the maximum velocity flow,
4,048,512 A * 9/1977 Wood .......................... 290/53 adapting internal vane and runner blade pitches for various
4,060,344 A * 11/1977 Ootsu ......................... 417/330 flow rates and loads, keeping the intake free of obstructions,
4,078,382 A * 3/1978 Ricafranca et al. ........... 60/398 preventing loss of aquatic life, controlling and communi-
4,151,424 A * 4/1979 Bailey ......................... 290/54 cating the state of charge of the battery, or gauging and
4,159,427 A * 6/1979 Wiedemann ................. 290/55 controlling the electrolysis process and communicating the
4,170,738 A * 10/1979 Smith .......................... 290/42
fullness of the hydrogen gas output tanks.
4,172,689 A * 10/1979 Thorsheim ..................... 415/7
4,216,655 A * 8/1980 Ghesquiere ... ... ... ... ...... 60/398
4,256,970 A * 3/1981 Tomassini ..... ... ... ... ...... 290/53 9 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets
US 6,956,300 B2
Page 2

u.s. PATENT DOCUMENTS 5,105,094 A * 4/1992 Parker .. ... ... ... ..... ... ... ... 290/53
5,136,174 A * 8/1992 Simoni . ... ... ... ..... ... ... ... 290/54
4,384,212 A * 5/1983 Lapeyre ....................... 290/53 5,468,132 A 11/1995 Snell et al. ... ... ... ..... 418/206.4
*
4,403,475 A * 9/1983 Kondo ........................ 60/398 5,499,889 A 3/1996 Yim ............................ 405/76
4,443,708 A
*
* 4/1984 Lapeyre ....................... 290/53 5,507,943 A * 4/1996 Labrador .................... 210/136
4,447,740 A * 5/1984 Heck ........................... 290/53
5,664,418 A * 9/1997 Walters ....................... 60/398
4,453,894 A * 6/1984 Perone et al. ............... 417/332
6,184,590 B1 * 2/2001 Lopez .. ... ... ... ..... ... ... ... 290/53
4,464,080 A * 8/1984 Gorlov ........................ 405/76
6,194,791 Bl * 2/2001 Wells ... ... ... ... ..... ... ... ... 290/53
4,468,153 A * 8/1984 Gutierrez Atencio ........ 405178
6,227,803 B1 * 5/2001 Shim ........................... 416/44
4,480,966 A * 11/1984 Smith ......................... 417/332
6,294,844 B1 * 9/2001 Lagerwey ... ... ..... ... ... ... 290/55
4,490,232 A * 12/1984 Lapeyre ...................... 204/278
6,327,994 B1 * 12/2001 Labrador .................... 114/382
4,495,424 A * 1/1985 Jost ............................. 290/53
6,534,705 B2 * 3/2003 Berrios et al. ... ... ..... ... 136/243
4,516,033 A * 5/1985 Olson .......................... 290/54
6,537,018 B2 * 3/2003 Streetman ................... 415/3.1
4,599,158 A * 7/1986 Ofen loch ................. 204/229.5
6,551,053 B1 * 4/2003 Schuetz ...................... 415/3.1
4,622,471 A * 1111986 Schroeder .................... 290/42
6,559,552 B1 * 5/2003 Ha .............................. 290/54
4,625,124 A * 11/1986 Ching-An .................... 290/42
6,568,878 B2 * 5/2003 Woodall et al. ............... 405/25
4,661,716 A * 4/1987 Chu ............................ 290/53
6,734,576 B2 * 5/2004 Pacheco .. ... ... ..... ... ... ... 290/55
4,816,697 A * 3/1989 Takada ........................ 290/54
6,831,373 B1 * 12/2004 Beaston ... ... ... ..... ... ... ... 290/43
4,843,249 A * 6/1989 Bussiere ...................... 290/53
6,849,963 B2 * 2/2005 Grinsted et al. .............. 290/42
4,850,190 A * 7/1989 Pitls ............................ 60/398
6,877,581 B2 * 4/2005 Badr et al. .................. 180/311
5,005,357 A * 4/1991 Pox ............................. 60/398
5,009,568 A * 4/1991 Bell ........................... 415/3.1
5,066,867 A * ll/1991 Shim ........................... 290/53 * cited by examiner
u.s. Patent Oct. 18, 2005 Sheet 1 of 8 US 6,956,300 B2

101 >
lOS

11------119

FIG. I
u.s. Patent Oct. 18, 2005 Sheet 2 of 8 US 6,956,300 B2

201/
••
••

103

V
200
106
FIG. 2

301/

V
300
03

FIG. 3
u.s. Patent Oct. 18, 2005 Sheet 3 of 8 US 6,956,300 B2

40

404

40

412
)Civ
411
412

FIG. 4

FIG. 5
u.s. Patent Oct. 18, 2005 Sheet 4 of 8 US 6,956,300 B2

00

403

404~MI
412 !
412

FIG. 6

706 705
De-Energize DC De-Energize
Stepper Motor coil Solenoid coil 604
411, latch new for anti-backlash and
position in register position locking
Yes

703
1Ql 702 Energize DC
Energize DC Energize Solenoid Stepper Motor coil
Stepper Motor coil coil 604 to unlock 411 corresponding
410 corresponding present position to next position,
to present position De-Energize 410

FIG. 7
u.s. Patent Oct. 18, 2005 Sheet 5 of 8 US 6,956,300 B2

307
FIG. 8

FIG. 9
u.s. Patent Oct. 18, 2005 Sheet 6 of 8 US 6,956,300 B2

116 1001
I
I
I
111

1007
1005
l!m 1002

-1000

FIG. to
11+ 1 08
1106
112 1l¥15
HOO 1113

)}
FIG. II

1204

1205

FIG. 12
u.s. Patent Oct. 18, 2005 Sheet 7 of 8 US 6,956,300 B2

1204

1205

FIG. 13

1404

1405

FIG. 14

1504
L--_08 __ ~ 1300 t--.
1505

FIG. 15
u.s. Patent Oct. 18, 2005 Sheet 8 of 8 US 6,956,300 B2

oncummt
1602 l@l 1603
Differentiate with Concurrent Sample and store buoy Integrate and Average
res~t to time the accelerometers voltage,t---.. over an interim term
main generator output, and main generator the main generator
d(lVol)/dt voltage, Vo, outputs output, (lIn)(I:nIVol)
Concurrent
1604
Estimate the location of
No breaking waves from
accelerometers voltage
No profile, store, determine
breaker procession (FFT)
Yes
1607
Throttle up flow velocity Throttle down flow
by adjusting internal velocity by adjusting 1610
vanes and runner blades internal vanes and runne Update long term power
(see Fig. 7) blades (see Fig. 7) average,com~to
interim term power
average

1611
Temporarily close gate to
stop flow, reduce gyroscopic Clear intake face by
precession (see Fig. 7) changing orientation
using external rudders
or auxiliary motor

1617
Optimize for break
location each interim

1618
Optimize location over
semidiumal tidal period

FIG. 16
US 6,956,300 B2
1 2
GIMBAL-MOUNTED HYDROELECTRIC infrastructure, increasing impingement on human habitats,
TURBINE and for the most part, neglecting the significant kinetic
energy recoverable from one or more of various forms of
oceanic flow.
BACKGROUND OF INVENTION 5 Other prior art exists where the motive fluid is ocean
1. Field of the Invention water, but still requires significant infrastructure. In one
The present invention is generally in the field of power form, dam like structures known as barrages compel tidal
plants. More specifically, the present invention is in the field flow to affect a turbine. Some turbines exist that operate in
of hydrokinetic turbines with means to adapt to changes in free flow, but do not adapt to changes in direction and have
streamline direction and magnitude of a free flowing motive 10 limited capacity, typically less than a kilowatt. In another
fluid. ~ recently developed form, offshore platform structures
2. Description of Prior Art behave as pistons on waves at medium depths, in turn
pumpin~ a motive fluid through a turbine and then requiring
For over two thousand years mankind has known of
a .long dlstance power cable generally carrying high voltage
harnessing the kinetic energy in flowing water to perform 15
dlrect current back to shore, to be further processed. This
mechanical endeavors. In the past two hundred years the
likely incurs significant maintenance costs for the offshore
pace in which developments emerged in the practice of
platforms. Fully implementing this prior technology would
hydraulics has accelerated. The advent of the turbine in the
likely impede shipping lanes as a farm of these platforms
first half of the nineteenth century culminated in the present
effectively fences the shoreline. This stands as one of several
advancements in hydroelectric generation, with this period 20
known environmental impacts of this prior technology with
of innovation and intense interest peaking in the first quarter
others hypothetically existing.
of the twentieth century. Since then, fossil fuels have domi-
~ated as the high net energy, readily available energy source When one amortizes the total amount of energy that goes
m the production of electricity and other conveyors of into building and maintaining a prior art hydroelectric power
power. With known fossil fuel reserves at what presently installation, it becomes obvious that it takes a considerable
appears to be arguably half depleted, as well as the envi- 25 amount of time before the plant becomes net energy
ronmental impact of using a polluting energy source, there positive, or in other words, the point when the total invest-
is a strong need to develop a renewable and sustainable ment of energy compared to the total recovery of energy is
source of energy to support humankind. at the break-even point. As a further example, fossil fuel, not
being a renewable resource, requires mining or drilling
Presently the hydroelectric power plant industry earns 30
deeper and pumping farther to obtain a lower yield and
revenues of approximately thirty billion dollars annually, but
unfortunately is in a state of decline mainly due to the lower quality of fuel incurring more costly refining to
recover the remaining reserves at the end-of-life of a mine
environmental and civic costs of implementing the existing
or a well. Thus, fossil fuel as an energy source clearly
technology. Environmental impact of the prior art hydro-
diminishes in net energy as time goes on, until it obviously
electric power plant threatens extinction to aquatic species 35
becomes a sink, no longer a source. This latter example
living downstream from the proposed power plant
reinforces the inevitability of mankind's undeniable need for
infrastructure, and also displaces all human inhabitants that
~ sustainable and renewable source of energy. Contemplat-
live in what would become the flood plane of the infrastruc-
mg the net energy curves of a renewable energy source and
ture. It is estimated that over sixty million people have been
fossil fuel indicates a sense of urgency for the development
displaced in the past century due to hydraulic power plant 40
of a renewable source. The timing of the cross-over point of
development with no mention of the number of species of
when one source becomes net energy positive as the other
plant and animal that have gone extinct. Furthermore, given
becomes net energy negative will dictate the severitv of the
the prior art technology, there still exists the possibility of
ensuing energy crisis and thus the impact on huma~ity. As
life threatening flooding occurring downstream from the site
time goes on it will be less likely an option to expend a great
of the hydraulic power plant infrastructure. Overall these 45
deal of energy as an investment while more mundane needs
costs have weighed heavily in civic planners' decisions in
are no longer being met. Despite this sense of urgency in the
adopting hydroelectric power generation to the point of
need. to develop renewable, s~stainable sources of energy, as
putting the industry in a state of such decline that leading
prevIOusly stated hydroelectrIc power plant development is
companies involved in this business are contemplating other
actually declining.
areas of endeavor. 50
Inherent problems in the prior implementation of hydro- Therefore, there exists a fundamental need for developing
electric power generation have exacerbated the present state renewable and sustainable sources of energy including fur-
of declining interest in this technology. The earliest imple- ther exploitation of readily available known resources. More
mentation of hydrokinetic systems, commonly known as specifically, there exists a need for a novel approach to
waterwheels, allowed less impact to the natural flow of the 55 ensure low impact to environment and low civic infrastrnc-
body of water from which these systems drew energy. With ture costs such that the energy investment return is most
the greater efficiency gained by enclosing the impeller quickly realized. Utmost, to optimally exploit oceanic
within the turbine came the need for more sophisticated energy, such as that which arrives onshore, adaptability to
penstock arrangements, which included greater infrastruc- inherently unsteady flow is prerequisite of any such system.
ture in the form of dams incurring the majority of the civil 60 A system that can achieve the above-specified goals would
and environmental costs. The penstock, gate and impeller readily attain a relatively high net energy soon after its
arrangements for these systems are physically coupled to inception.
sustain a given range of flow velocities and pressures over
SUMMARY OF INVENTION
varying head and load so to maintain required synchroniza-
tion to the end electrical alternating current output. This 65 The present invention achieves the goals of overcoming
requirement imposes on these systems almost exclusive existing limitations of present day hydroelectric power gen-
implementation in fresh-water systems with large scale eration systems by first and foremost having the ability to
US 6,956,300 B2
3 4
extract power from a free flowing fluid. While prior art exists coaxial fluid coupler through the system of gears in FIG. 9
which functions in free flowing bodies of water, the novelty according to one embodiment.
of this invention lies in its ability to respond and adapt to any FIG. 14 represents a schematic view of a DC generator
change in the magnitude and direction of the streamlines of directly coupled to the output shaft of the coaxial fluid
the free flowing motive fluid. 'Ibis enables this invention to 5 coupler according to one embodiment.
extract energy from breaking ocean waves, presently an FIG. 15 represents a schematic view of a gear indirectly
untapped but readily available known source of energy. coupled to the rotor of an auxiliary DC generator through the
Secondly, because adapting to change of both magnitude system of gears in FIG. 9 according to one embodiment.
and direction of the streamlines of a free flowing motive FIG. 16 illustrates the flowchart for control of the com-
Huid formed the basis of the guiding concepts of the present 10 plete system according to the preferred embodiment of the
invention; this also avails the present invention the applica- present invention.
bility to other bodies of water besides the ocean. Having
been conceived for free flowing motive fluid use obviates DETAILED DESCRIPTION
the prior art's inherent need for large-scale infrastructure
The present invention is directed to a gimbal-mounted
and thus eliminates two fundamental disadvantages pres- 15
hydroelectric turbine for adaptively extracting energy from
ently challenging the hydroelectric power industry. The
a free flowing motive fluid that continuously changes direc-
present invention does not require this scale of infrastructure
tion and magnitude of flow. The following description
and therefore greatly diminishes the environmental impact
contains specific information pertaining to various embodi-
while attaining a positive net energy earlier upon implemen-
20 ments and implementations of the present invention. One
tation.
skilled in the art will recognize that the present invention
Overcoming the conceptual need for synchronization to may be implemented in a manner dilTerent from that spe-
the electric power grid positions the present invention as cifically depicted in the present specification. Furthermore,
desirable for implementation in gathering energy for the some of the specific details of the invention are not described
emerging power conveyance systems, especially hydrogen 25 in order to maintain brevity and to not obscure the invention.
fuel and fuel cell technology. The specific details not described in the present specification
are within the knowledge of a person of ordinary skills in the
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
art. Obviously, some features of the present invention may
FIG. 1 illustrates a general perspective view of an exem- be omitted or only partially implemented and remain well
plary apparatus in accordance with a preferred embodiment 30 within the scope and spirit of the present invention.
of the present invention. The following drawings and their accompanying detailed
FIG. 2 illustrates a cross-sectional view length-wise along description are directed as merely exemplary embodiments
the turbine shroud in FIG. 1 according to a preferred of the invention. To maintain brevity, some other embodi-
embodiment of the present invention. ments of the invention that use the principles of the present
FIG.3 illustrates a cross-sectional view length-wise along 35 invention are specifically described but are not specifically
the turbine shroud in FIG. 1 according to an alternate illustrated by the present drawings, and are not meant to
embodiment of the present invention. exhaustively depict all possible embodiments within the
scope and spirit of the present invention.
FIG. 4 illustrates a partially exploded perspective view of
the pinion and motor mechanism for adjusting the interior FIG. 1 illustrates a general perspective view of an exem-
40 plary apparatus in accordance with one embodiment of the
How vanes, runner blades, and gate wickets in FIG. 2.
present invention. Arrow 100 indicates direction of the
FIG. 5 illustrates an alternate view of the circular rack approaching flow of the free flowing motive fluid, impinging
gear and motor rotor shaft pinion in FIG. 4. upon the face of the intake of the turbine, shown covered
FIG. 6 illustrates the preferred means of bi-directional with a screen 103. The fundamental purpose of the screen
anti-backlash and position locking mechanism for the cir- 45 103 is to prevent loss of life of fish and other aquatic life
cular rack gear in FIG. 4. forms as well as prevent various forms of debris from
FIG. 7 illustrates the flowchart for synchronizing the entering the turbine and obstructing normal operation.
bi-directional anti-backlash and position locking solenoid in Arrow 101 is shown exiting the back of the turbine and is of
FIG. 6 to the motor in FIG. 4. different shape than arrow 100 to indicate a change in
FIG. 8 illustrates a partially exploded perspective view of 50 velocity through the turbine due to the difference in area of
the pinion and motor mechanism for adjusting the external the intake compared to the draft area at the runner blades.
rudders of the alternate embodiment in FIG. 3. This ratio of intake area to draft area, as well known for
FIG. 9 illustrates a system of gears that increases the about four centuries in the science of fluid dynamics for
rotational velocity of the rotor of a generator compared to incompressible flow, is equ al to the ratio of draft velocity to
55 intake velocity. This difference in area of the draft compared
directly coupling the rotor to the actuating member.
to the intake may obviously be inferred by the physical
FIG. 10 illustrates the mounting system affixed to a rail
profile of the turbine shroud 102 in both FIG. 1 and FIG. 2,
system in accordance to the preferred embodiment.
though the drawings are not necessarily to scale of the
FIG. 11 illustrates a system of buoys equipped with preferred embodiment. The factors governing the necessity
accelerometers and their respective vector output signal 60 of increasing the velocity of the flow through the turbine will
profiles relative to position of breaking waves for one be addressed subsequently. Note that the circular geometry
embodiment. of the intake and the shroud area implies use of a coaxial
FIG. 12 represents a schematic view of an AC induction fluid coupler and henceforth changing to a rectangular intake
generator directly coupled to the output shaft of the coaxial and a crossflow impeller does not represent a significant
Huid coupler according to one embodiment. 65 departure from the scope of the present invention. Subse-
FIG. 13 represents a schematic view of an AC induction quent paragraphs in this specification will address the basis
generator indirectly coupled to the output shaft of the for choosing a coaxial impeller.
US 6,956,300 B2
5 6
A fundamental and significant departure from prior art waterway. Thus the flow impinging the face of the turbine is
that provides considerable novelty in this invention is the less likely to be turbulent, more likely to be laminar,
implementation of the external vanes or rudders 104, 105, permitting more optimal extraction of energy. Clearly any
and 106 and the circular bearings 107, and 109. The com- variation in the above assembly including any change to the
bined use of circular bearings 107 and 109 comprise what 5 main shaft 115, the slotted tongue-and-groove arrangement
results in a mechanical apparatus that one could commonly 112, the non-binding washer 113, the sliding main shaft
refer to as a two-axis gimbal, providing two degrees of collar 111 or the buoyancy of the shroud 102, that continues
freedom, specifically, freedom to move in any direction that to permit the intake of the turbine to extract energy from an
has vector components that are parallel to a horizontal or a upper, non-turbulent layer of the motive fluid does not
vertical plane. As depicted in FIG. 1, circular bearing 107 10 constitute a substantial departure beyond the scope of the
and its complement not shown but also affixed to the present invention.
semi -elliptical follower brace 120 on the opposite side, with The main shaft 115 is shown in FIG. 1 attached to the base
concentric pins affixed to the turbine shroud 102, forms an 116. Under the base is a system of rollers 117 riding on a set
axis orthogonal to, and allows the turbine any motion of rails 119 driven from under the base 116 through the drive
parallel to, the vertical plane, whereas circular bearing 109 15 axle 118. Further detail of the drive system will be depicted
forms an axis orthogonal to, and allows the turbine any in FIG. 10 and in subsequent paragraphs. The primary
motion parallel to, the horizontal plane. For instance, as the purpose this rail system serves is to optimally locate the
free flowing motive Huid changes direction of its streamlines entire turbine system adaptively to an area of flow where
parallel to the horizontal plane by any arbitrary angle, this maximum energy may be extracted. A secondary purpose
change in direction will exert a force on both rudders 104 20 could include facilitating maintenance on any part of the
and 106 causing torque about the bearing 109 resulting in system at a more convenient location than its in-service
motion parallel to the horizontal plane as represented by location. A third purpose could be for moving the turbine out
arrow 110 until arrival at mechanical equilibrium. Likewise, of the way of any vessel needing to pass in the present
as the free flowing motive fluid changes direction of its vicinity of the turbine. Clearly any deviation from the above
streamlines parallel to the vertical plane by any arbitrary 25 stated system, such as a winch and pulley system, which
angle, this change in direction will exert a force on rudder continues to allow the turbine system to be adaptively
105 and a complementary rudder not shown on the opposite positioned, does not constitute a substantial departure
side of the shroud 102, causing torque about the bearing 107 beyond the scope of the present invention. Maximum energy
and its complementary bearing not shown on the opposite extraction location for the unit has been initially considered
side of the semi -elliptical follower brace 120, resulting in 30 the onshore side of breaking ocean waves but can be any
motion parallel to the vertical plane as represented by the area of highest velocity of flow in any body of motive fluid.
arrow 108 until arrival at mechanical equilibrium. Thus the One alternate example of this could be any body of water
present invention adapts to any change in direction of the that has flow patterns that vary diurnally or seasonally.
streamlines of a free flowing motive fluid. Obviously, adding Let it be known that the aforementioned features that
or removing either a rudder or an axis to the gimbal 35 enable the turbine to namely: adapt to any change in the
employed within the preferred embodiment of the present direction of the streamlines of a free flowing motive fluid;
invention would not constitute a substantial departure extract energy from an upper, non-turbulent layer of water
beyond the scope of the invention. due to buoyancy of its shroud; adaptively position the
Proceeding further with the features depicted in FIG. 1, turbine in an optimal flow location using the rail system;
the semi-elliptic follower brace 120, is affixed to the outer 40 while originally conceived for accommodating use in break-
casing of the circular bearing 109, the inner case of the ing ocean waves, obviously are advantageous for use in
bearing 109 is affixed to the sliding main shaft collar 11I. other bodies of water such as, but not limited to rivers,
The sliding main shaft collar 111 is illustrated in FIG. 1 as creeks, inlets, tidal bores, rapids, or waterfalls. Therefore,
having a slotted tongue-and-groove arrangement 112, cap- use of the present invention in any body of water other than
tivated by a non-binding washer 113 affixed through a screw 45 breaking ocean waves does not constitute a substantial
to the main shaft 115. Said sliding assembly comprised of departure beyond the scope of the present invention.
the slotted tongue-and-groove arrangement 112, and non- FIG. 2 illustrates a cross-sectional length-wise view inte-
binding washer 113 permits the sliding main shaft collar 111 rior to the shroud 102 of the turbine. The broken line deJ1ned
freedom of motion in the vertical direction as depicted by by points 200 and 201 indicates the vertical plane is where
arrow 114. Note that the scale of this drawing is somewhat 50 the section is cut and the arrows proceeding from points 200
distorted in order to clearly display the sliding main shaft and 201indicate the perspective direction of sight. The
collar 111, the slotted tongue-and-groove arrangement 112, hatching of shroud 102 indicates it is the only element cut in
and the non-binding washer 113 sliding assembly whereas in this cross-sectional view with everything else contained
the preferred embodiment the entire turbine and especially within the shroud 102 remaining unaltered in this view. The
the diameter of the screen-covered face of the intake 103 55 hatch line delineates the shroud 102, and its cross-sectional
would be scaled considerably larger than this main shaft circumference can be seen in FIG. 2 as creating an inner
assembly. While said assembly allows the freedom of surface and outer surface and the cavity 202 within the inner
motion in the vertical direction as depicted by arrow 114, the and outer surfaces of the shroud 102. This cavity 202 is
cause of such motion corresponds to variation in the level of proposed to create the buoyancy of turbine unit itself. The
the surface of the motive fluid as tracked by buoyancy of the 60 cavity 202 may be filled with a material such as polystyrene
shroud 102. The means of this buoyancy is further depicted foam that provides both structural support and buoyancy, or
in FIG. 2 and will be further addressed in subsequent if less expensive, left vacant with the shroud 102 constructed
paragraphs. The buoyancy causes the turbine to track the or assembled watertight. This shroud 102 may also alterna-
variation in the level of the surface of the motive fluid and tively be constructed in such a manner as to render the cavity
thereby enables the turbine to always extract energy from an 65 202 gas-tight and useful in containing the output fuel-
upper layer of the motive fluid, which is less susceptible to hydrogen gas as the end product if the energy captured by
the effects of friction namely turbulence at the floor of the this turbine is used in the process of electrolysis of water.
US 6,956,300 B2
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Further elaboration on this cavity 202 for use in the pro- suited for adapting to changes in flow magnitude due to its
duction of hydrogen fuel will follow. adjustable flow vanes and runner blades, and is most often
A., discussed previously the contour of the shroud 102 implemented in structures of low head, implying low static
especially its inner surface is seen in FIG. 2 to form a pressure in the draft characteristic of, and more resembling
decreasing area orthogonal to the streamlines and thus 5 an impulse turbine and thus most analogous to use in
causes the velocity of flow of the motive fluid to increase breaking ocean waves. Nevertheless, implementation of a
proportionally as it approaches the coaxial fluid coupler 210 reaction turbine that responds to changes in direction and
in the draft area of the turbine from the screen-covered magnitude of the streamlines of a free flowing motive fluid
intake 103. This flow velocity as it thrusts upon the runner in any manner similar to that of the present invention does
blades 211 actuates the rotational velocity of the coaxial 10 not constitute a substantial departure beyond the scope of the
fluid coupler 210 which affects the rotational velocity of the present invention. Furthermore, it may be advantageous to
rotor of the generator contained within the generator housing implement the present invention with a turbine of recent
206. Ultimately, the choice of generator and particularly its advent that boasts of being bladeless, as it is well known that
synchronous speed predicates all requirements of flow seawater is particularly corrosive to metals, breaking waves
velocity and will be discussed in more detail subsequently. 15 notably high in particulates, and thus a bladed runner highly
In general, it may be stated at this point that the operation of susceptible to pitting on the blades and perhaps costly in
the turbine would likely benefit from increasing the average terms of maintenance. In light of the aforementioned, this
How velocity through the turbine since other means for modification of a Kaplan turbine in the preferred embodi-
reducing the effective velocity are readily attained. One such ment is purely exemplary, illustrative and not restrictive.
means of reducing the flow velocity includes closing the 20 Thus, regardless of the impulse or reaction classification of
gate by rotating its wickets 203 as portrayed by arrows 205. such a bladeless turbine, an implementation of such a
Closing the gate in this manner will cut-off flow which blade less turbine that responds to changes in direction and
serves to reduce the rotational velocity of the coaxial fluid magnitude of the streamlines of a free flowing motive fluid
coupler 210 thus reducing the forces of gyroscopic preces- in any manner similar to that of the present invention does
sion so to quicken the response of the gimbal to changes in 25 not constitute a substantial departure beyond the scope of the
direction of the streamlines of a free flowing motive fluid as present invention.
it exerts a force on the exterior rudders 104, 105, 106. FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-sectional length-wise view inte-
Continuous adjustment of the How velocity can be achieved rior to the shroud 102 of an alternate embodiment of the
through altering the pitch of the interior flow vanes 207 and present invention that includes exterior rudders that are
runner blades 211. FIG. 2 shows the direction of rotation of 30 rotatable. The points 300 and 301 define the cross-sectional
the interior flow vanes 207 by arrow 208 and the direction plane and angle of perspective in the same manner as points
of rotation of the runner blades 211 about their bearings 213 200 and 201 in FIG. 2. The fundamental difference of this
by arrow 212. While only two interior flow vanes 207 are alternate embodiment of the present invention as depicted in
shown, it should be understood that in the preferred embodi- FIG. 3 versus the embodiment shown in FIG. 2 is in the
ment a minimum of at least four interior flow vanes 207 and 35 implementation of rotatable rudders 302, 303 versus fixed
as many as eight or twelve could be implemented and rudders, 104, 105, 106, respectively. Arrows 306, 308 encir-
likewise a plurality of runner blades 211 could be imple- cling the shafts 305, 307 depict the direction of rotation of
mented. The rotation and fundamental shape of the interior these rudders. The purpose of furnishing the turbine with
flow vanes 207 can reduce the effective area and thus rotatable rudders 302, 303 is, as before while in the same
increase flow velocity while channeling the flow into near 40 position as the fixed rudders 104, 105, 106, to enable the
vortical circulation as it thrusts upon the runner blades 211 gimbal-mounted turbine to adapt to changes in the direction
at an angle optimal for energy extraction. This channeling of of the streamlines of the free flowing motive fluid. The
the flow could effectively transform turbulent Howat the additional benefit of rotatable rudders 302, 303 is to affect a
screen-covered face 103 into laminar or vortical flow change in the orientation of the face of the screen-covered
through the turbine. While some loss of energy may result 45 intake 103 by assuming an alternate position with respect to
from the friction on the sides of the interior flow vanes 207, the fixed rudders 104, 105, 106. By rotating the rudders 302,
coherently altering the pitch of the interior flow vanes 207 303, in case over a long period of use the screen-covered
and the runner blades 211 optimizes the efIiciency of the intake 103 gets covered with tenacious debris such as
turbine over a range of flow velocities and generator loads. seaweed, the turbine changes orientation such that the face
The algorithm for control of the pitch of the interior flow 50 is no longer orthogonal to the streamlines of the motive fluid
vanes 207 and the runner blades 211 is illustrated by FIG. thereby allowing the motive fluid to wash the debris from the
16, the mechanism for this control is illustrated by FIGS. 4, screen-covered intake 103. This alternate embodiment
5, 6 and 7 and is discussed in further detail in subsequent exhibits another difference resulting from the aforemen-
paragraphs. tioned rotatable rudder feature that can be seen by compari-
One skilled in the art may recognize the turbine in the 55 son of the support columns 209 of FIG. 2 and the support
preferred embodiment of the present invention as a variation columns 304 of FIG. 3. The modijlcation to include hollow
of the turbine invented by Viktor Kaplan in the first quarter areas in the support columns 304 in which concentrically
of the twentieth century. The choice of this type of turbine, situated shafts 305, 307 drive the rotatable exterior rudders
particularly a member in the class of impulse turbines 302, 303 embodies the conduit for torque to the rotatable
originates from the notion that a free flowing motive fluid is 60 rudders 302, 303 originating from a driving motor member
inherently impulsive in nature, i.e. energy is optimally contained within the generator housing 206. Conversely, the
extracted by mechanically responding to the forces of a support columns 209 of FIG. 2 strictly structurally reinforce
changing flow velocity impinging upon the turbine blades; the generator housing and impart power and control signals
as opposed to a member in the class of reaction turbines through slip rings in the columns 209 in the vicinity of the
which derives energy in a system where static pressure in the 65 gimbals on the same axis as bearing 107 and its complement
draft area draws the runner into motion, an action similar to not shown on the opposite side of the turbine shroud 102.
that of a siphon. In particular, the Kaplan turbine is well Greater detail into how power and control signals are routed
US 6,956,300 B2
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as well as the mechanism for the rotatable rudders 302, 303 Several fundamental advantages arise from employing a
and the control of it follows in FIGS. 6, 7, 8, and 16, and DC stepper motor 404, in actuating motion in the interior
subsequent paragraphs. flow vanes 207, runner blades 211, gate wickets 203, or
FIG. 4 illustrates a partially exploded perspective view of rotatable rudders 302, 303. Ibe stepper motor is inherently
the pinion and motor mechanism for adjusting the interior 5 a precise means of translating rotational displacement and
flow vanes, runner blades and gate wickets in FIG. 2. When therefore requires no feedback, or in other words may be
an adjustment in any of the set of interior flow vanes 207, implemented in an open-loop configuration affording more
runner blades 211, or gate wickets 203 becomes necessary, circuit complexity devoted to higher-level control of the
for each set of interior flow vanes 207, runner blades 211, or system. Secondly, given the preferred means of
gate wickets 203 one instance of the motor in FIG. 4 in the 10 bi-directional anti-backlash and position locking mechanism
preferred embodiment a DC stepper motor 404, with its for the circular rack gear 400 as illustrated in FIG. 6, the
stator windings 410, 411 energized in the appropriate stator coils 410, 411 of the DC stepper motor need powering
sequence, actuates rotational motion in its rotor shaft 403, in only in the instances of performing an adjustment, serving to
this example represented by arrow 413. The DC motor 404 improve the overall efficiency of the turbine. Also, because
has at the end of its rotor shaft 403 affixed to, forge or cast 15 this adjustment period comprises an exceedingly short duty
into a pinion 402 that meshes with the inner gear of a circular cycle, in the order of tens of milliseconds every second in the
rack gear 400. Briefly directing the discussion to FIG. 5, an most active member, the current for the stator coils 410, 411
alternate view of this circular rack gear 400, meshing its is limited by the breakdown voltage of the coil winding
inner gear 401 with the pinion 402 affixed, forged, or cast insulation, not the thermal wear of the coil itself, as the
onto rotor shaft 403 is shown. Returning to FIG. 4, one can 20 average power dissipated by its resistive losses are averaged
see the outer gear of the circular rack 400 engages the over a much longer period than its duty period. With the use
pinions 405, 406, 407 affixed, forged, or cast to the actuator of higher energizing currents, depicted by arrows 412,
shafts 408,409. These actuator shafts 408, 409 represent any comes the advantage of greater torque deliverable to the
one of plural instances of the shafts previously alluded to, actuated members in a more space efficient sized DC stepper
the shafts that drive the set of interior flow vanes 207, runner 25 motor.
blades 211, or gate wickets 203. The mechanism driving the In more detail, the components of FIG. 6 includes to the
shafts 305, 307 for the rotatable rudders 302, 303 has some right of the circular rack gear 400, all the components
minor dilTerences and is portrayed in FIG. 8 and will be previously defined in FIG. 4 and the foregoing paragraphs,
addressed subsequently. The gear ratio of the pinion 402 to with the addition of a solenoid 600 with a plunger 602 that
the inner rack gear 401 multiplied by the gear ratio of the 30 engages between the teeth of either the inner gear 401 or the
outer rack gear of the circular rack 400 to the actuator shaft outer gear of the circular rack gear 400 to stop motion in the
pinions 405, 406, 407 defines the translation of torque and actuated members. The actuated members were omitted
angular displacement derived from the rotor shaft 403 from FIG. 6 for sake of clarity though it could be presumed
resulting in the motion on the actuator shafts 408, 409 that the actuated members are situated as depicted in FIG. 4
depicted by arrows 414, 415, 416 corresponding to each of 35 or FIG. 8. The torque translated back to the plunger 602 from
the interior flow vanes 207, represented by arrows 208; each the actuated members is contained by the mounting of the
of the runner blades 211, represented by arrow 212; or each solenoid core 600 and the stops 603 cast or forged on the
of the gate wickets 203, represented by the arrows 205. inner surface of the generator housing 206, coaxial Huid
Because a singular instance of the mechanical assembly coupler 210, or fixed gate shaft 204. The solenoid core 600
given in FIG. 4 actuates one set of each of the interior flow 40 is shown spring loaded, with the solenoid spring 601 com-
vanes 207, runner blades 211, or gate wickets 203, the pressed by the retracted plunger 602 when the solenoid coil
location of these assemblies may be found in separate 604 has current flowing as depicted by arrows 605, in
locations within the turbine shroud 102. In the preferred accordance to the right-hand rule. The physical positioning
embodiment, the location for the assembly of FIG. 4 for the of the solenoid 600 core and the DC stepper motor 404 and
interior flow vanes 207 would optimally be placed within a 45 its shaft 403 is displayed in a collinear orientation to attest
central location of the generator housing 206; the location the importance of mounting these components along the
for the assembly of FIG. 4 for the runner blades 211 would central axis of the turbine mounted within the gimbal in such
optimally be placed within a central location of the coaxial a manner as to not disrupt the balance necessary, otherwise
fluid coupler 210; while the location for everything to the mechanical oscillation may occur thereby harming the sys-
left of the shaft 403 of the assembly of FIG. 4, if not the 50 tem efficiency and possibly causing stress and shortened life
entire assembly itself for the gate wickets 203 would opti- of various components.
mally be placed within a central location of the fixed gate FIG. 7 illustrates the flowchart for synchronizing the
shaft 204. The advantage of using the circular rack gear 400 bi-directional anti-backlash and position locking mechanism
versus a simple worm gear mechanism is that especially in of FIG. 6 to the pinion and motor mechanism of FIG. 4.
the instance of the interior flow vanes 207, the circumfer- 55 From the start, the DC stepper motor stator coils 410, 411
ence of the inner gear 401, as most visible in FIG. 5, avails and the bi-directional anti-backlash and position locking
maximal clearance for the generator, itself. Obviously, a solenoid coil 604 is in the de-energized state 700. When any
simple worm gear or single pinion to shaft coupling gear, for of the aforementioned actuated components requires an
example the rack gear 400 directly affixed to the rotor shaft adjustment, assuming the present position of one of these
403, may be implemented where central clearance is not 60 components coincides with the position of the DC stepper
critical. While this means of actuating motion in the interior motor rotor shaft 403 when its stator coil 410 is energized,
flow vanes, runner blades, or gate wickets presents a novel the stator coil 410 is once again energized, state 701. Upon
departure from prior art, this preferred means is purely energizing the stator coil 410, the solenoid coil 604 is
discussed in an exemplary manner, illustrative, not energized with a current as depicted by arrows 605, thereby
restrictive, and therefore any deviation from the above 65 causing the solenoid plunger 602 to retract and to unlock the
specification does not constitute a significant departure present position by disengaging the plunger 602 from the
beyond the scope of the present invention. teeth of the circular rack gear 400, state 702. Then to affect
US 6,956,300 B2
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the necessary adjustment, assuming the position of the next the actuator shafts 305, 307 depicted by arrows 811, 812,
step corresponds to energizing stator coil 411, a current corresponding to the torque and angular displacement of the
depicted in FIG. 6 by the arrows 412 energizes stator coil rotatable rudders 302, 303. As shown in FIG. 3, because the
411 while stator coil 410 is de-energized. This actuates the rotatable rudder shafts 305, 307 conjoin within a central
motion in the rotor shaft 403 depicted by arrow 413; the 5 location of the generator housing 206, and the circular rack
direction of this arrow is arbitrary as implied by the term gear 800 is perfectly analogous to the circular rack gear 400,
bi-directional anti-backlash and position locking meclla- the circumference of the inner gear 801 or as most visible in
nism. This completes states 703 and 704 for this example, FIG. 5, the circumference of inner gear 401, avails maximal
though the system could continue to step in this manner clearance for the generator, itself. Obviously, a simple worm
through an arbitrary number of stator coils on the DC stepper 10 gear or single pinion to shaft coupling gear, for example the
motor 404, by reiterating state 703 as necessary to achieve rack gear 800 directly affixed to the rotor shaft 803, may be
the desired set point position of the rotor shaft for this implemented where central clearance is not critical. While
adjustment. Upon obtaining the desired position, the sole- this means of actuating motion in the rotatable rudders
noid coil 604 is de-energized by interrupting the current presents a novel departure from prior art, this preferred
depicted by arrows 605, thereby permitting the solenoid 15 means is purely discussed in an exemplary manner,
spring 601 to decompress causing the solenoid plunger 602 illustrative, not restrictive, and therefore any deviation from
to re-engage the teeth of the circular rack gear 400 at the new the above specification does not constitute a significant
position, performing the operation of anti-backlash and departure beyond the scope of the present invention.
position locking, state 705. Since this circular rack gear 400 FIG. 9 illustrates a system of gears that decreases rota-
is further coupled to plural actuated members through gears 20 tional velocity and displacement from the rotor shaft of a
405,406,407, and there remains some play in the gears, this motor to an actuated member, or conversely, increases
results in some motion associated with backlash in the rotational velocity and displacement from an actuating
actuated members. But the precision of the rack gear 400 member to a rotor shaft of a generator. Member 900 may
should be fine enough that this resultant motion in the either be an AC induction or a DC generator or motor
actuated members is negligible for the overall system 25 depending on the synchronous speed of the rotor compared
response. In the final state 706, the stator coil 411 is to the armature current frequency in the case of the AC
de-energized and the new position of the actuated member induction motor or generator, or in the case of the DC motor
and of the corresponding stator coil is placed in a register, of or generator, the direction of the armature current depicted
discrete logic or microprocessor register or memory space, by arrows 909, flowing through the armature coil 901.
as DC stepper motors are amenable to digital control due to 30 Therefore the speed voltage presented across the conductors
their discrete means of determining rotational displacement. of the armature coil 901 by the current 909 is proportional
More detail of the higher-level system control will follow in to the rotational velocity of the actuator 908 represented by
subsequent paragraphs and FIG. 16. arrow 912 multiplied by the ratio of gear 907 to gear 906
FIG. 8 illustrates a partially exploded perspective view of multiplied by the ratio of gear 904 to gear 903. The arrows
the pinion and motor mechanism for adjusting the rotatable 35 910, 911, and 912 merely describe the translation of motion
rudders 302, 303. Most of the components of FIG. 8 are through the gears. The physical positioning of the actuator
analogous to FIG. 4 with the exception of the circular rack 908 and the motor or generator 900 and its rotor shaft 902
gear 400 now having two beveled edges for the circular rack is displayed in a collinear orientation, though as some
gear 800 of FIG. 8. Because the rotatable rudders 302, 303 implementation of these mechanical components of FIG. 9
need to move in the same direction in the horizontal plane 40 most likely will not occupy a location within the turbine
to cause the screened face of the intake 103 to assume a shroud 102, this is purely shown as a means most efficient
non-orthogonal orientation with respect to the streamlines of for space. In some embodiments this mechanical assembly
the free flowing motive fluid, the pinion of one of the will occupy a space within the generator housing 206 and
rotatable rudder shafts needs to mesh on the opposite side of thus the actuator 908, the motor or generator 900, its rotor
the circular rack gear 800 compared to the pinion of the 45 shaft 902 and the tertiary shaft 905 is displayed in FIG. 9 in
other rotatable rudder shafts. FIG. 8 illustrates this require- a collinear orientation as previously, to attest the importance
ment by displaying first the current 809 flowing through the of mounting these components along the central axis of the
stator winding 808 of the DC stepper motor 804, assuming turbine mounted within the gimbal in such a manner as to
the current previously flowed in stator winding 807, causing not disrupt the balance necessary, otherwise mechanical
the rotor shaft 803 to rotate in the direction of arrow 810. As 50 oscillation may occur thereby harming the system efficiency
before, in the preferred embodiment, because the and possibly causing stress and shortened life of various
bi-directional anti-backlash and position locking mechanism components. This specification will expound upon the pur-
in FIGS. 6 and 7 captivates the circular rack gear 800 while pose of this mechanical assembly in FIG. 9 in subsequent
at rest, the direction of rotation depicted by arrow 810 is paragraphs and in FIGS. 13 and 15.
arbitrary. The motion depicted by arrow 810 causes the 55 FIG. 10 details the base 116 and associated mechanical
circular rack gear 800 to rotate in the same direction due to components below it. The broken line deJ1ned by points
the meshing of the rotor shaft pinion 802 to the inner gear 1000 and 1001 indicate alternate views. The left side of the
801 of the circular rack 800, whose outer gear meshes with broken line 1000-1001 views from underneath the center of
the actuator shaft pinions 805, 806 resulting in motion the base 116 looking outward orthogonal to the rails, while
shown by arrows 811, 812. Actuator shafts 305, 307 thus 60 the right hand side of the broken line 1000-1001 views the
turn the rotatable rudders 302, 303 in the same direction in underneath of the base 116 from a distance parallel to and in
the horizontal plane. As with the other actuators, the gear between the rails 119. The base 116 rests on the supports
ratio of the rotor shaft pinion 802 to the inner rack gear 801 1008 coupled to the axle of the rollers 117. The rollers 117
multiplied by the gear ratio of the outer rack gear of the rotate freely on the rails 119. The rails 119 are secured to a
circular rack 800 to the actuator shaft pinions 805, 806, 65 foundation 1002. In the preferred embodiment, this founda-
deJ1nes the translation of torque and angular displacement tion 1002 is formed reinforced concrete, though it could
derived from the rotor shaft 803 resulting in the motion on consist of the local natural rock formation depending upon
US 6,956,300 B2
13 14
where the application of this invention occurs. Ideally this output amplitude profiles 1105, and 1106 are indicative of a
foundation 1002 is located on the tip of a headland formation small, short duration impulse in the vertical direction with
where wave energy is most focused, and is sloped of greater amplitude and duration in the horizontal axis as the
adequate angle with respect to the true horizon so to elicit onshore bore and offshore retreat associated with plunging
breaking waves of the plunging or surging type that transfer 5 or surging breakers proceeds. Ideally the optimal placement
wave energy into particle velocity in a most concentrated of the turbine system would be in the vicinity of buoy 1107
location and succinct time frame. The rails 119 have cutouts or buoy 1110 whose accelerometer's output signal profiles in
1003 that permit cross flow and thus prevent sand from the horizontal axis 1108 and 1111 respectively indicate
drifting to the point of obstructing the movement of the drive greatest magnitude in the likely form of a large impulse with
gears 1005 that meshes with the rail rack gear 1004. When 10 a decay oflong duration in the onshore direction as the wave
stationary, the drive gears 1005 lock indirectly by coupling plunges or surges and a linear ramp-up in the offshore
through its axle 118 to an internal drive gear not shown direction as it retreats. The vertical components 1109, 1112
locked by a means such as the previously described would also likely exhibit an impulse of large amplitude of
bi-directional anti-backlash and position-locking mecha- only short duration while being lifted by the onshore bore.
nism to hold the drive gears 1005 steady in the path along 15 Of course the output profiles of buoys 1107, 1110 would
the rail which also create tension to hold the system upright vary from that shown to something more resembling the
against any lateral tilting force. In the preferred output profiles from the buoys on the ends, as the location
embodiment, the means of driving the gears, again most within the surf zone of the breaking waves 1102,1103 varies
easily implemented as a DC stepper motor, will likely with time. Statistical and frequency domain analysis could
occupy an area in the lower portion of the main shaft 115 or 20 serve to determine the optimal location for extracting energy
perhaps a compartment not shown under the base 116. The within the surf zone amongst these two buoys 1107, 1110
rotor shaft of this motor therefore occupies a location and will subsequently be expounded upon. While shown in
concentric to the drive shaft housing 1006 and has a worm an orientation parallel to the ordinary direction of onshore
gear not shown on its end occupying the gear box 1007. Said bore of breaking waves, both this buoy system and particu-
worm gear meshes with the internal drive gear, not shown 25 larly the rail system is equally suitable for implementation
inside the gear box 1007, but parallel to the gears 1005 and across an inlet, orthogonal to its tidal bore, or across a river
mounted such that it directly drives the axle 118. The orthogonal to its flow. Thus the buoy and especially the rail
bi-directional anti-backlash and position locking mechanism system exists for adaptively locating the entire turbine
not shown also occupies the gear box 1007 and mates and system to an area of optimal flow, regardless of body of
locks the internal drive gear not shown inside the gear box 30 water wherein implemented or whether the variation of
1007. A detailed discussion of exemplary sensor input location of optimal flow velocity is diurnal due to tides or
means and the control algorithm itself for the above rail seasonal due to weather patterns. Uses other than the afore-
system follows in subsequent paragraphs describing FIG. 11 mentioned alternate uses including removal of the unit from
and FIG. 16. obstructing waterway traffic or removal for facilitated main-
FIG. 11 illustrates a system of buoys 1104, 1107, 1110, 35 tenance do not constitute a substantial departure beyond the
1113 mounted in a collinear orientation parallel to the scope of the present invention. The control algorithm of the
ordinary direction of onshore flow of breaking waves, complete system including the implementation of the buoy
orthogonal to the tangent of the shoreline 1100. This system and rail system will be delineated in FIG. 16 and subsequent
of buoys aids in adapting the gimbal-mounted turbine to paragraphs.
maximal flow along the path of the aforementioned rail 40 FIGS. 12, 13, 14, and 15 depict various coupling con-
system. The buoys 1104, 1107, 1110, 1113 are equipped with figurations and energy extraction means from the coaxial
accelerometers or other means of measuring force or accel- fluid coupler or other actuator means through to the output
eration and their output signal proJlles 1105, 1106, 1108, conditioning circuitry of the electric generator. FIG. 12
1109, 1111, 1112, 1114, 1115, respectively portray charac- shows the fluid coupler 210 having a shaft 1201 that directly
teristics relative to the position of breaking waves. For 45 couples to the rotor shaft of an AC generator 1200. TIle fluid
example, the buoy 1113 shown to the right, or offshore from coupler 210 physically occupies the space within the draft
the breaking wave 1103 has accelerometers or any other area of the shroud 102, while the coupler shaft 1201 extends
means of measuring force or acceleration including but not into the generator housing 206. Note that the shaft 1201 in
limited to spring actuated scales. Here the accelerometers FIG. 12 is a simplified representation of the coaxial fluid
mounted on buoy 1113 outputs two unique signals, i.e. 50 coupler shaft, and in the preferred embodiment would likely
voltages, corresponding to physically a horizontal compo- also contain slip rings to impart electrical power and control
nent and a vertical component of force or acceleration which signals to the aforementioned electromechanical means
over time span the range delineated by arrows 1114 and internal to the coupler 210 for adjusting the pitch of the
1115, respectively. Because this buoy 1113 is situated off- runner blades 211. In one embodiment, the AC generator
shore with respect to the breaking wave, one may expect 55 1200 would preferably be an AC induction generator of
these signal amplitude proJlles 1114, 1115 to be of moderate adequate number of poles such that its synchronous speed,
amplitude and of sinusoidal waveform, as one would expect which determines whether the AC machine is operating in its
from the undulating motion atop shoaling, but non-breaking generator or motor region according to its torque-slip curve
waves. Note that the output profiles of all the vertical and is inversely proportional to the number of poles, is well
components 1106, 1109, 1112, 1115 of all the accelerometers 60 below the average rotational velocity of coaxial fluid coupler
show a greater extent in the downward direction. This 210, and therefore the AC machine operates with positive
indicates the constant offset produced by the force of gravity, slip as a generator. As previously mentioned the ratio of the
and may be used to determine the relative angle of the buoy area of the screen-covered intake 103 to the area orthogonal
accelerometer system to true vertical and horizontal axes. to flow within the draft section in the shroud 102 that the
On the other end of the line of buoys, the first buoy 1104 65 fluid coupler 210 occupies is directly proportional to the
going from the beach in the offshore direction is located ratio of velocity of the motive fluid approaching the runner
onshore from the last breaking wave 1101. Its accelerometer blades 211 to the velocity of flow entering the screen-
US 6,956,300 B2
15 16
covered intake 103, and therefore also determines the aver- self-excited shunt field winding configuration chosen for its
age rotational velocity of the fluid coupler 210, and thus also combined simplicity and relatively constant voltage inde-
affects the calculation of the required synchronous speed of pendent of load current. The DC generator 1400 then
the generator 1200. What makes the AC induction generator produces a speed dependent DC voltage on the leads 1401
preferable is its economical, reliable construction and wide- 5 and 1402 that feeds the power conditioning circuit block
spread use, rendering this type of generator easily attainable 1403. The power conditioning performed within the circuit
and cost effective. Also, asynchronous AC induction gen- block 1403 could include filtering spurs caused by
eration requires little additional circuitry in order to apply commutation, and regulating voltage and current for opti-
power directly to the utility power grid. In the case of mally applying the generated power to output means. Regu-
unavailability of an AC generator of sufficient number of 10 lation would preferably be of the most efficient known
poles for an adequately low synchronous speed to operate variety, in most cases chopped or in other words, switch-
with positive slip given the average rotational velocity of the mode buck, boost or buck-boost regulation, depending upon
fluid coupler 210, FIG. 13 depicts an AC induction generator the speed voltage of the generator 1400 and the load
requirement. A variety of loads may be applied by connec-
1200 indirectly coupled to the coaxial fluid coupler 210
tion to the leads 1404, 1405 depending upon end user needs.
through the gear system 1300. The gear system represented 15 Examples of loads could include charging any variety of
by block 1300 in its simplest implementation is that of FIG. available chemistries of batterv; the leads 1404 and 1405
9 wherein this implementation the actuator shaft 908 is the themselves could terminate as the electrodes in the process
coupler shaft 1201 and the rotor shaft 902 is that of the AC of electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen fuel; or the
induction generator 1200, and the gear system increases the leads 1404 and 1405 could further power a DC motor
rotational velocity of the rotor shaft with respect to the 20 coupled to a synchronous AC generator directly applied to
coupler shaft 1201 as previously described. The gear system the utility power grid.
would likely occupy space within the generator housing 206 In the case of the load being the charging batteries, the
in proximity to the generator 1200. From the generator 1200 circuit block 1403 could occupy the physical location of the
comes two leads 1202 representing the power mains off of generator housing 206, but because the process of battery
the armature coil of the generator 1200. Though two leads 25 charging generally requires low-error voltage sensing at the
1202 imply a single-phase machine, this is purely battery terminals and low-error temperature sensing from a
exemplary, and no pre-determination is placed on the num- thermistor within the cell packaging powered by an accurate
ber phases of the machine in the preferred embodiment. In reference, it would likely be more feasible and economical
order to directly apply the voltage from the AC induction to locate the power conditioning circuit block 1403 in
generator 1200 to the utility power grid through wires 1204, 30 proximity of the battery unit to be charged on shore.
1205, the electrical circuit represented by block 1203 con- Therefore the leads 1401, 1402 would likely route uncon-
tains a watt-hour meter, and a speed dependent switch that ditioned DC power from the generator 1400, through slip
receives an input signal from a velocity transducer sensing rings in the columns 209 in the vicinity of the gimbals on the
the rotation of the coupler shaft 1201 in the generator same axis as bearing 107, through slip rings near bearing
housing 206. The velocity transducer output signal would 35 109, down to the base 116, out along the rail system 119 to
therefore also need to be physically routed along the same the onshore location of the circuit block 1403.
path as the leads 1202, either on its own conductor or Another exemplary load could be the current required to
modulated upon the armature coil power current. This speed perform electrolysis on water to produce hydrogen fuel. This
dependent switch affords highest efficiency and protection process achieves a high efficiency due to inherent advan-
such as when the coupler shaft has inadequate velocity for 40 tages in the preferred embodiment of the present invention.
positive slip, or there exists a fault condition on either side Seawater is naturally electrolytic thereby reducing chemical
of the circuit block 1203, the generator 1200 becomes processing costs; and advanced electrolysis methods allow
disconnected from the utility power grid. The circuit block for a voltage as little as one and a half to two volts applied
1203 is likely physically located on land away from the across the electrodes, which the generator 1400 in the
turbine unit, with the leads 1202 routed from the generator 45 self-excited shunt field winding configuration can easily
1200, through slip rings in the columns 209 in the vicinity provide over a wide range of rotational velocities of the fluid
of the gimbals on the same axis as bearing 107, through slip coupler 1201. In one embodiment, the cavity 202 within the
rings near bearing 109, down to the base 116, out along the shroud 102, otherwise vacant to provide buoyancy to the
rail system 119 to the onshore location of the circuit block turbine, could also provide the physical volume to store the
1203. As with the leads before the circuit block 1203, though 50 hydrogen fuel output from the process of electrolysis of
only a pair of wires 1204, 1205 are shown implying a water. Given the requirements for such a system for
single-phase system, this is purely exemplary with no pre- electrolysis, the circuit block 1403 could consist of simply
determination of the number of phases that may be applied a filter capacitor to smooth the spurs caused by the com-
to the utility power grid. mutator of the DC machine, and likely a switch-mode buck
Alternately, the circuit block 1203 may take the AC 55 or in other words, stepdown DC-to-DC converter, perhaps
voltage produced by the generator 1200 from leads 1202 and with some form of current regulation, to provide the appro-
full-wave rectify the AC voltage into a DC voltage, then priate voltage to the electrodes 1404, 1405 to perform
filter and further regulate the voltage and current for optimal electrolysis. Because this circuit block 1403 is relatively
power conditioning for application to loads as described in simple and compact, it would most economically occupy an
the following paragraphs regarding DC power generation. 60 area adjacent to the generator 1400 within the generator
FIG. 14 illustrates an alternate arrangement from the housing 206, with the leads 1404 and 1405 routing condi-
coaxial fluid coupler 210 through to the power output means. tioned DC power to the electrodes contained within the
Here the simplified representation of the coupler shaft 1201 appropriate sections of the cavity 202 in the shroud 102,
is shown directly coupled to the rotor of a DC generator producing hydrogen fuel stored in the cavity 202 generated
1400. The DC generator 1400 may be any of available forms 65 through electrolysis of seawater admitted into the appropri-
of DC generator, including but not limited to a com mutated ate section of the cavity 202 in a controlled manner through
or semiconductor-rectified generator, and preferably with a a filter membrane.
US 6,956,300 B2
17 18
A third exemplary load for the DC generator 1400 could such that it then operates as a motor, or to switch-in an AC
exist in the form of the leads 1404, 1405 attached to a DC voltage of amplitude and frequency such that the AC induc-
motor further coupled to an AC synchronous generator tion machine then operates as a motor to affect this change
directly applied to the utility power grid. In consideration of in orientation.
this application, the circuit block 1403 would necessarily not 5 FI G. 16 illustrates the overall control of all the compo-
only require filtering to smooth the spurs caused by nents described thus far of the complete gimbal-mounted
commutation, and voltage regulation to maintain constant turbine for adaptively extracting energy from a free flowing
speed in the DC motor coupled to the synchronous AC motive fluid that continuously changes direction and mag-
generator, but likely would further require high capacity nitude of flow. While FIG. 16 displays a flowchart, which is
charge storage devices in the form of a very large capacitor 10 ordinarily associated with a computer program running in
or bank of capacitors or possibly a battery, also in order to software, the algorithm delineated may be implemented with
maintain constant speed in the DC motor coupled to the any combination of hardware or software such as linear or
synchronous AC generator during periods of reduced rota- analog circuits or discrete digital circuits or an integrated
tional velocity in the axial fluid coupler 210. The complexity central processing unit, or a microprocessor. One advantage
and physical volume of such a circuit dictates that the circuit 15 a central processing unit or microprocessor affords is con-
block 1403 is located in the vicinity of the DC motor and AC venient means to gauge, test, and communicate to a central
synchronous generator. As such, the leads 1401, 1402 would service logging location the state of any part of the system,
likely route unconditioned DC power from the generator including functionality, or fullness of charge of batteries, or
1400, through slip rings in the columns 209 in the vicinity hydrogen fuel tanks, etc., using means such as well-defined
of the gimbals on the same axis as bearing 107, through slip 20 existing serial protocols or wireless standards. From the start
rings near bearing 109, down to the base 116, out along the 1600, the controller is continuously sampling and storing
rail system 119 to the onshore location of the circuit block 1601 such variables as the main generator output voltage,
1403. denoted Vo, and the output voltages from the accelerometers
FIG. 15 illustrates an auxiliary generator 1500 attached affixed to the buoys and from there proceeding in four
through a system of gears 1300 to an actuator 1506. The 25 concurrent paths through the flowchart. While not specifi-
proposed primary provider of mechanical torque for this cally stated in block 1601, it may be assumed all sampled
auxiliary generator 1500 is the rotating sections in the variables including the signals representing the outputs of
vicinity of the bearing 109. Gear 1506 rotates while its teeth the gimbal motion sensors and/or the auxiliary generator are
mesh with a circular rack gear not shown of greater circum- being sampled and stored in a likewise continuous, concur-
ference than, and concentric to, the bearing 109, affixed to 30 rent manner as implied by the looping arrow exiting only to
the follower brace 120 rotating with respect to the main shaft return to the upper right corner of block 1601. In the
collar 111. In this instance the actuator shaft 908 would be preferred embodiment, this sampling period would have a
coaxial, but not likely concentric, to the main shaft collar time resolution necessary to react to and control mechanical
111, and the gear system 1300 and the auxiliary generator processes, ordinarily sampling at approximately a frequency
1500 would also occupy a location affixed within the main 35 of about a hundred times a second, or a period of about ten
shaft collar 111. This axis of the gimbal is chosen given that milliseconds, with a small deviation allowable possibly due
the onshore bore and offshore retreat of breaking waves to the convenience of a local non-integer multiple frequency
acting upon the rudders and the gimbal would give this axis digital clock from which to derive this sampling clock
significant periodic motion, though in other frequency. These samples would then get averaged over a
implementations, the other axis of the gimbal may prove 40 space of five to ten samples, this average representing a
prolific in extracting power. As before, the block 1300 single sample in order to reduce the effects of noise. It is
represents the system of gears described in FIG. 9, the end reasonable that no control process or adjustment would need
result is that the auxiliary generator's 1500 rotor shaft to occur, or could efficiently occur for that matter, more often
exhibits a higher rotational velocity compared to the fol- than ten to twenty times a second. Note that the four
lower brace 120. In the preferred embodiment, the generator 45 concurrent paths through the flowchart as well as some of
1500 would likely be either an AC induction generator with the processes undergone in those paths are implementation
external semiconductor rectification and velocity-controlled specific. Obviously if certain hardware components were
switching or else a DC generator. This auxiliary DC power omitted, that would then render the associated process
generated could then be applied to either a separately excited obsolete.
field winding of the main generator or additively coupled to 50 In practically all conceivable embodiments, there would
the output of the main generator through means of switch always exist the path that serves to adjust the internal flow
mode circuitry such as coupling in series a secondary vanes 207 and runner blades 211 to optimize internal flow
winding of a transformer with rectifiers for voltage boosting velocity approaching the axial fluid coupler 210 over a range
or coupling in parallel a charge pump circuit for current of velocities of the free flowing motive fluid itself external
boosting. Circuit block 1503 and leads 1504, 1505 would 55 to the turbine shroud 102. Thus in the flowchart of FIG. 16,
likely occupy a space within the generator housing 206 in the path proceeds from the sampling block 1601 to the
the case of providing current to a separately excited field decision block 1605, where the instantaneous magnitude of
winding of the main generator, or else the same location as the sampled main generator output voltage, IVol, is com-
the power conditioning circuitry employed in the above pared to an upper threshold. This upper threshold would
applications. An alternate purpose for this electromechanical 60 likely equal in excess of one hundred percent of, but less
assembly exists in case over a long period of use the than two times, the rated voltage of the generator. Various
screen-covered intake 103 gets covered with tenacious types of circuits may perform this comparison through either
debris such as seaweed, the turbine may change orientation digital sampling followed by numeric comparison or
such that the face is no longer orthogonal to the streamlines through analog comparators in effect triggering the DC
of the motive fluid thereby allowing the motive fluid to wash 65 stepper motors that actuate such adjustments through a
the debris from the screen-covered intake 103, simply by voltage feedback loop. Hence, the outcome of this compari-
reversing the current on leads 1501, 1502 of the DC machine son in block 1605 determines whether to throttle up 1608, or
US 6,956,300 B2
19 20
throttle down 1607, the velocity of the flow through the power of two. The output variable of this averaging process
turbine by adjusting the internal flow vanes 207 and runner 1603 is then input to update a long term average 1610 and
blades 211 accordingly. Using means described previously then compared to a low threshold 1612 to determine if power
and depicted algorithmically in FIG. 7, to throttle up the is being extracted properly. If not, the controller proceeds to
internal flow velocity, the controller must tighten the pitch of 5 block 1616, where the turbine attempts to remove debris
the runner blades 211 to a larger angle with respect to the obstructing its intake by means previously described. Oth-
center axis of the turbine, and to throttle down, the pitch of erwise if the rail system or the system of accelerometers
the runner blades 211 becomes a smaller angle, closer to affixed to buoys is left unimplemented, the algorithm then
parallel to the center axis, all while adjusting the angle of returns to the start, otherwise it continues in an interaction
incidence of flow with the internal flow vanes 207 appro- 10 with the accelerometer system to control the positioning
priately. This algorithm allows the generator to produce a along the rail system as subsequently described.
maximum voltage throughout the period of usable flow. While the average power over an interim is being
A similar path through the flowchart exists for controlling calculated, the output profiles of the accelerometers on
the open or closed state of the gate. The gate in the present buoys are sampled and sorted in a pattern matching algo-
invention primarily functions in two states, fully open and 15 rithm to determine the location of the most recent breaking
shut, as opposed to prior art where the gate continuously wave relative to the nearest buoy based on the foregoing
controlled flow as a means of maintaining synchronous discussion of output profile characteristics, while the statis-
operation over varying heads and loads. In the present tics are gathered to perform a linear spatial frequency
invention, the gate closes to inhibit flow to enable the gimbal analysis to determine the sequence of locations where the
to rotate without the mechanical constraint of gyroscopic 20 waves break 1604. Whereas all previous blocks of the
precession, which would otherwise exist due to the angular flowchart of FIG. 16 could have been performed without a
momentum of the axial fluid coupler 210. The path through digital processor, the complexity of the calculations per-
the flowchart that exits block 1601 proceeding to block 1602 formed in block 1604 likely require a digital signal proces-
portrays the control of the gate. Here the instantaneous sor. As an example of the linear spatial frequency analysis,
magnitude of the voltage output from the main generator 25 much energy at a low frequency at a certain location in time
IVai, is differentiated over time. From block 1602, the and space indicates many instances of breaking waves are
algorithm then proceeds to the decision block 1606 to likely to occur in one location or gradually move in one
determine if the derivative with respect to time of Ivol is direction, or gradually undulated over a short distance for a
practically zero. As shown in block 1606, the absolute value given time, where much energy at a high frequency would
of the derivative is evaluated since a negative derivative 30 indicate a large variability in break location for a given time,
merely implies the rotor is slowing, the absolute value and thus increased difficulty tracking and diminished returns
evaluated to be lower than a threshold to account for some in energy invested tracking such a sequence of locations of
inaccuracy due to noise, if so, then implies a maximum or breaking waves. The smallest period of time the frequency
minimum in instantaneous output voltage magnitude. If the domain analysis could be based on is the interim period
comparison finds the output voltage not at a maximum or 35 previously described that preferably spans the minimum
minimum, it returns, otherwise the next step proceeds to time required to identify an instance of a single breaking
block 1609, whereby comparing the instantaneous magni- wave, thus furnishing amplitude data for that breaking wave
tude of the output voltage Ivol to some threshold determines sample. A number of these periods, or breaking wave
whether IVai is at a maximum or minimum. There it may also samples, can then be accumulated such that the requirement
sense motion in the gimbal by directly observing the output 40 of a power of two samples for performing a Fast Fourier
of its motion sensor or indirectly by sensing the voltage Transform is satisfied, to give a time dependent distribution
generated by the auxiliary generator mechanically coupled of location or in other words, a procession, of breaking
to the associated axis of the gimbal. If the instantaneous waves. Here the concern is that the number of sampled
output voltage of the main generator is below a threshold at breaking waves is great enough that an accurate Fast Fourier
this point, and/or motion is sensed in the gimbal, then the 45 Transform may be computed without spanning such a period
controller undertakes the process to close the gate 1611. The of time that the natural changes due to tides reduce the
gate will remain in the closed state 1611 as long as the repeatability from one procession sequence to the next.
motion in the gimbal is sensed as depicted by decision block While the presumption that over one hour the repeatability
1613. Upon gimbal motion ceasing, the gate opens 1615, of the wave procession provides reasonable tracking, one
and the algorithm returns to the start state 1600. 50 hour should permit two to four unique sequences of sixty
Another path exists based on processing the sampled four to two hundred fifty six breaking wave samples com-
instantaneous magnitude of the output voltage IVai to deter- puted within an FFT.
mine the extent of control processes applied in order to Depending on the outcome of decision block 1612, if
optimally extract energy from a free flowing motive fluid. power generation proves greater than a lower limit, the
Proceeding to block 1603, integration over an interim period 55 power extracted that correlates to optimal power, or in other
is performed to determine the energy extracted during that words, power extracted during an interim period wherein the
interim. It is then averaged over the number of samples buoy accelerometers had identified a plunging or surging
during that interim period to determine the average power breaker occurring in close proximity before the face of the
during that period. The interim period would best be defined turbine, is compared 1614 to a threshold value, such as the
by a number of samples corresponding to a power of two. 60 long term power average calculated in block 1610.
First, a number of samples, n, where n is a power of two, can Theoretically, a turbine of like embodiment of the present
be averaged simply by shifting the binary fixed-point integer invention, with a face area of one square meter, can extract
sum of n samples of IVaI, log 2(n) places to the right. an average of approximately three horse-power or about two
Secondly, block 1614 performs calculations based on this and a quarter kilowatts given the aforementioned breaking
variable and on the corresponding output of a Fast Fourier 65 conditions of a wave of one meter deep-sea height, and ten
Transform, FFI~ which by definition of the FFT algorithm, second period. If this type of wave is considered average for
must be calculated over a number of samples equal to a the place of installation, then occasions when the deep-sea
US 6,956,300 B2
21 22
wave height is doubled yield more than double the power wherein the kinetic energy contained in said motive fluid
output. Block 1614 attempts to determine such occasions is converted to electrical potential;
that make close tracking of the procession worth the energy wherein said kinetic energy contained in the motive fluid
expended to do so. For instance, if the energy in the ocean is converted to electrical potential by means of a
is low that day, then the turbine should spend as little energy 5 coaxial fluid coupler or impeller directly driving the
as necessary tracking the procession of breaking waves as rotor of a DC generator, or, directly driving or indi-
depicted in block 1618, just often enough to track the tide, rectly driving through a system of gears, an AC induc-
the procession of which could be prerecorded in non-volatile tion generator with external voltage rectifiers produc-
memory as a type of almanac. However, on an occasion ing a direct current output;
where the return on the energy invested makes tracking the 10 wherein the voltage output of said DC generator or said
procession along the rail system worthwhile, block 1617 AC induction generator with external voltage rectifiers
suggests as often as every interval, given high amplitudes is sensed to control a gate which inhibits flow to reduce
and high energy in correlated low spatial frequency bins. the rotational velocity of said coaxial fluid coupler or
The previously described paths through the flowchart of impeller thus reducing the forces of gyroscopic
FIG. 16 perform mathematical manipulations on the 15 precession, so to quicken the response to changes in the
sampled instantaneous magnitude of the output voltage, IVol direction of the streamlines of a free flowing motive
in order to determine an appropriate course of action. The fluid.
manipulations include differentiation and integration, and it 2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said gate is controlled
should be known that any of the paths could share the by an electronic microprocessor sensing said voltage output
outputs of these mathematical functions in order to improve 20 of the DC generator or AC induction generator.
the overall control algorithm. While not explicitly depicted 3. A turbine or other apparatus of power generation using
for sake of clarity in the flow diagram of FIG. 16, it may be means responsive to a motive fluid wherein the fluid intake
inferred, and thus any deviation of the algorithm to include is implemented via a gate or penstock which is:
the additional use of these function output variables in mechanically or electro-mechanically able to instanta-
decision blocks, or for that matter, use of a singular central 25 neously adjust its physical orientation in any direction
processor to also concurrently perform these and other to adapt to changes in the direction of the streamlines
control tasks not explicitly depicted, such as, but not limited of a free flowing motive fluid;
to: charging batteries; or performing electrolysis; or elec- wherein said apparatus is physically secured by a mount-
tronic means of motor speed control; adjusting to changes in ing system comprised of circular bearings in one axis or
load; or stepper displacement; or controlling an array of 30 plural axes commonly implemented as a gimbal, to
gimbal-mounted turbines; or logging communications; does provide the ability to instantaneously adjust the physi-
not constitute a substantial departure beyond the scope of the cal orientation of said fluid intake in any direction, to
present invention. adapt to changes in the direction of said free flowing
From the detailed description above it is manifest that motive fluid;
various implementations can use the concepts of the present 35 wherein the kinetic energy contained in said motive fluid
invention without departing from its scope. Moreover, while is converted to electrical potential;
the invention has been described with specific reference to wherein said kinetic energy contained in the motive fluid
certain embodiments, a person of ordinary skill in the art is converted to electrical potential by means of a
would recognize that significant alterations could be made in coaxial fluid coupler or impeller directly driving the
form and detail without departing from the spirit and the 40 rotor of a DC generator; or, directly driving or indi-
scope of the invention. The described embodiments are to be rectly driving through a system of gears, an AC induc-
considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive. tion generator with external voltage rectifiers produc-
It should also be understood that the invention is not limited ing a direct current output;
to the particular embodiments described herein, but is wherein the voltage output of said DC generator or said
capable of many rearrangements, modifications, omissions, 45 AC induction generator with external voltage rectifiers
and substitutions without departing from the scope of the is sensed to control adjustable interior flow vanes and
invention. adjustable runner blades of the fluid coupler or impeller
Thus, a gimbal-mounted hydroelectric turbine for adap- by employing a voltage feedback closed loop so as to
tively extracting energy from a free flowing motive fluid that 50 optimize efficiency over a range of loads and flow
continuously changes direction and magnitude of flow has velocities.
been described. 4. A turbine or other apparatus of power generation using
What is claimed is: means responsive to a motive fluid wherein the fluid intake
1. A turbine or other apparatus of power generation using is implemented via a gate or penstock which is:
means responsive to motive fluid wherein the fluid intake is 55 mechanically or electro-mechanically able to instanta-
implemented via a gate or penstock which is: neously adjust its physical orientation in any direction
mechanically or electro-mechanically able to instanta- to adapt to changes in the direction of the streamlines
neously adjust its physical orientation in any direction of a free flowing motive fluid;
to adapt to changes in the direction of the streamlines wherein said apparatus is physically secured by a mount-
of a free flowing motive fluid; 60 ing system comprised of circular bearings in one axis or
wherein said apparatus is physically secured by a mount- plural axes commonly implemented as a gimbal, to
ing system comprised of circular bearings in one axis or provide the ability to instantaneously adjust the physi-
plural axes commonly implemented as a gimbal, to cal orientation of said fluid intake in any direction, to
provide the ability to instantaneously adjust the physi- adapt to changes in the direction of said free flowing
cal orientation of said fluid intake in any direction, to 65 motive fluid;
adapt to changes in the direction of said free Howing wherein the kinetic energy contained in said motive Huid
motive fluid; is converted to electrical potential;
US 6,956,300 B2
23 24
wherein said kinetic energy contained in the motive fluid 7. A turbine or other apparatus of power generation using
is converted to electrical potential by means of a means responsive to a motive fluid wherein the fluid intake
coaxial fluid coupler or impeller directly driving the is implemented via a gate or penstock which is:
rotor of a DC generator; or, directly driving or indi- mechanically or electro-mechanically able to instanta-
rectly driving through a system of gears, an AC induc- 5
neously adjust its physical orientation in any direction
tion generator with external voltage rectifiers produc-
to adapt to changes in the direction of the streamlines
ing a direct current output;
of a free flowing motive fluid;
wherein the voltage output of said DC generator or said
wherein said apparatus is physically secured by a mount-
AC induction generator with external voltage rectifiers
is electronically voltage and current regulated for 10
ing system comprised of circular bearings in one axis or
charging any of the presently available varieties of plural axes commonly implemented as a gimbal, to
chemistry of battery. provide the ability to instantaneously adjust the physi-
5. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein said charging of a cal orientation of said fluid intake in any direction, to
battery, including gauging and communicating the fullness adapt to changes in the direction of said free flowing
of the battery is controlled by an electronic microprocessor. 15 motive fluid;
6. A turbine or other apparatus of power generation using wherein the kinetic energy contained in said motive fluid
means responsive to a motive fluid wherein the fluid intake is converted to electrical potential;
is implemented via a gate or penstock which is: wherein said kinetic energy contained in the motive fluid
mechanically or electro-mechanically able to instanta- is converted to electrical potential by means of a
neously adjust its physical orientation in any direction 20
coaxial fluid coupler or impeller directly driving the
to adapt to changes in the direction of the streamlines rotor of a DC generator, or, directly driving or indi-
of a free Howing motive fluid; rectly driving through a system of gears, an AC induc-
wherein said apparatus is physically secured by a mount- tion generator with external voltage rectifiers produc-
ing system comprised of circular bearings in one axis or 25 ing a direct current output;
plural axes commonly implemented as a gimbal, to wherein further energy may be extracted by implementing
provide the ability to instantaneously adjust the physi- an auxiliary DC generator or AC induction generator
cal orientation of said Huid intake in any direction, to with external voltage rectifiers indirectly coupled
adapt to changes in the direction of said free flowing through a system of gears to one axis or plural axes of
motive fluid; 30 said gimbal.
wherein the kinetic energy contained in said motive fluid 8. The apparatus of claim 7 wherein the armature current
is converted to electrical potential; of said auxiliary DC generator or AC induction generator
wherein said kinetic energy contained in the motive Huid with external voltage rectifiers may be reversed temporarily
is converted to electrical potential by means of a once over a long term period so as: to use the secondary
coaxial fluid coupler or impeller directly driving the 35 generator as a motor to affect the orientation of the face area
rotor of a DC generator; or, directly driving or indi- of said fluid intake such that it no longer is orthogonal to the
rectly driving through a system of gears, an AC induc- direction of the streamlines; thus:
tion generator with external voltage rectifiers produc- causing the motive fluid to remove tenacious debris from
ing a direct current output; the face of the intake during a routine self-maintenance
wherein the voltage output of said DC generator is 40 period.
electronically voltage and current regulated for driving 9. The apparatus of claim 8 wherein said intake physical
a DC motor mechanically coupled to a synchronousAC orientation is controlled by an electronic microprocessor.
generator with output armature voltage applied directly
to the utility power grid. * * * * *
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
us 20060237970Al
(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2006/0237970 At
Bailey, SR. (43) Pub. Date: Oct. 26, 2006

(54) PERPETUAL MOTION COMPTROLLERS & Publication Classification


ENERGY MOLECULE SPLITTERS
(51) Int. Cl.
(76) Inventor: Rudolph Bailey SR., Manassas Park, 1l02K 7118 (2006.01)
VA (US) F03G 7108 (2006.01)
F02B 63104 (2006.01)
Correspondence Address: (52) U.S. Cl. ............................................................. 29011 R
RUDOLPH BAILEY SR.
P.O. Box 221911 (57) ABSTRACT
Chantilly, VA 20153 (US)
A method to convert a battery operated device into a
perpetual motion machines has been disclosed. A method ±(lr
(21) Appl. No.: 11/331,474
splitting an energy molecule in two and making two mol-
(22) Filed: Jan. 5, 2006 ecule from the one while recycling the energy has disclosed.
The increased energy is used to offset that which will be loss
Related U.S. Application Data due to friction, and to do useful work. A molecule splitter
and comptroller is used to control the refurbishing of said
(63) Continuation-in-part of application No. 10/811,382, batteries one at a time, and to rest the drive motor, so as to
filed on Mar. 27, 2004, now abandoned. prevent the device from coming to a stop. Since the method
used does not create new energy, but generate new energy by
(60) Provisional application No. 60/644,725, filed on Jan. splitting the energy molecule, it does not violate the laws of
18, 2005. energy conversion, or the laws of thennodynamics.

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US 2006/0237970 Al Oct. 26, 2006
1

PERPETUAL MOTION COMPTROLLERS & drive motor, if no rest periods are introduced said drive
ENERGY MOLECULE SPLITTERS motor will eventually come to a stop. I do not understand
why a patent was granted on Frost's invention. As I men-
DESCRIPTION OF RELATED APPLICATIONS tioned earlier this patent application only covers the comp-
trollers and energy molecule splitters used in perpetual
[0001] This Application is a continuation-in-part of co-
motion machines, and not the perpetual motion machine
pending application Ser. No. 10/811,382 filled on Mar. 27,
itself, that is covered in co-pending application Ser. No.
2004. This application also claims the benifit ofPPA Ser. No.
10/811,382, filed on Mar. 27, 2004.
60/644,725, filed on Jan. 18, 2005.
[0006] As illustrated by background art, efforts are con-
BACKGROUND tinuously being made in an attempt to develop control
devices in order to make perpetual motion machines become
[0002] This version of the invention Is concerned with the
possible. No prior effort, however, provides a means atten-
field of control devices used to control perpetual motion
dant with the present invention. As such, it may be appre-
machines, and energy molecule splitters that can be used to
ciated that there is a continuing need for the development of
increase the energy within a system. More specifically, this
control devices to help make the benefits of perpetual
version of the invention is concerned with prior art control
motion machines available to hmnan kind. As such the
devices and technology using timing controls, and computer
present invention incorporates prior art technology for a new
hardware and sotlware including alpha-digital or voice-
use, that was unforeseen and unintended, which when modi-
sound conmlands or instructions, for a new and unintended,
fied to provide control devices that can facilitate perpetual
and unforeseen use, to produce perpetual motion which is
motion machines. Additionally the prior patent and use of
believed to be both scientifically and practically impossible.
component parts do not suggest the present inventive com-
bination of component elements arraigned and configured as
PRIOR ART
disclosed herein.
[0003] An exanlple of said control devices can be seen as
[0007] The present invention achieves its intended pur-
is exemplified in U.S. Pat. No. 5,804,948 System for Zero
poses, objects, and advantages through a new, useful and
Emission Generation of Electricity, issued to Frost on Sep.
unobvious combination of methods steps and component
8, 1998. Frost shows a comptroller 501 which switches back
elements, with the use of a minimum number of functioning
and forth between two 12-volt batteries 101 & 102 and an
parts, at a reasonable cost to manufacture, and by employing
alternator 401. The purpose intended is to keep a generator
only readily available materials.
301 in operation for an indefmite period, without need for a
separate recharging of said batteries.
SUMMARY
DISCUSSION OF THE PRIOR ART [0008] The present version of the invention, which will be
described in greater detail hereinafter, relates to the field of
[0004] As illustrated by background art, efforts are con-
control devices and energy molecule splitters that are used
tinuously being made in an attempt to develop control
to help to make perpetual motion machines possible, includ-
devices to facilitate perpetual motion machines. Frost's
ing computer hardware and software and programs. More
invention falls short of its intended goal, as the device is
specifically, this version of the invention is concerned with
inoperable, and violates the second law ofthermodynanlics,
a timing and switching and control component we call an
and the laws of energy conversion. The device also makes
energy molecule splitter, which incorporates prior art tech-
improper use of component parts, hence the said comptroller
nology for a new unintended, and unforeseen use, to help
would be of no value in facilitating perpetual motion of
make perpetual motion machines possible.
Frost's device.
[0009] In order to be able to described the present inven-
[0005] The reasons are as following, Frost is using a
tion briefly, according to a typical embodiment. We must
12-volt deep cycle bay to operate a 12-volt-li4HP motor, to
first explain what we at JESUS & Bailey call the "Science
operate a 12-volt alternator, to convert 12-volts into the
of Perpetual Motion Machine". In order to develop perpetual
IS-volts it would take to charge a 12-volt battery. The said
motion and do useful work, one must Hrst be able to recycle
action will violate the laws of energy conversion. In addition
the energy within a system or device, resulting in no waste
to that their would be friction and heat resulting in the loss
or emissions. Next one must be able to split each energy
of some of the energy from the 12-volt battery, so Frost's
molecule and take one molecule, and make two as one
invention also violates the second law of thermodynamics.
recycle said energy. In so doing one will be able to generate
In addition to that Frost would also be using an automobile
enough new energy within the system, to overcome what
type alternator to recharge two discharged batteries, said
will be lost due to friction and heat, and also to do usefi.J1
alternators are not designed to charge a discharged battery,
work. Said new science is possible in a DC battery operated
such charging must be accomplished by using a AC to DC
system.
trickle type battery charger. A.nother problem with Frost's
invention is that a %-HP motor is not sufficient to operate a [0010] Let us consider a 24-volt-DC circuit comprising
12-volt Alternator when it is in a charging cycle, plus a two 12volt deep cycle batteries connected to give 24-volts.
9,50Owatt generator. In addition to all that is mentioned, the Additionally let us consider a 24-volt-DC motor being
said alternator would burn out prematurely as it would be in operated by said batteries. The motor will convert the
a charge cycle continuously as it charges one battery for four electrical energy from the battery into turning motion. Said
hours, and then the next battery for four hours, back and turning motion with the use of mechanical advantage could
forth with no rest period. Additionally when said alternator be used to set in motion a charging component such as an
is in a charging mode the resistance tends to slow down the alternator, and the intended work load. Said charging com-
US 2006/0237970 Al Oct. 26, 2006
2

ponent could transfonn said tuming motion back to electri- for the drive motor, for a total charge cycle time of three
cal energy. Said electrical energy could be used to refurbish minutes. This means that the altemations must operate at a
said batteries, which would keep said drive motor in opera- rate, three times above the rate of the drive motor. This faster
tion indefinitely. This action will take care of the recycling rate also allows the altemator to generate more anlps than
step. However some of the energy from the battery will be the system takes to operate it. Hens trom calculations we can
lost due to friction and heat loss. If we use a 24-volt generate about 25 to 35% more amps than needed to operate
alternator as the charging component, we would have to the system. thus we can refurbish the batteries. overcome
generate 29-30volts to refurbish the said 24-volt batteries. friction and to do useful work.
One can easily see why that will not happen. Said example
[0013] Our invention, therefore, resides not in anyone of
would violate the laws of energy conversion and the second
these features per se, but rather in the particular combination
law of thennodynamics. To eliminate the obvious need for
of all of them herein disclosed. It is distinguished from the
outside energy to keep the system in operation, we have
prior art in this particular combination of all of its structures
devised a way to increase the energy within the system
for the fnuctions specified.
without any energy from an outside source, by splitting the
energy molecule, and making two from one. [0014] In order that the detailed description of the inven-
[0011] Here is how this is accomplished. Suppose you had tion may be better nuderstood, and that the present contri-
one telephone line coming into your home, and you needed bution to the art can be more fully appreciated, additional
another phone in another room, what would you do? Run features of the invention will be described hereinafter. It
another line? no, you would use a two-way signal splitter should be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the
and you would have two full phones, not two hall phones conception and the disclosed specific methods and structures
although you split the signal in two. Let us apply that may be readily utilized as a basis for modifYing or designing
analogy to this problem. Instead of using one 24-volt alter- other structures for carrying out the same purposes of the
nator, suppose two 12-volt altemators were used instead, present invention. It should be realized by those skilled in
then we would be splitting the energy molecules in two. the art that such equivalent methods and structures do not
Now we cannot use both altemators at the same time or we depart trom the spirit and scope of the invention.
will have the same original problem. Ifwe use one at a time [0015] In this respect, before explaining at least one
we will begin to solve the problem. since we would be using embodiment of the invention in detail, it is to be understood
a 24-volt by to convert to the 14.5-15-volts we would need that the invention is not limited in its application to the
to charge one 12-volt battery at a time. You would now have details of construction and to the arrangements of the
two full altemators each one capable of refurbishing the components set forth in the following description, or illus-
batteries. If you add up the volts from both alternators you trated in the drawings. The invention is capable of other
get 3D-volts. This would be 25% more than we need to embodiments and of being practiced and carried out in
operate the system, hens we have enough energy to refurbish various ways. Also, it is to be understood that the phrase-
the batteries, replace that which will be loss due to friction ology and tenninology employed herein are for the purpose
and do useful work. Said example does not violate the laws of description and should not be regarded as limiting.
of energy conversion. It does not violate the laws of ther-
modynamics. since we are not creating new energy within [0016] As such. those skilled in the art will appreciate that
the system, instead we are generating additional energy by the conception, upon which this disclosure is based, may
splitting the energy molecules. Consider a wife and husband readily be utilized as a basis for the designing of other
having a child, they do not say we created a new child, but structures, methods and systems for carrying out the several
the child is referred to as part of their generations, from the purposes of the present invention.
sanle root word. In like manuer the additional energy is not
[0017] Further, the purpose of the foregoing abstract is to
created but generated. The word create means to make
enable the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and the public
something from nothing, and we are not doing that. When
generally, and especially the scientists, engineers and prac-
you split anything and make two things from the one you
titioners in the art who are not familiar with patent or legal
automatically have an increase. This is what the Lord Jesus
tenns or phraseology, to determine quickly from a cursory
did in the creation of the lUliverse, after He made man he put
inspection the nature and essence of the technical disclosure
him to sleep and split him open and took a rib out, and closed
of the application. The abstract is neither intended to define
him up, and with the rib, He made woman, and when the
the invention of the application, nor is it intended to be
man and woman got together in the fullness of time, they
limiting as to the scope of the invention in any way.
continue to generate new life perpetually as long as tIlls
world will last. When you follow a divine principle it always [0018] Accordingly, it is an object of our version of the
works. invention to provide a low-cost, easy-to-manufacture, and
[0012] Now we need a energy splitter & controller to easy-to-market perpetual motion comptroller & energy mol-
control the charging process one battery at a time. This is the ecule splitter, for helping to make perpetual motion
purpose of this patent application, and not to patent a machines possible.
perpetual motion machine, that is done in co-pending appli- [0019] A further object of our version of the invention is
cation Ser. No. 10/811,382 filed on Mar. 27, 2004. The to provide an easy to install and easy to use perpetual motion
Molecule spiller is a timing and switching comptroller that comptroller & molecule splitter. for perpetual motion
is comprised of a master control board, and an insulated hot machines.
pointer, a modulating motor with cams and collar, and three
output terminals and one feed terminal. The comptroller is [0020] A significant object of the invention is to provide a
set to send 24-volts to each altemator's solenoids for one light weight and easy to service and easy to replace perpetual
minute intervals, with two Yo minute rest periods per cycle motion comptroller & energy molecule splitter.
US 2006/0237970 Al Oct. 26, 2006
3

[0021] A final but significant object of the invention is to [0040] 80 Cam Collar
provide a trouble free fool-proof control device that will not
[0041] 82 Insulated Hot Pointer
cause damage to the system it is installed in if it malfunc-
tions, but is safe and reliable. [0042] 85 & 85 Positive & negative to 24-volt Drive
Motor (not shown)
[0022] For a better nnderstanding of the invention, its
operating advantages and the specific objects attained by its [0043] 86 Exciter Wire to Altemator (2)
uses, reference should be made to the accompanying draw-
[0044] 87 Exciter Wire to Altemator (1)
ings and descriptive matter, in which there is illustrated a
preferred embodiment of the invention. These objects [0045] 93 On/Off Switch
should be constmed to be merely illustrate of some of the
[0046] 96 Negative Wire to Altemator (AI)
more prominent features and applications of the present
invention. Many other beneficial results can be attained by [0047] 97 Positive Wire to Alternator (AI)
applying the disclosed invention in a different manner, or by
[0048] 98 Negative Wire to Alternator (A2)
modifYing the invention within the scope of the disclosure.
Accordingly, other objects and a fuller understanding of the [0049] 99 Positive Wire to Alternator (A2)
invention may be had by referring to the summary of the
[0050] 114 Remote Communicator/Controller
invention, and the detailed description of the preierred
embodiment, in addition to the scope of the invention [0051] 115 Central Processing Unit
illustrated by the accompanying drawings.
[0052] 117 External Speaker
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0053] 122 Touch Monitor
[0023] The foregoing and other objects, features and [0054] 500C Solenoid to Battery (Bl) Positive
advantages of the invention will become more fully under-
stood from the following description of The preferred [0055] 500 Solenoid to Battery (B1) Negative
embodiment of the invention as illustrated in the accompa- [0056] 508A Solenoid to Battery (B2) Positive
nying drawings in which like reference characters refer to
the same parts throughout different views. The drawings are [0057] 508 Solenoid to Battery (B2) Negative
not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon
illustrating the principles of the invention. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED
EMBODIMENT
[0024] FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a perpetual
motion comptroller and molecule splitter in conjunction Description
with other related parts as it would be installed and wired. [0058] Referring now to the drawings and, in particular, to
[0025] FIG. 1A is a plan view of a perpetual motion FIG. 1 wherein there is illustrated a typical embodiment of
comptroller and molecule splitter with top cover removed a perpetual motion comptroller & energy molecule splitter
showing the intemals. 25. The present version of the invention 25 which casing is
constmcted non-conductive materials such as plastic or fiber
[0026] FIG. III is a perspective arrangement of an alter- glass, with a removable cover. FIG. 1 shows how comp-
nate embodiment showing a tachometer added which is used troller 25 inter-relates with its associate component parts
to control the charging operation. which are covered in co-pending application Ser. No.
10/811 ,382, and are not part of this application.
DRAWING REFERENCE NUMERALS
[0059] Referring to now to FIG. lA, wherein is illustrated
[0027] 25 Perpetual Motion Comptroller & Energy Mol- the internals of comptroller 25, with a main control board 70,
ecule Splitter with Intemal 9-volt Battery which controls the timing and switching of the 24-volt
[0028] 32 Positive and Negative Wires to 24-volt Circuit power supply to the external alternator solenoids. Pointer 82,
is insulated and moves the 24-volts to the output ternlinals
[0029] 34 24-volt Tachometer with High and low set point A, B, & C. 'Tenninal F, is 24-volt feed intake to main control
for tuming Power on and off board 70.
[0030] 36 Positive 24-volt Signal Wire from Tachometer [0060] Referring again to FIG. 1, when switch 93 is
closed 24-volts goes to Comptroller 25, via wires 73 & 74,
[0031] 38 12-volt Tachometer Sensing Wire
(FIG. 1A). Pointer 82 which is normally at the A terminal
[0032] 70 Main Control Board when power supply is in the ofT position, sends 24-volts via
wires 71 & 72 to alternator Solenoids 508A & 508 for 60
[0033] 71 Positive "A" Solenoid Tenninal
seconds. Said action will cause alternator A2 to refurbish
[0034] 72 Negative "A" Solenoid Terminal battery B2, for a I-minute interval. Next hot pointer 82,
(FIG. 1A) travels to the B, terminal and pauses for 30
[0035] 73 Positive Feed Tenninal seconds, this will allow drive motor to rest for a 'h minute
[0036] 74 Negative Feed Temlinal before hot pointer 82 moves to the C, ternlinal, and pauses
for 60 seconds. sending 24-volts to alternator solenoids
[0037] 75 Positive "C" Solenoid Tenninal 500C & 500, via wires 75 & 76. Said action will allow
[0038] 76 Negative "C" Solenoid Tenninal alternator Al to charge battery B1. for 1 minute. Next hot
pointer 82 will travel back to the B, tenninal and pause for
[0039] 78 Modulating Motor 30 seconds, giving drive motor another 'h rest before it
US 2006/0237970 Al Oct. 26, 2006
4

moves back to the A terminal for 60 seconds, to repeat the the power off to comptroller 25 thereby stopping the said
continuous charging cycle, back and forth, as long as switch charging process. Comptroller 25 pointer will always move
93 remain in the on position. Said action will facilitate to the B rest position when no power is on. \\Then alternator
perpetual motion, by increasing energy within the system attains 5S00-RPM once more, comptroller pointer will send
enough to offset what is lost due to friction, and allow useful power to the other alternator solenoids thereby causing said
work to be done. When switch 93 is tumed oft~ hot pointer alternator to charge the related battery. \\Then alternator
82 will automatically retum to the A terminal. An optional drops to 5400-RPM tach-switch 34 will tum power off to
no charging light can be connected to the B terminal. Comptroller 25, thereby stopping the charging process, and
pointer will again return to the B rest position and wait for
[0061] Various methods can be employed to accomplish
alternators to reach 5S00-RPM once more. At that point the
the refurbishing process of batteries B1 & B2, as explained
charging of the other battery will take place as previously
above, and comptroller 25 can be made to operate in
explained. This process will continue back and forth. as long
different ways. The methods explained does not limit this
as the system is in operation. Said process will allow the
application to one format, or teclmology in accomplishing
system to stay in operation indefinitely. Changing the posi-
the above task. Said comptroller can work together with a
tion of switch 93D will cause comptroller 25 to operate on
computer like central processor 115 with speaker 117, or
a timing cycle as was explained in the preferred embodiment
said process could be performed with the use of sophisti-
of the invention. A second tachometer without a switch
cated computerized controls which can pedimn other duties
could be installed on the other alternator to monitor belt
such as turning device on and off, and warnings of possible
slippage, should both tachometer not have the sanle reading
problems or malfunctions, or displaying values and readings
in revolutions per minute.
on touch monitor 122, or on remote communicator/control-
ler 114, which also functions as a mobile phone and two-way CONCLUSION AND SCOPE OF INVENTION
radio. Such duties can involve digital, or sounds or voice and
verbal conmlands and instmctions. The use of any computer [0063] From the foregoing, it will be understood by per-
hardware, software, or program or such like use of any and sons skilled in the art that an improved method to make the
all prior art technology is considered as part of this appli- benefits of perpetual motion machines available to humans
cation as a new unforeseen and unintended use, to facilitate has been provided. The invention is relatively simple and
perpetual motion machines. Furthermore the timing chosen easy to manufacture, yet affords a variety of uses. While our
is only for example, and any timing cycle that is proven to description contains many specifications, these should not
work may be used. The present invention is also patentable be constmed as limitations on the scope of the version of the
as an improvement over the sighted prior art, f(lr the reasons invention, but rather as an exemplification of the preferred
sighted in the discussion of the prior art, and the sun1lllary embodiment thereof. The foregoing is considered as illus-
of the invention. Prose applicant request that such patent as trative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since
explained be granted. numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to
those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention
DESCRIPTION OF THE ALTERNATE to the exact construction and operation shown and
EMBODIMENT described. Accordingly all suitable modifications and
equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of
Description
the invention. Although this invention has been described in
[0062] Referring now to the drawings and in particular to its preferred form with a certain degree of particularity, it is
FIG. III wherein there is illustrated an alternate embodi- understood that the present disclosure of the preferred form
ment of a perpetual motion comptroller and energy molecule has been made only by way of example. Accordingly
splitter 25T. The present version of the invention 25T consist numerous changes in details of construction and combina-
of all components as version 25, with the inclusion of a tion and arrangement of parts may be resorted to, without
tachometer switch 34, and a double throw normally open, departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
normally close contact switch 93D in place of switch 93. 1. What I claim is a method to split energy molecules in
Tach-switch 34 operates on 24-volts, with a 12-volt sensing a battery operated circuit as said energy is receded in order
wire to alternator. and has two set points. One set point is at to increase energy enough to oft'set lost to friction and do
5S00-PRM for a 24-volt system and 3100-RPM for a 12-Volt useful work whereby facilitating perpetual motion and a
system. The other set point is at 5400-RPM for a 24-volt method to control the refurbishing of said batteries one at a
system and 2700 RPM for a 12-volt system (the exanlple time and to rest the system equally using prior art teclmology
illustrated is a 24-volt system). 'When alternators attain such as computer hardware software programs and timing
5S00-RPM Tachometer Switch 34 sends 24-volts to Comp- and switching controls and a remote communicator/control-
troller 25. Comptroller 25 will operate as usual, sending ler which also acts as mobile phone and two-way radio as a
24-volts to alternator solenoids allowing one alternator to new use to facilitate perpetual motion.
commence the charging of the related battery until alternator
drops to 5400-RPM. At that point tachometer switch 34 turn * * * * *
111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
us 20070246939Al
(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2007/0246939 At
McDonald (43) Pub. Date: Oct. 25, 2007

(54) PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE Publication Classification

(51) Int. Cl.


(76) [nventor: Paul Wayne McDonald, Hernando, MS Il02K 7118 (2006.01)
(US) (52) U.S. Cl. ............................................................. 29011 R

Correspondence Address: (57) ABSTRACT


Paul McDonald
7243 Love RD It is a motor which runs on Prepetual Motion.IT only
Hernando, MS 38632 (US) requires synthetic oil to lubricate metal parts to prevent
friction breakdown no Electricity or Fuel required I PAUL
(21) Appl. No.: 111281,660 WAYNE MCDONALD claim to be the only one who has
ever [nvented a Perpetual Motor to the best of my knowl-
(22) Filed: Apr. 11, 2006 edge

____
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US 2007/0246939 At
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US 2007/0246939 Al Oct. 25, 2007
1

PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE [0007] B 82 Is a degree gears for the timing on each one
of the B2I magnets
[0001] B6 IS A Lifter shaft with gears at one end toward
the outside of the circle and 2 rollers towards the center of COLOR CODE FOR METALS ON DRAWINGS
the circle that ride on a clover leaf shaped cam B7 that
resembles bunt cake pan B8 main shaft housing for B 20 [0008] I-The green parts 7075-T6 Aluminum
magnets that bolt in it the B 21 magnets are timed by the B
6 and B 7 the B7 is on the tront end B8 the B21 will move [0009] 2-The yellow parts 9310 Steel Alloy
away from B20 just so B2I can get by then it drop back [0010] 3-The white dots on page 5 are 8740 Steel Alloy
down to magnet pulls the next B20 over and over B6 rides
on b7 cam B6 goes up down B82 are timing gear set BI0 is [0011] 4-The Blue parts ARMAX 26 SMCO Magnet
the outer motor block that holds the parts in place. Alloy
[0002] B8 has a arrow pointing in the direction it is turning [0012] 5-The red parts 4130 Chromemoly And on the ends
clockwise B20 are bolted to B8 and the B2I move up down the gears are 9310 Steel Alloy
just so the B20 can get by just missing each other
[0003] B7 is a bunt shaped cam there is 2 canIS the B6 has
2 rollers that ride on inner and outer rim ofB7 b6 has gears I claim:
on one end that are for timing 1. I am the only one that knows how to make this
[0004] B8 the front end and how it is shaped with notches Perpetual Motion Motor and it work! I started on it when I
on the outer edges so B20 can be bolted in the notches in the was 8 years old, My Father told me that we are the
center of B8 is 4 more notches so a main shaft that has 4 Caretakers of the Earth, So I Established My Goals to make
more notches will 11t in it and B7 be time with B8 this Perpetual Motion Motor at age of 8 years old and this
is my claim! The Magnets are put in a timed working order
[0005] This is a side view of the motor the white dots are that they will push and pull in away that will be in Perpetual
bolts that hold the magnets in the main shaft B8 Motion I Have Worked on this all Alone no one helped Me
[0006] This is the outer magnet B2I it has a gear set that with this I did it all by myself in 31 Years of work I Paul
bolts on it, the white spots are the bolts holes and B21-B is Wanes McDonald the End of this claim.
red and it is the gears for timing the B2I on the B8 main
shaft * * * * *