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Joseph Canteloube’s Chants d’Auvergne: A Performance Guide for the Soprano

Voice

Christina Lani Romich

Dissertation submitted to the College of Creative Arts at West Virginia University in


partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Musical Arts


in
Vocal Performance

Robert Thieme, M.Mus., Chair


Christopher Wilkinson, Ph.D., Research Advisor
Hope Koehler, D.M.A. Voice Performance
John Hendricks, M.Mus.
Jay Malarcher, Ph.D.

Division of Music

Morgantown, West Virginia


2011

Keywords: Joseph Canteloube, Chants d’Auvergne


Copyright 2011 Christina Romich
UMI Number: 3530539

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ABSTRACT

Joseph Canteloube’s Chants d’Auvergne: A Performance Guide for the Soprano


Voice

Christina Romich

This research document provides a brief biography on Joseph Canteloube and the major
events in his life which carved the path of his musical career. A performance analysis is
given for all thirty songs that constitute the five volumes of the Chants d’Auvergne.
Each of the songs will be introduced by its text: first the original Auvergnat dialect, then
in a transliteration using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), and finally in an
English translation. There is also an analysis of the text and the implications of its
meaning for the melody and the accompaniment as well as for the singer’s interpretation
and performance. In addition, this discussion will also include interpretive suggestions
based on the author’s experience, the text, and the musical accompaniment. Each chapter
also provides, where appropriate, musical examples to illustrate the information
presented.
Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Chapter One: Joseph Canteloube Biography 7

Chapter Two: First Volume 21

Chapter Three: Second Volume 54

Chapter Four: Third Volume 89

Chapter Five: Fourth Volume 126

Chapter Six: Fifth Volume 171

Conclusion 228

Bibliography 234

Resume 239

iii
Introduction

Joseph Canteloube (1879-1957) composed in a variety of genres, but is best

known for his settings of folksongs from the Auvergne, a region he was born in and spent

his childhood. His interest in the folksongs of the Auvergne was not that of an

ethnomusicologist but that of a composer since he would arrange thirty of them as art

songs. Not only did he collect and set folksongs from his home land, but as well would in

the course of his career set folksongs from other parts of the country, including Quercy,

Touraine, and Angoumois.

A complete understanding of the Chants d’Auvergne requires consideration of

that region of France. The name “Auvergne” is derived from the Arveni, a Celtic people

whose leader was Vercingétorix (died in 46 B.C.) whom Julius Cesar defeated in his

conquest of Gaul.1 This region encompasses the central départements of Puy-de-Dôme,

Allier, Haute-Loire, and Cantal.2 Auvergne lies on the Massif-Central, a vast granite

plateau formed from what are now extinct volcanoes called puys. This large mountain

formation dominates the south-central part of the country, one of the least populated

regions in France.3 To the southwest lie the Pyrénées mountain range which forms a

natural border between France and Spain. These mountains provide a geographical

explanation as to why the Auvergne region was largely unaffected by the musical

influences of the surrounding countries. Canteloube suggested that this fact left the
1
Vercingétorix. (2011). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 18th, 2001, from Encyclopedia
Britannica Online: www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/625897/Vercingetorix

2
French départements. www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/French_d%c3%a9partements/.
Départements are administrative units of France that are analogous to British counties.
3
Pauly, The solo vocal music of Joseph Canteloube (1879-1957). Doctoral dissertation, University of
Missouri, 1995. Pg. 9

1
Auvergne with a legacy of song that “was more extensive, more characteristic, and better

preserved than the rest of the country.”4

One of the first issues to arise is the accompaniment of the songs. Françoise

Cougniaud-Raginel observed that the accompaniments, especially the musical interludes

between verses, were motivated by the subject of the song’s text. The nature of the text

and folk melody, be it a work song or a bourrée, inspired an overall tone and color of his

setting 5 The Chants d’Auvergne were first written for voice and piano, which is the

setting that is discussed in this document because in most cases this will be the

performance medium.

As for the vocal line, soprano Madeline Grey, who toured with Canteloube to help

promote his first three volumes of the Chants d’Auvergne, discussed her view of the

significance of folk songs in her 1954 Musical America article, “The Chants d’Auvergne

and the Place of Folksong in Our Culture”:

Their melodic intervals, fashioned by thousands of throats and based upon the
most supple harmonies and the most instinctive attraction of sounds, are suited to
the vocal mechanism in the same manner in which certain intervals are suited to
the tube of the horn, the flute, the clarinet, or the oboe. I believe that the Chants
d’Auvergne will tell us more about Auvergne and its inhabitants than many thick
volumes or long studies. 6

In the preface to his Anthologie des chants populaires français, Canteloube

explained that he organized his collection of Auvergne songs by their region of origin:

4
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 10.
5
Cougniaud-Raginel, Françoise .Joseph Canteloube: chantre de la terre, 69. Translated by Amandine
Nealton.
6
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph, 13. Steubing found this information
from the following source:

Grey, Madeline. “The Chants d’Auvergne and the Place of Folksong in Our Culture,” Musical America 74,
(February 1954): 4-5.

2
Haute-Auvergne and Basse-Auvergne, areas defined by the provincial government in

1791.7 The Haute-Auvergne was located in the southwest corner of the province,

including the town of Aurillac. The Basse-Auvergne area was located in the middle of the

province with the city of Clermont-Ferrand toward its center. The songs gathered from

these areas are of two general types: grand (work songs) and bourrées (dancing songs).8

All but one of the Chants d’Auvergne texts are in the Auvergnat dialect, derived

from the ancient Langue d’oc of the south and one of the six dialects spoken in France

today. The pronunciation of this dialect differs from Parisian French in many ways –

most notably, there is a lack of nasalization. In the preface to the first collection of folk

song arrangements, Canteloube wrote about his decision to maintain the Auvergne dialect

for the texts of the songs:

[These songs] lose their meaning when one tries to adapt a French translation to
their rhythm, because the Auvergne dialect, which is very rich, but very concise,
rarely permits an exact adaptation. 9

Canteloube dedicated his life to educating the world about the native folk songs of

his country, indeed most of his repertoire consists of settings of French folk songs.

Cougniaud-Raginel describes the impact of Canteloube’s settings as follows:

…He also knows how to talk about the landscapes of the region…he writes with
his heart making him a poet and a musician; and while listening always
attentively to the voices of the land, he is gradually going to find his place among
the contemporary musical world…When the farmer sings and works, there is
something in his song that people cannot feel…those who stay closed-minded will
not feel what they feel…this thing is only heard by artists and poets, and still not

7
“Auvergne”. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 12th, 2008, from Encyclopædia
Britannica Online: http://search.eb.com/eb/article-253112.
8
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 14.
9
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 16. Translation of Heugel score edition.

3
all can feel that. It is the land and nature that constitutes the farmers song, and one
cannot separate the nature and land from the song. 10

Joseph Canteloube’s vocal repertoire is not commonly heard in a singer’s recital.

When a singer does choose to represent his work, one will note that there are a select set

of songs from the Chants d’Auvergne that are almost always performed. It is my hope

that this document will inspire singers and vocal teachers to study and perform selections

from the Chants d’Auvergne and to select songs other than the traditional ones that are

heard.

This study will examine all thirty songs that constitute the five volumes of the

Chants d’Auvergne, published between 1923 and 1954. This document will provide

guidelines for the pronunciation of the text and the performance of each song based upon

textual and musical elements. Following a biography of the composer that constitutes

chapter one, chapters two through six are devoted to the five volumes of the folksong

settings. The primary sources for this research were the editions of the piano and vocal

scores by Heugel.

Each of the songs will be introduced by its text: first the original Auvergnat

dialect, then in a transliteration using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), and

finally in an English translation. What follows is an analysis of the text and the

implications of its meaning for the melody and the accompaniment as well as for the

singer’s interpretation and performance. This discussion will also include interpretive

suggestions based on the author’s experience, the text, and the musical accompaniment.

Each chapter also provides, where appropriate, musical examples to illustrate the

information presented. As each volume is discussed, the reader will note that the texts

10
Cougniaud-Raginel, Joseph Canteloube: chantre de la terre, 70. Translated by Amandine Nealton.

4
and their meanings become more complex as the composer’s conception of the repertory

evolved, thus presenting more performance challenges and demands for the singer.

A source that was extremely useful to this research is Lori McCann’s dissertation,

A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne collected and

harmonized by Joseph Canteloube. The dissertation presents the results of McCann’s

research of the Auvergnat dialect and applies the pronunciation of the dialect to select

songs from Chants d’Auvergne. There is also a brief IPA guide for the general rules of

the Auvergnat dialect. However, McCann does mention that during interviews with

natives of the Auvergne region, there are several different ways to pronounce this dialect.

Therefore, once a singer chooses a way to pronounce a word, the singer must stay

consistent throughout the entire performance.

Deborah Steubing’s dissertation, The setting of the Auvergnat-dialect folk songs

by Joseph Canteloube in his ‘Chants d’Auvergne’: An analysis of the modal aspects of

the pure folk songs and Canteloube’s diatonic/pentatonic accompaniments, focuses on

six selected songs from the Chants d’Auvergne. It is a document geared more towards the

theoretical aspects of the selected songs rather than on the process of performing the

songs.

Elizabeth Mary Pauly’s dissertation, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube

(1879-1957), focuses on the vocal compositions of Canteloube. In her study of selected

songs from the Chants d’Auvergne, Pauly presents information on the form of the poem

and the original folk song, providing a brief theoretical analysis and interpretative

suggestions and a brief biography of Canteloube.

5
There are two sources which discuss Joseph Canteloube’s life and musical works.

One is entitled Joseph Canteloube (1879 – 1957): chanter d’Auvergne et d’ailleurs,

written by Jean-Bernard Cahours d’Aspry. The other biography is by François

Cougniaud-Raginel, and is entitled Joseph Canteloube: Chanter de la terre. Both studies

discuss Canteloube’s life and the Chants d’Auvergne.

Each of these studies provides useful information regarding the Chants

d’Auvergne. However, no single one of them includes all of the information presented

here. This document not only presents all thirty songs with IPA transliteration and

translations, but also analyzes the musical accompaniment and discusses ways to project

the texts meaning in the course of the performance. Therefore, it is noticeable that this is

perhaps the first study to discuss all of this repertory.

6
Chapter One:

What this…region offers is tranquility and the sense of wide spaces in which to
enjoy it…this sense of quiet contributes to the ‘haunted’ quality of the high
country. Stop the car and the silence is striking. After a while, it imposes on the
spirit; one grows into quietness and nerves relax as the eye moves restfully from
whispering stream to over-hanging wood and up to the blue vault of sky across…
(Gorham, Peter. Portrait of the Auvergne)

Biography

In the Lyon region of France, just east of this land of “tranquility,” in the city

Annonay, Joseph Canteloube de Malaret was born on October 21st, 1879. 11 Canteloube’s

first musical influences came from his mother, Marie, a pianist. It is likely that she taught

Canteloube the piano when he was very young. She also organized several private music

concerts that featured both amateur and professional musicians.12 These concerts

provided an opportunity for both Marie and her colleagues to perform in front of an

audience. Marie decided to give her son the opportunity to play the piano in one of the

performances. This experience played a significant role in Canteloube’s music education.

A Polish refugee named Amélie Doetzer, a pupil and friend of Frédéric Chopin’s,

attended this particular concert. After hearing Canteloube’s performance of a Chopin’s

Polonaise, Doetzer offered to give Canteloube piano lessons at the age of six.13

Canteloube’s second musical influence came from the countryside of the

Auvergne region. During the summers, the Canteloube family would stay at the Malaret

family estate, located in the town of Bagnac-sur-Cèle, in the valley of the Lot river near

11
McCann, Lori E. A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne collected and
harmonized by Joseph Canteloube. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati. 1996. Pg. 1
12
Steubing, Deborah Marie. The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 3.
13
Cougniaud-Raginel, Joseph Canteloube : chantre de la terre, 17-18.

7
the edge of the Auvergne. This part of Auvergne is located within the region of Midi-

Pyrénées. During their stay, Canteloube and his father often walked through the

mountains and countryside of the region. It was on these walks Canteloube heard the

residents of Auvergne sing their folk songs while working or performing other duties.14

Canteloube’s previous musical studies and his exposure to folk music came to an

abrupt halt in 1891 because his father wanted him to have the best education possible.

Therefore, at age twelve, Canteloube was withdrawn from the collège of Basiliens in

Annonay and sent to the college of Saint-Thomas-d’Aquin, located in Oullins, northeast

of Annonay.15

While Canteloube resided at the school, his paternal grandmother passed away.

This left the Canteloube family with the Malaret family estate, which became their

home.16 In 1894, Canteloube’s maternal grandfather died. Two years later, his father

died. Despite these losses, Canteloube continued his education at Saint-Thomas-d’Aquin

and earned a degree in philosophy. He returned to Bagnac-sur-Cèle to live with his

mother, where his enthusiasm for local music was rekindled.17 Canteloube claimed that

the walks he took through the region were the inspiration for his harmonization of the

folk songs in his most popular musical score, the Chants d’Auvergne. He claimed that he

wrote accompaniments that mimicked the sounds he heard in the countryside.18

14
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 4.
15
Cougniaud-Raginel, Joseph Canteloube : chantre de la terre, 18-20.
16
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 2.
17
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 5.
18
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 5.

8
Unfortunately, the family tragedies continued when Canteloube’s mother died in

1900. Canteloube found it difficult to maintain a social life in the months that followed

and instead lived in solitude. He did, however, find what he termed “a solace for his

grief” and a refuge in the study of piano for which he composed Marche funèbre.19 He

also roamed the French countryside in the regions of Auvergne, Quercy, and Rouergue,

and listened to the folk music.20

In the fall of 1901, Canteloube married Charlotte Marthe Calaret, who would give

birth to twin boys, Pierre and Guy, in 1903.21 The Canteloube family continued to live in

the family estate, where the composer began to study the folksongs that he collected from

his trips to Quercy and Auvergne.22 His reason for collecting the folk songs was to

“awaken interest in them, rather than study them in a scientific way.”23 Although he

became an active musician again, he no longer received any formal musical training. 24

Canteloube’s career began to grow when he came in contact with Vincent d’Indy,

a composer, teacher, and founder of the La Schola Cantorum. The relationship began

with an exchanging of letters. Canteloube later sent d’Indy manuscripts to critique.25 It

was on d’Indy’s advice that the young composer began working on pieces for voice and

19
Cougniaud-Raginel, Joseph Canteloube: chantre de la terre, 21.
20
Pauly, The SoloVoice Music of Joseph Canteloube, 3.
21
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 5.
22
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 5.
23
Smith, Richard Langham. “Canteloube, Joseph”. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians,
2006.
24
Pauly, The Solo Voice Music of Joseph Canteloube, 3.
25
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 5.

9
piano, voice and organ, and voice and string quartet.26 The two composers did not build a

student-teacher relationship until Canteloube’s enrollment at La Schola Cantorum, a

music institute, located in Paris, France in 1907.27

Before the Schola Cantorum was founded, the Paris Conservatoire was the only

truly modern institution of its kind, providing music education to a select group of

students. The guidelines by which the students were selected were the following: they

must be between the ages of eight and thirteen, must be chosen on a geographical basis,

six from each département, and there must be an equal number of boys and girls.28

At the Paris Conservatoire music was taught in three stages. The first was devoted

to solfège. The second stage expanded the education to various aspects of singing and

playing instruments. The third and final stage demanded theoretical knowledge, history

of music and accompaniment of singers, skill as a performer, and having both a principal

and secondary area of study.29

Vincent d’Indy was very dissatisfied with the “anachronistic teaching methods” of

the Conservatoire. He joined Charles Bordes and Alexandre Guilmant in founding La

Schola Cantorum in 1894. By 1904, d’Indy took over as the director. The Schola sought

to instruct students in the recent reforms to the music of the Catholic liturgy, which was

now emphasizing the Gregorian chant and Palestrinan polyphony.30

26
Pauly, The Solo Voice Music of Joseph Canteloube, 3-4.
27
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs, 5.
28
Weber, William. “Conservatories”. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2008.
29
Weber, “Conservatories”, 2008.
30
Thomson, Andrew. “Vincent D’Indy”. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2008.

10
Lori McCann, author of A Critical Performing Edition of Selected Songs from

Chants d’Auvergne collected and harmonized by Joseph Canteloube, states that d’Indy

and Canteloube shared the belief that there existed no deeper source for musical

expression than that of the native song and dance.31 Jean-Bernard Cahours d’Aspry,

author of Joseph Canteloube (1879-1957): chanter d’Auvergne et d’ailleurs, states that

Canteloube became a skilled orchestrator while attending the Schola Cantorum. He also

studied the subjects of harmony, plainchant, polyphonic technique of the fifteenth and

sixteenth centuries, and the Italian art of the seventeenth century.32 It is unclear from the

description if the Italian art of the seventeenth century implies the art of counterpoint, or

the Baroque homophonic style associated with the term “seconda prattica.”

Another student enrolled at the same time was Déodat Séverac, who became a

close friend and an influence throughout Canteloube’s life by advising him to, “sing

about your country, sing about your land!” This became an inspiration for Canteloube’s

musical career.33 Cahours d’Aspry described the relationship between Séverac and

Canteloube:

When Canteloube came to live in Paris they [Séverac and Canteloube] both got
together very often because they were neighbors. Canteloube says, “I often went
to wake him up and after that we often went to get coffee and walked around
Paris, or places surrounding Paris like Au Bois. Everywhere we walked we
talked about art, our ideas of regionalism, and our musical projects. 34

31
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 4.
32
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 5.
33
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 5.
34
Cahours d’Aspry, Jean-Bernard. Joseph Canteloube (1879-1957) : chantre d’Auvergne et d’ailleurs /
Jean-Bernard Cahours d’Aspry. Biarritz: Séguier, c2000 Pg. 23 Translated by Amandine Nealton.
Information gathered from the following source: Canteloube, Joseph. Déodate Séverac. Béziers Société de
Musicologie du Languedoc, 1984. Pg. 17.

11
Both Séverac and Canteloube shared similar beliefs with d’Indy. D’Indy became

very nationalistic throughout his musical career. Thomas Andrew’s article on d’Indy in

the New Grove Dictionary states that d’Indy was very sensitive to any political attacks on

the Schola Cantorum, and was very apprehensive about the corrupt trends that were

present in the contemporary music in both France and Germany. 35 Canteloube also

expressed concerns that the contemporary musical world was turning its back on folk

music. He states that:

…one can see very strange and crazy things develop. Those things are in
opposition to each other…one can see ridiculous behaviors spread, but during
those times one feels a powerful joy to meet an independent artist…who is
free from the prejudices of any school of thought. An artist that is indifferent to
those new doctrine and new behaviors, an artist that gives the priority to
intelligence and an artist that truly loves his land, his race, and his country. 36
D’Indy, who believed folk songs were “of the earth,” agreed.37

Therefore, d’Indy added the study of the folksong to the curriculum of the composition

classes at the Schola Cantorum.38 A circle began to form around D’Indy which consisted

of like-minded young composers who also had a deep respect for folk music. They

wanted to renew French art music through the incorporation of folksong. The composers

also wanted to preserve the regional traditions of folk music. 39 Such nationalistic

impulses were inspiring to composers and performers throughout Europe.

Canteloube was so inspired by the influence of d’Indy and the regionalist group

that he decided to compose a series of arrangements of folk music. In 1907, Canteloube

35
Thomson, “Vincent D’Indy,” 2008.
36
Cahours d’Aspry, Joseph Canteloube (1879-1957, 34. Translated by Amandine Nealton.
37
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 6.
38
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 6.
39
Smith, “Canteloube, Joseph,” 2006.

12
published his first folk song harmonizations in two volumes for voice and piano entitled

Chants populaires de Haute-Auvergne et Haut-Quercy. He also wrote several settings of

folk songs for voice with orchestral accompaniment, such as Au Printemps, in

collaboration with Maggie Teyte, a famous soprano during this time.

In the years before the First World War, Canteloube began composing and writing

the libretto for his first opera, Le Mas (The Farm), which used several folk themes from

Quercy. However, due to the war, Canteloube’s compositional writing stopped for a brief

period of time. Cahours d’Aspry states that at the beginning of World War I, Canteloube

was drafted into the tenth dragoon regiment in Montauban, France and served as a

secretary and record keeper. 40

Cahours d’Aspry does not mention whether the tenth dragoon regiment saw battle

or not. On August 3rd, 1914, the Germans declared war on France. The Germans planned

to attack France by going through Belgium, and enveloping the city of Paris. The French

armies in the north encountered the most action. The regiments stationed in Montauban,

which is located to the southwest of Paris, saw little action. Though Canteloube’s duties

left him little time to work on his music, he was able to participate in the musical life of

Montauban in part by organizing a series of concerts with the help of Gaston le Feuve, a

violinist and fellow soldier. These concerts featured repertoire from the eighteenth to the

twentieth centuries by composers ranging from Corelli, Vivaldi, Bach, Handel, Mozart,

Beethoven, and Schumann to Franck, Leku, d’Indy, Debussy, and Roussel.41

40
Cahours d’Aspry, Joseph Canteloube (1879-1957), 55. Translated by Amandine Nealton.
41
Cougniaud-Raginel, Joseph Canteloube: chantre de la terre, 43-44.

13
Occasionally one of Canteloube’s own works would be presented as well.42 It is

interesting to note that the composer’s only other musical activity during the war was

acquiring his only student, Henri Sauguet, with whom he met twice a week for one

year.43

After the war, Canteloube returned to Paris and composed what would become a

well-known song cycle entitled L’Arada (The Earth). The song cycle is a set of melodies

based on six sonnets in Langue d’Oc by the great Occitan writer Antoin Perbosc (1861-

1944), a native of a small village near Montauban.44

In 1923, directly following the publication of L’Arada, Canteloube published the

first two volumes of his Chants d’Auvergne. He promoted these volumes by devoting his

time lecturing on folk songs of France. He also produced a series of radio broadcasts

from the Eiffel Tower in 1924.45

In 1925, Canteloube co-founded an organization called l’Auvergnate de Paris: La

Bourrée with support from Auvergnat poet Camille Gandilhon-Gens-d’Armes, Louis

Bonnet, and the scholar doctor Ayrignac.46 Doctor Ayrignac may be the same person as

42
Smith, “Canteloube, Joseph,” 2006.
43
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 7.
44
Ager, Dennis. Sociolinguistics and Contemporary French. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1990. Pg.12. In 1600, Rome took over Gaul. When that control began to break-up, the languages that were
spoken in the different parts of Gaul developed differently to the point that three incomprehensible
languages were created. In the south of France the language developed would become known as langue
d’oc, from the Latin word hoc, which is used for “yes”. Langue d’oc continued to be spoken in the south,
but only in certain geographical areas. Occitan was another branch of the French language.

Pauly, The Solo Voice Music of Joseph Canteloube, 81. Occitan, which was spoken in Perbosc’s village, is
another branch of French language that is still spoken today, though it actually defines a specific cultural or
ethnic group.
45
Pauly, The Solo Voice Music of Joseph Canteloube, 8.
46
Cougniaud-Raginel, Joseph Canteloube: chantre de la terre, 61.

14
Jo Ayrignac, a composer of cabaret songs. L’Auvergnate de Paris devoted itself to

keeping the Auvergne culture alive for young Auvergnats who were living in Paris. 47

The inspiration for this group had come from the advice Séverac gave him to “sing about

your country, sing about your land!” This advice inspired Canteloube to collect more

folksongs throughout France. While he collected the songs, he found that he was quite

taken with the beauty of the melodies. He said, “I swore to myself that I would spread the

knowledge [of the folk songs] by emphasizing them within their framework, by

preserving the natural poetry, and not provide a vulgar accompaniment.” The goal of

musicians was to find folk songs and register the following information: 1) the name and

the address of the singer, 2.) the name and address of the person who provided the

poetry.48

In 1927, Canteloube published the third volume of his Chants d’Auvergne, as well

as his second opera, Vercingétorix. This opera was written in response to a request that

came from the French President Etienne Clémentel, who wanted a work that would

glorify “the heroes of Gallic independence.” 49 Therefore, Canteloube choose a story

based on Prince Vercingétorix who was an ideal historical figure for the operas main

character. In 52 B.C., Julius Caesar had almost completed his invasion of Gaul when

Vercingétorix led an uprising of Gauls against him. Vercingétorix won the battle of

Gergovia against an assault by Caesar, though the Roman army forced him to retreat to

47
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloub, 8.
48
Cougniaud-Raginel, Joseph Canteloube: chantre de la terre, 61.
49
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 8.

15
the fortress of Alesia. Caesar laid siege to the fortress, and forced Vercingétorix and the

Gaul army to surrender. Vercingétorix was taken to Rome and executed six years later. 50

The libretto of Vercingétorix is based on the victory the Gauls had over the

Romans. This nationalist opera, which celebrates the birth of French national unity, is the

first to use the ondes martenot, an electronic keyboard instrument that was developed in

the 1920s by Maurice Martenot.51 After the publication of the opera, Canteloube

dedicated the fourth volume of the Chants d’Auvergne, published in 1930, to Clémental.

Throughout the remaining interwar years, Canteloube continued to harmonize

folk songs from sources outside the Auvergne region. He created a ballet, entitled La

pastorale roumaine, based on a Romanian folk song. He also began presenting programs

based on the Auvergne culture in various European countries including Spain, Holland,

and Germany. Unfortunately, these travels ended with the beginning of World War II.52

Canteloube’s compositions greatly decreased due to World War II. During this

time, the new French government had a large impact on Canteloube as a composer and

countryman. Following the collapse of the French army and the Franco-German

Armistice in 1940, Marshal Philippe Pétain, a military and political leader, was given an

extraordinary amount of power in France, and thus established a pro-German regime to

be known as the Vichy government.53

50
Vercingétorix. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 7, 2008, from Encyclopædia
Britannica Online: http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9075076
51
Unite, Rachael. Composition Description by Grove Music: All Media Guide. Classical series program
notes from Dayton Philharmonic concerts from 2007-2008. www.daytonphilharmonic.com
52
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 11.
53
“Vichy.” (2008). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 12th, 2008, from Encyclopedia
Britannica Online: http://search.eb.com/article-9075231

16
The Vichy government was established after France surrendered to Germany on

June 22nd, 1940. The name came from the government’s administrative center in Vichy,

located southeast of Paris. This new government collaborated with the Nazis and, to a

great degree, with their racial policies.54

The armistice, an agreement signed between France and Germany, divided France

into separate zones. Germany occupied the northern and western zone, and the entire

Atlantic coast. The remaining two-fifths of France were occupied by the French

government under Marshal Pétain.

As soon as the government and armistice were established, Pétain’s government

aided the Germans in ridding the country of the “undesirables”: Jews, immigrants,

Freemasons, Communists, homosexuals, activists, and Gypsies. The government changed

the formal name of France, which was French Republic, to “French State.” The

government also replaced the country’s Republican motto “Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité”

(Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood), which had been inherited from the French Revolution

in 1789, and changed it to “Travail, Famille, Patrie” (Work, Family, Fatherland).55

In 1941, Canteloube joined with the Vichy government. Since Canteloube’s

musical career was focused on the native music of France, the Vichy government

encouraged him to put all of his efforts into the development of folk songs. Françoise

Cougniaud-Raginel, author of Joseph Canteloube: chanter de la terre, says “He saw

them (folksongs) as a means to affirm or to reinforce a sense of nationalism, a way to

54
Britannica Article Online, “Vichy,” 2008.
55
Britannica Article Online, “Vichy,” 2008.

17
teach the young to defend their country, to instill pride.” 56 Therefore, Canteloube

expanded his research on folk songs to the whole of France. He wanted to continue to

spread information on French folklore and culture to other countries. Therefore, he

returned to Paris and organized and performed several concerts based on French folk

song as well as produced radio programs which were broadcast in Holland, Spain,

Romania, and France.57

Towards the later 1940s, Canteloube published a handful of arrangements of

folksongs from different regions. These works are Chants de la Touraine published in

1947, Chants de l’Angoumois published in 1947, Chants du Languedoc published in

1948, Chants de France in two volumes published in 1948, Chants de pays Basques

published in 1949, and Noëls populaires français published in 1949. Canteloube also

wrote a book that discusses the history and origins of the French folk song entitled Les

Chants des provinces français. In 1949, he published an impressive four-volume

collection of folk songs which he had transcribed and collected: the Anthologie des

Chants populaires français.58

During this time, Canteloube also began to write two biographies of Vincent

d’Indy. These books provide a focus on the Schola Cantorum and the revival of the study

of Gregorian chant. One of the biographies, entitled Vincent d’Indy, was published in

1949. The second biography, Vincent d’Indy, sa vie, son oeuvre, son action, was

published in 1951. These two biographies were published by different publishers and

56
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 11.
57
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 13-14.
58
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 13-14.

18
differ in the amount of material provided. Both sources contain similar information,

though the 1949 biography is much more in depth than the other. Canteloube also wrote a

biography based on the life of Séverac, which was published in 1950, entitled Déodat

Séverac.59

In the same year, Canteloube began to compose his third opera Cartacalha.

Though he worked on it for a number of years, he died before completing the

orchestration. 60 In 1953, Canteloube’s wife died. A few months later his son Pierre was

paralyzed in an accident. Despite these family events, the following year saw the

publication of the concluding volume of the Chants d’Auvergne. He dedicated this final

volume to Lucie Daullène, a young soprano whose voice he greatly admired.

Towards the end of his life, Canteloube published a few compositions, such as Le

tour de monde des petits chanteurs, published in 1955. Most of his time was spent with

his family and playing the piano before small audiences. During the summer of 1957

Canteloube became very ill and never recovered, dying on November 4th, 1957.61

Canteloube composed in most of the major musical genres, even though the

majority of his compositions are for the voice. He wrote fifteen instrumental pieces which

include a symphonic poem, a symphonic suite, and four solo instrumental pieces with

orchestral accompaniment. Canteloube also composed for smaller ensembles, writing

seven chamber works, a string quartet, and two small woodwind ensemble pieces. He

also contributed thirteen piano works and eight choral pieces.62

59
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 13-14.
60
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 10.
61
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 10.
62
Smith, “Canteloube, Joseph,” 2006.

19
Canteloube’s devotion to the regionalism and the folklore of France, notably of

the Auvergne region, was the focus of his compositional career. Canteloube’s popular

compositions were inspired by the lives of the Auvergne people and the region itself.

Cougniaud-Raginel says that these pieces showed off Canteloube’s musical talent.63

Richard Langham Smith wrote an article in the New Grove Dictionary of Music

and Musicians that summarizes Canteloube’s life in which he argued that Canteloube’s

significance to the 20th century French music is:

as one of a circle of composers who built a bridge between Impressionism and a


musical nationalism rooted in the preservation and revival of folksong. Therefore,
it is not surprising that he is remembered mainly for his Chants d’Auvergne
settings which consistently show this aspect of his work at its best, even though
the remainder of his output was equally grounded in unwavering convictions and
a highly refined compositional technique. 64

The following chapters will provide musical examples that pertain to the Heugel

score. However, it is recommended that the reader have a copy of the Chants d’Auvergne

score present so as to better follow the interpretation guide. The reader may also wish to

listen to a recording of the Chants d’Auvergne to receive an aural understanding of the

interpretation as well. Kiri te Kanawa’s Chants d’Auvergne is perhaps the best recording

to obtain for it is the only one to contain all thirty songs.

63
Cougniaud-Raginel, Joseph Canteloube: chantre de la terre, 60.
64
Smith, “Canteloube, Joseph,” 2006.

20
Chapter 2
1st Volume

The first volume was published in 1923 in París, which consists of five folksong

arrangements: La Pastoura als camps, Baïlèro, and the Trois Bourrées. The Trois

Bourrées are a set of three dance songs that constitute a sub-set of the volume. The titles

of the bourrées are: L’aïo dè rotso, Ound’ onorèn gorda, and Obal, din lou Limouzi.

These songs use different textual and musical traits such as the diversity of characters

used, the content of the accompaniment, the musical form, and the harmonic structure.

There are also a few traits which the folksongs share, such as the rehearsal numbers used

and the tonal transition from one song to the next.

The accompaniment of each folksong arrangement is unique. Those of La

Pastoura als camps and Baïlèro suggest the natural setting in which the story of each

song unfolds. Though dances are not usually sung, the composer makes use of the

rhythmic characteristics of the selected bourrée to compose his setting of each poem.

Therefore, the accompaniments of the Trois Bourrées create a dance-like atmosphere for

the singer. In the Auvergne, such bourrées are sung both by men or women, and are

usually accompanied by the cobreto, or cabrette, an instrument similar to the bagpipe. 65

One will note that there is no definite relationship among the forms of the songs,

for La Pastoura als camps, L’aïo dè rotso, and Ound’ onorèn gorda are through-

composed while Baïlèro and Obal, din lou Limouzi are in a modified strophic form.

However, Canteloube does connect the folksongs by their rehearsal numbers. La

Pastoura als camps score begins with rehearsal number one. The second folksong,

65
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 18.

21
Baïlèro, continues this numerical sequence by beginning with rehearsal number twelve.

The following arrangements of this volume continue in this numerical fashion.

Each arrangement’s harmonic structure is different. La Pastoura als camps uses

three different keys while Baïlèro is based on a G pentatonic scale. The Trois Bourrées

are all in a major key. L’aïo dè rotso is in the key of G major. Ound’ onorèn gorda in A

major. Obal, din lou Limouzi in B♭ major. However, the final tonality of each song is

harmonically connected to the following song’s beginning tonality, allowing for a smooth

musical transition. La Pastoura als camps ends on an imperfect authentic cadence in C

minor, which is also the dominant of Baïlèro’s dominant. This may be a reason why

Canteloube does not begin Baïlèro on its tonic. The use of the authentic cadence in La

Pastoura provides an easier harmonic transition between the two songs. Baïlèro ends on

a B♭ major chord with a melodic figure ending on a G2. This G2 provides the listener a

final opportunity to hear the G pentatonic tonality of the song, allowing an easier

harmonic transition into L’aïo dè rotso, which is in the key of G major.

As for the three bourrée, each is linked to the next by a short, modulatory solo.

Each solo begins in the key that concludes the previous bourrée. During the solo, the key

gently modulates to the following bourrée’s tonality.

After analyzing the musical and textual content of the folksongs in the first

volume, it becomes clear that there is a subtle relationship among the folksong

arrangements via the connection of the harmonic transitions between them.

22
La Pastoura als camps66
The Shepherdess in the Pasture

[kɔn67 lɔ68 pasturɔ sen bo‿ɔs kams, gardɔ sԑ‿i mo‿utunadɔi tidera la la lɔi]
Quon lo pastouro s’en bo os cams69, gardo sèï moutounadoï70, tidera la la loï!
When the shepherdess goes off into the fields, to tend her little sheep, tidera la la…

[gԑlɔ rԑskuntr71 yn musyrԑt lu musy72 lɔgats73aßɔ, tidera la la lɔi]


Guèlo rèscountr’ un moussurèt lou moussu l’ogatsavo, tidera la la loï!
She meets a handsome gentleman. The gentleman looks at her, tidera la la…

[ a dais‿a mԑ bwoz74‿ogatsa sԑs tɔn pulidɔ fiλɔ tidera la la lɔi]


“Ah! Daïssa mè bous ogatsa! Sès ton poulido filho, tidera la la loï!”
“Ah! Let me just look at you! You are such a pretty girl tidera la la…!”

66
Text translated by Amandine Nealton, 2007.
67
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants, 17. The “u” in “quon” is silent
because it follows a “qu”.
68
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants, 17. There do not seem to be set
rules for when to use [o] or [ɔ]. Most often it is acceptable to use them interchangeably as they are naturally
inflected by the vowels and consonants which surround them. Therefore, the singer may choose [o] as in
the French word “beau” [bo] or [ɔ] as in “loriot” [lɔrjo]. However, the singer must stay consistent in her
choice.
69
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants, 27. Both the “m” and “s” are very
soft. The singer should remain on the [a] for as long as possible and then add a very short and soft “s” with
just the hint of “m” before it.
70
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants, 14. Sometimes there is no accent
to determine whether to pronounce [o u] or [u]. For example, “moutounadoï in this song is written without
an accent, where it usually is found otherwise. M. Fay states that it should be pronounced as read above.
71
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants, 13. The editor(s) of the Heugel
score (non are credited) chose to alter some spellings, mostly because of the concern of “o” and how it is
pronounced. Therefore, the spellings have been changed from the single letter “o” to the combination “ou”
to make it clear that the sound is [u] and not [o].
72
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants, 17. When a “u” is preceded or
followed by a constant, it is pronounced [y].
73
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants, 27. There are two options to
prounounce the “ts”; either [ts] or [ʧ].

74
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants, 27. McCann says M. Fay
pronounces the word differently than the transcription that is given. There may be an “o” missing here. In
Passo pel Prat, from the third volume, the word is spelled “bouos.”

23
[estakɔ bwɔstre kaßalԑt ɔ lɔ kambɔ dyn‿a‿oßre tidera la la lɔi]
“Estaco bouostré cabalèt! O lo cambo d’un’ aôbré, tidera la la loï!”
“Then tie up your horse, tie him to this tree, tidera la la…!”

[ԑ lɔ perdri kɔn lɔ75 tԑnjo gԑlɔ sԑn ԑs ɔnadɔ tidera la la lɔi]


È lo perdri, quon lo tènio, guèlo s’èn ès onado! Tidera la la loï!
And he lost her when he had her, she just ran away! tidera la la…!

The singer represents the narrator who impersonates the shepherdess and

gentleman. There are a few physical changes the singer will need to perform in order to

best interpret the story. First, she will need to show the location of the two main

characters by turning her head to the right for the shepherdess and then to the left for the

gentleman. When representing the narrator, the singer should face center. Then the singer

will need to adjust her posture and stance when she changes character. As the singer

imitates the gentleman, her feet should be placed shoulder width apart and her chest

should rise. When the singer imitates the shepherdess, her right foot should take a step

forward and her upper body should relax while her hands may gentle clasp in front of her

body.

There are three musical characteristics presented in the song’s accompaniment

that convey specific emotions or events: the tonality, tempo, and content of the

accompaniment. The overall tonality of La Pastoura als camps is minor. The keys used

in the folksong arrangement are C minor, B♭ minor, G minor, and a return to the home

key.76 Each modulation occurs during a significant point in the story. Awareness of these

modulations guides the singer to interpret the change of mood or character as the story

75
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants, 28. One could choose an [a] to
reflect the female subject, such as the same for guèlo would be [gԑla].
76
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 29.

24
unfolds. The first two verses of the song, presented in C minor, provide a narration for

the beginning of the story. The first modulation, from C minor to B♭ minor, occurs at the

beginning of the third verse. This is the first time in the story when the gentleman speaks

to the shepherdess. The second modulation, from B♭ minor to G minor, occurs at the

beginning of the interlude that precedes the fourth verse in which for the first time the

shepherdess speaks to the gentleman. The song returns to the home key of C minor at the

beginning of the final verse. This verse brings back the narrator, who ends the story by

describing the departure of the shepherdess.

The tempo markings provided in the arrangement also guide the singer’s

interpretation, for there is one that appears at the beginning of each verse. One will also

note the different tempo markings written at the endings of specific phrases within a

verse. Throughout the song, there are a few retenant provided to mark the end of the

setting of a verse in anticipation of the next one.

The final musical characteristic, an understanding of which is central to an

effective interpretation of La Pastoura als camps, is the content of the accompaniment.

The introduction presents a portion of the folksong melody in both the left and right hand

of the piano from measures 1-4. The two staves are in unison and parallel motion. One

will also note there are intervals of a fifth in both hands as well, creating a drone effect.

The singer should turn her head to indicate where the shepherdess is located. The singer

may also wish to provide a small smile while keeping her arms at her side, for she

represents the narrator and will begin the story by setting the scene. Therefore, there is

little need for an emotional presentation.

25
Before analyzing the verse’s textual and musical content, one will note in the

Heugel score that each verse consists of two four measure phrases in which the first has a

fermata at the end (Ex. 2.0). Canteloube gives the two phrases of each verse a different

accompaniment either to provide text-painting or to create a different musical

atmosphere.

Example 2.0 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 1, mm. 5-14

In the first verse, the first phrase continues the drone effect from the introduction

as the singer introduces the shepherdess. Then, at the start of the second phrase at

measure 10, the accompaniment quickly changes to a continuous sixteenth-note figure as

the singer describes the sheep (Refer to Ex. 2.0). The legato writing of the first phrase

may represent the shepherdess while the quicker rhythmic second phrase represents her

herding the sheep.

26
The singer represents the narrator describing the scene. Therefore, she should

continue the same demeanor as done for the introduction, though she may wish to use

small gestures to indicate where the shepherdess and sheep are located.

The following interlude is only four measures long. The accompaniment uses a

simple eighth note sequence in the left hand with two grace notes. This musical passage

descends in register as the second verse begins. One may suggest that the music

represents the sheep walking. During this passage, the singer should turn her head to the

gentleman’s location. The singer’s facial expression should show the introduction of this

character by her eyebrows lifting in acknowledgement.

The second verse’s first phrase is when the singer states that the shepherdess sees

the gentleman. The harmonic structure of this phrase provides chromatic alterations with

a fragmented accompaniment that may represent her curiosity at seeing him, as well as

suspicion. The singer should use a small gesture with her left hand to indicate the

gentleman’s location and turn her head center to the audience as she delivers the phrase

(Ex. 2.1).

For the second phrase, when the singer states that the gentleman now sees the

shepherdess, the accompaniment uses the drone effect from the introduction with a more

legato line. The tonality is not obscured by enharmonics. These musical characteristics

represent the gentleman’s feelings towards the shepherdess, suggesting that he is much

more pleased at her appearance than she with his. During the fermata, the singer’s eyes

should look from the left to the right to represent how the gentleman also sees the

shepherdess. The singer should then proceed to sing the second phrase by utilizing her

right hand to gesture towards the shepherdess.

27
Example 2.1 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 2 mm.25-35

The second interlude’s harmonic structure uses sixteenth note scalar runs against

a counter melody in the right hand. In measures 46-49 the harmony begins to set up for a

modulation that occurs in the third verse. This interlude’s counter melody may be

representing the gentleman serenading the shepherdess (Ex. 2.2).

Example 2.2 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 3 mm.42-46

During this passage the singer continues to represent the narrator even though the

accompaniment represents the gentleman singing. The singer may wish to look from one

28
location to the other with a smile while holding her hands in front of her. As the key

begins to modulate at measure 46, the singer will need to change her stance in order to

impersonate the gentleman. This can be achieved by the singer assuming a male stance as

discussed previously. The singer’s facial expression should convey the gentleman’s

pleasure at seeing her, leading him to compliment on her appearance in the following

verse.

It is in the third verse that the gentleman speaks for the first time. The song is in

the key of B♭ minor and the accompaniment presents a legato content with a drone-like

effect in the bass line. As the verse continues, the accompaniment begins to use

enharmonics which begin to obscure the home key of C minor and prepares for a second

modulation in the following interlude. These musical characteristics represent the

gentleman’s quiet approach to the shepherdess while the harmony may symbolize his

excitement (Ex. 2.3).

Example 2.3 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 3 mm.52-55

The following interlude leads the tonality to G minor as the accompaniment

continues the musical characteristics of the third verse until measure 66, at which point

quick scalar runs at a faster tempo marking are presented. One will also note that measure

29
69 is a full measure of rest. Based on these musical characteristics, one may suggest that

measures 63-65 continue to represent the shepherd. The rhythmic change at measure 66

represents the shepherdess as she panics at his forwardness. The measure of “silence”

represents the shepherdess as she takes a moment to consider how to respond to the

gentleman (Ex. 2.4).

Example 2.4 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 4 mm.61-69

The singer will continue to imitate the characters by changing persona from the

gentleman to the shepherdess. This can be achieved by the singer maintaining the

demeanor from the third verse until measure 66. One will need to make note that there is

no time to make any large physical changes, for the music continues without a pause.

Therefore, at measure 66, the singer should immediately convey a sense of shock on her

face and perhaps take in a quick breath to represent the shepherdess’s emotions. She

should also bring her hands up to her chest, clenched together. The singer should also

30
leave her mouth slightly open at the intake of breath, for at the measure of “silence,” she

should close her mouth and almost freeze her movements as she represents the

shepherdess thinking.

In verse four, the singer impersonates the shepherdess as she tells the gentleman

to tie up his horse to a tree. The accompaniment presents a variation of the folksong

melody in the left hand while the right hand presents quick runs and a chord on beats two

and five. The right hand represents the shepherdess’s panic while the left hand represents

her ability to calmly address the gentleman (Ex. 2.5). The singer’s facial expression

should immediately brighten and her hands should unclasp and spread palm outward. She

may even wish to have one hand nervously touch her clothing or touch her face as she

wonders where the gentleman should tie his horse.

Example 2.5 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 4 mm.70-73

For the second phrase of verse four, the shepherdess notices a tree for the horse to

be tied to. The accompaniment is similar to the first interlude with the right and left hand

alternating when a chord is played. This may represent the horse being walked to the tree

(Ex. 2.6). The singer should represent the shepherdess’s relief at the gentleman following

31
through with her suggestion, and therefore her posture should relax and her hands should

be used less.

Example 2.6 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 5 mm.74-78

The last interlude continues the material from the end of verse four until measure

86. At this point Canteloube has placed a fermata on a G pitch. This may symbolize that

the gentleman is focused on the horse and the shepherdess is waiting to move away from

him. The singer now represents the narrator as she observes this scene. The singer should

look to her left at the gentleman and then turn her head to the right to watch the

shepherdess’s actions. Then, the accompaniment uses sparse texture as both piano parts

begin at a very low register and slowly ascend, which can be seen in measures 87-90 (Ex.

2.7). This musical content may represent the shepherdess tip-toeing away quietly. The

singer should slowly smile at the shepherdess’s decision to leave (Ex. 2.7).

32
Example 2.7 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 5 mm.84-90

The final verse’s accompaniment represents the shepherdess running away and

the gentleman’s amusement at her reaction by the sixteenth-note triplet scalar figures

used in the right hand while the left hand begins to play arpeggiated chords and segues

into full chords presented. These characteristics continue to the ending of the song,

though they ascend in register as the dynamics descend in volume (Ex. 2.8).

Example 2.8 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 6 mm.103-107

33
Baïlèro77
Shepherd’s Song

The folksong arrangement of La Pastoura als camps provides the most

descriptive accompaniment of volume one as it pertains to the character’s emotions and

actions in the story. The accompaniment of the next folk song, Baïlèro, focuses on

presenting sounds of nature. The tonality of Baïlèro does not modulate, nor is there a

narrator present.

[pastre dԑ dԑlai la‿jo a(s)78 gaire de bun tԑn djɔ lo79 bailԑro lԑro]
Pastré, dè dèlaï l’aïo, a gaïré dé boun tèn, dio lou baïlèro lèrô
Shepherd, across the water, you are hardly having a good time, sing baïlèro lèrô

[lԑro lԑro lԑro lԑro bailԑrɔ lo]


lèrô lèrô lèrô lèrô baïlèro lô!
lèrô lèrô lèrô lèrô baïlèro lô!

[e nai pas gaire ԑ djo ty bailԑrɔ lԑro]


É n’aï pas gaïré è dio, tu, baïlèro lèrô
No, I’m not, and you, too, can sing, baïlèro lèrô

[lԑro lԑro lԑro lԑro bailԑrɔ lo]


lèrô lèrô lèrô lèrô baïlèro lô!
lèrô lèrô lèrô lèrô baïlèro lô!

[pastre lu prat fai flur li kal gorda tun trupԑl djo lo bailԑrɔ lԑro]
Pastré, lou prat faï flour, li cal gorda toun troupèl, dio lou baïlèro lèrô…
Shepherd, the meadows are in bloom, you should graze your flock on this side, sing bailero...

77
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.
78
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 31. This word is
sometimes written “a” and sometimes “as”
79
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 14. The word “lou” is
pronounced [lo]. McCann states that in the Heugel edition the editor(s) have changed some spellings to
reflect orthography that is understood by French speakers. For example, changing “lo” to “lou.” There are
times when a word does not fit this case, such as in this song with the word “lou.” For this song it is
pronounced [lo]. Since McCann’s document focuses on the dialect itself, it has been decided to keep this
IPA pronunciation as she has determined it to be.

34
[lԑrb ԑs py finɔl prat dɔisi bailԑrɔ lԑro]
L’èrb’ès pu fin’ol prat d’oïçi, baïlèro lèrô…
The grass is greener in the meadows on this side, baïlèro lèrô…

[pastre kusi fɔray ԑn ɔbal jo lo bԑl ri‿u djo lo bailԑrɔ lԑro]


Pastré, couçi foraï, èn obal io lou bèl rîou, dio lou baïlèro lèrô…
Shepherd, the stream flows between us, and I cannot cross it, sing baïlèro lèrô…

[Εs pԑrɔmԑ te ba‿o sirka bailԑrɔ lԑro]


Espèromè, té baô circa baïlèro lèrô…
Then I’ll climb down and come to you, baïlèro lèrô…

Baïlèro, also known as “Song of the Shepherds on the Auvergne Hills,” comes

from the word bayle.80 Bayle is best defined in Canteloube’s Anthologie des Chants

Populaires:

A sort of dialogue that, from one place to another (generally on a summit), is sent
and returned between herdsmen and shepherds guarding their herds, sometimes
over very great distances (several kilometers). The voice soars, as if carried by the
breeze. The dialogue is often comical, containing playful jokes. Other times they
are a long conversation, a half-improvised unchangeable melody, around main
notes. Lastly, sometimes it is an amorous dialogue. 81

In the words of Lori McCann, the folksong Baïlèro was recorded by Canteloube

himself, who heard the folksong in 1900 while walking along a mountainside which

overlooked the town of Vic-sur-Cère in the Départment of Cantal. 82 On this walk,

Canteloube came upon a shepherdess who was singing on the top of the mountain. The

voice of a shepherd was heard replying to her from a distant mountain. Canteloube hid

behind a rock and recorded the melody and dialogue.

80
Davrath, Netania. Songs of the Auvergne (arranged by Joseph Canteloube). Pierre de la Rouche,
conductor. (no orchestra credited.) New York: Vanguard Recording Society, VSD 713/14, 1972.
81
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 17.
82
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 33.

35
The text of Baïlèro consists of the conversation between the shepherdess and a

shepherd. The singer represents both characters, and therefore will need to adjust her

physical appearance when it is time for her to change her persona. When representing the

shepherdess, the singer should assume the female stance by placing her right foot ahead

of her left as well as turn her body slightly to the right. When representing the shepherd,

the singer’s right foot should step behind the left foot and her body should slightly turn to

the left. Throughout the song, her hand gestures should be subtle, such as a sweeping

hand gesture to suggest the meadows or to indicate the river that separates the mountains.

The singer’s facial expression will be the best means to convey the character’s emotions.

The folksong’s form corresponds with the dialogue exchanged between the two

characters as they call to one another. 83 The tempo, dynamics, and performance

markings of the arrangement also correspond with the dialogue. The singer’s

performance needs to be sensitive to the importance of these elements, for it is imperative

to the interpretation of the folksong. These elements create the atmosphere of the

conversation as it was heard by Canteloube himself. For example, the dynamics must be

accurate in order to establish the “echo” effect that takes place between the two main

characters. The tempo will naturally slow down as the “echo” takes longer to reach the

shepherd.

A unifying device that is present in all five volumes of the Chants d’Auvergne is a

melodic figure that serves as a musical representation of natural sounds. An example of

this is heard in measure 3 of the introduction of Baïlèro, which is a sextuplet figure which

alternates between two notes that are usually an interval of a third apart (Ex. 2.9).

83
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph, 16.

36
Example 2.9 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 7, mm.1-3

It is important for the singer to note Canteloube's reliance on this single melodic

fragment, which is seen in variant forms as well as its original version. It aids in the

interpretation of the scene in which the character resides. The presentation of several of

the folksongs texts throughout the Chants d’Auvergne are highlighted by this melodic

gesture. One could consider this “nature figure” to be a unifying device for the entire

volume, though a minor one.

Also present in the introduction as well as the postlude is a countermelody which

assists these two sections, providing a visual picture of the Auvergne landscape in which

the story takes place. The accompaniment represents the environmental sounds that took

place during the folksong. This provides the singer with an ambiance to present the story.

The performance challenge for the singer is the length of the introduction,

interludes, and postlude. During the introduction the singer represents the shepherdess on

the mountain, possibly watching her herd and seeing the shepherd across the way.

Therefore, the singer will need to maintain a feminine stance and move her gaze around

the performance space to symbolize the shepherdess’s actions.

The verses of the song are in a modified strophic form as the two main characters

repeat a similar musical response to each other. The shepherd’s response is slightly

37
varied, due to his distance from the shepherdess, which creates an “echo”. While the two

characters converse, the accompaniment changes with each character’s response. The

unique aspect pertaining to the conversation is the “echo” effect Canteloube is portraying.

This information must be noted by the singer, for the performance needs to create the

appropriate effect as Canteloube notated it. To best accomplish this effect, the singer

needs to follow the musical elements, starting with the A section.

The singer represents the shepherdess in the A section beginning at measure 14.

She was the closest to Canteloube when he overheard the conversation. Therefore, the

dynamic, tempo, and performance markings of this section will be more prominent than

those of the shepherd’s response in the following section. The tempo marking for the A

section is plus vite while the singer is to perform the melody à pleine voix at a mf.

The A1 section, representing the shepherd responding from a distant mountain, is

quieter and slightly slower in tempo than the previous section. 84 The tempo marking for

this section is Moins vite. The performance marking for the singer is echo de très loin,

which is assisted by the ppp marking.

At the end of each section is a musical marking that indicates a transition from

one verse to the other. A diminuendo is marked at the end of the A section which

prepares for the shepherd’s response in the A1 section. Towards the end of the A1 section,

the markings en s’éloignant and en se perdant tout à fait are provided. These markings

are provided to indicate the physical distance between the shepherdess and shepherd.

Since the two characters are residing on two separate mountains, the shepherd’s response

is distant and quieter. Therefore, the markings indicated in the A1 section guide the singer

84
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph, 17.

38
to create the appropriate response by having the vocal line fade away more so than that of

the previous section. These markings then provide a transition back to the A section.

It is important for the singer to note that the first interlude is only a one measure

long; therefore, the persona shift from a male to female stance is quick. The second

interlude is two measures long, suggesting that the shepherdess is contemplating how to

respond to the shepherd’s comments. However, the persona shift is still quick.

The original folksong melody is suggestive of a chant due to the repetition on the

pitch D2. Both sections of the song provide eight measures of vocal melody. However,

the A1 section differs in the presentation of the chant that was provided in the A section.

The A section melody consists of two measures of repetitive D2 pitch, while the A1

section only has one measure. Another difference is the rhythmic values between the

refrains of each section. In the A1 section, Canteloube adds an extra beat, extending the

length of the melody. These alterations of the melody continue to assist with the

shepherd’s response, which will take longer to reach the shepherdess, based on

Canteloube’s observation.

The overall content of the accompaniment represents both the atmosphere that

surrounds the two characters as well as their conversation. The sextuplets in the

accompaniment of the A section represent the river that separates the two mountains. One

could call this a “water effect.” Lori McCann states that due to this rhythmically active

accompaniment, the vocal line is not the dominant instrument because of its rhythmic

value. 85 However, when one looks at the dynamics provided, the vocal line is to be

performed at forte, while the accompaniment is marked mezzo forte (Ex. 2.10). One could

85
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 34.

39
say that the shepherdess needs to present her melody strongly so that the music and lyrics

can be heard, regardless of the distance between her and the shepherd.

Example 2.10 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 8 mm.14-16

The content of the accompaniment of the A1 section, when compared to the A

section, is rhythmically simpler due to the lack of sextuplets. This accompaniment also

serves as a harmonic foundation. The A1 section also presents a small countermelody in

the left hand while the right hand presents a tremolo that continues the “water effect”

from the previous section. The provided ppp dynamic has both the singer and the

accompanist create a “far away” sound effect which represents the shepherd responding

from a distant mountain (Ex.2.11).

40
Example 2.11 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 9 mm.23-25

The harmonic content of Baïlèro provides a slow harmonic rhythm, roughly one

chord per measure, giving the piece a majestic feeling. 86 Baïlèro employs a G-pentatonic

scale figure in the accompaniment during the A section that Steubing argues lends a

“timeless element because of the scale’s lack of a dominant-tonic function.” 87 This

harmonic ambiguity assists with the interpretation of the outcome of the story. We never

learn if the shepherd crossed the river or not, nor anything concerning the future

relationship between the two characters. Therefore, the poem leaves the future of the

story to the imagination of the singer and the audience.

Throughout the other volumes of the Chants d’Auvergne, Canteloube continued to

use different musical elements to represent nature, particularly a landmass such as a

mountain or a river. These musical images of flowing water, like the sextuplets in

Baïlèro, appear in the fourth volume of the Chants d’Auvergne as well. The folksong

86
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 24.
87
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 26.

41
stories of Jou l’Pount d’o Mirabel and Pastorale refer to rivers separating the main

characters or which are merely mentioned as a landmark.

The following three folksongs, the Trois Bourrées, are three dance songs whose

accompaniment provides a dance-like atmosphere which represented the instruments

Canteloube heard when the folksongs were sung. There are tiny musical ideas that

suggest natural elements, such as the use of the “nature figure” that was previously heard

in Baïlèro. One could imagine that these dance songs were performed outside, which

explains the use of the musical images of natural sounds used in the folksong

arrangements.

Trois Bourrées

The Trois Bourrées is a suite of three dances that are linked by an improvisatory

solo that is inserted between the songs. There are two types of bourrée in the Auvergne:

one in 3/8, the other in 2/4, which is also known as a montagnarde. Both appear in the

Chants d’Auvergne. The texts of the bourrée are satirical, melancholic, or sweet. The

tempo of the bourrée is usually very fast. From a rhythmic point of view, one may

compare a bourrée with a Spanish dance, notably the Jota and Fandango. 88

Bourrées in 3/8 are usually sung by one or two women. The rhythms of the

bourrée are strongly accented and are often syncopated. The dance itself is performed by

couples and is an act of pursuit. According to Canteloube in Chants populaire de Haute

Auvergne et de Haut Quercy:

“…the woman dances coquettishly, trying to entice the man. The man
parades proudly around the woman, stomping his foot as if to show his

88
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 42.

42
strength, and sometimes calling out with a sharp cry. He approaches; she is
frightened of his desire and evades him.” 89

The montagnarde, or bourrée in 2/4, is danced entirely by men as suggested by

the rough and sharply accented melody, as well as the wild cries that punctuate the song.

Both types of bourrées are often accompanied by the cobreto, or cabrette.90

One will find that the bourrées that appear in the other volumes of the Chants

d’Auvergne show certain musical motives that suggests the actions of the story. However,

the content of these bourrées do not fully focus on providing text-painting. Rather, the

content provides a dance-like accompaniment for the singers and dancers.

L’aïo dè rotso91
Water from the Spring

L’aïo dè rotso, an example of a montagnarde bourrée, presents these three

melodic ideas: the original montagnarde melody, a new melody, and a counter melody.

These melodies are presented in a through-composed form while maintaining a thin

texture. 92 The use of the two additional melodic ideas might represent the cobreto or

cabrette player. Usually the cabrette player would improvise the musical accompaniment

while the singer(s) presented the original folksong melody. This information aids the

singer’s interpretation of the scene in which the bourrée was originally heard, allowing a

more authentic approach to the song.

89
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 18.
90
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 18.
91
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.
92
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 19, 21.

43
The character transformation from Baïlèro to L’aïo dè rotso is from a shepherd to

an older woman who gives advice on love to a young girl. The overall mood is quite

drastic as it transitions from a natural sound musical atmosphere to an up-beat dance.

Therefore, the singer will need to allow a moment before beginning L’aïo dè rotso.

During this pause, the singer will need to adjust her stance to that of a female and her

facial expression should brighten with excitement. She may even wish to slightly sway to

the music as the introduction is performed.

[la‿jɔ dԑ rɔtsɔ te fɔrɔ murir fiλɔtɔ la‿jo dԑ rɔtsɔ te fɔrɔ murir]


L’aïo dè rotso té foro mourir, filhoto, L’aïo dè rotso té foro mourir!
The water from the spring will kill you, my little one, the water from the spring will kill
you!

[nԑ te kal pas bԑir’ɔkԑ‿l a‿jɔ kԑ‿l a‿jo mԑs kal prԑndr yn kwɔt93‿dɔkԑ‿l a‿jɔ dԑ bi]
Nè té cal pas bèïr oquèl’ aïo, quèl’ aïo, mès cal prèndr’un couot d’oquèl aïo dè bi!
Don’t drink pure water, my little one; a swig of wine will do you good!

[synɔ fiλɔtɔ sԑ bwɔl94 marida piʧunɔ synɔ fiλɔtɔ sԑ bwɔl mɔrida]


S’uno filhoto sè bouol morida, pitchouno, s’uno filhoto sè bouol morida,
When a girl wants to marry, my little one, when a girl wants to marry,

[il kal pas duna dɔkԑl a‿jɔ dԑ rɔtsɔ aimarɔ miljur ɔkԑl a‿jɔ dԑ bi]
Il cal pas douna d’oquèl’ aïo dè rotso, aïmaro miliour oquèl’ aïo dè bi!
She should not be given pure water, she’d rather have a swig of good wine!

The text of L’aïo dè rotso is a conversation between two women. The text states

“my little one,” which suggests that one woman is older than the other. Therefore, the

singer represents the older woman who gives advice based on personal experiences

and/or opinions. At times, the singer may wish to hold up her right hand and extend her

first finger when referring to “my little one” as a parent might to a child. The singer may

93
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 36. The “t” and “d”
are elided. Do not rearticulate the “d”.
94
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 18. When there is an
“ouo” combination in a word, the sound is [wɔ].

44
also wish to use both hands to wave off to one side when dismissing the pure water

referred to.

There are a few musical characteristics which aid the singer’s performance. In the

vocal line, Canteloube has written a portamento to represent the “savage cries” so that the

singer may maintain a healthy voice while performing the folksong (Ex. 2.12).

Example 2.12 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Avuergne 1st Series, pg. 12 mm. 29-33

One will also notice a countermelody that appears throughout the accompaniment

using a trilled note sequence that descends step-wise. This sequence appears in each

verse’s accompaniment. One may interpret this melodic idea as natural sounds, for the

original bourrée was performed outdoors (Ex. 2.13).

Example 2.13 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 13 mm.38-41

45
The overall harmonization of L’aïo dè rotso is fairly simple and diatonic, with the

tonality remaining in the key of G major. 95 At the end of the arrangement, an

improvisatory oboe solo immediately begins, providing a harmonic transition to the next

bourrée Ound’ onorèn gorda. The solo begins in the home key of G major. When the

solo’s time signature changes from 2/4 to 9/8, the key modulates to A major, which is the

key of the following bourrée, Ound’ onorèn gorda.

The performance challenge for the singer for the Trois Bourrées is maintaining

character during the improvisatory solo between each song. It will assist the singer to

think of the solo as an interlude between the songs; therefore, she should use this time to

change persona to the beginning character of the following song. The singer will begin

the next solo by maintaining the older woman character. As the solo progress, the singer

will shift persona to a male character who is trying to lead a shepherdess away from her

herd and to focus on the idea of love. Therefore, the singer should assume a male stance

and may wish to cross her arms to represent the man watching the shepherdess before he

addresses her. The singer may also wish to have a small smile to assist the interpretation.

Ound’onorèn gorda96
Where shall we go to graze?

[und ɔ97nɔrԑn gɔrda piʧunɔ droulԑtɔ]


Ound’ onorèn gorda, pitchouno drooulèto?
Where shall we go to graze, pretty girl?

95
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 19, 21.
96
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.
97
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 38. In the word
“onorèn” it is acceptable to use [ɔ] or [o].

46
[und ɔnɔrԑn gɔrda lu trupԑl pԑl mɔti]
Ound’ onorèn gorda lou troupèl pèl moti?
Where shall we go to graze our flocks in the morning?

[ɔnɔrԑn ɔbal din lɔ rißԑirԑtɔ din lu pradԑl lԑrb ԑ freskԑtɔ]


Onorèn obal din lo ribèïrèto, din lou pradèl l’èrb’ è fresquèto;
We’ll go down by the river where the meadow grass is so fresh;

[paisarԑn lɔi fԑdɔi pԑl lɔi flurs ɔl lu‿ɔn dԑl tsur nus fɔrԑn lamur]
Païssarèn loï fèdoï pèl loï flours, al louón dèl tsour nous forèn l’omour!
We’ll let our sheep graze among the flowers, while we make love all day long!

[ɔgatsɔ lui mutus piʧunɔ droulԑtɔ ɔgatsɔ lui mutus]


Ogatso louï moutous, pitchouno drooulèto, ogatso louï moutous,
Look at the sheep, pretty girl, look at the sheep,

[lԑiz‿ɔ bilje mai nus]


lèïs obilhé maï nous!
the bees, and ourselves!

[ɔgatsɔ lɔi fԑdɔi kԑ paisu lԑrbɔ ԑ lԑiz‿ɔbiλe kԑ paisu lɔi flurs]


Ogatso loï fèdoï què païssou l’èrbo, è lèïs obilhé què païssou loï flours;
Look at the sheep feeding on the grass, and the bees feeding on the flowers;

[naotrԑ(s) piʧunɔ kԑ sun daima pԑr bjußr98 ɔbɔn lu plɔze dɔmur]


Naôtrès, pitchouno, què soun d’aïma, pèr viouvr’ obon lou plosé d’omour!
But we, my little one, are lovers and we live on the pleasures of love!

The singer represents both the man and woman characters. Therefore, the singer

will need to adjust her stance as she quickly shifts persona. Based on the text, the man is

pursing the woman and is successful. The singer’s facial expressions need to convey the

man’s confidence and the woman’s flattery and excitement. This can be achieved by the

singer’s face brightening at important points in the text, such as “…while we make love

all day long!” and “…we live on the pleasures of love!” The singer may also wish to use

98
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 39. In Occitan the
letter “v” is pronounced as in Castilian: [b] initially and [β] internally. In the middle of a word it is so slight
that it is often inaudible when spoken.

47
subtle hand gestures when referring to the location of the meadow, sheep, and bees

that surround the characters.

An important aspect of this folksong arrangement is the content of the

accompaniment, for it symbolizes the main objective of the man to win over the woman’s

affections. At the beginning of the bourrée, the accompaniment and vocalist present the

folksong melody in unison. As the song progresses the accompaniment gradually ceases

doubling the vocal line. Steubing suggests that this compositional idea echoes the

sentiments of the poetry. She states that the man distracts the woman from the outward-

directed task of watching the sheep to reflecting on a future relationship with the

shepherd.99

Example 2.14 shows the introduction which contains the folksong melody. This

melody is then reiterated when it is sung by the shepherd.

Example 2.14 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 15 mm.27-31

It is important for the singer to note that the introduction is thirty-four measures in

length. This provides a challenge for the performer in maintaining the male character

throughout the introduction. One may assume that he sees the woman, which may be

represented in measure 7 when the folksong melody is first performed. Perhaps at this

99
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 87.

48
point the man watches her and decides to persuade her, which may be represented in

measure 21 when ornamentation is added to the folksong melody. Therefore, he makes

his decision to talk to her by measure 32, just before the beginning of verse one. The

singer’s facial expressions should convey the progress of the man’s emotions, as well as

assist the singer in maintaining the character throughout the lengthy passage.

Example 2.15 shows a countermelody in the accompaniment which is against the

vocal line from measures 62-78. At specific points in the accompaniment the rhythm of

the vocal line is doubled. In this verse, the woman agrees to the man’s suggestion that

they herd their sheep together and take them to the meadows. By accepting his invitation,

her attention is now divided between the task of herding her sheep and the man’s

company. Therefore, the new countermelody symbolizes a new action the shepherdess is

pursuing.

Example 2.15 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 17 mm.72-76

Lastly, at measure 79 there is a point at which the accompaniment consists of only

the developed countermelody. The accompaniment no longer doubles the vocal line. At

this point, the man talks of love, associating it with the bees feeding on flowers and the

sheep feeding on the grass. Now the shepherdess’s attention is primarily focused on the

49
man and not her herd. This musical relationship illustrates the developing relationship

between the two main characters, which aids the singer’s interpretation of the inner

emotions of the shepherdess (Ex. 2.16).

Example 2.16 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 18 mm.90-93

Directly following Ound’onorèn gorda is an improvisatory clarinet solo. Both the

tonality and time signature of the solo provide a transition from Ound’onorèn gorda to

Obal din lou Limouzi. The solo begins in the home key of Ound’onorèn gorda, A major,

and modulates to B♭ major, the home key of Obal din lou Limouzi. This solo also

continues to use the 3/8 time signature which is also present in the following bourrée.

As previously discussed, the singer needs to use this time to change character for

the final bourrée. In Obal din lou Limouzi, the singer represents a man and woman who

argue about which gender is the most faithful. The singer’s stance will remain as that of a

man, though her facial expression should represent the man’s confidence in his opinion.

50
Obal din lou Limouzi100
Down there in Limousin

[ɔbal din lu limuzi piʧun ɔbal din lu limuzi]


Obal din lou Limouzi, pitchoun’, obal din lou Limouzi,
“Down there in Limousin, little one, down there in Limousin,”

[se ljɔ dԑ dӡԑntɔi drɔlɔi ɔ be ɔ be sԑ ljɔ dԑ dӡԑntɔi drɔlɔi ɔisi tɔ be]


Sé l’io dè dzèntoï drolloï, o bé, o bé, sè l’io dè dzèntoï drolloï, oïçi to bé!
“There are lots of pretty girls, oh, yes, oh yes there are a lot of pretty girls here, too!”

[gɔlɔŋ101 tɔm102 bԑlɔ ke siasku lԑi drɔlɔï dԑ tum pɔis]


“Golon, ton bèlo què siascou lèï drolloï dè toun poïs,”
“Young man, no matter how beautiful the girls are in your country,

[lus nɔstrԑs friŋgairԑs ԑn limuzi saßum‿miljur kunta flurԑt ɔ be]


“Lous nostrès fringaïrès èn Limouzi, saboun miliour counta flourèt o bé!”
“Our men in Limousin can talk of love much better, oh yes!”

[ɔbal din lu limuzi piʧunɔ se suŋ gɔlɔŋ ɔisi ԑn aubԑrɲɔ]


“Obal din lou Limouzi, pitchouno, sé soun golon; oïçi èn Aoubèrgno,”
“Down there in Limousin, little girl, the young men are gallant, and here in Auvergne,

[dim‿mum pɔis luz‿ɔmԑs buz‿aimun ԑ sun fidԑls]


“din moun poïs, lous omès bous aïmoun è soun fidèls!”
“in my country, men are faithful when they love you!”

The singer represents both characters and therefore will need to continue to use

the different stances previously discussed during the appropriate verses. Unlike the

previous bourrées, this arrangement provides an interlude after verse one and two,

allowing the singer a quick moment to change persona before continuing the song.

100
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.
101
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 40. The “n” does not
follow the rule here as it is not dentalized but rather palatalized.
102
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 40. The “n” in “ton”
becomes “m” because it is followed by a bi-labial consonant.

51
Throughout the arrangement, the accompaniment provides a contrast of dynamics

and timbres that symbolizes the main characters. The dynamics symbolize the different

approach each character takes towards the argument. The beginning of verse one is

marked mezzo forte. The man is boisterous and confident by gallantly pronouncing his

opinion. The singer may wish to use strong gestures to represent his demeanor. The

second half of verse one provides a piano at measure 15. At this point the man comments

how pretty the girls are in Limousin. One may interpret this dynamic change as a quieter

confidence displayed by him. The singer should convey this change of mood by

immediately using smaller gestures, if needed.

The first interlude allows enough time for the singer to quickly change her stance

to a feminine one representing the woman by showing a look of surprise by his comment.

She may then wish to place her hands on her hips and her face should convey a look of

irritation, for she is not pleased by the man’s comments.

In verse two, the woman responds at a piano dynamic. She has a calm, quiet

disposition about the matter. There is a bit of sarcasm, though, for she refers to him as

“young man”, since he called her “little one.” The second half of this verse is marked

mezzo forte. One could say she is emphasizing “our men in Limousin…” as if reminding

him he is not one of the men in her country. The singer’s facial expression should

annoyance during the first half of the verse and then change to a look of pride when the

woman talks of the men in Limousin.

One will also note a timbre change in the accompaniment at measure 36. The

original folksong melody is presented two octaves higher than when it was first presented

52
in verse one. One could say this change of tessitura represents the woman who is

responding to the man’s comment presented in verse one (Ex. 2.17).

Example 2.17 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 22 mm.36-39

In the second interlude the singer will change her persona to the man as he

prepares to address the woman again. The singer may wish to raise her eyebrows,

representing the man’s surprise at her response. She may then wish to smile and shake

her head slightly as if symbolizing the man is disagreeing with the woman.

The final verse is the man’s last response, in which the dynamics crescendo from

a mezzo forte to a fortissimo by measure 75. One could say that the man is going to put an

end to the argument by saying that the men of his Auvergne country are faithful. He is, in

a sense, agreeing with her, for he is not like the men in Limousin; he is faithful.

Therefore, the dynamics show a growth in his confidence as he speaks of the men in

Auvergne. The singer needs to convey this growth of emotion by her gestures becoming

stronger and more frequent as the verse progress. Her facial expression should represent

his demeanor and perhaps a slight bit of pride, for he considers himself better than the

men in her country.

53
Conclusion

The issues of representing the characters difference in gender, emotions, and

actions stated in the text will also be presented in the following chapters. As each

subsequent volume is discussed, one will notice that Canteloube’s arrangements begin to

become more programmatic by providing text-painting and other musical symbolism.

This is especially true with the bourrées in the other volumes.

54
Chapter 3
2nd volume

The second volume of the Chants d’Auvergne was published in París with the first

volume in 1923. The second volume consists of six folksong arrangements: Pastourelle,

L’Antouèno, La Pastrouletta è lou Chibalié, La Delaïssádo, and Deux Bourrées. The

Deux Bourrées are N’aï pas iéu de mîo and Lo Calhé. One will notice a similarity in the

tonalities, harmonies, and overall presentation when compared to the previous volume.

Some musical similarities are the use of bourrées, the rehearsal numbers continue

numerically from the first song to the last, and, the use of the “nature motive” used in

N’aï pas iéu de mîo to represent the bird’s song.

In this volume, there are a few musical and textual traits that are new to the

Chants d’Auvergne and provide a connection between the songs. First, Canteloube

appears to have developed a second recurring motive in addition to the aforementioned

“nature motive.” Whereas the nature motive consists of two pitches separated by an

interval of a third, this second motive consists of four descending pitches. Whole tones

separate three of the pitches while a semitone separates two of them. In Pastourelle, the

motive is presented as “a-g-f-e,” while in L’Antouèno, it appears as “f-e-d-c”. La

Delaïssádo presents another variation of this motive as “a♭-g-f-e♭.” N’aï pas iéu de mîo

adds an extra note to the motive, “g-f ♯ -e-d-c,” but continues to present two notes a

semitone apart, while the other intervals are whole tones.

Secondly, there is a rhythmic connection between the Deux Bourrées. Canteloube

provided a setting for each of the poems which depicts the natural environment in which

the song was first heard. Both texts have a focus on birds whose movements are

represented by various quick rhythmic runs performed by the high woodwinds. The

55
accompaniments also illustrate the meaning of the text, an element not present in the

bourrées of the first volume. In N’aï pas iéu de mîo, the shepherd comes to a bridge

where two birds reside and will only sing for lovers. The accompaniment provides the

birds’ song as the shepherd walks across the bridge. In Lo Calhé one of the main

characters is a quail. There are small rhythmic passages which represent its presence in

the story.

Finally, the tonality and harmonic content of the folksongs arrangements provide

a connection based around the key of A. Pastourelle begins the volume in the key of A

minor and concludes with a Picardy third. This chord presents the final harmonic

destination of the volume: A major. L’Antouèno is in B♭major, and La Pastrouletta è lou

Chibalié is in B major. La Delaïssádo stops the pattern of chromatically ascending tonic

pitches and moves to the key of F minor. The two bourrées bring the volume back to the

key of A in two stages: N’aï pas iéu de mîo is in the key of G major, and Lo Calhé is in A

major.

Unlike those of the first volume, the songs of the second share musical material;

nevertheless, the original songs do not address a similar story. Instead, the composer

combined the chosen texts into a set of songs that address different dimensions of human

relationships and then musically unified them. The first step for a relationship to occur is

when one longs for a significant other, like the male character in N’aï pas iéu de mîo.

Secondly, there is the act of pursuing the significant other as in Pastourelle and La

Pastrouletta è lou Chibalié. Next, two people court one another, the subject of

L’Antouèno. Unfortunately, there may be a moment of sadness, as in La Delaïssádo.

56
Lastly, the relationship may result in marriage. Thereafter, the newly weds make a home

as in Lo Calhé.

One will also note that the texts used for the arrangements present new characters.

For example, L’Antouèno is a story with two unidentified characters. One may infer that

one is female and the other male. The rest of the characterization is left to the imagination

of the singer. The first of the Deux Bourrées, N’aï pas iéu de mîo, introduces a male as

the leading character, which is new to the Chants d’Auvergne. The second bourrée, Lo

Calhé, has a bird as one of the two main characters. The other is unidentified.

While analyzing the musical and textual content of the folksongs in the second

volume, one observes a relationship among the theme of the stories, a shared four-note

motive, and a harmonic connection of the arrangements tonalities.

Pastourelle103
Shepherdess

[ԑ pasɔ dԑ desai ԑ pasɔ delai la‿jo]


“È passo dè dessaï! È passo dellaï l’aïo!
“Ah, come over to this side! Ah, come across the river!

[bԑndraz‿ɔlprԑs de jԑu ke dɔfaire parlɔrԑn]


Bèndras olprès de ièu qué d’ofaïré parlorèn
Come here close to me for we will talk business,

[ԑ lu restan del dӡour nem‿parlɔrԑn104 damur]


è lou restan del jiour n’en parlorèn d’amour!”
and the rest of the day we will talk of love!”

103
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.
104
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 22. In Castilian, if
the final n is followed by a bi-labial consonant (m,p,b) then the n changes to an [m].

57
[ne pwɔdi pas pasa kusi bwɔs ke jԑu pasi]
“Né pouodi pas passa! Couçi bouos qué ièu passi?”
“But I cannot cross! How could I do it?

[nai pas de punt darkadɔz‿ԑ105 nai pas de batԑu]


“N’aï pas de pount d’arcados è n’aï pas dé batèu;
“I have no arched bridge, and I have no boat;

[ni mai dԑ pasturel ke me sjaskɔ fidԑl]


ni máï dè pastourel qué mé siasco fidèl!”
nor even a shepherd who loves me faithfully!”

[aurjas lԑu um‿batԑu sԑ tu ԑrɔs pulidɔ]


“Aurias lèu un batèu sè tu èros poulido!”
“You would soon have a boat if you were pretty!”

[aurjaz‿ym‿ punt darkadɔs aurjaz‿ym‿pasturel]


“Aurias un pount d’arcados, àurias un pastourel,
“You would have an arched bridge, and you would have a shepherd,

[ke te serjo fidԑl ԑ mai dӡuskual tumbel]


qué té serio fidèl è máï djusqu’al toumbel!”
who would be faithful to you until death!”

This text tells of a shepherd who tries to persuade a shepherdess to cross a river to

speak with him of love. At times the text is difficult for the singer to interpret. For

example, what are the reasons for the shepherd’s comments? How does one convey a

sense of the shepherdess’s overall emotions toward the conversation? Also, the text does

not provide an outcome of the story. However, the music material at the end of the

arrangement provides a sense of optimism. As will be discussed in greater detail, the song

begins in A minor, though the final chord is an A major triad. The quality of this chord

points the way for the singer’s response.

105
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 23. “s” is
pronounced as in French; when before a word beginning with a vowel, the s and the vowel are elided
creating a [z] sound.

58
The singer represents both characters and therefore will need to shift her persona

to the appropriate gender stance. When representing the shepherd, the singer should use

assertive gestures, as opposed to a more timid and unsure stance when representing the

shepherdess. The singer also needs to maintain an effect or an evolving one in response to

what is suggested to happen at the end of the story, based on the final chord. There are a

few different expressive nuances which need to be conveyed. The singer is a messenger

who adopts characterizations of the two individuals. The man is manipulative by offering

things that he attends to withhold due to his opinion of her physical appearance. This

suggests that he is being rude or teasing her, though he presents his responses with a

strong confidence. This can be shown by the singer having a relaxed posture and crossing

her arms to represent the shepherd’s demeanor. This will suggest that the shepherd is

simply stating facts that are already known. As for the shepherdess, the singer will

change to a straight posture with her hands clasped in front, showing a quiet demeanor. A

change of facial expression to convey the shepherdess’s confusion or hurt will suffice for

her character.

The introduction presents the motive “a-g-f-e” as well as a very sparse texture that

purely serves musical reasons as opposed to interpretive ones. There are two fermatas in

measure 3 and measure 7. The singer represents the shepherd during this musical

passage, and therefore may assume that the first fermata represents him noticing the

shepherdess while the second possibly represents the shepherdess noticing him, which

leads to his first comment in verse one (Ex. 3.0).

59
Example 3.0 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 1, mm. 1-10

The singer needs to assume the male stance and look out across the audience until

her eyes fall upon an individual, who represents the location of the shepherdess. The

singer needs to represent the shepherd’s reaction by performing a double-take with her

head placement and facial expression. As the music continues, the singer needs to convey

the shepherd’s attraction by her facial expression. When the second fermata is sustained,

the singer should give an acknowledging smile to represent the shepherd now has the

shepherdess’s attention, which segues into verse one.

The song has three distinct tonal areas within each verse that assist with the

interpretation. In verse one, the home key of Pastourelle, A minor, is maintained until

measure 13. Then the piece modulates to C major as the shepherd says “let us talk of

60
love.” This key change symbolizes the subject of love. The singer should use subtle hand

gestures and maintain the demeanor from the introduction.

The following interlude represents the shepherdess’s response, and therefore the

singer will need to change her persona. Based on her response, the shepherdess is either

not interested or is indeed not sure how she will cross to him. Therefore, the singer needs

to show the shepherdess’s indecision by utilizing a facial expression that suggests the

emotion as well as a timid stance. The sparse texture assists with the interpretation (Ex.

3.1).

Example 3.1 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 2, mm. 21-25

The next point of harmonic interest is when the shepherdess responds in verse

two. At this point there is harmonic ambiguity. The A minor tonality used in this verse

progresses to a Picardy third chord in measure 30. The following measure presents a

juxtaposition of D minor and A minor triads. This is not the chordal progression one

would expect. This ambiguity suggests her uncertainty, for she has not asked for

assistance to cross the river nor to discuss any of the subjects he proposed. The singer

needs to convey the ambiguous tonal development and textual story by visually

61
expressing her uncertainty. A confused facial expression along with a sweeping hand

gesture that conveys a question will suffice (Ex. 3.2).

Example 3.2 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 2-3, mm. 26-35

The second interlude allows the singer time to change her persona to the shepherd

to represent his reaction to the shepherdess’s response. One may suggest he was not

expecting her to answer in such a way, and therefore is surprised and disappointed. The

forward motion of the verses accompaniment ends while a sparse texture is presented to

assist with this interpretation. The singer should change her stance, her mouth should

62
drop open and her arms should be straight at her sides. Her mouth should close as she

crosses her arms, representing him as he thinks of how to comment. Just before the final

verse, the singer should give a sarcastic smile, as if to convey the shepherd knows just

what to say to her (Ex. 3.3).

Example 3.3 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 1st Series, pg. 3, mm. 41-45

The final verse begins in the key of D major. Here the shepherd says that she

would have a boat to carry her across the river, if she were pretty. At measure 50, when

the song modulates to A minor, he explains that she would also have a faithful shepherd,

if she were pretty. Based on the text the man is implying that she is unattractive.

Therefore, the change of tonality may suggest that shepherdess is unsure how to react to

his comments, which one may suggests satisfies the shepherd (Ex. 3.4).

63
Example 3.4 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 4, mm. 46-55

The text does not provide a conclusion to the story. It is unclear whether the

shepherdess does find a way to cross or whether the shepherd assists her. However, the

harmonic content of the postlude presents an outcome. This section continues in A minor,

though the piece ends on a Picardy third. Based on the previous use of this chord in

measure 30 and its quality of sound against the minor tonality, there is a sense of

optimism. One may suggest that the shepherdess is pretty or will be perceived to be

pretty, or benefits will come to her (Ex. 3.5).

64
Example 3.5 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 4, mm. 60-64

To best interpret the postlude, the singer needs to maintain the shepherd’s

demeanor from the final verse. One will note that the sparse texture characteristic from

the previous two interludes is continued in the postlude, and therefore symbolizes the

shepherd’s reaction to the shepherdess’s actions. Based on the content of the song’s

conclusion, one may suggest that the shepherdess either finds a way to cross or shows

interest in him. Therefore, the shepherd is watching her and is pleased by her actions at

the sound of the final chord. The singer needs to convey the shepherd’s emotions by her

facial expression showing a sense of pride that he had the final say as well as excitement

at the positive outcome. At the final Picardy third chord, the singer may wish to cross her

arms and smile to represent the suggested outcome.

L’Antouèno106
Antoine

The following folk song, L’Antouèno, provides several contrasts to Pastourelle.

The accompaniment uses a thicker texture, and the text is not a dialogue, but rather a

106
Text translation from www.recmusic.org/lieder/get_text.html?TextId=26468.

Note: Amandine Nelaton states that when a name is preceded by an l’, le, or la, it is a sign that the person
who is speaking is from the countryside.

65
statement, which is why L’Antouèno is exceptional in one major aspect. Of the two

volumes, all of the songs up to this point established conventional gender-based roles.

But in L’Antouèno the roles are reversed. The woman is assertive to the point of being

dominating, while the man is silent, and by implication, is accepting of this attitude.

When the singer represents the woman, her posture should be erect, showing the

character’s confidence.

[kwɔnd ɔnɔrԑn ɔ lɔ fjԑirɔ je o li ɔnɔrԑn tui dus lantuԑnɔ]


Quond onorèn o lo fièïro, ié, ô! Li onorèn touï dous, l’Antouèno!
When we go to the fair, We will be together, l’Antoine!

[krumpɔrԑn ynɔ bakuetɔ je o la krumpɔrԑn tui dus lantuԑnɔ]


Croumporèn uno baquetto, ié, ô! La croumporèn touï dous, l’Antouèno!
We’ll buy a cow, We’ll buy her together, l’Antoine!

[la bakuetɔ serɔ meunɔ je o lԑi kɔrnɔi sԑrum‿pԑr107 bus lantuԑnɔ]


La baquetto séro méouno, ié, ô! Lèï cornoï sèroun pèr bous, l’Antouèno!
But the cow shall be mine, The horns are only for you, l’Antoine!

For this folksong the singer represents a woman who is speaking to Antouèno.

The singer needs to note the attitude of the text. The woman tells Antouèno what they

will be doing instead of asking his opinion. He does not speak in the story. Therefore, the

singer’s posture should remain straight throughout the song to convey her assertive

attitude. However, her facial expression and gestures should express excitement at what

she will gain from going to the fair. When the singer refers to Antouèno, she should use

her right arm and hand to gesture to her right side to suggest where he is located.

However, she should not turn her head in this direction; this will convey that she is not

interested in his reaction or response to her statement.

107
McCann. A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 22. In Castilian, if the
final n is followed by a bi-labial consonant (m,p,b) then the n changes to an [m].

66
The introduction material provides various “horn calls” as well as quick, scalar

passages. These musical elements represent the aural effect of the nature that will

surround the characters when they are at the fair as well as the woman’s demeanor (Ex.

3.6).

Example 3.6 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 5, mm. 1-4

For the first two verses, the singer should look at the audience as if she is

addressing no one in particular, but simply stating what she has decided to do. During the

first verse, the singer tells Antouèno that the two of them will go to the fair together. It is

evident that Canteloube wants the fanfare sound of the introduction to continue its

presence throughout the first verse, for the accompaniment maintains a portion of the

introductory material in a varied form (Ex.3.7).

67
Example 3.7 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 5, mm. 5-9

The following interlude is three measures in length, providing enough time for the

singer’s demeanor to become calm and contemplative as she decides what they will

purchase. This can be achieved by the singer’s eyes staring off or roaming around the

room as if looking at the different items which can be purchased. One may suggest that

just before the second verse begins, the singer sees a cow and gestures towards it by

using her left hand, which segues into the next verse.

In contrast to the accompaniment in the first verse, the second provides different

rhythmic and harmonic content. An eighth-note ostinato is presented in groupings of

three which create a compound rhythmic pulse as opposed to the common time pulse

provided previously. The harmonic content of the accompaniment presents a descending

chromatic line from measures 21 to 31. These musical elements assist with the

68
interpretation by providing a legato musical performance while the vocalist sings of the

two characters preparing to buy a cow together (Ex. 3.8). The singer’s gestures should be

subtle to convey the change of demeanor, which is assisted by the change of

accompaniment.

Example 3.8 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 7, mm. 20-22

The second interlude is also short in length, allowing the singer enough time to

change her demeanor once again. After claiming that they will purchase a cow, the singer

then knows how she will profit from this purchase, which excites her. This can be

conveyed by the singer’s facial expression brightening and bringing both her hands

together, clasped, in front of her chest.

The final verse states that the woman informs Antouèno that she will keep the

cow while he only receives the horns. The accompaniment is similar to that of the first

verse with the exception of a few musical elements. A sextuplet sequence begins in

measure 41 when the text refers to Antouèno only receiving the horns. The original

version of a fanfare melody is not provided, but a similar melodic idea is present. These

elements contribute to the off hand treatment of the male character (Ex. 3.9).

69
Example 3.9 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 9, mm.42-43

For the last verse, the singer needs to point to herself and at a person or particular

place in the audience and speak to them directly as if speaking to Antouèno. This

suggests that the singer wants him to know that the cow will be hers while he only

receives the horns. The piece should end with a very pleased facial expression, for the

woman is satisfied with the future outcome.

La Pastrouletta è lou Chibalié108


The Shepherd Girl and the Knight

Canteloube then segues into a strophic, light-hearted folksong story entitled La

Pastrouletta è lou Chibalié. Both the previous song and this one set texts in which a

woman is one of the main characters, although the knight and shepherdess are from

different social classes. However, the shepherdess in La Pastrouletta è lou Chibalié is not

interested in the male character.

[luγarjas bus yŋ109 gardaire pastruletɔ]


“Lougarias bous un’gardáïré, pastrouletto?”
“Wouldn’t you like a shepherd boy, shepherd girl?”

108
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.
109
McCann. A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne. 22. When an n is
followed by palatal consonants g or k. The final n is not dentalized and assumes a palatalized resonance.

70
[ne gardarai be pru suletɔ ʧibalie ne gardarai be pru suletɔ rɔsiγnɔlet]
“Né gardaraï bé prou souletto, chibalié! Né gardaraï bé prou souletto, rossignolet!”
“I can very well herd alone, knight! I can very well herd alone, nightingale!”

[ԑ nus sjԑirԑn ɔ lumbretɔ pastruletɔ]


“È nous sièïrèn o l’oumbretto, pastrouletto?”
“Won’t you let us sit in the shade, shepherd girl?”

[lumbretɔ nez‿enrusɔdàdɔ ʧibalie rɔsiγnɔlet]


“L’oumbretto n’ès enrousodádo, chibalié! … rossignolet!”
“The shade is damp with dew, knight!...nightingale!”

[ɔbal la fuiԑir ԑs sekɔ pastruletɔ]


“Obal la fouyèïr’ ès séco, pastrouletto!”
“Over there, the ferns are dry, shepherd girl!”

[ni kal ana pԑr yn ɔuretɔ ʧibalie rɔsiγnɔlet]


“N’i cal ana pèr un’óuretto, chibalié!...rossignolet!”
“Then go spend an hour there, knight!...nightingale!”

The singer represents both the knight and shepherdess, which will need to be

conveyed by the singer utilizing the appropriate gender stance. When representing the

knight, the singer’s posture should remain erect to show his higher class status, though

the gestures used should be subtle to convey his calm approach towards her. When

representing the shepherdess, the singer needs to convey that the woman is assertive. She

is not subservient towards the knight, even though he is of a higher class. The performer

needs to maintain a strong posture to represent the shepherdess’s firm resolve by a form

of facial expression which implies a lack of interest in the knight.

As will be discussed in greater detail shortly, there are two distinct styles of

accompaniment. There is a chirpy quality of rhythmic motives which accompany the

shepherdess’s verse, symbolizing her laughing. In contrast, the music which accompanies

the knight’s verse consists of sustained chords, creating a serenading atmosphere. This

justifies why she calls him a nightingale. At the end of the story, she dismisses him.

71
The overall content of La Pastrouletta è lou Chibalié is simple in comparison to

the other songs by its tonality, harmony, and rhythmic elements. The home key is B

major. Canteloube does not provide modulations or a complexity of harmonic elements.

This symbolizes the shepherdess’s indifference; she will not change her mind, and

therefore the key will not change.

The characters’ personalities are represented in the introduction before the

dialogue begins. The knight’s music is presented from measures 1-9. Immediately

thereafter, fragments of the shepherdess’s melody are introduced, interrupting the flow of

his melody. For the rest of the song, there are three exchanges between the characters,

separated by brief interludes. The interludes and postlude, however, are a continuation of

the shepherdess’s melody. The interlude may be interpreted as her dismissing the knight.

Therefore, the singer continues to represent the shepherdess during the postlude. She may

wish to turn her head slightly to one side to indicate where the knight is located, and give

a dismissive gesture with her hand and arm.

In the first half of each verse, there are musical elements that suggest the knight is

serenading the shepherdess. The accompaniment to the knight’s melody is built on

chordal structures of fourth and fifth intervals, and the time signature alternates between

2/4 and 3/4. The melody is to be performed mezzo forte and the ending of the knights’

song has a ritardando and sourdine (mute) to help provide a musical shape to the verse

(Ex. 3.10).

72
Example 3.10 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 10-11, mm.17-25

In the second half of each verse, the shepherdess responds dismissively to the

knight’s questions. The musical elements of the shepherdess’s melody and

accompaniment suggest that she is quick to reject him. The singer need only provide a

quick dismissive hand gesture. The accompaniment provides a portion of the folksong

melody as well as trills throughout, which may represent a nightingale, for she continues

to call him this at the end of each verse. Though the main chordal structure of this

accompaniment consists of fourth and fifth intervals, they are now presented as arpeggios

rather than chords. Most of the shepherdess’s melody is in a 2/4 time signature, with the

73
exception of measure 31, which is in 3/4. This particular measure provides the only

chordal figure within the second half of the verse’s accompaniment. This chord has the

same intervals and rhythm as seen in the knight’s melody. This music foreshadows the

next measure, in which she calls the knight a nightingale (Ex. 3.11).

Example 3.11 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 11, mm.28-32

The singer should note that the change of persona within each verse is very quick.

The final note of the knight’s melody presents a fermata as does the accompaniment;

therefore, the singer is given this small amount of time to quickly adapt a new

characterization and continue with the verse.

La Delaïssádo110
The Deserted Shepherdess

The following folksong arrangement, La Delaïssádo, presents several musical

changes such as a minor tonality, a somber storyline, and a through-composed form. The

accompaniment does not use the folksong melody, but rather presents its own melody.

The instrumentation represents the emotions and inner thoughts of the shepherdess, as

110
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.

74
well as the landscape that surrounds her. The transition between the effect of the two

characters is quite a contrast. The singer’s character changes from a shepherdess who is

aloof to the knight to that of a shepherdess who deeply cares for her lover. The singer’s

posture, facial expression, and overall mood must go from a callous attitude to a heart-

broken one. The singer’s posture should lower as if fatigued. Perhaps a wringing of hands

should be involved to convey the worry of the shepherdess. Lastly, the singer’s eyes

should slowly wander around the room as if looking for someone.

[unɔ pasturԑlɔ ԑspԑr ɔlai al kapt del buԑs lu galan dɔγuelɔ mԑ ne bem‿pas111]
Uno pastourèlo, èspèr’ olaï al capt del bouès lou galan doguélo, mè né bèn pas!
A shepherdess waits there near the top of the woods for the one she loves, but he does not
come!

[ai sui delaisadɔ ke nai pas bist lu mjo galant ]


“Ay! Souï délaissado! Qué n’aï pas vist lou mio galant;
“Alas! I have been deserted! I do not see the one I love;

[kresjɔ ke m’aimabɔ ԑ tɔn laime jeu]


crésio qué m’aïmábo, è ton l’aïmé iéu!”
I thought he loved me, and I still love him!”

[lyziγuԑt lestԑlɔ a kԑlɔ ke markɔ lɔ nuԑt]


Luziguèt l’estèlo, a quèlo qué marco lo nuèt,
When the star comes out, the evening star,

[ԑ lo paurɔ pastureletɔ demurԑt à plura]


è lo pauro pastoureletto démourèt à ploura…
the poor little shepherdess is still alone, weeping…

Canteloube categorizes La Delaïssádo as one of the amour déçu, which means a

disappointed or betrayed love. 112 The singer needs to project the naiveté of the

shepherdess, for she continues to hold on to hope and waits as the evening becomes

111
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 22 In Castilian, if the
final n is followed by a bi-labial consonant (m,p,b) then the n changes to an [m].
112
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 22.

75
darker and darker. It is unclear if she is slowly realizing that he is unfaithful or has

abandoned her. Therefore, the singer needs to use a hopeful facial expression as her eyes

continue to wander across the audience as if looking for someone. These interpretive

expressions should be used throughout introduction, interludes, and postlude until the

final chord, which represents the sad realization that he will not return.

There are two musical elements that should guide the singer’s interpretation of

this folksong: the content of the accompaniment and the harmonic structure. In the

accompaniment, Canteloube uses different musical ideas to represent the shepherdess’s

feelings as the story unfolds. First, there is an emotional emptiness which is expressed by

the open position chords presented throughout. Secondly, from the introduction to the

second interlude the accompaniment becomes more elaborate in texture and progressively

louder as the story’s drama builds. From the second interlude to the ending it becomes

quieter and thins out in texture as the story’s conclusion is revealed. As will be discussed

in greater detail shortly, the arrangement ends on an authentic cadence, suggesting that

the shepherdess has realized her lover will not return.

The introduction consists of an unaccompanied solo countermelody that is

harmonically ambiguous. Following this solo is a harmonization that consists of simple

chords mostly in root position, and as Elizabeth Pauly states, the musical setting is almost

completely diatonic and the chords are in open position. This information is imperative to

the singer’s interpretation, for it symbolizes the loneliness of the shepherdess at the onset

of the song (Ex. 3.12).

76
Example 3.12 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 12. mm. 1-9

The first and second verses provide a similar accompaniment. However, the

descending four-note motive seen in measure 13 is presented an octave higher in

measures 25-26. This change of tessitura may represent a heightening in passion as the

shepherdess speaks of how she has been deserted (Ex.3.13).

Example 3.13 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series

Pg. 12 mm.13 Pg. 13 mm.25

77
The first interlude musically expresses the sad thoughts of the shepherdess by the

rise and fall of the melodic line.113 This shape may symbolize the mood of the

shepherdess as she dwells on thoughts of her lover. The interlude also serves as a

preparation for the shepherdess’s soliloquy in line two (Ex. 3.14).

Example 3.14 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg.13 mm.18-25

The second interlude prepares for the narrator to provide the final line of the

story. Based on the text, it is unclear what the man’s standing is, who he is, or what his

rank is. However, the text does imply that the shepherdess desperately needs him. The

instrumentation expresses her heightened emotions by presenting the climax of the music

by the texture and dynamics in measures 29-31. As the interlude ends, a diminuendo is

provided as well as an evolving thinner texture (Ex. 3.15).

113
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 26.

78
Example 3.15 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 13 mm.29-35

In the third verse there are two events that occur. From measures 38-39 the

narrator describes the evening stars appearing in the sky. One may assume that the

nighttime atmosphere surrounding the shepherdess is quiet. These occurrences are

represented by the tessitura of the accompaniment rising another octave, representing the

stars, as well as simple, sustained chords representing the sky. There is also an eighth-

note glissando representing the shepherdess’s tears falling (Ex. 3.16). These musical

events symbolize the passage of time as the shepherdess waits.

79
Example 3.16 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 14 mm.36-39

From measures 40-43 the narrator sings of the lonely shepherdess, who is now

weeping. The accompaniment does not use the previous four-note motive but begins a

quarter-note counter-melody which meanders around a range of a sixth. This new

melodic idea may represent the shepherdess as she continues to wait (Ex. 3.17).

Example 3.17 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 14 mm.40-43

An important factor in the accompaniment is the cadences. The first and second

lines end on a half cadence, which implies a question or lack of final resolution. The third

line ends on a perfect authentic cadence. The half cadences suggest that the shepherdess

80
is hopeful she will see him again, while the authentic cadence suggests that the

shepherdess now realizes her lover will not return. 114 The composer is using the

cadences to provide an ending to the story, for the texts outcome is unknown.

N’aï pas iéu de mîo115


I do not have a girlfriend

The following folksong, N’aï pas iéu de mîo, begins the Deux Bourrées of this

volume. There is a sharp contrast between La Delaïssádo and N’aï pas iéu de mîo with

the change of tonality, musical atmosphere, and content of the stories. The singer now

represents a man as the main character. This is the first text to do so in the Chants

d’Auvergne. Therefore, the singer should attain a male stance, though her shoulders

should move slightly downward while she uses a sad facial expression.

[nai paz‿jeu dԑ mjo sui kum‿ pas116turel mԑ se nɔbjozynɔ li serjo fidԑl]


N’aï pas ïèu dè mio, soui qu’ un’ pastourel; mè sé n’obiozuno li sério fidèl;
I do not have a girlfriend, I am only a shepherd; if I had one I would be faithful;

[sɔbjo nɔ mjo ke m’aimԑse plɔ de putus de flurz‿jeu lɔ kubrirjɔ]


s’obio ‘no mio qué m’aïmèssé plo, dé poutous dé flours iéu lo coubririo!
and if my girlfriend loved me well, I would cover her with kisses and flowers!

[mԑ sul punt dԑntraiγnɔ njo duz‿auzelus ne fa kԑ kanta pel luz‿amurus]


Mè sul pount d’Entraygno n’io dous áuzelous, né fa què canta pel lous amourous;
On the bridge of Entraygue117 are two birds, they only sing for lovers;

114
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloube, 25.
115
Text translated by Amandine Nealton, 2007.
116
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 22. In Castilian, if the
final n is followed by a bi-labial consonant (m,p,b) then the n changes to an [m].
117
www.maplandia.com/france. The bridge at the village of Entraygue crosses the junction of two rivers;
the River Lot and the River Truyère. The bridge is there because of the village, allowing the residents to
pass over the rivers.

81
[s‿ԑs plɔ bertat kantarԑm‿plɔ lԑu pel lɔ gentɔ mjo kԑs ɔlprԑs dԑ jԑu]
s’ès plo bertat cantarèn plo lèu pel lo gento mio qu’ès olprès dè ièu!
if the choice is true, they will soon begin to sing for the sweet soul which is close to me!

[pel lus kamps dԑndun jo de gԑntɔi flurs sum‿blygɔi rudӡɔi]


Pel lous camps d’Èndoun’ io dé gèntoï flours; soun blugoï, roujoï,
In the field of Endoune,118 there are beautiful flowers; blue ones, red ones,

[ԑ de tutɔs kulurs li kal ana ke nԑn kylirai ɔ lɔ meunɔ mjo lԑs purtorai]
è dé toutos coulours; li cal ana qué n’èn culiráï, o lo méouno mio lès pourtoráï!
and all colors; I am going to pick them and carry them to the one I love!

It is important for the singer to note that everything the shepherd sings is

speculative of what he would do if he had a girlfriend. Throughout the song, the singer

will need to show the growth of these emotions with her facial expression, posture, and

then tone. At the beginning he is lonely, so the singer needs to communicate this. Perhaps

a small sigh at the beginning with a wandering facial expression will be sufficient.

Throughout the song the shepherd sings how he would be faithful to a girl, cover

her with kisses, and bring her flowers. The singer needs to portray these promises by

becoming more animated as she sings the shepherd’s words of his dreams for a girlfriend

and what he would give her. The singer should begin calmly and have an emotional

intensity that builds with each verse. This can be achieved by the use of a hopeful facial

expression progressing into the use of the hands rising up to the singer’s mouth to express

the act of giving kisses. The singer then expresses the act of bringing flowers to someone

by utilizing her hands and arms.

The harmonic content reinforces and amplifies the actions of the story, which can

assist with the singer’s interpretation. The arrangement is in the key of G major until

verse two. At this point the harmonic content begins to shift to the key of E minor. One

118
This field is presumably located in the Auvergne region, possibly near Truyère.

82
will note in the piano score an alteration between the pitches D ♯ and D♮, which also

implies the chords changing from the major dominant to the minor. This harmonic

tension represents the shepherd’s emotional state (Ex. 3.18).

Example 3.18 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 17 mm.59-68

The interludes serve as a musical point of exclamation, for they occur after the

punctuation in the text. The music material provides an interpretive point for the singer to

express the shepherd’s emotions. For example, the second interlude symbolizes the bird’s

song mentioned in line two. When the shepherd hears the birds, he begins to think of how

wonderful it would be if they sang for him and the “sweet soul” for whom he longs. The

singer needs to convey this by her face expressing a daydream of this event.

Up to this point the accompaniment has provided chordal figures for both the first

and second lines. In line three, a new accompaniment of scalar figures is presented in a

sequential manner. The lyrics of this verse tell of how the shepherd will gather up the

83
flowers in the fields and give them to the one he loves. One could say that this new

accompanimental figure represents the image of flowers blowing in the wind (Ex. 3.19).

Example 3.19 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg.19, mm.105-110

The folksong arrangement concludes with an accelerando beginning at rehearsal

No. 38. A sequence of sixteenth notes is presented in the accompaniment. Both of these

musical elements represent his positive emotion towards the idea of having a love (Ex.

3.20).

Example 3.20 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg.20, mm.129-133

84
Lo Calhé119
The Quail

Just as in the bourrées of the previous volumes, there is an instrumental solo

performed between N’aï pas iéu de mîo and Lo Calhé. This solo retains the home key of

N’aï pas iéu de mîo, G major, until measure 3 where the key slowly modulates to E

major, the home key of Lo Calhé. This solo serves as a musical transition in which the

singer can prepare the effect of the final song.

One of the main characters of Lo Calhé is a quail. N’aï pas iéu de mîo briefly

mentions two song birds within the shepherd’s story. This theme can be used to the

singer’s benefit, for she needs to show a change between the quail and the person with

whom it is speaking. The characterization changes from that of a shepherd to an

inquisitor and a quail. As the singer addresses the quail they should look slightly

downward toward the floor. When representing the human, the singer should look

slightly upward.

[Ε djo mԑ tu lɔ kaλe und as tun njou]


“È, dio mè tu, lo calhé, ound as toun nîou?”
“Tell me, quail, where is your nest?”

[sul puԑt de lɔ bɔstidɔ deλai lu rjou]


“Sul puèt dé lo Bostido dellaï lou rîou!”
“My nest is near the well of the little farmhouse at the brook!”

[ԑ djo mԑ tu lɔ kaλe ke lɔ bastit]


“È, dio mè, tu, lo calhé, qué l’o bastit?”
“Tell me, quail, what is your nest made of?”

[ԑs de burɔ dԑ lԑbre ԑ de lɔpi]


“Ès dé bourro dè lèbré è dé lopi!”
“It is made of hair and rabbit fur!”

119
Text translation from www.recmusic.org/lieder/get_text.html?TextId=26468.

85
[ԑ djo mԑ tu lɔ kaλe ke ljo dedins]
“È, dio mè, tu, lo calhé, qué l’io dédins?”
“Tell me, quail, what is in your nest?”

[dԑs jous kumɔ lԑz‿autrԑs mԑs plus pulits]


“Dès iôus coumo lès áutrès mès plus poulits!”
“There are eggs in it like others, but much prettier!”

The dialogue is a series of antecedent and consequent phrases. The singer

questions the quail about her home. When one performs two different characters, there

must be two different characteristics. One character provides the questions, one provides

the answers. This kind of exchange serves as guidance for the singer’s interpretation.

Therefore, it is the singer’s tone that will express each character as well as the

performer’s head position.

During the introduction, interludes, and postlude, the singer needs to switch to the

character that is about to speak to show a reaction to the previous statement based on the

text. Both the introduction and postlude orchestration represent the quail. The interludes

provide a punctuation to separate the exchanges that come after the pairs of lines. After

the interlude the questioner returns to ask the next question.

In the introduction there are fragments of the folksong melody performed with

ornamentation. A trill and a dotted sixteenth-thirty second note motive both represent the

chirping of the quail. Therefore, the singer is representing the questioner while watching

and listening to the bird. During the interludes, the ornamentation of the folksong melody

is expanded, though it still represents the quail, for the quail ended the last line by

answering the singer’s question. Therefore, the singer continues to represent the

questioner watching and listening to the quail while preparing for their next line of the

86
song. The postlude consists of an accelerando and scalar runs which may represent the

quail’s departure.

The content of the accompaniment assists the singer’s interpretation by providing

a variety of text-painting for each line. In line one, the singer asks the quail where her

nest is. The quail says that its nest is near the well of the little farmhouse that is beside the

brook. At rehearsal No.41 there are arpeggios which extend from the left to right hand

giving an idea of a sweeping motion which represents the brook (Ex. 3.21).

Example 3.21 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 21-22, mm. 16-24

In line two the questioner asks what its nest is made of. The quail replies that the

hair and rabbit fur make up its home. From measures 54 through 58 there are two

melodic, triplet sixteenth-note runs and a tied trilled note that represent the quail’s voice

(Ex. 3.22).

87
Example 3.22 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 23, mm.55-59

In line three the questioner asks the quail what is in its nest. The quail proudly

tells of its eggs, which are prettier than most other ones. In measures 87- 93, thirty-

second note ascending runs represent the bird’s song (Ex. 3.23).

Example 3.23 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 2nd Series, pg. 25 mm. 87-94

88
Conclusion

The folksongs within this volume present a wide array of expression which the

singer must achieve, though Lo Calhé is not a part of the thread of emotions. The other

texts are in some ways complex by virtue of the characters represented. Pastrouelle and

La Pastrouletta è lou Chibalié texts are dialogues between a man and woman. Lo Calhé

is a dialogue between a human and quail. N’aï pas iéu de mîo is a soliloquy. L’Antouèno

is a one-way conversation between the dominant female and her silent male partner. La

Delaïssádo has the narrator starting and ending the story with one soliloquy from the

shepherdess. With the nature of engagements of the different individuals, these emotional

nuances are not found in the previous songs. However, the emotional diversity will

expand further in the following volumes.

89
Chapter 4
3rd series

There were four years that elapsed between the publications of the second and

third volume of the Chants d’Auvergne. During this time, Canteloube co-founded an

organization curiously titled “l’Auvergnate de Paris: La Bourrée” in 1925. Perhaps “La

Bourrée” was meant to be symbolic of the Auvergne. This group devoted itself to

keeping the Auvergne culture alive for young Auvergnats who were living in Paris.120 In

1927, Canteloube published his second opera, Vercingétorix, and the third volume of the

Chants d’Auvergne. The following are the five folksong arrangements from this volume:

Lo fiolairé, Passo pel prat, Lou boussu, Brezairola, and Malurous qu’o uno fenno.

There are three elements of the volume which are important for the singer to note.

First, one will note that the characterizations and the arrangements of this volume are

much more complex than previous volumes, especially that of Lou Boussu. Secondly,

Canteloube did not use the “nature figure” heard in the previous volumes. Lastly, there is

an absence of a musical or textual link that connects the songs. The singer will find that

each setting’s tempo marking contrasts with the following one. Lo fiolairé is performed at

a slow-medium tempo. Passo pel prat presents refrains that are fanfare-like while the

verses are slow and legato. The following folksong, Lou boussu, provides a variety of

tempo markings that assist with depicting the two main characters, though the overall

arrangement is allegretto. Brezairola is a slow lullaby followed by a fast finale entitled

Malurous qu’o uno fenno. A shared musical trait which all the arrangements do possess is

the use of a through-composed form, which allowed the composer to inflect each phrase

in response to the text.

120
Pauly, The Solo Vocal Music of Joseph Canteloub, 8.

90
This volume’s arrangements present the greatest diversity of all the volumes

discussed. One may suggest that Canteloube had several folksong melodies he had not

yet arranged and therefore decided to include them in this volume. It is important for the

singer to note the extensive variety of affects and be prepared to shift emotional

orientation from song to song.

Lo fiolaré121
The Spinning Girl

[tɔŋ122 kԑrԑ piʧunԑlɔ gɔrdaßԑ lu‿i mutus]


Ton qu’èrè pitchounèlo gordavè loui moutous,
When I was a little girl, I guarded the sheep,

[ti li ru li ru li ru la la diri tu tu la lara]


Ti lirou lirou lirou…la la diri tou tou la lara!
Ti lirou lirou lirou….la la diri tou tou la lara!

[ɔbja nɔ kunuλԑtɔ ԑ nai prԑz‿ym123 pɔstru]


Obio ’no counoulhèto è n’ai près un postrou.
I had a spindle (distaff) and I took a shepherd.

Ti lirou lirou…

[per fa lɔ birudԑtɔ mԑ dɔmɔnd’ym putu]


Per fa lo biroudèto mè domond’un poutou.
For guarding my sheep, he demanded a kiss.

Ti lirou lirou…

121
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.
122
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 45. A final “n”,
followed by a palatal consonant, becomes palatalized [Ν].
123
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 45. A final “n”,
followed by a bi-labial consonant, becomes [m].

91
[e jԑ‿u su‿i paz iŋgratɔ ԑn ljԑt‿dyn‿ 124nin fau dus]
E ièu soui pas ingrato, èn lièt d’un n’in fau dous!
I am not ungrateful, so in the lieu I gave him two!

Ti lirou lirou…

A notable feature about this particular text is its similarity to Franz Schubert’s

Gretchen am Spinnrade. Both texts are soliloquies by girls working at a spinning wheel

while remembering a past event with their lover. Both compositions use a spinning

motive in the introduction, though Schubert’s states the motive in quick rhythmic values

that suggest the spinning wheel is already turning. Canteloube introduces the motive

utilizing very slow rhythmic values in an ascending and descending contour that is

suggestive of the spinning wheel. As the introduction of Lo fiolaré progresses, the

motive’s rhythmic values increase.

Lo fiolaré concerns a shepherdess who recalls an encounter she had with a

shepherd. She had asked him to guard her sheep for awhile. He agreed and as payment he

asked the shepherdess for a kiss. In the excitement of the moment, she gave him two! The

singer needs to convey that this is a song of recollection. As the story unfolds there is an

increasing degree of excitement and her emotion’s intensity. This can be conveyed

primarily by the singer’s facial expressions. Her smile should widen and her face should

brighten as the song progresses. There are times when a hand gesture will be needed to

signify affection. For example, when she sings of the shepherd, the singer should bring

her hands together and place as them over her chest to signify her affection for the

124
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 46. When a word
ends with a dental consonant (t,d,n) and the following word starts with a dental consonant, then they are
elided.

92
shepherd. When the shepherdess sings of the kiss, the singer’s hands should rise toward

her mouth and she should have an excited facial expression.

The content of the accompaniment and the tonality aid the singer’s interpretation

by representing the main events and emotions of the text. Steubing suggests that the

melody is in G dorian while the accompaniment is in G minor. This subtle contrast

between dorian and aeolian symbolizes the shift between the past and present. The singer

should be aware of this harmonic detail for it will enable her to reinforce the effect.

The singer needs to interpret the introduction’s musical material in order to

physically represent the character of the shepherdess before she begins her soliloquy

(Ex.4.0). She should be aware of the piano introduction, for it represents the spinning

wheel. This suggests that the spinning motive begins in measure 2, though very slowly at

first, and then speeds up. It is important to make this connection because the increase of

speed creates intensification that aids the performer to realize the effect that must be

conveyed.

The singer’s eyes should be focused at point off to the side of the audience to

suggest that she is aware of the spinning wheel’s “presence” but she is also thinking

about something else. As the introduction progresses, the singer should have a smile

grow on her face to indicate her excitement at the memory of the kiss. As the first verse

begins, the singer needs to bring her eyes to the audience and raise her left hand and arm

in a sweeping gesture to indicate to the audience she wishes to tell her memory to them.

93
Example 4.0 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd Series, pg. 1, mm. 1-4

In the accompaniment, Canteloube uses four motives to illustrate events in the

text. Steubing refers to these motives as first, the tremolo motive; second, the spinning

motive; third, the chordal motive; and fourth, the meandering motive.125 The purpose of

these motives is to represent the following: the first two motives symbolize the spinning

wheel’s movement as it turns and stops; the third motive represents the shepherd’s

presence in the shepherdess’s memory; and the fourth motive represents her thoughts in

the story. The singer should note that the tremolo and spinning motive involve a literal

representation of the spinning wheel in motion. The chordal and meandering motives are

a musical representation of the shepherd’s presence and the shepherdess’s feelings and

thoughts. This information needs to be kept in mind for the singer’s facial expression and

presentation of lyrics need to convey both the literal and emotional meanings of the

motives.

The first of these motives is found in the introduction in measures 5-8 (Ex. 4.1)

and reoccurs at various points throughout the arrangement as the shepherdess becomes

more focused on the memory than on her work. The result of her distraction affects the

wheel as it slows down. When she becomes aware of this, she starts the wheel again.

125
Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 37. Uses the term
“meandering” motive.

94
The singer will need to convey this action to the audience. Her eye focus should

start to stare at one point in the room which indicates she is focusing more on the

memory than her task at the spinning wheel. Her facial expression should contain a small

smile. When the tremolo motive is performed, the singer needs to shake her head as if

coming back to present and becomes aware of the wheel slowing down.

Example 4.1 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd Series, pg. 1, mm. 5-8

The spinning motive consists of sixteenth-note scalar runs presented in both the

vocal line and the accompaniment. This figure is an action motive which represents the

consistent motion of the spinning wheel. It can be found in the accompaniment of the first

verse in measures 11-12 (Ex. 4.2).

Example 4.2 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd Series, pg. 1, mm. 11-12

At times the spinning motive is not presented in a continuous pattern as seen in

Example 4.2. For example, the following interlude presents the spinning motive slowing

down for the first time. This action is represented by the sustained chords and sixteenth

note couplet patterns used in measures 17-18. In measure 19 the shepherdess starts the

95
wheel again and resumes the story. As the song progresses, one will notice the spinning

motive occurs in fragments and becomes less dominant as the shepherdess focuses more

on the memory than on her work (Ex. 4.3).

Example 4.3 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd Series, pg. 2, mm.17-19

The shepherd’s appearance in the text is accompanied by a chordal motive against

a countermelody. This motive is representative of the emotions the shepherdess has for

the shepherd (Ex. 4.4).

Example 4.4 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd Series, pg.21, mm. 20-22

The final motive, which Steubing calls the meandering motive, and which is more

rhythmically complex than the spinning motive, represents the thoughts of the

shepherdess as she contemplates the payment the shepherd requests (Ex. 4.5). The singer

needs to convey the effect of thinking about the past and therefore should continue to

have her eyes focus off to the side. Her facial expression will usually provide a small

96
smile that it will increase as the song progresses. She may also wish to use her arms and

hands in appropriate gestures to symbolize a kiss by bringing her hand(s) to her mouth.

She can also show her affection for the shepherd by placing both hands over her heart.

Example 4.5 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd Series, pg. 4, mm.36-40.

Another interpretative note for the singer is that, as the song progresses, the

motives are used in fragments and presented together in the accompaniment. An example

of this combination of motives is in the setting of the final verse. The lyrics state that the

shepherdess decides to give the shepherd two kisses. The accompaniment expresses her

excitement by presenting the tremolo motive, a small portion of the spinning motive, and

a borrowed duplet rhythm from the chordal motive. All of these fragments are presented

simultaneously to represent her excitement at the memory as well as becoming focused

97
on her work (Ex. 4.6). It is important for the singer to be mindful of the shepherdess

thinking of the past encounter.

One may also suggest that the different fragments of motives being presented at

the same time symbolize the shepherdess’s emotions as they intensify. For example, a

way for the singer to convey the growth of emotions is when she sings of the kisses she

gave the shepherd. The singer may wish to begin the interpretation with her hands up

towards her mouth to symbolize the kiss. Then, she should continue to show her

excitement of the remembered event by taking a step forward and sweeping her arms

outward. Lastly, she should quickly bring her arms back to her to indicate that he wants

the payment from her. A step forward or to the side will help move the body to show the

emotions are so strong she cannot hold herself still. The singer’s facial expression also

needs to show her excitement.

Example 4.6 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd Series, pg. 5, mm.46-50

98
The postlude, which is an extension of the last verse, is the last section to analyze

for the singer’s interpretation. In measures 50 -51 there is one chord per measure,

symbolizing that the spinning wheel has stopped. The musical focus is on the final verse.

This solo-like passage and quicker and shorter rhythms represent the shepherdess ending

her song with more emotion than the beginning (Ex. 4.7). The singer may wish to hold

open both arms outwards while holding the pitch “D” and sweep them upward as she

glissandos upward to the final pitch “G”. She should end with a very pleased smile and

excited mood.

Example 4.7 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd Series, pg. 5, mm.51-53

Passo pel prat126


Come Through the Meadow

The previous folksong was about a woman’s domestic work, while Passo pel prat

represents the farmer’s labor. This is an enormous shift of effect which demands a major

transfer of the singer’s gestures, posture, and stance. The overall posture should show that

heavy work is being done by the lowering of shoulders and even the singer leaning

slightly forward, but not to such an extreme as to interfere with the singing performance.

126
Text translated by Amandine Nealton, 2007.

99
This arrangement is the first in the Chants d’Auvergne where the composer

provides the singer with precise directions on how to perform the song. It departs from

the purely artistic character of the songs up to this point. It is a work song. When farmers

work in the fields, oxen are usually the work animals used. On page 6 of the Heugel

score, a footnote provided by Canteloube states the following: “...declaimed in full voice,

they are the songs of labor par excellence, because their movement harmonizes

marvelously with the heavy slow step of the work oxen.” 127

Lo, lo, lo!

[pasɔ pԑl prat bԑlɔtɔ lԑ‿u pɔsɔrai pԑl bwɔs]


Passo pel prat, bèloto, lèu possorai pel bouos
Come through the meadow, my beautiful one, I shall come through the wood

[kɔn li sԑras pulɔtɔ mԑspԑrɔras‿ s128e bwɔs]


Quon li sèras, pouloto, m’èspèroras sé vouos!
When you are there, my pretty one, wait for me if you wish!

Lo, lo, lo!

[nus pɔrlɔrԑn fiλɔtɔ nus pɔrlɔrԑn tu‿ i dus


Nous porlorèn, filhoto, nous porlorèn toui dous;
We will talk, little girl, we will talk together

[kɔs tun ɔmur drulɔtɔ ke me fɔrɔ y rus]


Qu’os toun omour, drouloto, què mé foro hurous!
It is your love, little one, which will make me happy!

Lo, lo, lo!

Passo pel prat is a farmer’s soliloquy as he works in the fields and sees a girl

walk by. He calls to her to come through the meadow and wait there for him to finish his

127
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 49.
128
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 48. The two “s’s”
make one [s].

100
work. When they meet they will talk together, for it is her love which will make him

happy.

The following are several issues the singer needs to address that will aid in the

interpretation of the song: the different characters the singer must present, the

introduction and postlude material, the musical differences between the refrains and

verses, the characteristics of the refrains as well as those of the verses, the interludes, and

the harmonic structure.

The first issue the singer should note is that she represents a male character

exclusively. Therefore, the singer’s stance must convey strength by an upright posture

with the legs even with the shoulders. The shoulders may even slump forward, or lower

slightly to show the heavy labor of the work. If hand gestures are used, the whole hand is

the gesture, not just the fingers. The singer should avoid curving or waving her hand,

which is a natural female gesture. Secondly, the singer’s facial expressions should

indicate the farmer’s emotions towards the girl. A strong, confident smile that suggests

attraction will suffice. If the singer has pockets on her concert attire, she may wish to put

her hand(s) in her pockets when the character addresses the girl as a way of suggesting

confidence on his part. This is a relaxed stance for a male.

The next issues to address are the introduction and postlude. Both present musical

material that is similar to the refrain, the work song melody. The introduction symbolizes

the farmer’s presence before he performs the melody. The postlude is a final presentation

of the refrain as the farmer finishes his work. Therefore, the work song melody frames

the arrangement, surrounding the melodies found in the verses.

101
It is important for the singer to understand the musical content of the refrains and

verses, for both are performed by the farmer and symbolize his emotions. However, there

are two different activities described by the lyrics. One is the farmer addressing his

animals; the other is his singing to the girl. The singer should look to the right as the

farmer sings to the oxen. She should then look to the left when the farmer sings to the

girl. When she represents the farmer working, her posture should be straight, chest is out

and shoulders are back. When the farmer sings to the girl, the singer’s posture should

instantly relax with the shoulders and chest dropping to show the farmer’s interest in the

girl. She should also have a softer facial expression.

The content of the refrain’s accompaniment depicts the actions of the work being

done by the farmer and oxen. The bass line provides chords which represent the pace of

the oxen. The texture of the chordal structure is thick, and the melody is performed at a

forte dynamic. The singer needs to also note the accents provided in the melody, for this

is a distinguishing feature that separates the work song melody from the verse melody

(Ex. 4.8a).

The verse’s melody and accompaniment contrast with those of the refrain due to

the following: their quiet dynamic markings, legato performance style, sparse chordal

texture, slower rhythmic values, reflecting the instruction of moins rude et moins fort

(less rough and less strong) marking, chanté, and a messa di voce markings. The singer

must be mindful of these nuances (Ex. 4.8b).

102
Example 4.8a Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 6 mm. 4-6 (refrain)

Example 4.8b Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 7 mm. 10-12 (verse)

The farmer is singing to the animals while working, so the melody is to be

performed at a forte dynamic level along with the accents presented throughout. These

musical elements represent the farmer’s involvement with his work.

When the refrain is presented for the first time, the bass chords of the

accompaniment are on beats one and three. This symbolizes the oxen moving at a steady

pace. However, the second time presents bass chords sounded on the second halves of

beats one and three. This represents the momentarily uncoordinated pace of the oxen

since the farmer’s focus is on the girl rather than his work. He takes a moment to re-

establish the oxen’s steady pace, which is represented in measure 26 (Ex. 4.9).

103
Example 4.9 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 8 mm.22-27

The melodies that the farmer sings to the girl in the verses are performed chanté

or très calme with a legato style, representing his emotions towards her. The singer will

need to convey the change of emotions from refrain to verse. As the verse is being

performed, she needs to focus on a specific point in the audience that represents the girl’s

location. The singer’s facial expression needs to soften and her hand gestures need to

come closer to the body to convey the quieter dynamic level of the verse as well as the

farmer’s change of mood.

When the farmer sings the work song the singer should have a strong posture and

use her arms in wide, sweeping motions that extend outward from the body to encompass

the “fields” in which the farmer is working.

The interludes separating the refrains and verses provide a musical transition. The

interludes provide a musical transition representing the farmer’s attentions changing from

104
the girl to his work. This can be achieved by the singer’s facial expression, hand gestures,

arm gestures, and posture changing.

Lastly, the harmonic structure and texture of the second verse aids the singer’s

interpretation. The verse’s piano accompaniment presents a duple rhythm sequence in the

right hand against a triplet sequence in the left hand. In the previous verse the farmer tells

her to walk to the woods and he will meet her there. One may suggest that this action is

being represented by the two against three texture. Perhaps the duple rhythm represents

the farmer’s long walking strides while the triplet rhythm represents the girl’s smaller

ones. The second verse also uses ascending and descending chromatic scales which may

represent the farmer’s emotions as he anticipates meeting the girl (Ex. 4.10).

Example 4.10 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 8 mm.31-33

Lou Boussu (Boussut)129


The Hunchback

The following folksong arrangement represents another abrupt change in

characterization from a male character to three different characters: the narrator,

129
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.

105
Jeanneton, and a hunchback. Lou Boussu is a story about love and denial, though the

ending is anything but happily ever after.

[dzanԑtu tsul pumjԑiru kԑ se sulumbraßɔ]


Dzanètou tsou’l poumièirou què sé souloumbravo,
Under an apple tree, Jeanneton is resting in the shade,

[kԑ se sulumbraßɔ si kԑ se sulumbraßɔ la, kԑ se sulumbraßɔ]


Què sé souloumbravo si, què sé souloumbravo la, què sé souloumbravo.
Is resting in the shade here, is resting in the shade there, is resting in the shade.

[ɔki pɔsԑt yn busy kԑ lɔ mirɔλaßɔ kԑ lɔ mirɔλaßɔ si]


Oqui possèt un boussu què lo mirolhavo, què lo mirolhavo si,
Here comes a hunchback who takes a look at her, who takes a look at her here,

[kԑ lɔ mirɔλaßɔ la, kԑ lɔ mirɔλaßɔ]


Què lo mirolhavo la, què lo mirolhavo!
Who takes a look at here there, who takes a look at her!

[a pulidɔ dzanԑtu bus‿ sԑrԑz lɔ meunɔ bus‿sԑrԑz lɔ me‿unɔ si]


“Ah! Poulido Dzanètou! Bous sèrès lo mèouno! Bous sèrès lo mèouno si,
“Ah! Sweet Jeanneton! Will you be mine? Will you be mine here,

[bus‿ sԑrԑz lɔ me‿unɔ la bus‿ sԑrԑz lɔ mԑ‿unɔ]


Bous sèrès lo mèouno la, bous sèrès lo mèouno?”
Will you be mine there? Will you be mine?”

[per ke je‿u lɔ bwɔstrɔ si‿ɔ kal kupa lɔ bwɔso kal kupa lɔ bwɔsɔ130 si]
“Per qué ieu lo bouostro sio cal coupa lo bosso! Cal coupa lo bosso si!
“If I am to be yours, cut off your hump! Cut off your hump here!

[kal ku pa lɔ bwɔsɔ la, kal ku pa lɔ bwɔsɔ]


Cal coupa lo bosso la, cal coupa lo bosso!”
Cut off your hump there! Cut off your hump!”

[ɔ‿ i pԑkaire dzanԑtu gɔrdɔraj mɔ bwɔso gɔrdɔraj mɔ bwɔsɔ si]


“Oï! Pècairé, Dzanètou! Gordorai mo bosso! Gordorai mo bosso si!
“Ah! The devil take you, Jeanneton! I shall keep my hump! I shall keep my hump here!

130
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 52. According to M.
Fay, this word is generally pronounced as [bwɔso].

106
[gɔrdɔraj mɔ bwɔsɔ la gɔrdɔraj mɔ bwɔsɔ]
Gordorai mo bosso la! Gordorai mo bosso!”
I shall keep my hump there! I shall keep my hump!”

The singer will represent the narrator, hunchback, and Jeanneton. These three

characters will have three different positions and postures that the singer will need to use.

The singer needs to be mindful that her posture will be a major means of conveying the

characters.

When the singer represents the narrator, she should look directly at the audience.

This will be the simplest representation, for the narrator simply sets the scene. This

representation also aids the psychological transition from the previous song. The singer

will have a simpler time changing from a farmer to a person outside of the story, thus

beginning Lou Boussu from a neutral position.

Next, the character of Jeanneton can be represented by the singer looking to her

right with her shoulders back and chest held high. Her right foot should be slightly ahead

of her left in order to present a more feminine stance. Lastly, when representing the

hunchback, the singer should look to her left and have her right shoulder drop downwards

slightly. However, her posture should not be so extreme as if to appear to mock the

affliction.

The content of the accompaniment, combined with the tonality and harmonic

elements assist with the interpretation of the song. The harmonic language of the

arrangement represents the two characters. When Jeanneton is discussed in verse one,

sung to by the hunchback in verse three, and when she sings to him in verse four, there is

a b minor tonality. This unaltered tonality represents Jeanneton’s demeanor in the story,

for she is not emotionally engaged. However, the hunchback is extremely emotional.

107
When the hunchback is musically represented in the interludes, described in verse two by

the narrator, and sings in verse five, the chromatic accompaniment symbolizes his

complex emotions. This is the singer’s cue to as to how to begin the hunchback’s

characterization, which will discussed in detail shortly.

The introduction’s musical content symbolizes the hunchback. Therefore, since

the singer represents the narrator at the beginning of the song, her eyes should be looking

from her left to her right as if following the hunchback as he walks by. At the end of the

introduction, the singer should motion towards the location of Jeanneton by turning her

body slightly to the right as she sings Jeanneton’s lines (Ex. 4.11).

Example 4.11 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 10 mm.1-10

The narrator begins the song by describing the two characters in the first four

lines. The singer’s facial expressions will suffice to convey the mood of the character, or

108
scene, which is being described. In the first line the singer describes Jeanneton as she

rests in the shade. The accompaniment symbolizes her actions by a simple rhythmic

chordal structure performed at a pianissimo dynamic (Refer to Ex. 4.12). In measure 18,

there is an expressive and rallantando provided, which represents Jeanneton slowly

falling asleep. Perhaps the singer will wish to use one arm that gently sweeps outward to

suggest the location of Jeanneton as well as a relaxed posture and pleasant facial

expression that reflects the mood.

In the first interlude, the accompaniment introduces the following musical

characteristics: a glissando, staccato eighth-notes, grace notes, and chromatic figures.

These imply the stumbling or limping gait of the hunchback131 (Ex. 4.12). However, the

singer has to remain as the narrator even though she describes another.

Example 4.12 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 11 mm.16-28

131
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 57.

109
In the second verse the narrator describes the scene of the hunchback as he walks

past the apple tree and admires Jeanneton’s beauty. The musical figures discussed from

the previous interlude continue into the second verse’s accompaniment, representing the

hunchback (Ex. 4.13).

Example 4.13 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 11 mm.29-39

In the second interlude the accompaniment changes to a dramatic legato.132 This

music symbolizes the hunchback falling in love with Jeanneton. In measure 45 to 51, the

chromatic alterations and scalar figures represent the hunchback’s emotions as he

prepares to ask her to be his (Ex. 4.14). The singer should drop a shoulder to represent the

hunchback. The singer’s facial expression needs to soften by relaxing the face and having

a small smile while her eyes gaze in the direction of Jeanneton.

As the interlude progresses, one can assume that the hunchback is gathering up

the courage to speak. Therefore, the singer should take in a noticeable breath and, just

132
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 53.

110
before singing the next verse, the singer may wish to clench and unclench one hand to

show the nervousness of the hunchback. Based on the text, the hunchback should be

presented as a caring individual who falls in love when he first sees Jeanneton. When he

becomes hurt and then angry, the singer’s facial expressions are the best means to convey

these emotions as the story progresses.

Example 4.14 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 12 mm.40-52

In verse three, the lyrics are sung by the hunchback who asks Jeanneton to be his.

This chromatically enriched accompaniment suggests his ambivalence and uncertainty as

he asks her “will you be mine?” One may suggest that the hunchback is taking a risk and

he is aware of it. Therefore, the accompaniment also symbolizes a mix of emotions that

might be reasonably thought to include: doubt, hope, and fear of rejection.

Indeed it is rejection that the hunchback encounters for Jeanneton’s response is

dismissive. The rejection is foreshadowed by the interlude which precedes her response.

111
The musical content of the interlude presents quick rhythmic figures as well as earlier

presented chromatic figures, which may foreshadow her laughter. At this point the singer

represents Jeanneton. One could say this interlude symbolizes both her laughter and the

hunchback’s surprise at her reaction 133 (Ex. 4.15).

Example 4.15 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 11 mm.63 – 71

It is important for the singer to note that this is the first text of the Chants

d’Auvergne that presents a female character as cruel and unsympathetic. This presents a

creative problem for the singer when distinguishing between the two main characters.

The effect of Jeanneton is one of a lack of sensitivity, self-centeredness, and immaturity.

These characteristics are essential to remember as the singer performs the fourth verse.

In the fourth verse, the text suggests the conceit of Jeanneton, for she laughs at his

compliments and in turn mocks him and his appearance. Her attitude is represented by

the chords in the accompaniment which are presented in a staccato fashion (Ex. 4.16).

133
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 53.

112
While performing this verse the singer’s facial expression needs to be contemptuous and

at the same time very self-satisfied. This suggests the immature attitude of Jeanneton, and

therefore guides the singer’s facial expressions, for Jeanneton does not seem to care how

her response affects him. Therefore, the singer’s face should show amusement and

laughter, as if he is being ridiculous and she can barely contain herself at how ludicrous

his question is. The singer should waves dismissively at him.

Example 4.16 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 13 mm.72-76

The hunchback is hurt by her comments and is also clearly very angry. The singer

must convey a physical characterization of anger and defensiveness in the fourth

interlude. This can be achieved by an angry and hurt facial expression; furrowing her

eyebrows and having her mouth remain in a very thin line. These emotions are musically

expressed in the final interlude at measures 80-81 by the descending sixteenth notes. In

measures 82-85, Canteloube presents previously used material that represents the

hunchback, though it ascends in register. This symbolizes the hunchback’s growing anger

that leads into his response in verse five.

In the final verse, the hunchback tells Jeanneton he will keep his hump. The

singer should use the left hand and in a light fist as the hunchback says “the devil take

you!” The singer’s facial expression should also continue to stay angry as in the previous

113
interlude. The accompaniment in measures 86 to 89 presents chromaticism which creates

a harmonic un-stability that represents his anger (Ex. 4.17).

Example 4.17 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 14 mm.86-89

The accompaniment’s rhythmic values become faster throughout the verse as his

anger builds. Then, at measure 95, the chromaticism presented earlier in the verse begins

to fade as a B major tonality is presented. This is the first time the hunchback is

represented by a major tonality rather than chromaticism. This tonal content symbolizes

his acceptance of who he is and therefore is a primary cue to the singer to make an

adjustment in her posture. Perhaps the hunchback stands up taller from this point until the

end of the song (Ex. 4.18).

114
Example 4.18 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 14 mm.91 – end

Brezairola134
Lullaby

There are three important points the singer should note when the volume

transitions from Lou Boussu to Brezairola. First, Brezairola is placed appropriately after

Lou Boussu to aid in easing away the tension from the previous song. Secondly, in terms

of characterization, the transition from Lou Boussu to Brezairola is from one of

complexity to one of simplicity. Lastly, the composer set an unusual text, Lou Boussu,

which is seldom seen, and then continues the volume with a lullaby – a popular text.

Therefore, the singer and audience transition from an alien world to a familiar one. This

is further evidence of the diversity of texts used in this volume. The singer should allow a

slightly longer pause before beginning the lullaby to allow her to change orientation.

134
Text translated by Amandine Nealton, 2007.

115
In the instance of this lullaby, it is an indirect examination of a mother’s emotions

when her child will not fall asleep easily. Therefore, in order for the singer to establish

the mother’s characterization, she must note that the main emotions are those of

weariness and concern. The performer must give thought to the singer’s transition from a

hunchback and a young girl to that of a mother. This will require changes in the singer’s

posture, facial expression, and overall presentation. During the extended pause discussed

previously, the singer must present a concerned facial expression symbolizing the

mother’s worry. A sense of weariness should be conveyed with her shoulders being

positioned slightly downward.

[sun sum135 bԑni bԑni bԑni sun sum bԑni bԑni duŋ]
Soun, soun, bèni, bèni, bèni; soun, soun, bèni, bèni doun!
Sleep, sleep, come, come, come; sleep, sleep, come, do come!

[sun sum bԑni bԑni bԑni sun sum bԑni dԑn dɔkɔŋ136]
Soun, soun, bèni, bèni, bèni; soun, soun, bèni, d’èn docon!
Sleep, sleep, come, come, come; sleep, sleep, come, come down!

[lu sun sum bu‿ɔl pas bԑni pԑkaire]


Lou soun soun bouol pas bèni, pècairé!
The sleep, sleep, doesn’t want to come, alas!

[lu sun sum bu‿ɔl pas bԑni lu neni sem bu‿ɔl pas dyrmi ɔ]
Lou soun soun bouol pas bèni, lou néni s’en bouol pas durmi! Oh!
The sleep, sleep, doesn’t want to come, the child doesn’t want to sleep! Oh!

[sun sum bԑni bԑni bԑni sun sum bԑni bԑni duŋ]
Soun, soun, bèni, bèni, bèni; soun, soun, bèni, bèni doun!
Sleep, sleep, come, come, come; sleep, sleep, come, do come!

135
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 54. The “n” becomes
[m] before a bilabial consonant. This appears throughout the song.
136
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 54. The “n” in final
position in a sentence is usually omitted. If pronounced, it is a palatalized [Ν] not a dental [n].

116
[lu sun sum bu‿ɔl pas bԑni lԑfɔntu bu‿ɔl pas dyrmi]
Lou soun soun bouol pas bèni, l’èfontou bouol pas durmi!
The sleep, sleep, doesn’t want to come, the little one doesn’t want to sleep!

[sun sum bԑni bԑni bԑni sun sum bԑni ɔ lԑfɔn ɔ ɔ ]


Soun, soun, bèni, bèni, bèni; soun, soun, bèni o l’èfon! Oh! Oh!
Sleep, sleep, come, come, come; sleep, sleep, come to the little one! Oh! Oh!

[sun sum bԑni bԑni bԑni sun sum bԑni bԑni duŋ]
Soun, soun, bèni, bèni, bèni; soun, soun, bèni, bèni doun!
Sleep, sleep, come, come, come; sleep, sleep, come, do come!

[atsɔ lɔ k es pɔrɔki pԑkaire]


Atso lo qu'es poroqui, pécairé!
Now it comes at last to my little one, alas!

[lu nԑni sԑn buliɔ dyrmi]


Lou néni s'en boulio durmi...
And the child will fall asleep…

Ah!

In the lullaby, the mother is asking for sleep to come. The singer must use her

facial expressions and posture to convey what is not expressed in the text, but implied:

the emotions of fatigue, hope, and ultimately relief. For the majority of the song the

singer’s posture should convey a sense of weariness by the shoulders being positioned

slightly downward without disturbing the singer’s breathing. At the ending “ah” the

singer’s posture should straighten by the shoulders raising up and instantly relaxing

downwards as if she is letting out a sign of relief.

There are a few musical traits that will guide the interpretation. They are the

musical form, the harmonic language, and the evolving nature of the accompaniment, and

the harmonic language. The musical form of the song can be divided into an instrumental

introduction proceeding to an ABA¹ form. Sections A and B consist of four lines each

while the return of A only consists of two.

117
The tonality of the arrangement begins in B♭major. The key changes to E♭ major

at the start of the B section, then modulates back to the home key at the return of the A

section. It is interesting to note the relationship between the two keys, for E♭ major is the

sub-dominant of B♭ major. The use of the relationship is not what one may expect;

however, a key change of some sort is characteristic of the middle section of a ternary

form.

The content of the accompaniment expresses the evolving mood of the song by

utilizing different harmonic, rhythmic, and melodic patterns. These musical elements are

also characteristics of a lullaby. This is important for the singer to note, for these

characteristics allow for a dramatic musical occurrence which is presented over and over

again. When the lullaby’s melody is introduced in measure 9, which represents the

mother humming to her child, a harmonic pattern consisting of a minor second interval is

presented in the chordal structure while a Bb major tonality is used (Ex. 4.19). This

interval seems to obscure, or disrupt, the major tonal center. One may say that this

interval symbolizes the mother’s immediate concern from the beginning of the song,

while the major key represents her outward calmness that she projects as she sings.

118
Example 4.19 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 15, mm.1-13

In the A section, a rhythmic ostinato is used from measures 17 to 25. This figure

symbolizes the mother rocking her child while singing the lullaby. The singer should note

that the right hand of the piano is simple in terms of rhythm. One could suggest that the

mother has just placed the child in its bed. As the song progress, so does the rhythmic

complexity (Ex. 4.20).

119
Example 4.20 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 15, mm.14-25

As the singer analyzes the B section, she will note that the text does not change,

for the mother is still asking for sleep to come. However, there are a few new musical

characteristics introduced. The change of key to the subdominant as been noted, but in

addition the piano and voice parts exchange musical material. Previously the vocalist

presented the folksong and the accompaniment provided a countermelody. In section B,

the vocalist introduces a new countermelody while the accompaniment performs the

folksong.

The singer should note that these musical characteristics suggest that the effect

deepens, as the mother’s concern, frustration, and weariness grow. Therefore, the

challenge for the singer is how to convey the intensified emotional state physically

without affecting the performance of the calm lullaby. This should be done in a very

subtle way. The singer may wish to close her eyes briefly to suggest that the mother is

120
trying to control her emotions so that she can soothe her child to sleep. Another approach

would be for the singer to take in a deeper breath than needed, so that the body visually

shows the inner struggle of the mother as she contains her emotions (Ex. 4.21).

Example 4.21 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg.16, mm.32-37

The singer should note the C pedal point in the final two measures of the section

(measure 51-53) when the singer performs her second “oh!” This pitch does not prepare

the singer for a modulation to the home key for the final section. Therefore, one may

suggest that it is a symbol of the mother’s fatigue and concern have increased.

In the final section the vocalist once again performs the folksong melody while

the accompaniment almost entirely consists of rhythmic and melodic patterns suggestive

of the rocking of the cradle (Ex. 4.22).

121
Example 4.22 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg.17, mm.54-58

At the conclusion of the song, the story appears to resolve; however, the harmony

does not validate that. The two final chords are a B♭major first inversion chord that leads

to a G♭diminished seventh chord. In order to understand this cadence, the singer first

needs to note the final text “Ah!” Previously the singer sang “Oh!” This “Ah” suggests

the mother’s relaxation as the child has apparently fallen asleep. While the concluding

word is on the tonic pitch, the diminished chord contradicts its arrival. One may infer that

the mother is not entirely sure what will happen from this harmonic ambiguity, thus the

performer needs to convey both the mother’s relief and her uncertainty. Once again, these

emotions need to be done in a subtle way. As the B♭chord is sounded the singer should

relax her posture and let out a small sigh of relief as she finishes singing “durmi.” She

may even wish to provide a small smile for that brief moment. The singer needs to note

that these actions will take place before the final “Ah!”

The harmony of the final measures undermines the resolution given by the “ah” of

the text, for the diminished chord is sounded simultaneously with the word. As soon as

the performer sings her final note, her facial expression needs to show concern by the

eyebrows furrowing. She may wish to move her eye focus away from the audience. This

122
will suggest that she is thinking to herself about whether or not she can relax now (Ex.

4.23).

Example 4.23 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 17 mm.64 - end

Malurous qu’o uno fenno137


Unhappy he who has a wife

This sort of abrupt change of character between Lou Boussu and Brezairola recurs

between Brezairola and Malurous qu’o uno fenno. One character is distinctly different

from the other. The lullaby was sung by an innocent young, possibly inexperienced

mother trying to get her child to sleep, whereas the final song is sung by an older woman

who believes she understands the difference between the genders and regards her

opinions as fact. Therefore, the transition is quite drastic. The woman of the final song is

confident in her views of the relationship between men and women. The woman has the

last say at the end of the text, which shapes the characterization. Therefore, the singer’s

posture and facial expressions should suggest that the woman believes she has all the

answers without a doubt in her mind. One could say she is to be considered arrogant, for

137
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.

123
she is not singing this song to reach out to someone, for she clearly states in the text she

does not need anyone.

[malyrus kɔ ynɔ fԑnɔ malyrus ke nɔ kat138]


Malurous qu’o uno fenno, malurous qué n’o cat!
Unhappy he who has a wife, unhappy he who has none!

[ke nɔ kat nԑm bo‿u139ynɔ, ke nɔ ynɔ nԑm bo‿u pas]


Qué n’o cat n’en bou uno, Qué n’o uno n’en bou pas!
He who has none wants one, he who has one wants none!

[tradԑra ladԑri dԑrԑrɔ ladԑra ladԑri dԑra]


Tradèra, ladèri dèrèo, ladèra ladèri dèra

[yruzɔ140 lɔ fԑnɔ kɔ lɔme ke li kau]


Urouzo lo fenno Qu’o l’omé qué li cau!
Happy is the woman who has the man she needs!

[yruz iŋkԑrɔ maitɔ ɔ kԑlɔ ke nɔ kat]


Urouz’ inquèro maito o quèlo qué n’o cat!
But she is still happier – the one who hasn’t any!

[tradԑra ladԑri dԑrԑro ladԑra ladԑri dԑra]


Tradèra, ladèri dèrèo, ladèra ladèri dèra

The text has two sections. The first expresses the woman’s opinion of a man’s

needs and the second a woman’s needs for a husband. The female character states that

neither man nor woman is satisfied with marriage. It is important for the singer to

understand that these statements are the woman’s opinions. She believes she has a

complete understanding of the nature of relationships between men and women.

138
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 58. Because of the
boisterous nature of this text and its setting, the final consonants are pronounced more clearly than in other
pieces of contrasting style or mood.
139
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 58. In the word “bou”
there is a diphthong. Both the “o” and “u” are pronounced :[bo u] not [bu].
140
McCann, A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne, 58. The [z] sound is
not as strong as in English or French. It is like that of Castilian, a very soft [z], close to [Ζ].

124
Therefore, the singer needs to maintain this “know-it-all” attitude. In order to represent

the character the singer need only maintain a comical smile and light-hearted mood

throughout the song. However, her posture and stance needs to be strong and erect to

show a confident attitude.

The singer needs to be aware of certain elements of the musical content, like

interludes, to assist with the mood of the song. The musical accompaniment is no more

ambiguous in its meaning than the woman is ambivalent in her views. The overall content

is simple in terms of rhythm and harmonic language. The introduction presents a brief

phrase of the folksong melody, followed by ornamentation until the singer enters (Ex.

4.24).

Example 4.24 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 18 mm.7-16

The first verse is accompanied by simple chords sounding on beat one of each

measure accelerating to three beats by the end of the section. At the refrain there are

125
triplet-sixteenth notes presented, adding to the dance-like atmosphere of the bourrée. This

simplicity may represent the woman’s confidence as well as coinciding with the text

mocking marriage. The comment is intended to not be a surprise to anyone and therefore

does not require a surprising accompaniment (Ex. 4.25).

Example 4.25 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 3rd series, pg. 21 mm.62-69

In the second verse the character states that while a woman is happy when she has

the man she needs, she would be even happier with no man at all. This startling claim is

reinforced by acceleration in tempo and a thicker texture of accompaniment. The refrain

continues to use the musical ideas of the second verse, segueing into the postlude.

Throughout the postlude the singer must maintain the persona of the older

woman. The singer wants the audience to believe that the woman knows exactly how

men and women work regardless of how false this opinion may be.

Compared to this third volume, the fourth volume will continue to use text that

demands the singer represent multiple characters within one song. In contrast, volume

126
four will also use a more expansive harmonic language as well as having a major focus

on the musical content that expresses the actions of the stories.

127
Chapter 5
th
4 Series of Chants d’Auvergne

The fourth volume of the Chants d’Auvergne was published in 1930 in París. This

volume is dedicated to Etienne Clémentel, the librettist of Canteloube’s second opera,

Vercingétorix, which was published the same year. The six folksong arrangements of the

volume are: Jou l’Pount d’o Mirabel, Oï Ayaï, Pour L’enfant, Chut, Chut, Pastorale, and

Lou Coucut. One will note that these folksong arrangements have a degree of expressivity

in their accompaniments that was not been seen before in the other volumes. The singer

should be aware of the role of the accompaniment, for it describes the subtext for her

interpretation. For example, in Jou l’Pount d’o Mirabel, the text does not state the

reasons for the character’s actions in the story, though the accompaniment does make the

meaning clear.

One will also notice similarities between this volume and the previous ones. First,

a lullaby is presented in this volume, Pour L’enfant, whose text is similar to the one in

volume three, Brezairola. Canteloube uses major and minor modes in both lullaby

arrangements as well as concludes the songs without a resolution of the harmony.

Secondly, there is a natural barrier which separates the two characters in the songs La

Pastorua als camps (volume one), Baïlèro (volume one), and Pastorale (volume four).

This may be one more way that demonstrates the influence of the Auvergne region.

Another shared trait is that the concluding arrangement of this volume, Lou Coucut, has a

bird for one of the main characters. This is also true for the concluding song of the third

volume, Lo Calhé. Lastly, there is a return of the “nature motive” which was previously

heard in L’aïo dè rotso (volume one), Baïlèro (volume one), N’aï pas iéu de mîo (volume

128
two) and Pastorale (volume four), as well as other elements symbolizing natural sounds,

in this volume.

Though this volume presents several musical and textual similarities to the

previous volumes, there are two traits contained in these songs that distinguish them from

previous songs. First, each arrangement is presented in a through-composed form.

Secondly, the order of the song’s are in a pattern based on alternating tempos between

slow and fast.

Jou l’Pount d’o Mirabel141


At the Bridge of Mirabel

[dӡu lpunt dɔ Mirabel kɔtɔrinɔ lɔbabɔ]


Jou l’pount d’o Mirabel, Cotorino lobabo.
At the bridge of Mirabel, Catherine was washing.

[beŋueru ɔ pɔsa trԑs kɔbɔλԑs dɔrmadɔ]


Benguèrou o possa très cobolhès d’ormado
There came passing by three horsemen from the army.

[dӡu lpunt dɔ mirabel kɔtɔrinɔ plurabɔ]


Jou l’pount d’o Mirabel, Cotorino plourabo.
At the bridge of Mirabel, Catherine was crying.

As the reader can easily see, there is no character depicted by the singer other than

the narrator of the event. This is the first text to do so in the Chants d’Auvergne. It is

important for the singer to note that as narrator, she is simply describing the event; the

musical accompaniment conveys the effect. This makes this song unusual, for the

singer’s role does not include projecting the effect of a character but simply describing

the events and their consequences for that character.

141
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.

129
However, the art of singing requires the musician to engage the audience by

presenting an emotional performance of the selected repertoire. Therefore, one may also

suggest that the narrator knows what will happen at the end of the story and therefore

foreshadows the conclusion. That being said, the text does not state the reasons for

Cotorino’s actions, which presents a challenge for the singer. It is left to the musical

accompaniment to suggest what is surrounding the event and leaves the audience to

figure out what prompts the character’s reaction at the end. This fact, in addition to the

singer’s attention to the instrumental accompaniment, will help her to project her affect.

The introduction is to be performed Assez allant mais simple (quarter note = 60). From

measures 1-2 the music presents a B major tonic chord in an arpeggiated pattern that

gradually increases from quarter notes to triplet eighth notes. At measure 3 the right hand

of the piano presents a sequence of eighth note pitches against a countermelody marked

chanté. This countermelody will be presented twice more in the arrangement, though in a

modified form. As the introduction segues into the first verse, a chromatic sequence

begins in the treble line of the piano at measure 5, representing the river (Ex. 5.0).

The singer needs to begin the piece by selecting a specific location that represents

Cotorino as she washes laundry. The singer’s facial expression should remain neutral.

130
Example 5.0 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 1 mm.3-6.

In the first verse, the accompaniment bass line provides open position chords in B

major while the treble line presents a continuous chromatic scalar figure that ascends and

descends. The use of the chromatic scale juxtaposed with the B major tonality creates a

harmonic tension. One may suggest that this foreshadows the conclusion of the story, for

although the reader is unaware as to why Cotorino cries after the horsemen pass - perhaps

there is an underlying sense of anticipation as she washes her laundry. One may suggest

this symbolizes Cotorino’s feelings. For though the text does not state her reason for

crying at the end of the story, perhaps an emotional struggle of anticipation is occurring

as Cotorino washes laundry. One may infer the possibility that she is awaiting the arrival

of the horsemen while working (Ex. 5.1).

131
Example 5.1 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 2 mm.7-8

As the verse ends, the chromatic figure begins to descend in register and ends on

the down beat of measure 16. This musical event provides a transition into the following

interlude which prepares for the next part of the story: the appearance of the three

horsemen (Ex. 5.2).

Example 5.2 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 3 mm.15-18.

132
The musical content of the first interlude presents staccato eighth-notes in the bass

line to represent the horse’s hooves while the treble line presents a cluster of chords

having the quality of a fanfare. The musical texture thickens and the dynamics increase in

volume as the interlude progresses. One will note an accelerando provided at the

beginning of the interlude as well as a new tempo marking at the beginning of verse two:

Plus vite (quarter note = 72). These musical elements assist with the interpretation, for

they represent the speed at which the horsemen are traveling as they ride closer to

Cotorino (Ex. 5.3). As the horsemen arrive, the singer should look to her right and follow

their approach as they depart by looking to her left.

Example 5.3 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 3 mm. 19-20

In the second verse, the narrator describes the horsemen presence as they pass by

Cotorino. The accompaniment continues to build on the musical content presented in the

first interlude. At measure 28 Canteloube uses augmented chords in closed position.

Since the staccato eighth-notes represent the horses’ hooves, one may assume the chordal

structure represents the horsemen. As the verse progresses the chordal structure becomes

the dominant figure while the eighth-notes diminish. One may interpret this as the

horsemen approaching (Ex. 5.4).

133
Example 5.4 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 4 mm.21-22

In measure 29 the accompaniment presents chordal figures while in measure 30

there is a staccato eighth note pattern; both representing the horsemen as they ride past

Cotorino. The staccato eighth-notes are presented until measure 31, though less

frequently, and fade away entirely as the first interlude begins (Ex. 5.5).

This verse does not describe Cotorino’s emotional state. Therefore, the singer

should use a calm and neutral facial expression as she sings of the horsemen’s presence.

As the musical content suggests the men riding, the singer may wish to turn her head to

the left as if watching the horsemen.

Example 5.5 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg.5 mm. 30-31

134
In the final interlude Canteloube provides an unstable harmonic foundation by

utilizing a large number of enharmonic pitches, thus obscuring the home key of B major,

suggesting perhaps Cotorino’s discomfort. In measures 33-35 the harmonic direction is

clarified as it focuses on the dominant chord of B major (Ex. 5.6).

Example 5.6 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg.5 mm.30-35

In the final verse, a third tempo marking is provided: Moins vite (quarter note =

69). This tempo is a little faster than that of the introduction but slower than the previous

verse, thus representing a change of mood. The accompaniment consists of continuous

sixteenth note patterns in the treble line. One may call this musical content a “water”

accompaniment, symbolizing the water under the bridge.

The bass line sounds one chord per measure in the B major tonality. There are no

enharmonics or chromaticism used in this verse (Ex. 5.7).

135
Example 5.7 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg.5, mm 36-37

Based upon the harmonic resolution in the interlude before the final verse, one

might anticipate a positive resolution to the story, and yet at the end of the song Cotorino

is in tears. The text does not give the performer a reason for this, but there are two

possible explanations. Based on the text, the relationship between Cotorino and the men

is unknown, though one may suggest that it is indeed relief she feels at seeing them, and

she is moved to tears. Another possibility is that the tonality is a contradiction of her

emotions. The text indicates that she is crying, but the piece resolves in an authentic

cadence, suggesting finality. In either case, the performer needs to ensure that the final

line of the narration clearly conveys the affect of the character without suggesting an

explanation.

The “water” accompaniment continues into the postlude, now alternating between

groups of sixteenth notes and groups of triplet eighth notes. A modified version of the

countermelody is sounded for the last time in measure 46. The tempo returns to that of

the introduction. Fragments of the folksong melody are heard as the postlude ends on an

authentic B major cadence. Despite the clarity of the harmonic resolution, the singer must

136
maintain the effect associated with Cotorino’s tears, for this is the first time the text does

indicate an emotion for the singer to convey (Ex. 5.8).

Example 5.8 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg.5 mm. 46-End.

Oï Ayaï142
Oh Dear

The singer may wish to allow a few moments before beginning this song. The

character transformation from Jou l’Pount d’o Mirabel to Oï Ayaï is one that takes the

listener from a setting that is ambiguous in its meaning to one in which the meaning

seems quite clear. The singer must now represent a lazy girl named Morgoridoto, who is

manipulative and does not show concern for anyone else but herself. The singer may

wish to wait for the introduction to begin before beginning the new persona, suggesting

142
Translated by Lesley Bernstein Translation Services, London. Arleen Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin
Classics Ltd. London, 1988.

137
that Morgoridoto is just waking up. The singer may convey this by stretching her arms as

if she is just waking up as well as yawn to assist with the change of mood.

[ɔi aiai kusi jeu fɔrai nai pas de kwɔifɔ]


“Oï, ayaï, couçi ièu forai? N’aï pas de couoïffo!”
“Oh dear, what shall I do? I don’t have a hat!”

[pjeru bɔlɔ fjԑirɔ pjeru lɔ li krumpɔ pjeru lɔ li purtɔ pjeru lɔ li dun]


Pierrou bo’lo fièyro, Pierrou lo li croumpo, Pierrou lo li pourto, Pierrou lo li doun’.
Pierre goes the fair, Pierre buys a hat for her, Pierre brings it to her, Pierre gives it to her.

[inkuԑr ԑs pas lԑßadɔ dzɔmai ne se lԑßɔ ]


inquèr’ ès pas lèvado, dzomaï ne se143 lèvo!
She is still in bed, she is always in bed!

[lԑßɔ lԑßɔ lu dzur bԑ mɔrγɔridɔtɔ lԑßɔ tԑ]


“Lèvo, lèvo, lou dzour bè! Morgoridoto, lèvo-tè!”
“Get up, it’s daybreak! Margaret, get up!”

[ɔi aiai kusi jeu fɔrai nai pas de kutiλu]


“Oï, ayaï, couçi ièu forai? N’aï pas de coutilhou!”
“Oh, dear me, what shall I do? I don’t have a petticoat!”

[pjeru bɔ lɔ fjԑirɔ pjeru lɔ li krumpɔ pjeru lɔ li purtɔ pjeru lɔ li dun]


Pierrou bo’lo fièyro, Pierrou lo li croumpo, Pierrou lo li pourto, Pierrou lo li doun’.
Pierre goes the fair, Pierre buys a petticoat for her, Pierre brings it to her, Pierre gives it
to her.

[inkuԑr ԑs pas lԑßadɔ dzɔmai nԑ se lԑßɔ ]


inquèr’ ès pas lèvado, dzomaï ne se lèvo!
She is still in bed, she is always in bed!

[lԑßɔ lԑßɔ lu dzur bԑ mɔrγɔridɔtɔ lԑßɔ te]


“Lèvo, lèvo, lou dzour bè! Morgoridoto, lèvo-tè!”
“Get up, it’s daybreak! Margaret, get up!”

[ɔi aiai kusi jeu fɔrai ke nai pas de kɔmjo]


“Oï, ayaï, couçi ièu forai? Que n’aï pas de comio!”
“Oh, dear me, what shall I do? I don’t have a chemise!”

143
Score, 8-13.There is an indiscretion on the spelling of “ne se”, or spelled in this fashion. “nè sé”. The
score indicates both spellings. It is unknown which is correct. Therefore, the spelling which is most used is
presented in the IPA above.

138
[pjeru bɔlɔ fjԑirɔ pjeru lɔ li krumpɔ pjeru lɔ li purtɔ pjeru lɔ li dun]
Pierrou bo’lo fièyro, Pierrou lo li croumpo, Pierrou lo li pourto, Pierrou lo li doun’.
Pierre goes the fair, Pierre buys a chemise for her, Pierre brings it to her, Pierre gives it to
her.

[inkuԑr ԑs pas lԑβadɔ dzɔmai ne se lԑßɔ]


inquèr’ ès pas lèvado, dzomaï ne se lèvo!
She is still in bed, she is always in bed!

[lԑßɔ lԑßɔ lu dzur bԑ mɔrγɔridɔtɔ lԑβɔ tԑ]


“Lèvo, lèvo, lou dzour bè! Morgoridoto, lèvo-tè!”
“Get up, it’s daybreak! Margaret, get up!”

[ɔi mun dju ke fɔ frԑt me kal kuita lu ljԑt ]


“Oï moun Diou! Que fo frèt! Me cal quitta lou lièt!”
“Oh, my God, how cold it is! I must get out of bed!”

[preŋuet lɔ kɔmjo ԑ mai lu kutiλu ԑ mai lu bɔbɔrel ԑ mai lu mutsɔdu]


Prenguet lo comiò, è maï lou coutilhou, è maï lou boborel, è maï lou moutsodou,
She puts on the chemise, and the petticoat, and the laced bodice, and her kerchief,

[ԑ sԑs pulidɔs kausɔs ԑ metԑt la kwɔifɔ ke sui bԑlɔ sɔ diγuԑt]


è sès poulidos caussos, è metèt la couoiffo, “Que soui bèlo so diguèt!”
and her panties, and her hat, “How pretty I look” she said!

[Ε mɔrγɔridɔtɔ se lԑßԑt]
E Morgoridoto se lèvèt!
So Margaret got out of bed!

In this arrangement, the singer depicts three characters: the narrator, Morgoridoto,

and Pierrou. In order to best interpret this song, she needs to analyze the following: the

text, the musical introduction, the musical content of the verses, the harmonic structure,

and the interludes. All of these elements are concerned with the character representation.

The text makes clear that Morgoridoto is a spoiled and narcissistic girl who is apparently

successful in ordering her boyfriend about. The text implies that Pierrou is compliant, for

he goes to the fair whenever she needs an article of clothing. The two challenges for the

139
singer’s performance is to first establish the alternation between the characters, for each

verse has a phrase sung by Morgoridoto, the narrator, and Pierrou. Secondly, there is no

musical pause between the phrases; therefore, the singer must change character quickly.

As we examine the character’s depicted in the text, we find that the opening

phrase of the first three verses is devoted to Morgoridoto’s lines. The accompaniment and

musical markings assist with Morgoridoto’s demeanor, which are as follows: the tempo

marking is Moins vite dotted (quarter note = 60), the vocal line is to be performed legato

at a pianissimo dynamic, and the accompaniment contains sustained chords in a slow

rhythmic value. When performing this phrase, the text “Oï Ayaï” may be sung as if

yawning or sighing in an overly dramatic, sleepy manner (Ex. 5.9).

Example 5.9 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 8 mm.5-11

140
The second phrase of the verse narrates Pierrou willingly going to the fair,

purchasing the item of clothing, and returning to Morgoridoto’s house. The musical

elements of both the melody and accompaniment represent Pierrou’s character and

evolving persona. The tempo marking is Vite (dotted quarter note =116). The vocal line

consists of a rhythmic and melodic sequence that begins at a piano dynamic and

crescendos throughout the section. The accompaniment uses staccato eighth-notes in the

first verse, but the rhythmic values increase with each verse, symbolizing his actions and

growing frustration. The singer needs to change quickly from the lazy posture of

Morgoridoto’s to an upright one and use hand gestures that point to a specific point on

stage that suggests Pierrou is going to the fair. The hand gestures should also convey the

action of Pierrou getting the clothing and handing it to Morgoridoto (Ex. 5.10). It is

important to note that Pierrou progressively becomes more and more frustrated. The

singer’s facial expression and gestures should convey this progression.

Example 5.10 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg.9 mm.12-15

The final phrase of the three verses is Pierrou telling Morgoridoto it is time to get

out of bed. The musical elements of this section represent this declamation. The tempo is

marked Décidé (quarter note = 80). The vocal line provides accents and a simple

rhythmic melody while the accompaniment presents one chord per measure. The singer

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should rest her hands on her hips. Then both of the singer’s hands should motion upward,

encouraging Morgoridoto to get up from bed (Ex. 5.11).

Example 5.11 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 9, mm.20-24

Next, the singer needs to look at the music which separates the verses, for these

interludes represent the characters and their actions. The first interlude represents

Morgoridoto. The tempo marking is the same as that of the first phrase of the verses. The

music contains lilting rhythms with chromaticism. These characteristics foreshadow

Morgoridoto’s next demand on Pierrou. Therefore, at the beginning of the interlude the

singer should convey self-satisfaction, for she has bossed Pierrou and gotten her way.

The singer may also wish to look around the room as if to suggest that Morgoridoto’s

contemplating getting out of bed. Towards the end of the interlude, Morgoridoto decides

to continue manipulating Pierrou by sending him out to the fair again. Therefore, the

singer should look around the room with apparent look of dismay that segues into the

next verse (Ex. 5.12).

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Example 5.12 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 9 mm.25-30

The second interlude’s musical content is quite different than the first interlude,

utilizing augmented chords and sextuplet rhythms. This music represents Pierrou’s

actions and frustration. The singer should have an annoyed facial expression and place

her hands on her hips and shake her head. The singer should note that the music

presented in the final two measures of this interlude represent Morgoridoto as the music

becomes similar to the introduction material. Therefore, the singer needs to change back

to a lazy stance and look around the room, realizing more clothing can be attained (Ex.

5.13).

143
Example 5.13 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 11 mm. 50-58

The final interlude is marked Hésitant (dotted quarter = 60), representing

Morgoridoto as she slowly rises from bed, thus transitioning into the final verse. The

singer presents a yawn, looks at the floor, and then lightly nods her head as if to suggest

that she is ready to get out of bed. Then, just before the final verse, the singer should

make a face that suggests the characters reaction to the cold floor (Ex. 5.14).

144
Example 5.14 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg.12 mm.70-80

After analyzing the first three verses and the respective accompaniments with

each section, the singer must then analyze the final verse for it differs from the previous

three. The singer needs to understand the characterization of the last four lines of the text

which constitute the final verse. They indicate that Morgoridoto realizes there is nothing

left for her to do but get out of bed and presumably get dressed and begin her day.

Pour l’enfant144
For the Child

The singer’s change of character from Oï Ayaï to Pour l’enfant is quite drastic,

shifting in affect from the narcissism of Morgoridoto to the care and concern of the

mother in Pour l’enfant. This change, or shift, may require a longer pause to allow the

144
Translated by Manoel Bandeira. Kiri te Kanawa: Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne and Villa-Lobos
Bachianas Brasileiras No.5. Digital Recording. London, 1984.

145
singer time to make this character transition. The mother takes full responsibility for

soothing her child to sleep and will not leave her job until it is done, which suggests a

very mature character. The singer will need to adjust her posture and facial expressions to

represent the mother. As Pour l’enfant begins, the singer may wish to drop her shoulders

and convey a fatigued facial expression needed to convey the mother’s state of mind.

[sun sum minu minaunɔ sun sum bԑi ɔ lԑfɔn]


Soun, soun, minou mináuno, soun, soun, bèi o l’èfon!
Sleep, sleep [nonsense syllables] sleep, sleep, come to the child!

[mԑ lu sun sum bɔ pas bԑni minaunɔ sum minu minaunɔ]


Mè lou soun soun bo pas bèni, mináuno soun, minou mináuno,
But sleep, sleep refuses to come, naughty sleep, [nonsense syllables]

[mԑ lu sun sum bɔ pas bԑni lu nɔstre ԑfɔn pɔ pas dyrmi]


Mè lou soun soun bo pas bèni, lou nostre èfon po pas durmi!
But sleep, sleep refuses to come, and our child cannot fall asleep!

[sun sum minu minaunɔ sun sum bԑi ɔ lԑfɔn]


Soun, soun, minou mináuno, soun, soun, bèi o l’èfon!
Sleep, sleep, [nonsense syllables] sleep, sleep, come to the child!

[pasɔ tsu lɔ taul e tsu lbɔnk minaunɔ sum minu minaunɔ]


Passo tsou lo tàul’ e tsou l’bonc, mináuno soun, minou mináuno,
Pass under the table and the bench, wretched sleep, [nonsense syllables]

[pasɔ tsu lɔ taul e tsu lbɔnk minaunɔ sum bԑi ɔ lԑfɔn]


Passo tsou lo tàul’ e tsou l’bonc, mináuno soun, bèi o l’èfon!
Pass under the table and the bench, naughty sleep, come to the child!

The singer may wish to compare this lullaby with Brezariola from volume three

so as to be aware of the differences in both the texts and musical content. After doing so

the singer will find that Pour l’enfant has a greater degree of emotional intensity. Both

texts depict mothers who are focused on their children. However, Pour l’enfant suggests

146
there is a silent companion with the phrase “our child.” This text also uses the phrase

“wretched sleep” as if to underscore the mother’s frustration.

The harmonic language of the arrangement is another musical element which

assists with the emotional intensity. The tonality of the song appears to lead the listener to

a harmonic resolution at different points; however, there is none provided. It is important

to note that the postlude of the arrangement has an obscure final chord which reinforces

the unresolved harmonic structure. However, there are also brief major triads presented

that suggest a “hint” of resolution. Unlike Brezairola in which the drama resolves with

the syllable “Ah” suggesting the child has fallen asleep, in this song the major triads in

the postlude suggest a positive outcome. Unexpectedly, they are followed by harmonic

dissonance which suggests that the positive outcome was short lived.

There is also a musical contradiction between the content of the accompaniment

and the folksong melody. This contradiction represents the tension of the moment. The

accompaniment uses harmonic ambiguity and varied rhythms while the rhythm of the

folksong melody is uniform and its effect soothing. Therefore, the tension between the

vocal line and the accompaniment creates a tension that represents the emotional intensity

of the song.

When performing this arrangement, the singer will need to maintain a similar

posture to that associated with the lullaby in volume three. The singer should look

downward as if watching her child in bed. The singer will look in this direction when she

sings “Sleep, come to the child” so that she is singing to the child. When the singer sings

“But sleep does not come to our child,” she should make eye contact with the audience,

for they represent the unknown character, and she should lean slightly forward.

147
The two important musical elements which assist the singer’s interpretation are

the melodic sequences and harmonic language. Throughout the accompaniment there are

rhythmic, harmonic, and melodic patterns that contribute to the effect of the song. As the

arrangement progresses the patterns occur more frequently to assist with the pieces mood.

The harmonic language of the arrangement emphasizes the emotions of the

mother. The piece begins in D♭major. The introduction’s musical content presents a

dominant pedal in the left hand that leads to the tonic chord performed on the down beat

of verse one, though the resolution is short lived for the harmony of verse one is unstable

(Ex. 5.15).

Example 5.15 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 14, mm. 1-13.

As shown in Example 5.16, the right hand of the piano accompaniment presents

elements of a descending lydian mode on D♭ from measures 14-21 while the left hand

presents a series of chords in a rocking ostinato. This creates a dissonance with the

soothing lullaby melody, which may represent the mother’s emotions as she wishes her

child would go to sleep.

148
Example 5.16 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 14, mm. 14-17.

As the first verse concludes, the singer will note in measure 22 that the lydian

mode also concludes, and a counter-melody based on a D♭major scale is introduced.

This melodic line leads the harmonic content of the verse to a D♭ major authentic

cadence at the end of the verse. One may suggest that this new melody and harmonic

focus represents the child beginning to drift to sleep and the mother is starting to relax

(Ex. 5.17).

149
Example 5.17 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 15 mm.22-29

The musical content of the interlude following verse one suggests the child is still

restless and the mother stops singing momentarily. One can imagine her attempting to

soothe the child. It is important to note that the piano part is clearly a part of the story, for

it suggests the mother’s emotional state. The harmonic content of the interlude assists this

interpretation, for it briefly modulates to B♭major, creating a different tonal center,

which in turn provides a different atmosphere. The singer should appear vigilant as the

character observes her child and attempts to soothe.

The direction of the harmony seems to promise a resolution to the tonic in the

second verse by ending the interlude on a half cadence in D♭major. This gives the

impression that child is falling asleep. However, that promise is not fulfilled, for the

150
dominant of D♭ major does not resolve to tonic, but instead Canteloube continues to use

the interval of a second, though in a sequential pattern as well as having the pitches

sounded simultaneously. This lack of resolution aids in the singers interpretation. For if

one suggests that the baby was beginning to fall asleep in verse one, then woke up at the

beginning of the interlude, one would assume that the mother may be able to soothe the

child back to sleep. Given the dissonance of the final verse, it is evident the child remains

awake and that the mother’s frustration and fatigue are growing (Ex. 5.18).

Example 5.18 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 16 mm.40-44

When the second verse begins, the mother takes up her efforts to sing her child to

sleep. The singer should approach the final verse as if it were divided in two sections.

The accompaniment to both sections uses a triplet ostinato which becomes the dominant

figure of the verse. The accompaniments also present the interval of a second as the

dominant harmony of the verse.

In the first section, there is a short countermelody presented from measure 40 – 47

(Refer to Ex. 5.18). In the second section, a melodic pattern takes the place of the

countermelody at measure 48 (Ex. 5.19). One may assume that the first section represents

the child fighting sleep while the second represents the opposite.

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Example 5.19 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 16 mm. 50-54

The singer will need to convey most of the characterization of the mother by

facial expression. In the first section of the final verse, the singer should wear a worried

facial expression by having the eyebrows come together. As the second section is

performed, the singer needs to show a look of hope as the child begins to start to drift to

sleep again.

When the song reaches the postlude, the singer is suddenly confronted with a

musical context in which her words suggest one outcome and the harmony another. The

tonality of the postlude begins to change at measure 56. The left hand on beat one of

measure 56 provides an F major triad, while the right hand briefly contradicts that

tonality by presenting a D minor triad on the second half. By the second half of beat two,

the harmony is uniformly F major, representing a very brief moment of resolution for the

harmony and the mother. In measure 57, beat one provides both a B♭and F, suggesting a

resolution in B♭major. However, on the second half of beat one, Canteloube introduces a

D♭and G, creating a G diminished seventh chord, suggesting that the mother’s sense of

resolution was premature.

152
In measure 58 the harmony resolves to an F minor chord. Measure 59 continues

this F minor chord until beat 2 when a G♮ is presented. The F, G♮, and C pitches are held

into the last measure and thus conclude the song. Based on this chordal analysis, one

could suggest that the continuous “F” chord to “B♭”chord to “F” chord would lead the

singer to a modulation of F, concluding the song on a half cadence of C. However, at the

last moment the F pitch holds on and does not resolve to an E to create a C chord,

creating an unexpected conclusion. This maintains a sense of harmonic instability,

implying that the lullaby has not worked (Ex. 5.20).

Example 5.20 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 16 mm.55-60

The postlude requires the singer to present in rapid succession two different

effects, but she will not get much reinforcement, or little, from the accompaniment at

first. She must devise a means by which she can momentarily suggest favorable

resolution and then almost instantly convey uncertainty as to the outcome. The effect is

non-verbal, so the singer’s facial expressions is in a sense a substitute for her voice. At

measure 56 the singer should have a small smile and may wish to close her eyes briefly in

relief. This will be effective if done directly following the final consonant of “l’èfon.”

The final measures should be the singer looking up at the audience and maintain the

feeling of relief until the G♮ is sounded in measure 59, which represents the mother’s

153
frustration. This should be conveyed by the singer furrowing her brow and perhaps giving

an audible sigh. The singer may wish to end the piece looking off to the side with a

concerned facial expression, for there is yet no respite for the mother.

Chut, chut145
Hush, hush

Once again the singer will note a complete change of character for the following

folksong, Chut Chut. The previous arrangement presented a mother who, though tired

and frustrated, has to appear to remain calm in order to soothe her child to sleep. This

suggests that the mother has inner strength. The singer in this song, by contrast,

represents a young girl who disobeyed her father, left her work unfinished, and spent the

afternoon with her lover. The singer must shift her persona from that of an adult to that of

an adolescent.

[mum‿paire me nɔ luγadɔ per ɔna gɔrda lɔ bakadɔ]


Moun païré mé n’o lougado, per ona gorda lo bacado.
My father has found me a job; it is to go and guard the cows.

[ʧut ʧut ke zɔ kal pas dire ʧut ʧut mԑnԑs pas tɔn dԑ bryt]
Tchut, tchut, que z’o cal pas diré! Tchut, tchut! Mènès pas ton dè brut!
Hush, hush, say nothing about it! Hush, hush! Don’t make so much noise!

[ne li sui pas tɔ lԑu estadɔ ke muŋ‿gɔlɔnt mɔ renkuntradɔ]


Né l’i soui pas to lèu estado, qué moun golont m’o rencountrado,
No sooner had I arrived than my sweetheart met me.

[ʧut ʧut ke zɔ kal pas dire ʧut ʧut mԑnԑs pas tɔn dԑ bryt]
Tchut, tchut, que z’o cal pas diré! Tchut, tchut! Mènès pas ton dè brut!
Hush, hush, say nothing about it! Hush, hush! Don’t make so much noise!

145
This translation is a combination of the following two sources: Kiri te Kanawa: Canteloube Chants
d’Auvergne and Villa-Lobos Bachianas Brasileiras No.5. Digital Recording. London, 1984 and Arleen
Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin Classics Ltd. London, 1988.

154
[nai pas jԑu fatsɔ de fuzadɔs ku mɔ fat guel de putunadɔs]
N’aï pas ièu fatso de fuzados, cou m’o fat guel de poutounados!
I didn’t do much spinning but I did get kissed and kissed!

[ʧut ʧut ke zɔ kal pas dire ʧut ʧut mԑnԑs pas tɔn dԑ bryt]
Tchut, tchut, que z’o cal pas diré! Tchut, tchut! Mènès pas ton dè brut!
Hush, hush, say nothing about it! Hush, hush! Don’t make so much noise!

[se ni ɔ bԑ de miliur kwɔifadɔ ni ɔ pas dԑ miliur embrasadɔ]


Sé n’i o bè de miliour couóïfado, n’i o pas dè miliour embrassado,
There may be girls, with nicer hairdos, but it is better to get more kisses.

[ʧut ʧut ke zɔ kal pas dire ʧut ʧut mԑnԑs pas tɔn dԑ bryt]
Tchut, tchut, que z’o cal pas diré! Tchut, tchut! Mènès pas ton dè brut!
Hush, hush, say nothing about it! Hush, hush! Don’t make so much noise!

Based on the text, the singer represents an adolescent who is narrating her own

actions. It appears that the girl is communicating with an unknown audience as well as a

silent individual who appears to be her boyfriend. On one hand, the girl is explaining the

situation to the audience. On the other hand, there is the invisible presence of her

sweetheart who may reveal himself if he is not quiet. Therefore, as the singer addresses

the audience, she should have one foot placed in front of the other and face center. This

will make it easier for her to turn her head to the side slightly as if addressing the silent

boyfriend, whom she tells to hush.

It is important to note that the interpretative challenges for the singer are the

interludes, for they are extensive. However, the tempo marking provided will assist the

singer, for the musical passages will not take as long as would appear on the page.

The introduction presents a variation of the folksong melody and quotes the

“hush, hush” phrase in a faster rhythmic setting (Ex.5.21). Both the singer and pianist

need to identify how the melody of the introduction plays a role in the song, which is to

155
suggest the adolescent persona that the text introduces. The “très animé” character of

music also guides the singer as she establishes the persona. This can be achieved by the

singer conveying an appearance of giggling, or being slightly embarrassed because her

boyfriend is off to the side. This presentation will carry into the interpretation of the

songs first verse.

Example 5.21 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 17 mm.1-5

The text consists of four two-line verses, the second line of each verse

constituting a refrain. The first line of each verse presents the girl telling part of her story.

The vocal line is performed in a triple meter and is to be sung legato. In the refrain the

singer tells her companion to be quiet. Here the vocal line is in duple meter and is to be

sung staccato. It is important to note that there is no musical silence between the end of

the first line and the beginning of the second; therefore, the singer needs to quickly

change position of her head and facial expression.

In the first verse, the girl sings of how her father gave her a job to guard the cows.

The singer should simply point in the direction off to the left as if to show where the

father is standing. Directly following this phrase she sings “Hush, hush, do not make a

sound.” The singer should quickly change the mood by putting one finger up in front of

her mouth to reinforce the image of her attempting to silence the companion. Her posture

156
should also change. She should lean forward slightly and hunch her shoulders while very

subtly turning her head in the direction of the boyfriend.

In the interlude that follows, the singer needs to maintain the posture at the close

of the previous verse as if to ensure the boyfriend is remaining quiet. At the end of the

interlude, the singer should turn back to the audience (Ex. 5.22). The moments for the

above actions can be determined by the accompaniment. The staccato eighth notes in

measures 23-24 and 27-28 represent the boyfriend silently laughing. The legato scalar

runs in measures 25-26 and 29-30 represent the singer turning to look at her boyfriend in

hopes to quiet him. For the remainder of the interlude, the singer needs to bring her

attention back to the audience which will assist with the transition into the next verse.

Example 5.22 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg.18 mm. 22-35

157
In the second verse, the singer should have a very pleased facial expression. The

singer may wish to use her arms and hands in a wide gesture to represent the pasture, and

then use one hand to extend forward to where her sweetheart was located. When the

singer hushes the boyfriend it should be with a small smile, for the girl has not sung of

the best part of the story yet.

The accompaniment of verse two represents the singer’s emotions as she tells the

story. In the first line there is an F♯ arpeggio sequence against a descending scalar phrase

for the first section (Ex. 5.23a). One may suggest the harmony symbolizes the character’s

emotions beginning to build as she sings about the encounter. However, she continues to

stand still and keep a calm demeanor. The second line of this verse ascends on an f ♯

minor scale until measure 48, which begins transitional material into the next interlude

(Ex. 5.23b). The second verse is conceivably about her boyfriend whose presence she

doesn’t want revealed to her father.

Example 5.23a Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 19 mm.36-39

158
Example 5.23b Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 19 mm.43-51

This interlude suggests a change of setting by introducing a new countermelody.

The character is remembering the meeting, which the singer can convey by looking at

different members of the audience with a small smile. The singer may even wish to bring

both her hands to her mouth and laugh as the character remembers the kiss. The interlude

quickly ends as the third verse begins. One may suggest this musically represents the

character coming back to the present and resumes her story. The singer can convey the

character’s change of mood by having her eyes wander back to the audience, which

causes her to remember what she was doing (Ex. 5.24).

As was the case with the previous interlude, this is one is also lengthy. Perhaps

she should make a transition from the previous refrain utilizing her hand gestures to

convey a description of what follows in the third verse. She may wish to move her hands

towards her mouth to convey both the exchange of kisses as well as to keep herself from

159
laughing out loud. As the interlude progresses, the singer may even look around the room

at different places as she is in thought about what happened when the two meet in secret.

Example 5.24 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 20 mm.52-57

In the third verse, the character sings of having left her work undone but did

receive several kisses. The sixteenth-note sequences in the accompaniment between

measures 66 and 69 may represent her emotions of the event. The singer should slightly

sway back and forth and look off to one side with a smile (Ex. 5.25a). As before, during

the refrain the singer should once again appear to be looking off to the right to address

the unseen boyfriend who is making too much noise (Ex. 5.25b).

Example 5.25a Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 20 mm.67-69

160
Example 5.25b Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 21 mm.73-77

The final interlude returns to the material of the first one. The singer needs to

foreshadow the text of the next verse in which the girl compares her hairdo to those of

other girls. She may wish to casually touch her hair, at which point she discovers it is in

disarray. As the character, the singer should attempt to fix her hair by pushing it here and

there while frowning slightly. As the final verse begins, the character makes clear she

does not care what her hair looks like for the kisses were worth its disarray. This can be

conveyed the singer throwing her hands up as she sings the last verse.

The tempo marking for the final verse is Plus vite (quarter note = 160). As seen in

Example 5.21 the piece began at Très animé (quarter note = 138). This tempo change

assists with the ending of the song as well as the text given by the girl. She sings that

other girls may have better hairdos than she, but it is much better to receive kisses. The

singer should provide a little laugh in her performance of the verse until she hushes her

boyfriend. At this point, it may be hard for the girl to be serious and keep quiet, for she is

trying to not to laugh too loudly herself (Ex. 5.26).

161
Example 5.26 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 22 mm.98-100

The song ends with an ascending chromatic scale starting at measure 108 as well

as with an ascending accompaniment. There is also a long diminuendo to ppp from

measure 105 to the end. This may represent the girl and the unknown character running

off (Ex. 5.27). The singer could end the piece by quietly laughing to herself.

Example 5.27 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 23 mm.104-107

162
Pastorale146

As the singer segues to Pastorale, her physical stance will remain similar to that

of Chut, Chut for the first character represented in Pastorale is a flirtatious shepherdess.

This text is yet another representation of a young woman’s experience. Therefore, there is

a similarity between the two characters, making this transition easier for the singer.

However, the musical setting of Pastorale does not represent the actions of the characters

but rather the sound of the river which separates them.

[bailԑrɔ lԑrɔ lԑrɔ pastre de delai laiɔ]


“Baïlèro, lèro, lèro! Pastré, de delaï l’aïo!”
“Baïlèro, lèro, lèro! Shepherd, over the water!

[as pas bist pɔsa lɔ lԑbre ku ɔnaßɔ mԑdre lu bwɔn entre lɔs kɔmbɔs de dɔ bɔn]
As pas vist possa lo lèbré qu’onavo mèdré, lou bouon entré los combos dé do bon,
Did you see the hare on his way to reap, a sickle between his fore-paws,

[lu kudjԑ entre lɔs kɔmbɔs de dɔrjԑ lɔ pumpɔ su leskuinɔ ]


Lou coudiè entré los combos dé dorriè, lo poumpo sú l’esquino,
a whetstone between his hind-paws, a loaf upon his back,

[lɔ klau ɔl trau lu bailԑrɔ lԑrɔ ]


lo claú ol tráu lou baïlèro, lèro!
And a dangling key, baïlèro, lèro !”

[ai fa mai ke lu bԑire pɔsa ke lai ɔtrɔ patlu bailԑrɔ lԑrɔ lԑrɔ]
“Aï fa maï qué lou bèïré possa qué l’aï ottro patlou baïlèro, lèro, lèro.”
“I did better than to see him passing by, I caught him, baïlèro, lèro, lèro.”

[bailԑrɔ lԑrɔ lԑrɔ pastre de delai laiɔ]


“Baïlèro, lèro, lèro! Pastré, de delaï l’aïo!
“Baïlèro, lèro, lèro! Shepherd, over the water!”

[ԑ de kuas fat de lɔ pԑl de kuas fat de laz‿ uriλas]


E de qu’as fat de lo pèl? De qu’as fat de las ourilhas?
Hey, what did you do with the skin? And what did you do with the ears?

146
Translated by Manoel Bandeira. Kiri te Kanawa: Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne and Villa-Lobos
Bachianas Brasileiras No.5. Digital Recording. London, 1984.

163
[ԑ de kuas fat de lɔ kujo de kuas fat de tut ɔkuo djo lu bailԑrɔ lԑrɔ]
E de qu’as fat de lo quió? De qu’as fat de tout oquó? Dió, lou baïlèro, lèro?”
Hey, what did you do with the tail? And what did you do with it all? Say, baïlèro, lèro?”

[de lɔ pel nai fat un mɔntel de laz‿ uriλas nai fat un pɔrel de mitɔs]
“De lo pel n’aï fat un montel! De las oúrilhas n’aï fat un porel de mitos!
“With the skin I made a coat! With the ears I made a pair of gloves!

[ԑ de lɔ kujo unɔ trumpetɔ se les mԑ bwɔs krumpa ]


E de lo quió uno troumpetto! Sé les mè vouós croumpa
And with the tail a trumpet! Would you like to buy them?

[te les purtɔrai djo lu bailԑrɔ lԑrɔ]


té les pourtoraï, dió, lou baïlèro, lèro!”
I will bring them to you, say baïlèro, lèro!

Before looking into the details of the song, the singer should note that this

particular type of folksong has been encountered previously. The commonalities of this

song and Baïlèro (volume one) appear to reflect Canteloube’s vision of this particular

genre of folk text; a bayle 147. There are three textual traits and one musical trait which

these arrangements share. Both present the following: a conversation between a shepherd

and shepherdess; a seemingly insurmountable barrier which separates the individuals; a

dialogue exchanged which is based on flirtation, and, the “nature motive” which was

introduced in Baïlèro and is presented in a modified form in Pastorale. As seen in

example 5.28, in measure 4 of Pastorale’s introduction, the bass line presents the “nature

147
Canteloube. Anthologie des Chants Populaires, 130, quoted in Steubing, The Setting of the Auvergnat-
Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph Canteloube, 17. The definition quoted from Canteloube is as follows:

A sort of dialogue that, from one place to another (generally on a summit), is sent and
returned between herdsmen and shepherds guarding their herds [and flocks], sometimes
over very great distances (several kilometers). The voice soars, as if carried by the
breeze. The dialogue is often comical, containing playful jokes. Other times they are a
long conversation, a half-improvised unchangeable melody, around main notes. Lastly,
sometimes it is an amorous dialogue.

164
motive” which consists of a descending melody in eighth and quarter notes which is

followed by a written out trill, ending on an f ♯ (Ex. 5.28).

Example 5.28 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg.24, mm.4-5

One should also note that this poem is asymmetrical in form. The previous song

had pairs of lines that made up each verse, of which the second was a refrain. This song

has two verses that consist of five and six lines respectively. However, as can be seen

from the text, the first four lines are the shepherdess’s and the fifth the shepherd’s. The

last six lines are divided evenly; lines 6-8 are the words of the shepherdess while 9-11 are

those of the shepherd.

The shepherdess poses questions for which she is clearly eager to get a favorable

response. The shepherd is quick to answer, but for the most part seems less interested in

the conversation. The most important way to convey this conversation is the use of facial

expressions. When representing the shepherdess, the singer’s face should be more

animated and show curiosity. The singer’s posture should also be upright with her

shoulders back and one foot placed slightly ahead of the other to show a more feminine

stance. When representing the shepherd the singer’s face needs to show indifference, her

posture should be more relaxed and her feet parallel to each other, suggesting a masculine

stance.

165
As the different characters sing, the corresponding accompaniments possess

certain musical elements representing their emotions. Throughout the song the key

alternates between B major and A♭major. The shepherdess’s accompaniment uses both

keys while the shepherd’s is only presented in B major. The fact that the character of the

shepherdess uses two tonalities may be understood to suggest her eagerness at

establishing a relationship with the shepherd. It is important to note that A♭ major is very

far removed harmonically from B major in terms of the circle of fifths. Perhaps this is

suggestive of the true distance that separates the two characters.

The arrangement begins with an eight-measure introduction with a tempo marking

of Modéré, mais pas trop (quarter note =72). This tempo marking is important for the

singer to note, for the tempo changes when each character sings. The rhythm is

significantly faster than the tempo suggests. The variety of figures, including triplets,

thirty-second note runs, and other sequential patterns, represents the river and sounds of

nature. It is important to note that this “water” music assists with the effect of song, not

the effect of the emotions of the characters. This accompaniment is reminiscent of those

of texts associated with a river or stream, going all the way back to settings by Franz

Schubert.

In the introduction one may suggest the shepherdess is walking alongside the river

and sees the shepherd. During this passage the singer needs to indicate the position of the

shepherdess. A way to convey this would be for the singer to turn her body so her right

shoulder is 45 degrees to the audience. As the song begins, the singer should begin with a

facial expression that suggests establishing a connection with the shepherd. The singer

may wish to raise her eyebrows and widen her eyes, as if she knows the shepherd or

166
thinks him attractive. Then the singer should change her facial expression to a speculative

one as she decides what to say to him. The singer may wish to use one arm crossing the

other as she thinks, or perhaps use one hand to hold her chin as she thinks over the

situation.

As the singer represents the shepherdess, the corresponding accompaniment

moves in a continuous scalar run or sequence that is presented in either one or both hands

of the piano part. At times there is an occasional pedal point (Ex. 5.29).

Example 5.29 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg.25 mm.10-11

As the shepherd responds, the singer needs to shift persona and establish that he is

dismissive in that he has already seen the hare and caught it. To represent the shepherd

the singer should turn her head to the other side in a subtle way, showing indifference, as

he speaks to her. The singer needs to change characterization in a heart-beat, for there is

no interlude between her questions and his responses. Meanwhile, the accompaniment

continues unchanged, much as a river’s flow is continuous (Ex. 5.30).

167
Example 5.30 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 27 mm.23-24

There is a three-measure interlude that follows verse one after the shepherd’s

response. The accompaniment uses chords in the left hand while the right hand presents

two different melodic ideas. The first melodic idea is similar to the nature motive. The

second is a small countermelody. The purpose of this interlude is purely musical to

distinguish the two verses (Ex. 5.31).

Example 5.31 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 28, mm.29-32

168
The short interlude separating the verses, as shown in example 5.31, allows the

singer a brief time to change her persona. The singer should act at the shepherd’s quick

response at the beginning of the interlude. As soon as the shepherd’s line is presented, the

singer must quickly adopt the persona of the shepherdess and perhaps look surprised by

the shepherd’s words. As the verse begins, the singer should furrow her brow as she

thinks of how to continue to get his attention, for based on his short response he does not

yet seem to show an interest in her. Therefore, she needs to keep talking to him. The

second verse consists of 2 pairs of 3 lines in which the first of these pairs are the

shepherdess asking what the shepherd did. The singer may wish to place her hands on her

hips and posses a mocking facial expression, as if suggesting that the shepherd cannot

possibly answer her questions.

The singer should continue the stance discussed previously when representing the

shepherd, though she should appear amused as he recites each article. In this verse, the

singer may wish to suggest that the shepherd is becoming interested in the shepherdess

and therefore, he asks if she wants him to bring the items over to her. The singer must

quickly adopt the change of character quickly as she sings the final three lines and

maintain the shepherd’s persona throughout the remainder of the song.

169
Lou Coucut148
The Cuckoo

Following the complexities and nuances of previous songs, this is one of the

simplest of the Chants d’Auvergne. It is also one in which the singer essentially speaks to

an unseen audience from whom no response is expected.

[lu kukyt ɔku ɔs un auzel ke njɔ pas kapt plus de tɔ bel]


Lou coucut oqu’os un áuzel que n’io pas capt plus de to bel
The cuckoo is a beautiful bird. There is nothing more beautiful

[kumɔ lu kukyt ke kantɔ lu mjo kukyt lu tjo kukyt lu mjo kukyt ]


coumo lou coucut que canto, lou mió coucut, lou tió coucut, lou mió coucut,
than the cuckoo that sings, than my cuckoo, than your cuckoo, than my cuckoo,

[lu tjo kukyt e lu kukyt dԑz‿autrԑs djo ɔbԑs pas entendyt kanta lu kukyt]
lou tió coucut, e lou coucut dès autres! Dió? Obès pas entendut canta lou coucut?
than your cuckoo, than anybody’s cuckoo! Say? Haven’t you heard the cuckoo sing?

[per ɔbal ɔl fund del prat sԑ njo un aubre flurit ԑ gnɔnat ke lu kukyt li kantɔ]
Per obal, ol found del prat, sé n’io un áubré flourit è gronat qué lou coucut l’i canto
In the back of the meadow, down there, a tree is in bloom, all red, and there the cuckoo
sings…

[lu mjo kukyt lu tjo kukyt lu mjo kukyt lu tjo kukyt e lu kukyt dԑz‿]
lou mió coucut, lou tió coucut, lou mió coucut, lou tió coucut, e lou coucut dès
than my cuckoo, than your cuckoo, than my cuckoo, than your cuckoo, than other
people’s…

[autrԑs djo ɔbԑs pas entendyt kanta lu kukyt]


autres! Dió? Obès pas entendut canta lou coucut?
cuckoo. Say? Haven’t you heard the cuckoo sing?

[ԑ se tutse les kukyts bu ljou purta sunetɔ o fɔrjou sin sent trumpetɔi]
E se toutse, les coucuts bou liòu, pourta souneto, Ô! forióu çin cent troumpetoï!
Certainly if all the cuckoos were to wear little bells, they would sound like five hundred
trumpets…

148
This translation is a combination of the following two sources: Kiri te Kanawa: Canteloube Chants
d’Auvergne and Villa-Lobos Bachianas Brasileiras No.5. Digital Recording. London, 1984 and Arleen
Auger Chants d’Auvergne. Virgin Classics Ltd. London, 1988.

170
[lu mjo kukyt lu tjo kukyt lu mjo kukyt lu tjo kukyt e lu kukyt dԑz‿]
lou mió coucut, lou tió coucut, lou mió coucut, lou tió coucut, e lou coucut dès
than my cuckoo, than your cuckoo, than my cuckoo, than your cuckoo, than other
people’s…

[autrԑs djo ɔbԑs pas entendyt kanta lu kukyt]


autres! Dió? Obès pas entendut canta lou coucut?
cuckoo. Say? Haven’t you heard the cuckoo sing?

The two main elements that will assist the singer’s interpretation are the text and

the content of the accompaniment. This poem begins with an open declamatory statement

and goes into a refrain. The musical setting casts the text as three verses. The text has the

character of a monologue without explicit reference to any individual personality. When

the singer begins her soliloquy, she should address the audience. Thus the singer will not

find herself challenged in the nuances to convey a personality such as was needed

previously. However, the singer is challenged by the interpretation of the song’s

interludes.

The two interludes of the song are quite lengthy. The challenge for the singer is

to remain in character and at the same time suggest an effect associated with the

following line as the interlude unfolds. For the first interlude, the musical content

represents the cuckoo flying towards the tree that is described in verse two. In the second

interlude, the musical material becomes more complex due to the rhythmic values and

texture found. This represents the cuckoo’s song becoming more active and colorful,

providing a transition into the final verse stating that all cuckoos wear bells.

Though the tempo of the piece is quick, the length of the interludes and the

simplicity of the character present a challenge for the singer in terms of interpreting the

passages and maintaining character. The character is a woman who appears to be inspired

by nature, more specifically, a cuckoo’s song. Therefore, one may suggest that the singer

171
is watching the cuckoo fly around during the first interlude while in the second she is

simply listening to the bird’s song. Both interpretations will require a singer to use an

excited facial expression as well as give a different thought for each interlude, thus

assisting in maintaining character.

172
Chapter 6
th
5 volume of the Chants d’Auvergne

The fifth volume contains the following eight song arrangements: Obal, din lo

coumbèlo, Quand Z’eyro Petitoune, Là-haut, sur le rocher, a bourrée entitled Hé! Beyla-

z-y Dau Fé, Postouro, sé tu m’aymo, Tè, l’co, tè!, Uno Jionto Postouro, and the final

song, another bourrée, entitled Lou Diziou bé. This volume was published in 1954 in

París, which means there is a twenty-seven year separation between the final two

volumes.

After the publication of the fourth volume in 1930, Canteloube spent the

remainder of the interwar years creating folksong arrangements based on sources from

regions other than the Auvergne. He also organized and performed concerts based on

French folk song and produced radio programs. However, his travels ended and his

compositions greatly decreased with the beginning of World War II. In the 1940s, a

Vichy regime had a great impact on Canteloube. When Canteloube moved to the city of

Vichy in 1941, the government encouraged his work with folk songs. In the latter 1940s,

he began publishing additional folksong arrangements resulting in the following volumes:

Chants de la Touraine, Chants de l’Angoumois, Chants du Languedoc, Chants de France

in two volumes, Chants de pays Basques, and Noëls populaires français. He also

prepared a four-volume compilation of folk songs entitled Anthologie des chants

populaires français which include songs from the Auvergne.

In 1953, just before the publication of the final volume of Chants d’Auvergne,

Canteloube’s wife died and his son Pierre was paralyzed in an accident. Despite these

family tragedies, the final volume, containing the largest number of Auvergne songs, was

173
completed and dedicated to a young soprano named Lucie Daullène, whose voice

Canteloube greatly admired.

Together, they recorded different French folk songs in which Canteloube was the

accompanist and Lucie was the singer. According to Denys Potts, who corresponded with

Canteloube up to his death in 1957, the musical talents of Daullène were discovered by

Canteloube when he encountered her in an Auvergne village when she was fifteen.149

Singers who are acquainted with the previous volumes will note several common

characteristics shared by two or more of the songs. Some of the subject material in the

final volume has been encountered before, such as the texts which have a male as the

only character, as the bourrée in volume two N’ai pas ieu de mío. The three texts from

this volume that share this trait are Postouro, sé tu m’aymo, Tè, l’co, tè, and the final

bourrée Lou Diziou bé. Another similar subject shared is in the bourrée Hé! Beyla-z-y

Dau Fé. The character represented by the singer of this text chooses wine over the

opposite gender as was the case of the character in L’aïo dè rotso from the first volume.

Lastly, similar to Baïlèro from volume one, Tè, l’co, tè is based upon a conversation

overheard by the composer.

La Delaissado, from the second volume, is about a forsaken shepherdess; in this

volume, Uno Jionto Postouro is of similar content. Postouro, sé tu m’aymo is another

spinning song in the Chants d’Auvergne, as was Lo Fiolairé from the third volume.

As a point of information, the first and second volumes used rehearsal numbers

that continued sequentially throughout the songs, connecting the arrangements. The third,

149
www.classiccdreview.com. In December 2004, Denys Potts wrote in response to a review written about
the CD recording of Joseph Canteloube and Lucie Daulléne’s performance of the fifth volume.

174
fourth, and fifth volumes do not have this connection. Therefore, there is no linking

narrative or connection among the songs of this volume.

There are also two traits that this volume presents that has not been encountered

before. The song Là-haut, sur le rocher does not set a text in the Auvergne dialect, but

rather in Parisian French. Lastly, both Obal, din lo coumbèlo and Quand Z’eyro Petitoune

are short renditions of narrative interactions between people, the only two such texts in

these volumes.

Obal, din lo coumbèèlo150


Far away, over in the valley

This song is called a chanson de moisson, or “song of the harvest.” In

Canteloube’s Les Chants des provinces français, he stated that the rhythm of the melody

corresponded with the actions of the harvesters as they move through the fields. 151 The

text of this arrangement is from a song entitled Chanson de la Pernette. It is important for

the performer to understand the complete story so that she will correctly interpret the

song, even though the text of the song is a condensation of the original. The story is as

follows:

Far away, over in the valley, there is an apple tree of love. The three daughters of
the prince are in the shade underneath. There are two who laugh and sing, the
other always weeps. The prince came and said “Pernette, what is wrong? Do you
have a headache…or the good pain of love?” “I don’t have a headache, but I have
the sickness of love!” “Don’t cry, my daughter, we will get you married with the
song of a prince, or the song of a baron.” “I do not want a prince, neither a prince,
nor a baron! I want my beloved Pierre, who is at the tower.” “Pierre is sentenced
to hang at two o’clock this afternoon!” “If you sentence Pierre, you sentence of all
of us (couples)! Not with a rope, but a ribbon of love. Ah! Sentence Pierre to the

150
Translated by Manoel Bandeira. Kiri te Kanawa: Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne and Villa-Lobos
Bachianas Brasileiras No.5. Digital Recording, London, 1984. All subsequent translations are taken from
this source.
151
Steubing. Pg. 47

175
branches, and me to everything underneath. Crown him with roses, and me with
all flowers. On the path of Saint Jacques, bury all of us (couples). In passing by
Saint Jacques, pray to God for us! Gracious God of souls, of these sweet lovers!
The one who has died for the other, to delight love!”152

In a footnote in the Heugel score, Canteloube explained how he condensed the story. He

wrote, “This version of La Chanson de la Pernette includes nineteen verses. Rather than

cutting the length and preventing the people from hearing the whole beautiful song, the

author preferred to modify and gave the song a shortcut.” 153

[ɔbal din lɔ kumbԑlɔ trɔ lɔ lԑrɔ lo li ɔ yn pumje dɔmur]


Obal, din lo coumbèlo, tro lo lèro lô! L’y o un poumié d’omour.
Far away, over in the valley, there is an apple tree of love.

[lɔs trԑs154 fiλɔ i del prinse trɔ lɔ lԑrɔ lo li sun ɔ lumbrɔ deӡju]
Los très filho y del Prince, tro lo lèro lô! L’y soun o l’oumbro déjiou.
The three daughters of the prince, are in the shade underneath (the tree).

[niɔ du i ke155 rizu ԑ kɔntu trɔ lɔ lԑrɔ lo lautrɔ plurɔ tutdʒjur]


N’yo duo y que rizou è contou, tro lo lèro lô! L’autro plouro toutjiour.
There are two who sing and laugh, The other always weeps.

[lu prins ben li dire trɔ lɔ lԑrɔ lo pernete ku aβez bus156]


Lou Prince ben li dire, tro lo lèro lô! “Pernette, qu’avez-vous?”
The Prince came and said, “Pernette, what is wrong?”

152
Steubing. Appendix.
153
Translated by Manoel Bandeira. Kiri te Kanawa: Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne and Villa-Lobos
Bachianas Brasileiras No.5. Digital Recording, London, 1984.
154
McCann. The [s] is pronounced here, because the word is plural. This rule applies to the entire fifth
series. Pg. 23
155
McCann. As in French, the combination qu = [k] sound. Pg. 17
156
McCann. The [s] is optional for the performer. McCann suggests, if the [s] is at the end of a sentence or
a cadential point, pronounce it. If the performer chooses not to, they must stay consistent with the decision
throughout the song. This rule applies to the entire Chants d’Auvergne. This rule applies to the entire fourth
series. Pg. 23

176
[ne plurɔ pel leiz‿157amɔs trɔ lɔ lԑrɔ lo des paurez amurus]
“Né plouro pel leys amos, tro lo lèro lô des paures amourous!”
“I cry over the souls!” of the poor lovers!”

[ke sum‿mɔrts158 lym pel lautrɔ trɔ lɔ lԑrɔ lo per kumplair ɔ lɔmur]
“Qué soun morts l’un pel l’autro, tro lo lèro lô Per coumplayr’ o l’omour!”
“The one has died for the other!” To delight love!”

Looking at the text, one sees it logically divides itself into two three line stanzas.

The first stanza is presented by the narrator while the second is an exchange between the

Prince and Pernette. Therefore, the singer represents three characters by utilizing

different postures and facial expressions. When the singer represents the Prince, she may

wish to use a subtle change of tone color to enforce this kind of characterization. When

the singer represents the narrator, she should have her head turned slightly to the left. Her

hand gestures should be small, whereas her facial expressions should convey the

emotions and actions of the text. The first character to speak is the Prince. When

representing the Prince, the singer should turn her head slightly to the right and put both

of her feet together and stand erect with her chest raised to indicate an authoritative male

figure. When Pernette responds, the singer should represent her by facing the center of

the audience and clasp her hands in front of her as well as bring one foot in front of the

other to suggest a feminine stance.

As the singer analyzes the musical content she will note that an important musical

trait assisting with the interpretation is the uncertainty as to the home key, which can be

interpreted as either E mixolydian or A major. One will note that measures 1-3 are based

157
McCann. When a “s” is followed by a word that starts with a follow, the “s” sound is a [z] elliding to the
vowel. Pg. 23
158
McCann. In Castilian, if the final n is followed by a bi-labial consonant (m,p,b) then the n changes to an
[m]. Pg. 21

177
on an E major scale, which is the dominant of A major. However, the tonality does not

lead to the tonic, but rather seems to avoid it. Therefore, it appears that the introduction

through the end of verse one is in E mixolydian.

There is, however, an authentic cadence in A major at the beginning of the first

interlude at measure 24. As the song continues, the harmonic ambiguity continues until

the postlude where an E pedal point and A major chord are presented. However, there is

another chord presented in the final measure, which is an F♯minor seventh chord (Ex.

6.0).

Example 6.0 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg.6, mm. 57-End

These harmonic characteristics assist with the interpretation. The text does not

state the reason for Pierre’s execution. One does not know if his sentence is carried out or

not; therefore, the conclusion of the story is unknown and one can only assume different

possible outcomes. This is symbolized by the fact that the tonal center of this piece

remains unclear. However, considering the relationship between A major and F♯ minor,

the quality of the final chord may represent Pernette’s hopefulness, for perhaps the Prince

will free Pierre.

178
The first three measures of the introduction present an unaccompanied piano

melody which transitions into a countermelody (Ex. 6.1). At this point the singer need

only maintain the neutral persona of the narrator.

Example 6.1 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 4th series, pg. 1, mm. 1-11

Before discussing the accompaniment for each stanza, it is important to note that

while the text divides itself, Canteloube’s setting alters it by introducing interludes

following each line of the stanza. The singer should know that the purpose for the first

three interludes is to punctuate the text whereas for the last three lines the interludes

allow for the singer to change persona as called for by the text. The singer also needs to

be aware of the length of the interludes, for they become shorter as the song progresses.

Therefore, her transition will need to be faster for each interlude.

179
The accompaniment to lines one and four consists of contrary motion and a two-

against-three meter.159 Whereas the lyrics in verse one describe the apple tree of love,

those of the fourth begins the dialogue between the Prince and Pernette. One may suggest

that the accompaniment foreshadows the inner turmoil of Pernette. As the singer

represents the Prince, her face should convey his concern for Pernette (Ex. 6.2).

Example 6.2 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.1 mm.12-14

The first interlude’s content instantly changes from the eighth-note contrary motion

figures to a bell-like contour of sixteenth notes in an arpeggiated fashion with a short

countermelody. This change of texture assists with the change of character needed for

verse five (Ex. 6.3). The singer can achieve this transformation by changing from a

masculine stance to a feminine one, as well adopting a sad facial expression. By placing

both her feet parallel and shoulder width apart the singer will suggest the character of the

Prince. To suggest the character of Pernette the singer should place one foot ahead of the

other. A masculine stance is acquired by the singer placing both feet parallel and shoulder

width apart while the feminine stance requires the singer to place one foot ahead of the

other.

159
Steubing. Pg.51

180
Example 6.3 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.2, mm.24-26

The next verse’s accompaniment continues the bell-like contour of sixteenth notes

from the interlude, though with quicker rhythmic figures. One will also note that the

musical figures are in groups of four despite the 9/8 time signature. However, the singer

continues the same folksong melody, which presents groupings of three. Therefore, the

opposition between the rhythmic pulses represents Pernette’s emotional turmoil as she

speaks for the first time in verse five (Ex. 6.4). The singer should maintain the character

conveyed in the previous interlude as well as use gestures, such as clasping both hands

together, as if Pernette is praying for the souls of the lovers.

Example 6.4 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.4 mm.27-29

181
The second interlude, only being two measures long, consists of a large descending

chromatic scale that is presented in a large range. This scale is simultaneously performed

against cluster chords sounded in a syncopated manner and ascending in register. These

musical characteristics continue to represent Pernette’s emotions, for they are

intensifying as she confesses why she is sad.

As previously discussed, the second verse’s accompaniment used a mixture of

rhythmic groupings. This characteristic is continued in the final verse’s accompaniment,

but with groups of ten thirty-second notes in descending then ascending patterns.

Therefore, the quicker rhythmic figures and familiar musical texture suggest that the

accompaniment still represents Pernette’s emotions, though they are more intense (Ex.

6.5). The singer may wish to become more animated by utilizing larger gestures to

express Pernette’s emotional state.

Example 6.5 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 4 mm.43-44

The conclusion to each of the stanzas is brief, but it is important to note the

texture and harmonic structure used. The first ending presents rhythmic figures which

slowly decrease in value as the music transitions into the fourth verse. The second ending

is marked piano and is the first time in the arrangement where a chordal structure is used.

182
This suggests a sudden change in Pernette’s emotions, since that is what the

accompaniment has been representing. As discussed previously, the harmony is leading

to an A major cadence, though unexpectedly it proceeds to an F♯ minor seventh chord

instead. This unexpected resolution on F♯ minor may underscore Pernette’s anxiety which

the singer should convey by an appropriate facial expression. Therefore, the singer should

appear anxious to suggest Pernette’s emotions as she awaits the final outcome.

Quand Z’eyro Petitoune


When I was little

The mood of the second song by contrast is happier as it recounts a story about an

engaged couple. The style of the song changes from that of a chanson de moisson to that

of a chant de plein vent (“song of the open air.”) as described by Canteloube:

The shepherdesses prefer to sing sentimental songs which, talking of love and of
shepherds, resemble actual events for them. Generally slow, very expressive,
these songs are sometimes, in mountainous regions, of a contemplative character
where the atmosphere and very special poetry of the high summits are found
again. We often call them pastourelles. 160

As was true of that of the previous song, the text of Quand Z’eyro Petitoune is

also derived from a longer song. Canteloube’s arrangement uses a text which summarizes

the main points of Nanon’s story of which Steubing presents the following synopsis:

When I was little, My favorite place was to be bordered by violets. When I was
little they called me Nanon! And I guarded the sheep…the ewes and the sheep. I
led them to graze in the dark of the thicket. It had little flowers…I fell asleep
underneath (it). Three cavaliers passed by and said to me, “Good day, Beauty!”
Good day, good day, beautiful!” What are you doing here? Pass by, pass by and
stay away, my affections are not for you! They are for a nobleman who has more
money than you! He has red breeches and a vest of velvet. Blue epaulets, braids
on his coat. On his hat is a cockade, like the great young men. 161

160
Canteloube. Les Chants des Provinces Françaises.36, quoted in Steubing. Pg. 89
161
Steubing. Pg. 125

183
[kwand zeirɔ petitune ma miuna burda dɔ biuleta]
Quand z’eyro petitoune, “Ma miouna bourda do viouleta,”
When I was little, “My darling girdled with violets,”

[kwand zeirɔ petitune mapelaßun nanetu]


Quand z’eyro petitoune, M’appelavoun Nanetou!
When I was little, they named me Nanon!

[interlude]

[nen gardaßa laz‿ uλas162 ma miuna burda dɔ biuleta]


N’en gardava las oulhas, “Ma miouna bourda do viouleta,”
And I watched over the flock, “My darling girdled with violets,”

[nen gardaßa laz‿uλas a lumbretɔ din buisu]


N’en gardava laz oulhaz A l’oumbreto d’in bouissou.
And I watched over the flock, in the shade of a bush.

[interlude]

[le buisu fai fluketɔ163 ma miuna burda dɔ biuleta]


Le bouissou fay flouqueto, “Ma miouna bourda do viouleta,”
The bush had little flowers, “My darling girdled with violets,”

[le buisu fai fluketɔ nen dɔrmiγuԑre desu(s)]


Le bouissou fay flouqueto, n’en dormiguèré dessous.
The bush had little flowers, and I feel asleep underneath (it).

[interlude]

[trԑs kaßaλԑs pasԑrun ma miuna burda dɔ biuleta]


Très cavalhès passèroun, “Ma miouna bourda do viouleta,”
Three cavaliers passed by, “My darling girdled with violets,”

[trԑs kaßaλs pasԑrun diλuԑrun bele bɔndӡur]


Très cavalhès passèroun, diguèroun: “Belle, bonjour!”
Three cavaliers passed by and said to me: “Good day, beauty!”

[interlude]

162
McCann. This word means “aminals”, so the [s] is pronounced for the plural. Pg. 23

184
[pasas pasas au lardӡi ma miuna burda dɔ biuleta]
“Passas, passas au lardji! “Ma miouna bourda do viouleta,”
“Pass by, pass by, and stay away! “My darling girdled with violets,”

[pasas pasas au lardʒi mez‿amurs sum‿pas164 per bus]


“Passas, passas au lardji! Mes amours soun pas per vous!”
“Pass by pass by, and stay away! My affections are not for you!”

The song is a soliloquy in which the singer represents Nanon as she remembers a

past encounter. The singer’s facial expressions should convey pride, for Nanon has two

reasons to be so. First, the men tried to win her over with compliments; however, she

dismissed them because her heart belonged to someone else. Secondly, it was flattering

for her to be complimented in such a way. Therefore, she is proud to sing about this

previous encounter. As discussed in previous songs, the singer should maintain a

feminine stance, but also convey a youthful demeanor. This can be achieved by the singer

clasping her hands behind her back or placing her hands on her hips to represent her

pride. Another suggestion would be to appear excited, for Nanon is proud to tell of her

story, and may have a hard time standing still.

In the introduction, the right hand of the piano presents a portion of the folksong

melody, while the left hand uses chromatic material that obscures the G major tonality.

These musical characteristics also occur in the second interlude, which suggests the

introduction foreshadows events of the story (Ex. 6.6).

164
McCann. In Castilian, if the final n is followed by a bi-labial consonant (m,p,b) then the n changes to an
[m]. Pg. 21

185
Example 6.6 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 7 mm.1-7

In verse one, Nanon sings of a place she loved when she was young. The singer’s

facial expression should convey the shepherdess’s happiness as she begins the soliloquy.

The accompaniment becomes thicker in texture as the verse progresses, possibly

symbolizing the emotions of the event.

The musical content of the interlude, separating the first and second verses,

continues to use material found in verse one by presenting a variation of the folksong

melody. This interlude is only three measures long, providing the singer a brief moment

to change mood. The singer’s facial expression needs to show excitement as the

shepherdess sings of her work. This can be achieved by the singer’s eyes widening with

excitement as she leans her upper body slightly forward towards the audience as the

second verse begins.

At the beginning of verse two, the accompaniment uses a variety of musical

figures that slowly descend in register while the harmonic language becomes ambiguous.

Then at measure 41, the tonality moves back to the home key of G major. The singer

needs to convey an excited and energetic demeanor as well as provide a more animated

expression to suggest that Nanon believes this job was of great importance.

The interlude separating verses two and three presents a portion of the folksong

melody and scalar figures in the right hand. The harmonic foundation leads to an

186
authentic cadence presented at the beginning of verse two (Ex. 6.7). The last two

measures provide a decrescendo that leads to a ppp for verse two, foreshadowing Nanon

falling asleep. The singer needs to convey this change of mood by possibly bringing her

hands in front of her and clasping them together while providing a small smile that

conveys quite contentment.

Example 6.7 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 9 mm. 57-62

The third verse presents Nanon singing of how she became tired and fell asleep in

her favorite place. The accompaniment is marked ppp while the right hand of the piano

presents closed position chords in a high register and the bass line performs open position

chords in a lower register. One will also note a few musical markings which assist the

interpretation. In measures 70 and 71, Canteloube provided a cédé on the word

“dormiguèré”, which translates “as I fell asleep” and when the word returns in measures

72-74, it is accompanied by a ritardando (Ex. 6.8). The singer should then exhale to

suggest the relaxation before sleep.

187
Example 6.8 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 9 mm.69-74

The third interlude concludes with Nanon’s sudden reaction to the arrival of the

horsemen. One will note that the first four measures of this interlude present a sequence

of material performed at a piano dynamic. One measure presents the first three notes of

the folksong melody which is followed by a second measure containing chromatic figures

sounded at a sforzando. The quiet measure symbolizes Nanon while the sforzando

measure foreshadows the cavaliers’ presence. Then, at measure 82, the accompaniment

builds in texture and dynamics as Nanon sees the rider (Ex. 6.9).

188
Example 6.9 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 10 mm.75-86

The singer will note that there is no change in effect between verses three and four;

however, the singer’s eyes should look to the right and widen as Nanon sees the men. The

singer’s posture will also need to become more erect to convey Nanon’s physical reaction

to the men.

In the fourth verse, the accompaniment represents the cavaliers by introducing a

chromatic walking bass line while the right hand performs chords (Ex. 6.10). The

harmonic ambiguity represents Nanon’s emotions, for one may suggest she is excited by

the men’s presence. While Nanon describes the men, the singer should convey her

excitement by opening and closing her hands, conveying the sense that Nanon is trying to

control her feelings of uncertainty and excitement.

189
Example 6.10 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 10 mm.87-92

At the end of the verse, one of the men calls out “Good day, beauty!” The

accompaniment becomes legato and uses slower rhythmic values while the harmony

begins to move towards the home key. These musical traits could represent the men as

they stop their horses and express an interest in the shepherdess. At this point the singer

must bear in mind that she is still in the persona of Nanon as this character states the

comments of the riders. Therefore, the singer may wish to change the tone of her voice to

convey that it is the cavaliers talking.

The final interlude is the longest and therefore assists with the interpretation by

representing Nanon’s satisfaction as she prepares to dismiss the men in the final verse.

The singer needs to stay in the character of a young woman who is engaged, and one may

infer happily engaged, who is the recipient of a flirtatious gesture by someone she

dismisses. This resolve needs to be conveyed as if the young woman is not someone who

is easily fooled. Therefore, the singer needs to convey the character’s surprise at hearing

the men’s compliments and then use an expression of disapproval which is maintained in

the following interlude. The musical content assists this interpretation for it is similar to

190
that of the introduction. However, the harmonic structure is harmonically varied to lead

the tonality to a G major tonic chord at the beginning of the final verse.

For the last four measures, the singer should symbolize Nanon’s preparation to

dismiss the men, which is stated in the final verse when she claims her affections are not

for them. The singer needs to convey this by nodding her head and straightening her

shoulders and conveying a neutral facial expression as she prepares to dismiss them (Ex.

6.11). This interpretation is assisted by the crescendo at the end of the interlude.

Example 6.11 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.11, mm. 83-94

The accompaniment uses a similar structure to verse one, assisting with the

finality of the story. However, the singer should note the beginning mfp dynamic. This

191
suggests that Nanon delivers her response in a gentle way, possibly conveying her flattery

at their comments, though she cannot accept them.

Là-Haut, sur le rocher


Up there, on the rock

The following folksong is about a girl engaged to a man she does not love, and

therefore is not free to be with a soldier to whom she has become attracted. Therefore, the

singer will need to express a variety of emotions from excitement at the prospect of the

soldier’s interest to regret that the girl is engaged to another. This emotional variety will

need to be conveyed by the singer’s facial expressions. The singer should note that this is

the only song in the five Chants d’Auvergne volumes which set a text in Parisian French.

Therefore, a careful attention to the pronunciation is required.

[la o syr lǝ rɔʃe la o syr la mõtaɲ ]


Là-haut, sur le rocher là-haut, sur la montagne,
Up there, on the rocks, up there, on the mountain,

[yn ӡɔli berӡԑr garde se blã mutõ syr lԑrb dy gazõ ]


Une jolie bergère gardait ses blancs moutons, sur l’herbe du gazon.
A pretty shepherdess was watching her white sheep as they grazed on the grass.

[͌œ ӡœn‿ ɔm pasa sete œ‿ militԑrǝ rǝvǝnã dǝ larme vulã se marje]


Un jeune homme passa, c’était un militaire revenant de l’armée, voulant se marier.
A young man passed by, who was a soldier returning from the army, wanting to marry.

[ositot kil la vy il se asi prԑ dԑlǝ]


Aussitôt qu’il l’a vue, il s’est assis près d’elle;
Immediately that he saw her, he sat down close to her:

[il se asi prԑ dԑlǝ e lyi a dǝmãde e te vu marie]


Il s’est assis près d’elle et lui a demandé: “E tes-vous mariée?”
He sat down close to her and asked: “Are you married?”

[marie ӡǝ lǝ syi paz‿a ma fãtezi ӡe pri vjԑjar ӡalo ]


“Mariée, je le suis, pas à ma fantaisie: J’ai pris vieillard jaloux,”
“Married, I am not, to my fantasy: I have a jealous old man,”

192
[ ki na pa mez‿ amur ԑ lԑselǝ vǝnir ӡe dǝ kwa nu defãdrǝ ]
“Qui n’a pas mes amours!” Eh! Laissele venir! J’ai de quoi nous défendre!”
“Who does not have my love!” “Eh! Let him come! I have what I need to defend us!”

[ӡe pistɔlԑ ã pɔʃ e mõ fyzil garni ԑ lԑselǝ vǝnir]


“J’ai pistolet en poche et mon fusil garni; Eh! Laissele venir!”
“I have a pistol in my pocket, and a loaded gun; Eh! Let him come!”

In this text, the narrator heard in the opening verse will then become the voice of

the shepherdess and soldier whose dialogue will follow. The singer, therefore, should be

very attentive to posture to distinguish among the characters, facing forward as narrator,

looking to the left at the soldier, and looking to the right as if at the shepherdess. In

addition, the singer’s facial expressions will be the best way to convey the emotions of

the characters.

As the singer analyzes the song, she should note those musical characteristics that

will require close attention. First, there are several tempo markings presented within

almost every verse and interlude. Secondly, the introduction, interludes, and postlude are

in triple meter and share musical content. By contrast, the song’s verses alternate between

compound triple and compound duple meters, while the accompaniment represents the

actions and emotions of the characters. Lastly, the harmony returns to the tonic only a

few times. Based on these musical characteristics, one may presume that the introduction

and interludes represent the two character’s feelings towards each other. Though the text

does not provide a conclusion, the postlude musically suggests a positive outcome.

The introduction begins Modéré et très expressif (quarter note = 60). The right

hand of the piano presents small fragments of the folksong melody as well as a

countermelody. During this musical passage, the singer should adopt a neutral stance as

193
narrator and at the same time adopt a sympathetic facial expression. By measure 10, the

singer should turn her head center to face the audience as she prepares to sing verse one.

The text of the first verse describes the shepherdess on a mountain as she herds

her sheep. The important element that assists the interpretation is the harmonic language.

The entire first verse avoids a tonic chord, though there are several implied when E♭ and

C pitches are sounded simultaneously. The first tonic chord is not presented until the

beginning of the following interlude. Therefore, the harmonic structure suggests that

verse one is simply setting the scene while the main events of the story begin with the

start of the second verse (Ex. 6.12). As this scene begins the narrator describes the event

as it occurs high up on a mountain. Therefore, it may be appropriate for the singer to raise

her hand to suggest the heights.

Example 6.12 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 14 mm.16-18

The following interlude is marked at a slightly faster tempo than the introduction;

Plus vite (quarter note = 60). The chromatic alterations lead the harmony away from the

home key, though there is a brief reference to the tonic harmony given at the end of the

interlude. The singer should maintain her character until the change of tonality occurs at

measure 22, at which point the singer should turn slightly to the left to indicate where the

soldier is located.

194
In verse two, the singer describes the soldier passing by and his intentions. One

will note that the folksong melody is written in 6/8 while the accompaniment is written in

2/4. The ambiguous harmony used may suggest the shepherdess’s reaction to the

soldier’s words.

One will also note that the vocal line is still legato, though the accompaniment

consists of a chordal texture with octave glissandos in the left hand. The singer should

adopt a different posture appropriate to representing a soldier, since the accompaniment

presents a march tempo (Ex. 6.13). Therefore, from a performance perspective, the

accompaniment suggests a marccato performance of the vocal line as well as an erect

posture. The singer may wish to use one hand to gesture towards the soldier as he enters

the scene.

Example 6.13 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.14 mm.27-29

The second interlude, beginning at measure 32, is a musical passage that

foreshadows the consideration of the soldier in the following verse, though the narrator is

the voice to still be heard. The accompaniment of the interlude uses a more sustained

chordal structure and an antiphonal relation between the upper and lower piano voices.

This music reinforces the impression of the soldier’s considerate treatment toward the

shepherdess at the end of verse three. Then, at measure 38, as suggested by performance

195
instructions très cédé and ritardando, the soldier is reining in his horse to speak to the

shepherdess. As for the harmonic language, the tonality is not stable but rather focuses on

different tonal centers until an A♭ major tonic chord is presented in measure 36.

Therefore, the singer should maintain the persona of the narrator from the second

interlude until the soldier speaks in verse three at measure 44. At this point the singer

quickly adapts a soldier posture. To aid in this quick transition, the singer may wish to

clasp her hands in front of her so that when the time comes to change persona, her hands

will assist for a smoother transition by utilizing appropriate hand gestures.

The third verse is marked un peu moins (dotted quarter = 52), which is slower

than the previous one. This represents the soldier as he approaches the shepherdess. The

text can be divided into two sections: the first of which the narrator introduces the other

character of the story, while the second is the soldier speaking. The accompaniment

assists with the change of mood by being performed at a pianissimo while having the

piano staves in the treble clef. This higher tessitura represents the tenderness the soldier

feels as he speaks to shepherdess (Ex. 6.14).

Example 6.14 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.15 mm.38-40

During this verse the singer represents the narrator who expresses the soldier’s

ideas. This can be achieved by the singer turning her head to the left and perhaps slightly

196
darkening her vocal tone. The singer may also wish to use both hands as if to gesture to

the shepherdess as well as use a facial expression that conveys the attraction the soldier

has for her.

The following interlude depicts the shepherdess as she thinks of how to respond

to the soldier. Therefore, the singer will now need to adopt a feminine stance by placing

one foot in front of the other and relaxing her posture. At measure 46, the music

accelerates, representing the shepherdess’s surprise and excitement. The singer should

begin this section with an excited facial expression as she clasps her hands together in

front of her. As the interlude progresses, her facial expression should change to one of

sadness. Her hands should slowly unclasp and gently move to her sides, for the

shepherdess remembers her fiancée and knows she must relay this information to the

soldier. The ritardando at measure 50 assists with the change of mood.

The fourth verse is marked Moins vite (dotted quarter = 48) as the shepherdess

responds to the soldier. The accompaniment represents her conflicted emotions by

providing rapidly ascending and descending triadic interval runs in a high tessitura (Ex.

6.15). The dynamics of the verse represent both the soldier’s reaction to her statement

and the shepherdess’s intensifying emotions. The dynamic begins pianissimo until

measure 57 when a crescendo leads to a sforzando C major chord, which concludes the

verse. The text that is sung over this accompaniment makes clear that the shepherdess in

fact does not love her fiancé. Therefore, the musical characteristics of this verse represent

the soldier and his emotions at hearing this statement. The singer will need to maintain

the sad demeanor from the previous interlude. However, when the shepherdess admits

197
she does not love her fiancé, the performer should use more appropriate gestures with her

arms and hands to signify the character’s emotional conflict.

Example 6.15 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.16 mm.53-55

It is important to note that there is no interlude before the shepherdess’s response,

but rather a sforzando chord in measure 60. This absence of an interlude suggests the

soldier’s surprised reaction and the speed in which he replies (Ex. 6.16). This requires the

singer to quickly change character and just as quickly show anger before giving a defiant

response. The singer’s stance should also quickly straighten with the change of character,

for now the narrator must convey the soldier’s determination to defend the shepherdess

and defy her fiancé. The text does not state whether the shepherdess loves him, but he is

ready to defy the older man.

Example 6.16 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.17, mm. 59-61

198
The final verse is performed at Un peu plus animé (dotted quarter = 60), which is

faster than the previous verse. One will note that the accompaniment uses a chordal

structure which at times is performed in a syncopated manner. The harmonic language

becomes ambiguous until the final measure, segueing into the postlude. These

characteristics represent the soldier, for he is ready to defend their love against the old

man with his weapons. Therefore, the singer should begin the verse by maintaining the

shocked facial expression from the end of the previous verse as well as use a sweeping

arm gesture as if inviting the old man to come.

The dynamics, however, begin with a mezzo forte which decrescendos to a piano

within the first measure, suggesting the soldier calms down and returns to a gentle

demeanor. The singer needs to convey this change of mood by relaxing her posture and

closing her eyes briefly to suggest the soldier is attempting to control his temper. The

singer may find this action appropriate at measure 63 after “défendre” when she may take

a quick breath. One may presume that, despite the soldier’s eagerness at defending her,

he calms down and has a gentle approach as he delivers his response (Refer to Ex. 6.16).

Though the text does not state the outcome of the story, the postlude suggests a

possible conclusion. First, at measure 67, the tempo marking is précédente (quarter note

= dotted quarter note). There is also another très cèdé in measure 68. Then, the last two

measures are marked très lent et smorzando. These tempo markings represent the

soldier’s diminishing anger and that tenderness has taken its place. Secondly, one should

note that the song concludes on an authentic A♭ major chord, suggesting a positive

resolution to the story (Ex. 6.17).

199
The singer should maintain the persona of the narrator for the postlude, and

perhaps convey a sense of satisfaction in response to the soldier’s comments. She may

achieve this by simply allowing a small smile to show at the sounding of the final chord

as well as letting her posture relax and folding her hands in front of her in a casual

manner, for it is possible that the outcome of the story is a positive one.

Example 6.17 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.17 mm.68-71

Hé! Beyla-z-y dau fé!


Hey! Give him some hay!

The transition from Là-haut, sur le rocher to a comic bourrée entitled Hé! Beyla-

z-y Dau Fé requires a change of mood and character. Therefore, the singer should take a

moment before beginning the bourrée. Her face should brighten and convey a sense of

excitement while her posture straightens. She may even wish to slightly sway back and

forth to the music as the introduction begins.

[e165 beilazi dau fe an akel aze e beilazi dau fe mandӡara be]


Hé! Beyla-z-y dau fé an aquèl azé! Hé! Beyla-z-y dau fé, mandjara bé!
Hey! Give him some hay, this poor donkey! Hey! Give him some hay, he will eat!

165
“Hé!” is to be sung like a gentle cry or shout.

200
[lu paubre par trabaλa embe par bjaure faut be mandӡa]
Lou paubré, par trabalha, embé par viauré, faut bé mandja!
The poor one, to work for a living, it is necessary to eat well!

[interlude]

[la bedza pas beni la mjena drɔla la bedza pas beni de ve muli]
La vedza pas véni, la miéna drolla, la vedza pas véni, de vé Mouli.
I do not see my good friend coming, I do not see her coming from Moulins.

[kuradӡe paubre garsɔn embe na drɔla nus danserɔns]


Couradgé, paubré garçon! Embé na, drolla nous danserons!
Courage, poor boy! With a girl, we will dance!

[interlude]

[faʧa peta lus pԑis la mɔntaγnarde faʧa peta lus pԑis syr166 le paßei]
Fatcha peta lous pèys, la montagnarde! Fatcha peta, lous pèys sur le pavey.
She stomps, this girl from the mountain! She stomps on the cobblestones.

[paʧԑnsɔ paubre garsɔn la dӡeuna drɔla ԑli a razɔn]


Pachènço, paubré garçon, la jeuna drolla elli a razon!
Patience, poor boy, this young girl is right for you!

The singer will represent both an adult male character and a boy. The first verse is

sung by the man while the second and third constitute a dialogue between the boy and the

man. There are two important characteristics this song presents which will affect the

singer’s performance. The first is the changing of persona. The second is the

accompaniment, for the second and third verses have more symbolic accompaniments

than the first verse, which reflects the dialogue in them.

The introduction presents portions of the original folk melody. During this time

the singer should project the identity of an adult male by placing her feet parallel and

166
McCann. The “u” in sur is preceded and followed by a consonant. Therefore, it is pronounced [syr].
Pg.17

201
shoulder width apart while maintaining a relaxed posture. This will physically convey the

character of the man who sings the first verse.

In verse one, until measure 26, the first line of text has an accompaniment which

continues the musical material first presented from the introduction. When line two is

presented, its accompaniment does not support the characterization needed. Therefore,

the singer needs to do so by means of an energetic performance by emphasizing the

“Hé!” in line one and “Lou paubré” in line two as is appropriate with a bourrée.

The interlude following verse one allows time for the singer to continue the

characterization of the man for eight measures. The singer then shifts persona to the boy

who is heard in verse two. In representing the man, the singer may wish to smile as she

slightly sways to the rhythms of the bourrée as if to suggest that man is enjoying himself.

The last three measures of the interlude use slower rhythmic values, which is the

singer’s cue to change her persona to that of the boy. Therefore, the singer’s posture will

need to change by having her shoulders slightly lower while perhaps moving her feet

closer together to suggest a boy demeanor. The singer should begin to look to the

audience as if the boy is searching for his girlfriend. The singer’s facial expression should

also change to a look of disappointment, which can be achieved by her furrowing her

brow and slightly frowning (Ex. 6.18).

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Example 6.18 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.20 mm.43-47

This change of texture in the accompaniment prepares for verse two. The

accompaniment is performed in a legato style at a ppp dynamic reinforcing the change of

persona. Throughout the third line the singer should stand still and perhaps lift her arms

from her sides in a gesture that conveys a question (Ex.6.19).

Example 6.19 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.20 mm. 48-52

At measure 61 the second line of the second stanza is the point at which the singer

returns to the adult persona when the man tells the boy to have courage. The singer

should appear animated as soon as she changes character. Her facial expression could

brighten and perhaps she could use large gestures with her arms suggesting that the boy

should dismiss his worry. This change of character is reinforced by the energetic

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accompaniment which is presented with staccato bass line passages while the treble line

continues the legato material. By measure 68 the accompaniment uses rhythmic figures

that have been heard previously (Ex. 6.20).

Example 6.20 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 21 mm. 63-72

As the second interlude begins, the singer will maintain the adult persona. The

first half of the second interlude uses material that is a variant of that accompanying verse

one and is enhanced by a new countermelody. At measure 82 a sans ralentir is presented

while the accompaniment returns to a much simpler texture. This is in preparation for the

response of the boy to the man’s statement that the girl is right for him. The

accompaniment provided may represent the boy’s shock as he watches the assertiveness

of a young woman as a dancer. This reaction assists the singer’s performance to transition

into the final verse.

204
The singer represents the boy for the first half of the third verse as he describes

the girl as she stomps on the cobblestones. 167 The accompaniment assists this

interpretation by presenting a variation of the chordal figures used in the introduction,

possibly representing the girl’s dance steps. The singer should maintain the boy’s persona

from the previous interlude, adding an expression of discomfort to suggest the boy’s

uncertainty as to how to react to the girl’s assertive dance style.

The second half of the verse is the adult telling the boy to have patience, the girl

from the mountains is right for him. This statement implies that the boy is naïve to the

girl while the adult has more experience in these matters. The man believes that this girl

who is dancing may have much more to offer the boy than the girl from Moulins. The

accompaniment provides staccato material and sforzando chords to suggest that the dance

is still going on. The singer will instantly shift persona again by adopting a humorous

facial expression at the situation, for the adult knows more about these things than the

boy. The adult demeanor should be very carefree, as opposed to the troubled boy who is

unsure of how to proceed. As the song concludes, the singer may also wish to begin

swaying to the music again, and maintain this demeanor to the conclusion of the song.

167
As noted in the discussion of the bourrées in volume one, it was traditional for a man, according to
Canteloube, to parade proudly around a woman to whom he is attracted. Noteworthy is the fact that in his
Chants populaire de Haute Auvergne et de Haut Quercy he states “…the man parades proudly around the
woman, stomping his foot as if to show his strength, and sometimes calling out with a sharp cry. When the
man approaches, the woman is frightened of his desire and evades him.” If true, what is described in the
text of this song represents a role reversal: it is the girl who parades proudly while the boy is troubled by
this.

205
Postouro, sé tu m’aymo
Shepherdess, if you love me

Following the bourrée is a chanson de fileuse, or spinning song, entitled Postouro,

sé tu m’aymo.168 The singer should note that Lo Fiolaré, from volume three, is also a

spinning song. The melodic structure of both songs are similar to that of Franz Schubert’s

Gretchen am Spinnrade, though the vocal line of this song includes a spinning motive in

its refrain which sets the nonsense syllables “ti ouli, ouli, oula la”.

In this song the singer will adopt a persona of a shepherd and to do so should

adopt a masculine posture. It is important for the singer to take a moment before

beginning this song to allow the atmosphere of the bourrée to die away. One will also

note that this is a curious song, for the shepherdess in Lo fiolairé was working and

singing. Here the shepherdess is a silent worker who is being sung to.

[pɔsturɔ se tu maimɔ suladӡe lu mjo169 mal]


Postouro, sé tu m’aymo, souladjé lou mio mal!
Shepherdess, if you love me, then ease my pain!

[krumpɔrԑs unɔ raubɔ un pulit dɔ bɔntal]


Croumporès uno raubo, un poulit dobontal
You will have a dress, a pretty apron,

[ԑ lԑiz‿ autrԑs pɔsturԑlɔs naurɔn paz‿yn ɔital]


E lèys autrès postourèlos n’auron pas un oytal! Ti ouli ouli oula!
And the other shepherdess dresses will not have its equal!

[pɔsturɔ sé tu maimɔ suladӡe lu mjo mal]


Postouro, se tu m’aymo, souladgé lou mio mal!
Shepherdess, if you love me, then ease my pain!

168
Pauly. Pg. 30
169
McCann. With the “io” vowel combination, stress is on the [o] when is open and short. The “i” is
sounded [j]. Pg.18

206
[tutɔs lei flurs nubԑlɔs ten fɔrai un rɔmԑl]
Toutos ley flours noubèlos, t’en foray un romèl,
With all the fresh flowers, I will make a chaplet,

[ԑ lԑiz‿autrɔs pɔsturԑlɔs naurɔn paz‿yn tɔn bel]


E lès autros postourèlos, n’auron pas un ton bel! Ti ouli ouli oula!
And the other shepherdess will not have one as beautiful!

[lԑis ɔγasɔs tԑn kridun mjo rԑbiλɔte ԑ daisɔ leiz‿ɔγasɔs]


Leys ogassos t’èn cridoun: Mio, rébilhoté! E! daysso leys ogassos.
Hear the magpies chatter: Beloved, awake! Eh! Oh never mind the magpies,

[ɔ mai lez‿ɔγasus ԑ tԑnԑn nɔstrɔ prumesɔ nus kal aima tui dus]
O may les ogassous! E tènèn nostro proumesso: Nous cal ayma touy dous!
they do not matter! And let’s keep our promise: that we shall always love each other!

[ti uli ula]


Ti ouli oula!
Ti ouli oula!

The introduction is very brief, presenting five pitches that are trilled with a sixth

note that glissandos up to the beginning of verse one. These trilled notes, which are seen

throughout the song, represent the spinning wheel as it begins to move.

The text is divided into three verses, the first two consisting of three lines each,

which are separated from one another by interludes. Throughout the arrangement, the

accompaniment of each verse represents the shepherdess at work while the singer

represents the shepherd. In verse one, the accompaniment presents a continuous spinning

motive in the right hand that consists of sixteenth-note scalar figures. The tonality

remains in the home key of A minor. These characteristics suggest that the shepherdess is

keeping her spinning wheel at a steady pace and focusing on her work, even though the

shepherd is making promises to her. Then, during the refrain, the accompaniment

presents three different musical ideas. First, from measures 16-18, there are eighth-note

207
patterns in the bass and eighth note chords ornamented by grace notes in the right hand

part. Secondly, directly following is a return to the pattern of a trilled E♮ from the

introduction. Lastly, the verse ends with the right hand playing a faster rhythmic spinning

motive which transitions into the following interlude.

These musical characteristics suggest that the shepherdess is beginning to pay

attention to the shepherd rather than her work. She is momentarily distracted by the

shepherd as suggested by measures 18-19 with the slightly slower rhythms of the

accompaniment. At measure 20 a trilled note suggests that the shepherdess starts up her

spinning wheel again while the faster rhythmic motive represents the spinning wheel as it

moves at a quicker pace (Ex. 6.21). While performing this verse, the singer should make

subtle hand gestures, such as placing both hands on her chest when she sings of his pain.

She may also wish to wave nonchalantly to one side as if dismissing the other

shepherdesses’ dresses he refers to.

Example 6.21 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.24 mm.16-23

208
In the following interlude, the left hand of the piano continues the quicker

spinning motive from verse one while the right hand presents a countermelody. One will

note from measures 24-25 the harmony has a brief focus on V/vii of A minor, which

leads to a half cadence. From measures 26-28 the accompaniment presents the trilled note

sequence again. This brief harmonic change suggests that the shepherdess is no longer

focusing on her work, while the texture change represents the wheel stopping and starting

up again170 (Ex. 6.22). At the point of the harmonic change, the singer should convey by

facial expression the shepherd’s pleasure at having got the shepherdess attention. This

can be achieved by the singer raising her eyebrows and slowly smiling when the harmony

changes. She may even wish to cross her arms to suggest the shepherd is more relaxed in

his demeanor, for he knows he has her complete attention for the moment, which

therefore prompts his change of tone in the following verse.

170
Pauly. Pg. 35

209
Example 6.22 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.25 mm.20-28

However, as the interlude ends, the music suggests that the shepherdess is starting

to focus on her work again. Therefore, during measures 26-28, the singer needs to

establish a persona that suggests the shepherd will make one more statement to her.

However, the singer should simply intensify the persona by a gesture and a prevailing

attitude, for the tempo leaves little room for a drastic change of characterization. The

singer can achieve this by uncrossing her arms.

In verse two, the shepherd says he will gather flowers for her and make a chaplet.

The right hand of the accompaniment presents a spinning motive, though in a wider range

than previously seen, while the left hand provides chords. The harmony begins in A

minor and then becomes ambiguous, suggesting the shepherdess’s mixed emotions. On

one hand she is trying to ignore the shepherd, but finds it to be difficult to do so. As the

refrain is performed, the accompaniment presents similar material to that of verse one,

representing the wheel stopping and starting up again.

210
The singer needs to be aware of the musical changes in order to represent the

shepherd as he observes the shepherdess’s focus begin to waver. This is best conveyed by

the singer becoming more animated to represent the shepherd’s growing excitement as it

seems he may be winning her over. The shepherd’s persona should be given with greater

confidence since he is starting to become successful at winning her over, for this self-

confident man is meeting resistance yet overcoming it. This can be achieved by the

singer’s posture straightening from a relaxed stance in the previous interlude as well as

provide a brief smile. The singer may also wish to take a step forward to show the

shepherd is confident, for he can begin to become more forward in his approach, as heard

in the final verse.

Unlike the first interlude where the music represented the spinning wheel in

motion, this interlude does not suggest the same. The fact that there is no spinning motive

until the end of this interlude suggests that the shepherdess is giving the shepherd her

undivided attention momentarily. This is represented from measures 47 to the first half of

measure 51 which foreshadows the magpies referred to in verse three. These are

presented as sixteenth note chromatic figures and major second intervals, continuing the

harmonic ambiguity from verse two.

In the second half of measure 51, the shepherdess resumes her work which is

represented by the spinning wheel motive presented while an A pedal point is used in

measures 53, bringing the song back to A minor. Regardless of the shepherdess’s actions,

the shepherd wants to continue convincing her, which is the subject of the final verse (Ex.

6.23). This should be conveyed by the singer’s eyebrows rising upward and utilizing a

211
half smile which indicates the shepherd is perhaps surprised at her persistence, and

continues into the final verse.

Example 6.23 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.27 mm.48-51

For the final verse the shepherd changes his focus. The formality of the first two

verses is replaced by a more intimate expression. The shepherd first tells the shepherdess

to listen to the magpies. The singer may wish to gesture upwards as if to suggest where

the birds are located. The accompaniment suggests the shepherdess is having difficulty

ignoring his words, which is represented by a rhythmically faster spinning motive up

until measure 62.

According to the text, the shepherd then says that she should ignore the magpies’

song and “pay attention to me instead.” At this point, the accompaniment returns to the

material first heard in verse one. The shepherd makes a final attempt to gain her attention

by reaffirming a promise it seems they made, which is to love each other. The singer’s

performance needs to show the intensification of emotion and a more confident

212
demeanor. This can be achieved by taking another step forward and quickly waving one

arm dismissively at the magpies as the shepherd says to forget about them. Then the

singer should use both of her arms and extend them outward with her hands palm up and

then close her hands and bring them towards her chest. Her facial expression should show

the growth of excitement as the shepherd sings of the promise, for at this time his tone

has become a more persuasive one. The relationship of the two characters is unknown,

though it is implied that they are getting back together.

The refrain is sung one last time, which the accompaniment continues to present

similar material. However, at measure 66, there are four quick, descending arpeggios

followed by successive spinning motives that lead the piece to conclude on an A minor

chord (Ex. 6.24). This represents the spinning wheel in its last moments of motion. One

may assume that the shepherdess has now decided to be with the shepherd and leaves her

work. The singer needs to maintain the shepherd’s confident demeanor for the duration of

the song, as well as relax her use of gestures, for one may suggest the shepherd knows he

does not have to try as hard as he did at the beginning.

213
Example 6.24 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg.28 mm. 68-End

Tè, l’co, tè!


Run, dog, run!

The subject transformation of this song concerns a shepherd who keeps a herd of

cows and must deal with one that has wandered off. He then quickly sends his dog after

it. Before the song begins, the singer should place her feet shoulder distance apart with

her hands on her hips while looking around her, representing the shepherd watching his

herd.

Tè, l’co, tè! is an example of what is known as a cris de berger (cry of the

shepherd). 171 There is a footnote in the score stating the following: “This song was

written around 1899 in Malaret, which is near Bagnac de Lot. I [Canteloube] had been

171
Canteloube, Joseph. Chants d’Auvergne. Series 5. Paris: Heugel & Cie., 1953.

214
inspired by a young shepherd who was keeping his cows in a middle of a valley, and who

was telling his excited dog to bring a cow back, which had wandered.” 172

[tԑ lkɔ tԑ arestɔ lɔ bakɔ atsɔ lɔ kԑ sen bɔ djo kaminɔ pekaire]


Tè, l’co, tè! Arresto lo baco! Atso lo qué s’en bo! Dio! Camino, pecayré!
Run, dog, run! Stop the cow! See her running away! God! Run quickly, so swiftly!

[tԑ birɔ lɔ rudzɔ ԑs ɔku daizɔ lɔ bԑni tԑ]


Tè! Biro lo roudzo! Es oquo! Daysso lo! Bèni tè!
Run! Get the red one, round her up! That’s good! Leave her alone! Come here, now!

This is the shortest song of the volume and collection, consisting of only nineteen

measures. The vocal line represents the shepherd’s emotions when he gives his

commands while the accompaniment depicts the actions of the cow, dog, and shepherd.

The form of the song is best understood by addressing each of the two lines of the text.

The song is in F major with no authentic cadence at the end, though there are

some musical passages that outline the F major scale. The absence of the cadence reflects

the fact that the text leaves off without a full resolution of the story. One will note that

much of the accompaniment appears ambiguous, reflecting the tension and fast pace of

the events described.

The introduction is only one-and-a-half measures long, consisting of sextuplet

runs into a sixteenth-note sequence that continues as the vocalist begins. This music

represents the shepherd’s reaction to seeing a cow leaving the herd. The singer should

quickly turn her head to the right as soon as the music starts, suggesting the shepherd has

just noticed the cow wandering off. From measures 2-6 the shepherd calls to his dog. The

accompaniment continues the same sequence, representing the shepherd’s panic. The

172
Translated by Amandine Nealson on March 30th, 2007.

215
singer needs to convey his actions to the left as if looking at the dog while pointing right

towards the cow (Ex. 6.25).

Example 6.25 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 29 mm.3-5

Then, from measures 6-8, the right hand presents thick chords with grace notes

which most are presented in a syncopated manner. This accompaniment may represent

the cow as it wanders off. The singer may wish to gesture quickly to suggest that the

shepherd is encouraging the dog to run (Ex. 6.26).

Example 6.26 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 29 mm.6-8

In measure nine, the accompaniment presents thirty-second note ascending runs

which represent the dog running towards the cow. The singer’s vocal line imitates the

implication of the word “camino,” which is translated as “quickly,” by utilizing a group

of sextuplets (Ex. 6.27). The singer will need to use hand gestures to indicate that the

shepherd wants the dog to move faster.

216
Example 6.27 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 30 mm.9-11

It is assumed that the shepherd sees the dog reach the cow, for he calls out a new

set of commands in measure 12, telling the dog to bring the cow back to the herd. At this

point the singer should lean forward and keep a focus on the location of the dog as she

calls him back. The accompaniment in measures 13 and 14, which is the same of measure

6-8, clearly represents the cow, which is now just beginning to return to the herd. The

vocalist then sings a “Prrr…” sound in measure 14, representing the shepherd whistling

for his dog. At this point, both the vocal line and accompaniment use a fermata that

suggests the animals stop for a brief moment. The singer should convey the shepherd’s

mood by lightly clapping her hands once and then holding her hands palm out to suggest

that the shepherd is telling the dog to stop. At the fermata in measure 14, the singer

should suspend motion briefly (Ex. 6.28).

Example 6.28 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 30 mm.12-14

217
In measure 15, the accompaniment suggests that all three characters are in motion.

The sixteenth notes in the left hand represent the dog trotting, while the right hand

continues the syncopated chords, possibly representing the cow, and the singer presents

the shepherd’s command to the dog. In measures 16-17, the accompaniment immediately

thins out while a diminuendo and rallantando molto suggests the dog is returning to the

shepherd. While performing these measures, the singer should instantly relax her posture

and hold up a hand, palm out, to suggest “stop” which implies that the shepherd is

quieting the dog. She should also convey a calm facial expression and provide a small

smile to conclude the song (Ex. 6.29).

Example 6.29 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 30 mm.15-17

Uno Jionto Postouro


A beautiful shepherdess

As the singer transitions to the next song, she will find herself in familiar territory,

for Uno Jionto Postouro, an example of a song known as a regret, is about a forsaken

shepherdess.173 La Delaïssádo from volume two is another example of this type of song.

In a footnote, on page thirty-one of the piano score of Uno Jionto Postouro, Canteloube

explained the meaning of regret as follows: “This name is in the Haute-Auvergne songs
173
Canteloube. Chants d’Auvergne. Series 5. Paris: Heugel & Cie., 1953. Pg. 31

218
or simple bagpipe tunes, usually slow and melancholic, formerly serving as obligatory

accompaniment to some primitive rites, such as, for example, the various phases of the

wedding.” 174

The singer will need to allow a few moments to adjust to the new characterization

before performing this song. She will now first represent the narrator and then the

shepherdess whose lover has abandoned her. As narrator, she should adopt a neutral

facial expression. She should also keep her feet parallel and shoulder distance apart. She

should then shift her posture to a feminine one to represent the shepherdess when she

sings at the beginning of measure 15.

[ynɔ dӡjɔntɔ pɔsturɔ yn dɔkԑse mɔtis ɔsitadɔ sy lerbԑtɔ]


Uno jionto postouro, un d’oquècé motis, ossitado su l’herbèto,
A beautiful shepherdess, one morning, was sitting on the grass,

[plurɔ sum bel ɔmi garɔ sԑrjo bԑ yrɔ ke fuγuԑsɔ turnat]


plouro soun bel omi! “Garo sèrio bè ouro qué fouguèsso tournat!
crying for her sweetheart! “Now is the time when I should see him returning!

[kauku pɔsturɔ maitɔ sun kur aurɔ dunat ɔ paurɔ pɔsturԑlɔ]


Cauquo postouro maïto soun cur auro dounat! Oh! pauro postourèlo!
He must have fallen in love with another shepherdess! Oh! poor shepherdess!

[delaisadɔ sui iԑu kumɔ lɔ turturԑlɔ kɔ perdu sum‿175 pɔriu]


Délayssado soui yèu, coumo lo tourtourèlo qu’o perdu soun porîou!”
I have been abandoned, like a turtledove who has lost her mate!”

The introduction is marked Modéré (quarter note = 69) and is in a 5/4 meter while

presenting fragments of the folksong melody. These characteristics suggest that the

174
www.googletranslate.com
175
McCann. The n sound is changed to [m] when it is followed by a bi-labial consonant m,p,b. Pg. 22

219
introduction is setting the scene for the story, and therefore requires the singer to

establish the persona of the narrator immediately. Then, in measure 5, a fermata is used

which concludes the introduction. The first verse immediately begins on the downbeat of

measure 6 in which the accompaniment presents a simple rhythmic chordal structure as

well as glissandos from measures 7-9 and a countermelody from measures 10-13. The

singer may wish to use a subtle hand to gesture toward the shepherdess while utilizing a

sympathetic facial expression (Ex. 6.30).

Example 6.30 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 31 mm.7-9

The first interlude continues the content from the first verse and ends on a half

cadence with a fermata. This measure gives the singer a chance to shift persona, for she

represents the shepherdess in verse two. The singer should first move her right foot

slightly ahead of the left to assume a feminine posture as well as use a more animated

facial expression that conveys the shepherdess’s sorrow.

The second verse is marked moins lent (Plus dramatique) which reflects the

shepherdess’s anxiety of the delayed return of her lover. At this point, the left hand of the

piano accompaniment uses ascending sixteenth-note arpeggios, while the right hand

presents a short countermelody. The effect of this accompaniment reinforces the

220
character’s emotional state. During this verse, the singer may wish to glance around the

audience as if to suggest the shepherdess is looking for her lover.

At measure 19 the accompaniment changes as the shepherdess begins to wonder if

her lover has given his heart to another. The text implies she is losing hope and beginning

to feel abandonment as the accompaniment gradually becomes simpler in content. The

singer’s facial expression should become sad; she may wish to let her arms fall to her side

as a gesture of hopelessness (Ex. 6.31).

Example 6.31 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 32 mm.19-22

The second interlude continues the previous verse’s accompaniment, though it

concludes with an ascending octave glissando on a half cadence. At this point the

shepherdess realizes she has been abandoned; the singer’s facial expression should

convey a sense of loss. This may include dropping her shoulders or utilizing another

physical gesture of hopelessness.

The final verse is marked Plus lent (Primo tempo). The shepherdess sings of her

loneliness and compares herself to a turtledove who has lost its mate. In measures 24-25,

the accompaniment is reminiscent of material beginning in measure 7. Then, a

descending melodic line is presented at measure 26. These musical characteristics

221
continue to represent her sadness (Ex. 6.32). The singer may wish to let her arms lightly

fall to her sides to represent the shepherdess is alone.

Example 6.32 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 33 mm.23-29

The final measure arrives on a G major tonic, the finality of which is weakened by

the presence of an E♮ suggesting the continuing emotional ambivalence of the

shepherdess. (Ex. 6.33)

222
Example 6.33 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 33 mm.30-32

Lou Diziou bé
It was said

The final song of the volume is a bourrée entitled Lou Diziou bé. The singer

begins by representing a man who is speaking to a youth named Pierrot. The older man

gives his opinion on relationships, and later imitates a woman who appears to be scolding

Pierrot. One will note that this bourrée and the one found in volume three entitled

Malurous Qu’o Uno Fenno address a common topic, though this one is of a man’s

opinion of an older woman. The singer will need to adopt a male posture as well as use a

facial expression that conveys his confidence in his opinions.

[lu ditsiu be pjeru kuaimai lei drɔlɔi]


Lou diziou bé, Pierrou, qu’aymay ley drolloy,
They did say, Pierrot, that you loved the girls,

[lu ditsiu be pjeru kuaimai lu bi]


Lou diziou bé, Pierrou, qu’aymay lou bi!
They did say, Pierrot, that you loved your wine!

[ieutsaime tut lu bitɔ mai lei drɔlɔi mԑ per kawzi preferɔrjɔ176 lu bi]
Yeuzaymé tout lou bito may ley drolloy, mè, per cauzi preférorio lou bi!
I love them both, wine and girls, but for choice I prefer wine!

176
McCann. The io is pronouned [jɔ] if the stress is on the o. Pg. 18

223
[ԑ leiz‿ɔmurs bɔstidɔs sy lei sԑndre lei fundɔmԑn sun pru sydӡet'ɔl bԑnt]
E leys omours bostidos su ley cèndré, ley foundomèn soun prou sudjèt’ol bènt!
If affairs of the heart are built on sand, their foundations are at the mercy of the winds!

[se lu bԑnt be ԑmpurtɔrɔ lei sԑndre mai ieu tɔ be tutdӡur din lei trumens]
Sé lou bènt bé, empourtoro ley cèndré, may yéu to bé toutjour din ley trumens!
When the wind blows, the sand is blown away, and I am always in torment!

[lu maz‿ɔγut pjeru lu kur en gadӡe ne tԑrɔ pas detsut]


Lou m’as ogut, Pierrou lou cur en gadjé; né t’èro pas detsut!
You have taken, Pierrot, my heart in pawn, you have taken it though it was not yours!

[se dӡɔmai pus ɔkɔ ne tɔribabɔ ɔmblu kutel teskurγɔriɔ lɔ pel]


Sé djomay pus o-quo né t’orribabo, omb’lou coutel t’escourgorio lo pel!
If you ever do that again, I shall flay you with my knife!

The singer needs to note the different subject material for each verse before

analyzing the accompaniment. In the three lines that constitute the first verse, the man

claims to share Pierrot’s interest in wine and girls. In the second, setting lines four and

five, the man observes that relationships are unpredictable and fragile. The final verses’

lyrics, consisting of the sixth and seventh lines, suggest that the man is imitating a

woman betrayed by Pierrot and her anger at his apparent apathy.

Before analyzing the musical content, the singer should note that this

arrangement does not adopt the same format as previous bourrées. First, this bourrée uses

the accompaniment to represent the actions and related emotions presented in the verses.

Lastly, the piece modulates, which is the first time a bourrée in the Chants d’Auvergne

has done so. It is also important for the singer to note two characteristics of the interludes.

First, the content of the interludes present rhythms of the dance and do not correlate with

the text. Secondly, the brevity of the interludes requires that the singer be prepared to

shift persona very quickly, for they are points of character transformation.

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The introduction presents the rhythms of the bourrée drawing upon melodic

material from the original folksong in the home key of C major. In the first verse, the

accompaniment is similar to that of the introduction. The singer may wish to raise her

right hand up when the man sings of girls, while raising the left hand when he sings of

wine, as if he is weighing his options.

The following interlude presents a modulation to D major, which may represent

the shift of subject material between verses. The accompaniment continues to maintain

the character of the dance in the right hand of the piano while the left provides sforzando

chords, which are later seen in the third verse’s accompaniment. This may foreshadow

the imitation of the man’s girlfriend for that verse. Measures 31-34 immediately thin out

in texture and descend in register while a decrescendo is used, transitioning into the

second verse. These musical characteristics assist with the change of mood and persona

between verses. (Ex. 6.34)

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Example 6.34 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 35 mm.27-36

During this interlude, the singer may place one hand on her hip as if to reinforce

the effect of confidence from verse one, as well as use a satisfied smile, which maintains

the mood from verse one. At measure 31, the singer’s hand should come down to her side

and her face should adopt a thoughtful expression as if the man is trying to think of a

reason why he would choose wine over women. He gives his reason in the following

verse.

In the second verse, the man ponders the outcome of relationships that are not

strong. The accompaniment reinforces this idea. Therefore, the singer may wish to divide

the verse into three phrases in order to understand how this reflection is represented. In

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the first section, the singer explains that if a relationship is built on sand, the foundation is

at the mercy of the winds. The accompaniment uses a chromatic descending four-note

sequence to reinforce the text. For the second section at measure 39, when the man sings

about the winds, an F♮ is used and the harmony changes from D major to a possible D

minor. It is here that the character speaks of relationships that are easily disrupted. In the

third phrase, the character speaks of his torment when a relationship ends, much as sands

are blown away, which is represented by the ambiguous harmony. The accompaniment

also begins to use a thicker texture. However, as soon as the verse ends and the second

interlude starts, a G major chord is presented, thus leading the harmony back to the home

key of C major (Ex. 6.35).

The singer should continue to use her hands in a subtle way to mimic the wind

blowing and also point to herself when the man refers to himself. However, her facial

expressions should be emotionally neutral to suggest that the man does not appear

bothered by the statement he is making.

Example 6.35 Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 36 mm.42-46

The second interlude is only three measures long, which allows enough time for

the accompaniment to establish the home key, but otherwise maintains similar character.

In this brief passage, the singer should quickly adopt an appearance of the man

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impersonating a woman. The singer needs to convey a man’s perception of a woman’s

attitude. This should suggest that the man is mocking the woman. The singer may wish to

slowly bring up both hands and place them on her hips while her facial expression

conveys anger as if preparing to scold. She may also wish to shift her hips to one side to

exaggerate the feminine stance, to suggest the male character is mocking the woman

before she speaks.

The final verse is set in two sections. In the first section is the singer stating that

Pierrot won her heart despite her objections. The accompaniment assists this sudden

dramatic change of mood by utilizing a chordal texture with sforzando chords on beat

three performed forte (Ex. 6.36a). The singer may wish to place her right hand over her

heart while her left hand points one finger and shakes it back and forth, as if to say “no.”

Then, at measure 62, the singer says if Pierrot ever steals her heart again, she will

skin him alive. At this point the accompaniment and dynamics completely change. A

piano dynamic is provided while the accompaniments texture is similar to verse one. This

dynamic suggests that the woman is scolding Pierrot. The harmony continuously stresses

a V/V in C major until the last chord of the verse, which is G major (Ex. 6.36b).

When the character states the woman will skin Pierrot, the singer’s eyebrows

should furrow while she places her left fist on her hip. For the other hand she should have

her pointer finger extended towards the audience as if scolding Pierrot.

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Example 6.36a Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 36 mm.57-61

Example 6.36b Joseph Canteloube Chants d’Auvergne 5th series pg. 37 mm.62-65

Because of the brevity of the postlude, the singer should simply maintain the previous

demeanor to the song’s conclusion.

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Conclusion

After analyzing the performance challenges of the Chants d’Auvergne, one will

note that the major issues for the singer are derived from the texts. With each successive

volume, the texts and their meanings become more modern. Therefore, the performer

may be more attracted to the later volumes, for they imply a greater performance

challenge. An awareness of the increasing nuances of the various characters personalities

needs to be the singer’s primary focus as she prepares.

The first textual issue is the interpretive demands for the singer. She may read the

texts from the early volumes with the expectation that there are no hidden meanings.

However, when reading those texts in later volumes, the singer should be mindful that

these are more complex in meaning. Therefore, she needs to recognize the nature of the

personalities of the characters and their interactions and the emotional consequences of

those interactions. This information will then guide her preparation. The meanings of the

texts of the first two volumes are very obvious and their emotional content is well

defined, as for example in La Pastrouletta è lou Chibalié, from the second volume, the

text clearly presents the knight’s efforts to win the shepherdess’s affections even though

she is not interested. By contrast, in Jou l’Pount d’o Mirabel from volume four, the text

describes horsemen riding past Cotorino as she is crying, though the cause for her

reaction is unclear. Therefore, there is more complexity to the interpretation of the later

volumes, and the interactions of characters within these texts are more subtle and

ambiguous.

The second issue to address is the representation of women, for she becomes more

multi-dimensional as each volume is presented. In volume two, L’Antouèno presents a

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woman who is assertive whereas the silent male is passive. In volume three Jeanneton is a

self-centered girl who mocks a deformed male character in Lou Boussu. The fourth

volume presents Morgoridoto, in Oi Ayai, who is also self-centered and orders her

boyfriend about. Another text in volume four, Chut, Chut, introduces a young girl who

does not care if she completes the task her father assigned her, for she is more focused on

meeting her lover. Both volumes three and four use lullabies which are soliloquies

presented by mothers, who represent the most mature and responsible female characters

in the entire collection. In volume five, Pernette in Obal, din lo coumbèlo is the daughter

of a Prince, thus making her the only female character to be given a high class status. Là-

haut, sur le rocher from the same volume introduces a young maiden who is engaged to

an older man, but she is attracted to a new and younger acquaintance. This is the only

time we encounter this kind of emotional conflict in the Chants d’Auvergne.

The nature of interactions between men and women evolve throughout the five

volumes. In volume one the singer encounters several dialogues. In volumes two and

three, a character provides a soliloquy without interaction with another. Volume four

presents two dialogues and four soliloquies while the fifth volume presents five

soliloquies. Since three of those soliloquies are presented by a male character, the singer

needs to consider how to project a masculine identity during the course of these songs.

This is important to note for it will affect her posture, facial expressions, and overall

delivery of the characterization, particularly when the singer needs to switch between a

male and female character, such as in Lou Boussu from volume three.

Lastly, the singer will need to note how to present multiple characters within a

text, for there is a wide variety of characters introduced in the collection. Some are given

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an individual identity, by name or social status. All but one of the songs in volume one

present both male and female characters who appear to be of the same social class. In

volume two, a character is named in L’Antouèno. A knight of obviously high social

standing is the main character in La Pastrouletta è lou Chibalié, and an animal is a main

character in Lo Calhé. From volume to volume it appears that Canteloube uses texts

which provide a more personal significance to certain characters, thus requiring the

singer’s greater attention through the text as a guide to her characterization.

One will note the use of accompaniment is what makes these folksongs unique.

Canteloube uses several different musical ideas which represent the natural sounds of the

atmosphere that surrounded the folksong when it was performed. The accompaniment

also has text painting which represents the emotions and actions of the characters.

Canteloube uses certain musical traits which respond to the text and aid the

performer’s interpretation. The first of these traits are the various genres used. The most

frequently encountered is the bourrée. Volume one presents three bourrées, volume two

has two, volume three has one, and volume five has two. The bourrées in volumes one

and two are in succession and are connected by an improvisatory solo while the bourrées

in volume five are not. It is also important to note that the bourrées appear at the

conclusion of four of the five volumes.

In addition to bourrées, other genres are found in the collection. There are two

Regrets (La Delaïssádo in volume two and Uno Jionto Postouro in volume five), two

spinning songs (Lo fiolairé in volume three and Postouro, sé tu m’aymo in volume five),

two lullabies (Brezairola in volume three and Per L’èfon in volume four), and two work

songs (Passo pel prat in volume three and Obal, din lo coumbèlo in volume five). When

232
comparing two songs of the same genre, one should not expect them to be identical in

musical content or subject matter. One will note that the spinning song Lo fiolairé is a

soliloquy given by a shepherdess who, while at work, recalls a meeting with her lover,

while Postouro, sé tu m’aymo is sung by a shepherd who is trying to distract a

shepherdess from her work. On the other hand, the two lullabies use harmonic language

that, though different, do not resolve clearly and therefore underscores the uncertainty of

the outcome of the story. Lastly, the two work songs are extremely different in both text

and music material.

Within these various genres, the singer should also be aware that the prevailing

formal convention of the Chants d’Auvergne is through-composition. Twenty-seven of

the songs use this form while a few are presented in a modified strophic form, such as La

Pastrouletta è lou Chibalié from volume three. Brezairola from volume four is in a

ternary form where the third section is a shorter version of the first. The singer must

anticipate giving careful attention to the nuances of each phrase, simply because there is

very little use of strophic form, which would allow someone to perform the same melody

repeatedly.

Within these formal conventions, the singer will also note that the primary

tonality used in the Chants d’Auvergne is major. At times, the harmony does not reflect

the mood of the text, suggesting that Canteloube has separated affect from major and

minor scales. Therefore, if the singer anticipates that the major harmonies will coincide

with texts that are more optimistic, and minor with more pessimistic, she would be

mistaken. For example, the first Regret, La Delaïssádo from volume two, is in f minor,

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reflecting the somber mood of the text; however, the second Regret, Uno Jionto Postouro

in volume five, though equally serious, is set in the key of G major.

The evolution of human experience and interaction that is presented in the texts is

best demonstrated by the musical language of the settings. For example, a shared musical

trait in volumes one, two, and four is the “nature motive” which represents the natural

sounds of the landscape. It is first heard in Baïlèro from volume one in measure 3 of the

introduction as a sextuplet figure which alternates between two notes that are usually an

interval of a third apart. The other songs which use this motive present it in slightly

varied forms. Both L’aïo dè rotso, also from volume one, and Pastorale from volume

four use this motive to represent sounds of nature. From volume two N’aï pas iéu de mîo

presents the motive as a bird’s song. Both the accompaniments of Baïlèro and Pastorale

contain a continuous flow of sixteenth note figures which represent a river that is alluded

to in the texts.

Some of the songs from the Chants d’Auvergne can be sung by adolescent

singers, such as the songs in the first two volumes. The characters are not complicated

nor do the texts have hidden meanings. For the last three volumes, some of the songs may

require a more mature singer. For example, the two lullabies harmonizations suggest the

mother is tired and frustrated that her child will not sleep. A singer can, in a sense,

imagine what it is like to be a mother if she is not. However, as one becomes older, the

idea of being a mother is more understood. Experience itself also leads to the

understanding of the characters in the lullabies. The same can be said for the two Regret

songs. A younger singer will not have the social experience as an older singer. Therefore,

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the Regret songs will have more understanding and meaning portrayed if sung by a more

mature performer.

After studying these songs, it is evident that a mezzo-soprano would be able to

sing most of these songs. The vocal range does not exceed an octave and the tessitura is

usually focused in the middle of the octave or lower. Some sopranos may find this

tessitura uncomfortable to sing, for it may be within one of her passaggi.

Due to the small range and the length of the folksong melody, the vocal melody

will be easy for the singer to learn. Therefore, the singer should first learn the dialect. It is

important to note that a student needs to have studied and performed in the primary

required languages before attempting to sing in any dialect, especially one from a culture

as far removed from the 21st Century America as the Auvergnat is.

Once the dialect is understood and spoken correctly, the singer then needs to

apply the necessary physical movements required to interpret the text. Then the singer

will be ready to learn the melodic line and apply all that has been studied. The greatest

difficulty will lie with maintaining the character through the introductions, interludes, and

postludes.

If one examines the history of the recordings of these songs, a core repertory

emerges. Certain sets of songs are repeatedly recorded and have come to represent the

whole. Baïlèro is by far the song most recorded. Three other songs that are frequently

heard are: Lou boussu, Oi Ayai, and Lou Coucut. Some other songs usually heard are:

Obal dins lou Limouzi, La Delaïssádo, Brezairola, Malurous qu’o uno fenno, Tchut tchut,

and Uno jionto postouro. Other songs have been recorded by one or more artists, but

without the consistency of those mentioned above.

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This study shows that there are a number of songs that deserve greater attention,

for they are equally subtle, appealing, and challenging to the singer. The singer must,

through the text aided by the accompaniment, suggest the emotional setting that is taking

place, for there is no action observed. Therefore she must make the commentary for the

multiple characters.

In conclusion, the greatest challenge the singer will face when performing the

Chants d’Auvergne is to develop interpretations of each song that convey to the audience

the meanings both obvious and hidden within the texts. Therefore, thoughtful attention to

each score and its implications for performance is essential.

236
Bibliography

Ager, Dennis. Sociolinguistics and Contemporary French. Cambridge: Cambridge


University Press, 1990.

Bernac, Pierre. Interpretation of French Song. New York: W.W. Norton & Company,
1976.

Brangham, A.N. [Arthur Norman]. History, people, and places in Auvergne. Bourne End:
Spurbooks, 1977.

Cahours d’Aspry, Jean-Bernard. Joseph Canteloube (1879-1957) : chantre d’Auvergne et


d’ailleurs / Jean-Bernard Cahours d’Aspry. Biarritz : Séguier, c2000

Canteloube, Joseph. Anthologie des chants populaires français, groupés et présentés par
pays ou provinces. Paris, Durand, c1951.

Canteloube, Joseph, eds., Chants d’Auvergne, 5 vols. (Paris: Heugel & Cie., 1924 –
1953).

Canteloube, Joseph. Les Chants des Provinces Françaises. Paris: Didier, 1947.

Cougniaud-Raginel, Françoise. Joseph Canteloube : chantre de la terre / Françoise


Cougniaud-Raginel ; préface de Marcelle Benoit. Béziers : Société de
musicologie de Languedoc, 1988

“dragoon.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Oct 2nd,


2007 http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9031131

Grubb, Thomas. Singing in French: A manual of French diction and French vocal
repertoire. Schirmer Books. New York, 1979.

McCann, Lori E. A critical performing edition of selected songs from Chants d’Auvergne
collected and harmonized by Joseph Canteloube. Doctoral dissertation, University
of Cincinnati. 1996.

Merriam-Webster. French-English Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Inc., 2005.

Pauly, Elizabeth Mary. The solo voice music of Joseph Canteloube (1879-1957). Doctoral
dissertation, University of Missouri, 1995.

Smith, Richard Langham. “Canteloube, Joseph”. The New Grove Dictionary of Music
and Musicians, 2006.

Smith, Richard Langham, Joseph Canteloube The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians [database on- line]; accessed August 24th, 2007.

237
Steubing, Deborah Marie. The Setting of the Auvergnat-Dialect Folk Songs by Joseph
Canteloube in his Chants d’Auvergne: An Analysis of the Modal Aspects of the
Pure Folk Songs and Canteloube’s Diatonic/Pentatonic Accompaniments. Thesis,
University of Texas. 2001.

Discography

Auger, Arleen. Chants d’Auvergne/Songs of the Auvergne. English Chamber Orchestra,


Yan Pascal Tertelier, conductor. London: Virgin Classics, VC 790714-2, 1988.

Davrath, Netania. Songs of the Auvergne (Arranged by Joseph Canteloube). Pierre de la


Roche, conductor (no orchestra credited.) New York: Vanguard Recording
Society, VSD 713/14, 1972.

Los Angeles, Victoria de. Songs of the Auvergne/Chants d’Auvergne, arr. Canteloube.
Orchestre des concerts Lamoureux, Jean-Pierre Jacquillat, conductor. Hayes
Middlesex, England: EMI Records Ltd., CDM 7631782, 1990.

Te Kanawa, Kiri. Songs of the Auvergne. English Chamber Orchestra, London, Jeffrey
Tate conducting. London, 444 995-2, 1983-1984.

Te Kanawa, Kiri. Chants d’Auvergne and Bachianas Brasileiras No.5. Volume 2. English
Chamber Orchestra, London, Jeffrey Tate conducting. London, 411 730-2, 1984.

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Christina Romich, soprano
207 Canyon Rd.
Winchester, VA 22602
#540-662-4161
christinaromich@yahoo.com

Solo Performances
Shenandoah Conservatory engagements:
Voice Divisional – soloist 1999-2004
Senior Recital 2001
Honors Recital - soloist 2001
Choir Invitational Concert – soloist 2002
Chamber Orchestra Concert – soloist 2003
select arias from Cosi fan tutte
*Fiordiligi
Graduate Performance Forum - soloist 2003
Dance Concert – guest soloist 2004
Undergraduate Senior Recital – guest soloist 2004
-Trio from the Impresario
* Miss Silverpeal
Masters Recital 2004

West Virginia University engagements:


Studio Hour Performance – soloist 2004-2007
Young Artist Concerto Competition 2005
*Winner
Undergraduate Clarinet Recital – guest soloist 2005
*Shepherd on the Rock
Doctoral Recital 2005
Mozart Anniversary Concert – soloist 2006
select arias from Mozart operas
*Pamina in The Magic Flute
West Virginia University Choir Performance 2006
Elijah – soprano soloist
School Board Annual Gala – guest soloist 2006
NATSAA Competition 2006
*Winner
Opera Theatre program: Bernstein in Concert 2007
selections from Bernstein’s repertoire
*Cunegode from Candide
*Maria from Westside Story
Doctoral Recital 2007
Final Doctoral Lecture Recital 2011

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Professional solo engagements:
Church Services – guest soloist and choir member 2001- present
Wedding Services – guest soloist 2000- present
Front Royal Oratorio Society 2003
*Schubert’s Mass in G – soprano soloist
Women Cancer Society Gala – guest soloist 2006
Southwest Virginia Community Choir 2006
*Elijah – soprano guest soloist
Denyce Graves fundraiser (Loudoun Lyric Opera) 2008
“For the Love of Loudoun Arts” fundraiser 2008
David Fanning: Rutter Requiem 2008
*Soprano soloist
Christmas Service Concert 2007-2009
*Soprano soloist
Lutheran Church Choir: Faure Messe Breve 2011
*Soprano soloist

Choral Performances
Shenandoah University Engagements:
Cantus Singers 1997-1999
Viennese Opera Ball 1998
*Cantus Singers
Shenandoah Chorus 1999-2000
Shenandoah Conservatory Choir 2000-2001
Ceremony of Carols Concert 1997-2001
Shenandoah University Chapel Services 1997-2001
Community Church Services 1999-2000
*Shenandoah Chorus
Kennedy Center Choral Performances
*Cantus Singers 1998
*Conservatory Choir 2000
Bach Handel Festival
*Cantus Singers 1997-1998
*Conservatory Choir 2000

Opera Performances
Die Fledermaus - *Rosalinda 2003
Shenandoah University
Cosi fan tutte - *Fiordiligi 2005
Shenandoah University
Test Tube - *Darlene 2006
West Virginia University
Dialogues of the Carmelites - *Blanche 2006
West Virginia University

240
Die Fledermaus - *Rosalinda 2008
Loudoun Lyric Opera

Opera Scene Performances


Rusalka – Act One, Scene One - *Rusalka 2004
West Virginia University
Owen Wingrave – Act One - *Miss Wingrave 2004
Albert Herring – Mayday Festival - *Major(fill in) 2004
Summer and Smoke – Scenes 2 and 11 - *Alma 2007

Opera Scenes Directed


Albert Herring – Mayday Festival Scene 2004
West Virginia University
Die Fledermaus – selected scenes 2005
West Virginia University

Musical Theatre Performances


Into the Woods - *Bakers Wife 2005

Vocal Competitions
Shenandoah Concerto Competition – Finalist 2003, 2004
West Virginia University
Young Artist Concerto Competition – Winner 2005
NATSAA Competition – Regional Finalist 2004
NATS Competition – Winner 2006
NATSSA Competition – Regional Finalist 2006

Vocal Instructors
Vocal Teachers:
Bard Suverkrop 1997-1998
Aimé Sposato 1998-2004
Cynthia Conner-Bess 2004-2007
Michael Forest 2011

Vocal Coaches:
Karen Keating 2000 -2001, 2004
Jan Wagner 2003
Robert Thieme 2004-2007
Jim Brenner 2006
John Douglas 2006

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Church Employment
Unity of Shenandoah 2001 – 2009
- Soloist, Choir member

Unity of Shenandoah 2009-present


- Music Director

College Employment
Alderson-Broaddus College
- Private Vocal Teacher 2004
West Virginia University
- Private Vocal Teacher/Coach 2004-2007
- Vocal Pedagogy Teacher 2005-2006
- Opera Theatre Assistant Director 2004-2007
Shenandoah University 2008-2009
- Private Vocal Teacher

Public School Employment


Choral:
Clarke County High School 2001-2003
* Choral Director
Johnson Williams Middle School 2001-2003
* Choral Director
Broad Run High School 2002-2004
* Vocal Coach/Musical Accompanist

Instrumental:
Loudoun County High School 1997-1998
* Assistant Marching Band Director
Broad Run High School 2002-2004
* Assistant Marching Band Director

Drama:
Clarke County High School 2002-2003
* Musical Director, Assistant Director,
Choreographer for: Cinderella, Guys and Dolls

Teaching Employment
Loudoun Lyric Music Studio:
Founder in November 2007 2007 - present
Voice, Flute, and Piano Students

242
Loudoun Music
Voice Students 2007

Other Employment
Church
Unity of the Shenandoah 2009-present

Teaching Experience
Drama Camp Director 2000
* Presbyterian Church Camp
Shenandoah Arts Academy 2003-2004
- Private Vocal Teacher
College Substitute 2004-2006
- Lyric Diction at Shenandoah Conservatory
- Vocal Repertoire/Diction at West Virginia University
- Opera Theatre at West Virginia University
- Theory Classes as needed at West Virginia University

Awards, Recognitions, Scholarships


Shenandoah University:
MENC Outstanding New Member Award 1997
Honors Recital guest soloist 2001
Fellowship Scholarship 2001-2004

West Virginia University:


Opera Assistantship 2004-2007

Professional Affiliations
MENC at Shenandoah University 1997-2001
- Collegiate Member 1997-2001
- Chair Representative of Shenandoah 1997-2001
- Teacher Member 2001-2003

Kappa Kappa Psi – Band Fraternity 1999-2001


*Shenandoah University
-Vice President 2000-2001

Education
Doctorate in Vocal Performance 2004-2011
West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV

Masters in Vocal Pedagogy and Performance 2001-2004


Shenandoah University, Winchester, VA

243
Bachelors in Music Education 1997-2001
Shenandoah University, Winchester, VA

Vocal Performance Certificate 1999-2001


Shenandoah University, Winchester, VA

244