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You are on page 1of 19

1.0 ABSTRACT/SUMMARY 1

1.2 AIMS/OBJECTIVES 3

1.4 APPARATUS 6

1.6 RESULTS 8

2.0 RECOMMENDATIONS 15

2.1 REFERENCES 16

1.0 ABSTRACT/SUMMARY

Osborne Reynolds experiment is used to investigate the characteristic of the flow of the

liquid in the pipe which is also used to determine the Reynolds Number for each state of the

flow. The design of the apparatus allowed studying the characteristic of the flow of the fluid in

the pipe, the behavior of the flow and also to calculate the range for the laminar and turbulent

flow where the calculation is used to prove the Reynolds number is dimensionless by using the

Reynolds Number formula. For the first and second objectives, it involve running the Osborne

Reynolds equipment with different of water volume flow rate. In this experiment we fix the time,

which is 5 second to collect the amount of water. At the same time we also observe the

characteristic of the flow, there are laminar, transition and turbulent flow. From the data

collected we made calculation to estimate the range for laminar and turbulent flow. To prove that

the Reynolds number is dimensionless, we calculate by using the units only and using the

appropriate formula, it is proved that the Reynolds number is dimensionless.

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Osborne Reynolds (23 August 1842 – 21 February 1912) was a prominent innovator in

the understanding of fluid dynamics. Separately, his studies of heat transfer between solids and

fluids brought improvements in boiler and condenser design.

Reynolds most famously studied the conditions in which the flow of fluid in pipes

transitioned from laminar flow to turbulent flow. From these experiments came the

dimensionless Reynolds number for dynamic similarity — the ratio of inertial forces

to viscous forces. Reynolds also proposed what is now known as Reynolds of turbulent flows,

where quantities such as velocity are expressed as the sum of mean and fluctuating components.

Such averaging allows for 'bulk' description of turbulent flow, for example using the Reynolds-

averaged Navier-Stokes equations.

His publications in fluid dynamics began in the early 1870s. His final theoretical model

published in the mid 1890s is still the standard mathematical framework used today. Examples of

titles from his more groundbreaking reports:

➢ Improvements in Apparatus for Obtaining Motive Power from Fluids and also for

Raising or Forcing Fluids. (1875)

➢ An experimental investigation of the circumstances which determine whether the

motion of water in parallel channels shall be direct or sinuous and of the law of

resistance in parallel channels. (1883)

➢ On the dynamical theory of incompressible viscous fluids and the determination

of the criterion. (1895)

Reynolds' contributions to fluid mechanics were not lost on ship designers ("naval

architects"). The ability to make a small scale model of a ship, and extract useful predictive data

with respect to a full size ship, depends directly on the experimentalist applying Reynolds'

turbulence principles to friction drag computations, along with a proper application of William

Froude's theories of gravity wave energy and propagation. Reynolds himself had a number of

papers concerning ship design published in Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects

(2.1.4).

quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions. The

concept was introduced by George Gabriel Stokes in 1851, but the Reynolds number is named

after Osborne Reynolds (1842–1912), who popularized its use in 1883.

dynamics problems, and as such can be used to determine similitude between different

experimental cases. They are also used to characterize different flow regimes, such

as laminar or turbulent flow: laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where viscous

forces are dominant, and is characterized by smooth, constant fluid motion, while turbulent flow

occurs at high Reynolds numbers and is dominated by inertial forces, which tend to produce

chaotic eddies, vortices and other flow instabilities (2.1.8).

1.2 AIMS/OBJECTIVES

To prove that Reynolds number is dimensionless by using the formula:

Re = ρvdμ

1.3 THEORY

Reynolds’s number (Re) can be used to determine the fluid flow condition. The Reynolds’s

number is defined as

where ρ = the fluid density, V = the velocity of the fluid, L = an important length dimension for

the flow, µ = the dynamic viscosity, and ν = the kinematic viscosity where ν = µ / ρ. For pipe

flow, L is taken as the pipe diameter (D) (2.1.10).

Re can be interpreted as the ratio of the flow's inertial forces to its viscous forces. For

large viscous forces (low Re, normally Re < 2000 for pipe flows), viscous effects are great

enough to damp any disturbances or perturbations in the flow and the flow remains laminar. Any

combination of low velocity, small diameter, or high kinematic viscosity which results in Re <

2000 for pipe flow will produce laminar flow. The flow is called "laminar" because the flow

takes place in layers. The only mixing that occurs is molecular mixing between the layers or

between different parts of the flow. For large inertial forces (large Re, normally Re > 4000 for

pipe flows), there is not enough viscous damping to remove any disturbances in the flow. Again,

any combination of V, D, and n giving Re > 4000 will produce turbulent flow. As Re increases,

the viscous damping of flow disturbances or perturbations decreases relative to the inertial

effects. Because of a lack of viscous damping, disturbances are amplified until the entire flow

breaks down into in irregular motion. There is still a definite flow direction, but there is an

irregular motion superimposed on the average motion. Thus, for turbulent flow in a pipe, the

fluid is flowing in the downstream direction, but fluid particles have an irregular motion in

addition to the average motion. This effect is illustrated by the pathlines in Figure 1.3a; pathlines

give a Lagrangian description of flow. The turbulent fluctuations are inherently unsteady and

three dimensional. As a result, particles which pass though a given point in the flow do not

follow the same path in turbulent flow even though they all are flowing generally downstream.

Since the velocities of all fluid particles are continually changing, the Eulerian velocities

at a point or at several points are also changing. This effect is shown in the next two figures.

Figure 1.3b shows the time averaged velocity distribution across a diameter of a pipe and then

illustrates the unsteadiness in the turbulent components of the velocities. Figure 1.3c shows the

time-averaged velocity at a point and the continual variation of instantaneous velocity due to the

turbulent fluctuations.

Figure 1.3c Time history of Eulerian velocity at a point

parcels of fluid that are rotating in an irregular fashion as the fluid flows. This rotating parcel of

fluid are sometimes called billows or eddies. Time-lapse pictures of clouds moving across the

sky illustrate the billowing or eddy character of turbulent flows.

Flows with 2000 < Re < 4000 are called transitional. The flow can be unstable and the

flow switch back and forth between turbulent and laminar conditions. This transitional flow was

seen in the first lab with water flow from the 1/4 in. copper tube. The pulsating jet of water from

the end of the tube was an indication of the transitional flow with the flow switching back and

forth between being laminar and turbulent (2.1.7).

1.4 APPARATUS

Osborne Reynolds Apparatus comprise of a re-entrant bell mouthed glass experimental tube

of 16 mm bore and approximately 790 mm long mounted horizontally in a 103 mm bore perspex

tube. This apparatus was designed purposely to view the flow of three regimes, laminar,

transition and turbulent.

The experiment includes water supply from a tank with clear test section tube and “bell

mouth” entrance, dye injector with needle valve control to ensure the precision metering of the

dye, rotameter flow meter to measure the water flow rate and a bottle of dye containing red

coloured dye.

All the apparatus is mounted on the Hydraulic Bench (P6100) on the locating spigots of the

working surface so that the unit straddles the weir trough and the outlet feeds into the measuring

tank. A water supply is then connected from the P6100 Hydraulic Bench to the variable height

header tank, which should be mounted midway on its support stand.

Next, the water supply is turn on and make sure that all air in the system is displaced prior to

proceeding with the investigation. The water flow is regulated to give steady flow in the system

with water just trickling out of the header tank overflow. After that this overflow is directed to

into the Hydraulic Bench. The water level is ensured to be above the level in the inner bell

mouthed glass tube. Measurement of the flow rate of the water is achieved by using the

Hydraulic Bench volumetric measuring tank or a smaller graduated vessel and the collection of

water of 100 ml is timed by collecting the water in a container.

1.5 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1. The apparatus is set up with the dye reservoir fitted and filled and with a steady flow of

water through the inner tube.

2. The small cock is opened on the base of reservoir to permit dye to flow from the nozzles

at the entrance of the cannel. This will be visible as a colored stream along the passage. If

the dye accumulates around the nozzle, increase the velocity of water flow in the passage

and / or regulate the flow from the dye reservoir. N.B Dye flow adjustments are made

using the tube outlet tap.

3. The stream will be visible along the whole length of the passage under laminar flow

conditions. If it is not so, reduce the water flow until a continuous stream of dye is visible

along the passage.

4. The outlet water flows are taken for five seconds and the volume are recorded.

5. Steps 3-4 are repeated for transition and turbulent flow.

6. Clean all the apparatus completed of any trace of water containing dye before returning

the apparatus to store.

1.6 RESULTS

(s) (mL) (m )

3

rate pipe v (m/s) v hf/l

(m /s)

3

(m )

2

10-5

x 10 -5

10 -4

8 1.013 6 2.955

10-5

x 10 -5

10 -4

4 1.018 7 2.960

10-5

x 10 -5

10 -4

8 1.013 6 2.955

10-4

x 10 -5

10 -4

2 0.790 7 2.443

10-4

x 10 -5

10 -4

3 0.796 3 2.453

10-4 x 10-5 10-4 7 0.788 5 2.439

10-4

x 10 -5

10 -4

4 0.616 8 2.138

10-4

x 10 -5

10 -4

8 0.614 1 2.136

10-4 x 10-5 10-4 9 0.618 0 2.142

1.7 CALCULATIONS

=π(0.016)24

= 2.011 x 10-4 m2

= 9.80 x 10-5 / 5

= 1.96 x 10-5 m3 / s

= 0.097 m / s

= Laminar

Friction factor, f = (for laminar)

64

Re

=

64

1730.98

= 0.0370

0.316

1

Re 4

Head loss, hf =

flv 2

2 Dg

= 0.000876

1.8 DISCUSSION

The Osborne Reynolds has developed a theory about the flows of fluid in a system. He

used the dimensionless parameter called Reynolds number (Re) to check whether the fluid flow

is laminar or turbulent. If the Re is less than 2000, therefore the fluid is in laminar condition.

Laminar flow, sometimes known as streamline flow, occurs when a fluid flows in parallel

layers, with no disruption between the layers. In fluid dynamics, laminar flow is a flow regime

characterized by high momentum diffusion and low momentum convection and in nonscientific

terms laminar flow is "smooth."

While doing this experiment, we can see that the red dye flows smoothly in a straight

line. The laminar flow actually follows the curve surfaced of the airfoil smoothly in layers. With

lower rate of water, the closer the fluid layers to the airfoil surface hence they move slower.

Therefore the water particles follow a straight line parallel to the axis of the pipe without any

disturbance to the flowing condition that we can see as almost a straight line. Moreover the fluid

layers slide over one another without any changes between the layers.

As we increase the flow rate of water flow, it will disturb the stable flow pattern of

laminar. This disturbed flow of fluid known as transition flow. In this case, the fluid can be said

that at the middle of transformation from laminar to turbulent. Hence, the flow pattern consists of

not very smooth laminar and the beginning form of turbulent flow. The Re for transition flow is

between 2000 and 4000.

As the flow rate of water is further increased, the turbulent flow occurred with the Re

number is greater than 4000. As the speed increases, at some point the transition is made to

turbulent flow. The small disturbances becoming extreme and result in totally unsteady flow

throughout the cross section. Straight line can no longer be observed as the dye broke the line

into a turbulent flow. The dye mixes rapidly and completely and it is difficult to see by the naked

eyes. Besides that, the average motion is in the direction of flow and the fluctuation is very

difficult to detect. As a result of this mixing, the velocity gradient at the wall is higher than that

seen in a laminar flow at the same Reynolds number, so that the shear stress at the wall is

correspondingly larger. Turbulent flow is not restricted to flow in the pipe. It occurs as well in

flow over surfaces or objects. In fact, it may occur in every type of flow provided that the

Reynolds number is sufficiently high. In some cases, turbulent flow will appear “naturally” in

laminar flow as in smoke rising in the air and sometimes it can occur by causing disturbances in

the laminar flow.

1.9 CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, we can know the type of fluid flow of laminar, transition and turbulent

by using the dimensionless parameter, Reynolds number (Re). For laminar flow, Reynolds

number is bellow 2000 while transition is between 2000 and 4000. Turbulent flow has Reynolds

number more than 4000. This Reynolds number can be obtained by calculation based on the

formula derived by Osborne Reynolds in 1883. From the calculation it is proven that the

parameter is dimensionless.

Laminar flow

b) They move with low

velocity

c) Dye does not mix with water

d) Fluid particles move in straight lines

e) Simple mathematical analysis possible

f) Rare in practice in water systems

g) Small shear stress

Transitional flow

b) Move with medium velocity

c) Dye stream wavers in water and start mixes slightly

d) Medium shear stress

e) There is a small disturbance occurred in the fluid

Turbulent flow

a) Re over 4000

b) Move with high velocity

c) Dye mixes rapidly and completely with water

d) Large shear stress

e) Large disturbance occurred in the fluid

f) Average motion is in the direction of the flow

g) Cannot be seen by the naked eye

h) Changes/fluctuations are very difficult to detect, must use laser.

i) Mathematical analysis very difficult - so experimental measures are used

j) Most common type of flow

The velocity or rate of water flow in the tube can affect the types of flow. When the

velocity is high, the rapid water flow will break the dye line to become turbulent flow.

Oppositely, laminar flow will occur when the rate of water flow is at the lowest. The dye can be

viewed as a straight line. Average velocity during the interchange between the laminar to

turbulent flow will give transition condition. Transition flow can be observed as a combination

between straight lines and curved line.

From the experiment, Reynolds concludes that the type of flow dependent on:

ii. the pipe diameter

iii. the viscosity of the fluids

iv. the density of the fluids

2.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

Compare with the result diagram in the laboratory, there are bit different between the

results collected. This might be some of parallax error such as the slow response during

collecting the water, the position of eyes during taking the value of water volume, time taken for

the volume of water and regulating the valve which control the flow rate of water unstably.

During the experiment there are several precaution steps that need to be alert. The

experiment should be done at suitable and unshaken place. To get appropriate laminar smooth

stream flow, the clip and the valve which control the injection of red dye must be regulate slow

and carefully. When removing the beaker from the exit valve, we notice that some water still

enter the beaker because of the slow response between the person who guide the stop watch and

collecting beaker. So to avoid this parallax error, it is better to take same person who guard the

stop watch and the collecting beaker.

Lastly, do this experiment at steady place, control the clip and valve carefully to get long

thin of laminar dye flow, and remove the beaker which uses to collect the amount of water at

sharp when the time is up, to avoid error flow rate error.

2.1 REFERENCES

(2.1.1)Bruce R. Munson, Donald F. Young, John Wiley & son, Inc, FUNDAMENTAL

OF FLUID MECHANICS, 2nd edition, 22,413, 414.

(2.1.2)Turbulent Flow in Engineering, John Wiley and Son

(2.1.3)http://www.chonchol.com/worksamples.htm

(2.1.4)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reynolds_number

(2.1.5)LAB MANUAL

(2.1.6)B.S.Massey. Mechanics of Fluids. Second Edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

1970. New York(pg 122)

(2.1.7)Reuben M. Olson. 1980. Essentials of Engineering Fluid Mechanics. 4th Edition. New

York. Harper & Row Publishers. Page 465 – 472

(2.1.8)Tasos. C. Papanastasiou. 1994. Applied Fluid Mechanics. United States of America.

Prentice-Hall, Inc. Page 24-26

(2.1.9)Frank P. Incropera, David P. DeWitt, 2002, Fundamental of Heat and Mass

Transfer, United State of America, 5th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc

(2.1.10)Eckert.E.R.G. Introduction To Heat and Mass Transfer. McGRAW Hill Book

Company.1963. New York.(pg7-9)

2.2 APPENDICES

Figure 2.2b Osborne Reynolds Apparatus

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