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0 RECOMMENDATIONS 2.1 REFERENCES 2.2 APPENDICES
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Reynolds also proposed what is now known as Reynolds of turbulent flows. the behavior of the flow and also to calculate the range for the laminar and turbulent flow where the calculation is used to prove the Reynolds number is dimensionless by using the Reynolds Number formula. we calculate by using the units only and using the appropriate formula. his studies of heat transfer between solids and fluids brought improvements in boiler and condenser design. From these experiments came the dimensionless Reynolds number for dynamic similarity — the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. it involve running the Osborne Reynolds equipment with different of water volume flow rate. His final theoretical model published in the mid 1890s is still the standard mathematical framework used today.1 INTRODUCTION Osborne Reynolds (23 August 1842 – 21 February 1912) was a prominent innovator in the understanding of fluid dynamics. Reynolds most famously studied the conditions in which the flow of fluid in pipes transitioned from laminar flow to turbulent flow.0 ABSTRACT/SUMMARY Osborne Reynolds experiment is used to investigate the characteristic of the flow of the liquid in the pipe which is also used to determine the Reynolds Number for each state of the flow. From the data collected we made calculation to estimate the range for laminar and turbulent flow. For the first and second objectives. Separately. which is 5 second to collect the amount of water. there are laminar. In this experiment we fix the time. 1. for example using the Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes equations. Such averaging allows for 'bulk' description of turbulent flow. transition and turbulent flow. it is proved that the Reynolds number is dimensionless.1. The design of the apparatus allowed studying the characteristic of the flow of the fluid in the pipe. At the same time we also observe the characteristic of the flow. His publications in fluid dynamics began in the early 1870s. To prove that the Reynolds number is dimensionless. where quantities such as velocity are expressed as the sum of mean and fluctuating components. Examples of titles from his more groundbreaking reports: .
(1883) ➢ On the dynamical theory of incompressible viscous fluids and the determination of the criterion. Reynolds numbers frequently arise when performing dimensional analysis of fluid dynamics problems. The concept was introduced by George Gabriel Stokes in 1851. In fluid mechanics. (1895) Reynolds' contributions to fluid mechanics were not lost on ship designers ("naval architects"). along with a proper application of William Froude's theories of gravity wave energy and propagation. the Reynolds number Re is a dimensionless number that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and consequently quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions. vortices and other flow instabilities (2. They are also used to characterize different flow regimes. while turbulent flow occurs at high Reynolds numbers and is dominated by inertial forces. Reynolds himself had a number of papers concerning ship design published in Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects (2. which tend to produce chaotic eddies. constant fluid motion. depends directly on the experimentalist applying Reynolds' turbulence principles to friction drag computations. and as such can be used to determine similitude between different experimental cases. such as laminar or turbulent flow: laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds numbers. and extract useful predictive data with respect to a full size ship.1. .1. and is characterized by smooth.➢ Improvements in Apparatus for Obtaining Motive Power from Fluids and also for Raising or Forcing Fluids. but the Reynolds number is named after Osborne Reynolds (1842–1912). (1875) ➢ An experimental investigation of the circumstances which determine whether the motion of water in parallel channels shall be direct or sinuous and of the law of resistance in parallel channels. who popularized its use in 1883.4).8). where viscous forces are dominant. The ability to make a small scale model of a ship.
The dimensionless Reynolds’s number (Re) can be used to determine the fluid flow condition. Re can be interpreted as the ratio of the flow's inertial forces to its viscous forces. Because of a lack of viscous damping. small diameter. For large viscous forces (low Re.10). The only mixing that occurs is molecular mixing between the layers or between different parts of the flow. µ = the dynamic viscosity. or high kinematic viscosity which results in Re < 2000 for pipe flow will produce laminar flow. or transitional.3 THEORY Fluid flow can be characterized as laminar. any combination of V. and n giving Re > 4000 will produce turbulent flow. viscous effects are great enough to damp any disturbances or perturbations in the flow and the flow remains laminar. disturbances are amplified until the entire flow breaks down into in irregular motion. Again. L is taken as the pipe diameter (D) (2. D. The flow is called "laminar" because the flow takes place in layers. and ν = the kinematic viscosity where ν = µ / ρ. transition and turbulent flow To prove that Reynolds number is dimensionless by using the formula: Re = ρvdμ 1. there is not enough viscous damping to remove any disturbances in the flow. Thus. Any combination of low velocity. the viscous damping of flow disturbances or perturbations decreases relative to the inertial effects. but there is an irregular motion superimposed on the average motion. for turbulent flow in a pipe. V = the velocity of the fluid. As Re increases. the . normally Re > 4000 for pipe flows). There is still a definite flow direction. normally Re < 2000 for pipe flows). L = an important length dimension for the flow.1. turbulent. For large inertial forces (large Re.1. For pipe flow.2 AIMS/OBJECTIVES To observe the characteristics of laminar. The Reynolds’s number is defined as where ρ = the fluid density.
pathlines give a Lagrangian description of flow. but fluid particles have an irregular motion in addition to the average motion. Figure 1. This effect is illustrated by the pathlines in Figure 1. Figure 1. particles which pass though a given point in the flow do not follow the same path in turbulent flow even though they all are flowing generally downstream. The turbulent fluctuations are inherently unsteady and three dimensional.3a.3b Eulerian velocity distributions at different times .3c shows the time-averaged velocity at a point and the continual variation of instantaneous velocity due to the turbulent fluctuations.3b shows the time averaged velocity distribution across a diameter of a pipe and then illustrates the unsteadiness in the turbulent components of the velocities. the Eulerian velocities at a point or at several points are also changing.3a Lagrangian pathlines in turbulent flow Since the velocities of all fluid particles are continually changing. Figure 1. As a result.fluid is flowing in the downstream direction. Figure 1. This effect is shown in the next two figures.
This transitional flow was seen in the first lab with water flow from the 1/4 in.1. copper tube.3c Time history of Eulerian velocity at a point The instability or unsteadiness in turbulent flows is sometimes viewed as being due to parcels of fluid that are rotating in an irregular fashion as the fluid flows. Flows with 2000 < Re < 4000 are called transitional. The pulsating jet of water from the end of the tube was an indication of the transitional flow with the flow switching back and forth between being laminar and turbulent (2. . The flow can be unstable and the flow switch back and forth between turbulent and laminar conditions.7).Figure 1. Time-lapse pictures of clouds moving across the sky illustrate the billowing or eddy character of turbulent flows. This rotating parcel of fluid are sometimes called billows or eddies.
rotameter flow meter to measure the water flow rate and a bottle of dye containing red coloured dye.1. . All the apparatus is mounted on the Hydraulic Bench (P6100) on the locating spigots of the working surface so that the unit straddles the weir trough and the outlet feeds into the measuring tank. which should be mounted midway on its support stand. Measurement of the flow rate of the water is achieved by using the Hydraulic Bench volumetric measuring tank or a smaller graduated vessel and the collection of water of 100 ml is timed by collecting the water in a container. The water level is ensured to be above the level in the inner bell mouthed glass tube. The experiment includes water supply from a tank with clear test section tube and “bell mouth” entrance. The water flow is regulated to give steady flow in the system with water just trickling out of the header tank overflow. Next. This apparatus was designed purposely to view the flow of three regimes. After that this overflow is directed to into the Hydraulic Bench.4 APPARATUS Osborne Reynolds Apparatus comprise of a re-entrant bell mouthed glass experimental tube of 16 mm bore and approximately 790 mm long mounted horizontally in a 103 mm bore perspex tube. A water supply is then connected from the P6100 Hydraulic Bench to the variable height header tank. dye injector with needle valve control to ensure the precision metering of the dye. laminar. transition and turbulent. the water supply is turn on and make sure that all air in the system is displaced prior to proceeding with the investigation.
5 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 1. N. 2. The small cock is opened on the base of reservoir to permit dye to flow from the nozzles at the entrance of the cannel. 6. The apparatus is set up with the dye reservoir fitted and filled and with a steady flow of water through the inner tube. 4. Steps 3-4 are repeated for transition and turbulent flow. reduce the water flow until a continuous stream of dye is visible along the passage. The stream will be visible along the whole length of the passage under laminar flow conditions. This will be visible as a colored stream along the passage. Clean all the apparatus completed of any trace of water containing dye before returning the apparatus to store. . 5. 3. increase the velocity of water flow in the passage and / or regulate the flow from the dye reservoir.1.B Dye flow adjustments are made using the tube outlet tap. The outlet water flows are taken for five seconds and the volume are recorded. If it is not so. If the dye accumulates around the nozzle.
63 x 10 -4 3.00086 7 5 98 9.3 8 Turbulent 0.142 5 97 9.42 x 10-4 4.096 1713.0390 0.64 x 10-4 3.70 x 10 -5 1.618 0.26 x 10 -5 2.80 x 10 -5 1.011 x 10 -4 0.163 2908.00287 5 5 243 2.955 2.011 x 10-4 0.00087 6 5 163 1.0389 0.00087 6 2.5 4 Turbulent 0.1.011 x 10 -4 0.011 x 10 -4 0.013 0.00578 1 5 242 2.43 x 10 -4 0.9 8 Laminar 1.243 4336.9 2 Transition 0.616 0.011 x 10-4 2.9 8 Laminar 1.443 2.011 x 10 -4 0.0431 0.011 x 10 -4 0.2 3 Transition 0.6 RESULTS Time (s) Volume (mL) Volume (m ) 3 Flow rate (m /s) 3 Area of pipe (m ) 2 Velocity.00278 3 5 164 1.160 2855.96 x 10 -5 2.00284 7 5 161 1.88 x 10 -5 2.788 0.439 2.80 x 10 -5 1.614 0.011 x 10 -4 0.22 x 10 -5 2.28 x 10-5 4.0370 0.0390 0.00570 0 .0374 0.013 0. v (m/s) Re Condition Log v f hf Log hf/l 5 98 9.955 2.242 4318.94 x 10 -5 2.018 0.162 2890.61 x 10 -4 3.011 x 10 -4 0.960 2.796 0.0430 0.0432 0.241 4300.6 9 Turbulent 0.1 4 Laminar 1.44 x 10 -4 4.7 7 Transition 0.136 2.790 0.84 x 10-5 2.138 2.86 x 10 -5 2.097 1730.0370 0.00574 8 5 244 2.097 1730.96 x 10 -5 2.453 2.
d = 0. A=πd24 =π(0.097 m / s Reynolds number. v = Flow rate (m3s)Area (m2) = 1.80 x 10-5 / 5 = 1.96 x 10-5 m3 / s Velocity.79 m Viscosity of water.1.966 x 10-4 Ns / m2 Cross-sectional area of the pipe.7 CALCULATIONS Sample of calculations for first data recorded:Density of water.011 x 10-4 m2 Flow rate = Volume (m3)Time (s) = 9. l = 0. µ (assume 25 ºC) = 8.966 x 10-4) = 1730.016) / (8.016 m Length of tube.96 x 10-5 / 2.011 x 10-4 m2 = 0. Re = ρvdμ = (1000 x 0.016)24 = 2.98 < 2000 = Laminar .097 x 0. ρ = 1000 kg / m3 Diameter of tube.
f = 0.316 1 (for transition and turbulent) Re 4 Head loss. f = 64 Re (for laminar) = 64 1730.0370 Friction factor.98 = 0.Friction factor.000876 . hf = flv 2 2 Dg = 0.
If the Re is less than 2000. Besides that. sometimes known as streamline flow. In fluid dynamics. As a result of this mixing. the flow pattern consists of not very smooth laminar and the beginning form of turbulent flow. the closer the fluid layers to the airfoil surface hence they move slower.1. As we increase the flow rate of water flow." While doing this experiment. we can see that the red dye flows smoothly in a straight line. As the flow rate of water is further increased. so that the shear stress at the wall is . The Re for transition flow is between 2000 and 4000. Laminar flow. the average motion is in the direction of flow and the fluctuation is very difficult to detect. With lower rate of water. occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers. it will disturb the stable flow pattern of laminar. Hence. the velocity gradient at the wall is higher than that seen in a laminar flow at the same Reynolds number. with no disruption between the layers.8 DISCUSSION The Osborne Reynolds has developed a theory about the flows of fluid in a system. the fluid can be said that at the middle of transformation from laminar to turbulent. Moreover the fluid layers slide over one another without any changes between the layers. Therefore the water particles follow a straight line parallel to the axis of the pipe without any disturbance to the flowing condition that we can see as almost a straight line. The dye mixes rapidly and completely and it is difficult to see by the naked eyes. Straight line can no longer be observed as the dye broke the line into a turbulent flow. As the speed increases. at some point the transition is made to turbulent flow. laminar flow is a flow regime characterized by high momentum diffusion and low momentum convection and in nonscientific terms laminar flow is "smooth. The laminar flow actually follows the curve surfaced of the airfoil smoothly in layers. The small disturbances becoming extreme and result in totally unsteady flow throughout the cross section. This disturbed flow of fluid known as transition flow. In this case. the turbulent flow occurred with the Re number is greater than 4000. therefore the fluid is in laminar condition. He used the dimensionless parameter called Reynolds number (Re) to check whether the fluid flow is laminar or turbulent.
Reynolds number is bellow 2000 while transition is between 2000 and 4000. Turbulent flow is not restricted to flow in the pipe. transition and turbulent by using the dimensionless parameter. From the calculation it is proven that the parameter is dimensionless. Reynolds number (Re).9 CONCLUSION As a conclusion. This Reynolds number can be obtained by calculation based on the formula derived by Osborne Reynolds in 1883. For laminar flow. Turbulent flow has Reynolds number more than 4000. Each type of the fluid flow have their own characteristics: Laminar flow a) The Re below 2000 b) They move with low velocity c) Dye does not mix with water d) Fluid particles move in straight lines e) Simple mathematical analysis possible f) Rare in practice in water systems g) Small shear stress . 1. In some cases. turbulent flow will appear “naturally” in laminar flow as in smoke rising in the air and sometimes it can occur by causing disturbances in the laminar flow.correspondingly larger. we can know the type of fluid flow of laminar. it may occur in every type of flow provided that the Reynolds number is sufficiently high. In fact. It occurs as well in flow over surfaces or objects.
Transitional flow a) Re between 2000 and 4000 b) Move with medium velocity c) Dye stream wavers in water and start mixes slightly d) Medium shear stress e) There is a small disturbance occurred in the fluid Turbulent flow a) Re over 4000 b) Move with high velocity c) Dye mixes rapidly and completely with water d) Large shear stress .
the average velocity of the fluids ii. The dye can be viewed as a straight line. When the velocity is high. i) Mathematical analysis very difficult . the rapid water flow will break the dye line to become turbulent flow. Transition flow can be observed as a combination between straight lines and curved line. laminar flow will occur when the rate of water flow is at the lowest. the viscosity of the fluids iv. Oppositely. the pipe diameter iii. Reynolds concludes that the type of flow dependent on: i. the density of the fluids . From the experiment. must use laser. Average velocity during the interchange between the laminar to turbulent flow will give transition condition.so experimental measures are used j) Most common type of flow The velocity or rate of water flow in the tube can affect the types of flow.e) Large disturbance occurred in the fluid f) Average motion is in the direction of the flow g) Cannot be seen by the naked eye h) Changes/fluctuations are very difficult to detect.
The experiment should be done at suitable and unshaken place. the clip and the valve which control the injection of red dye must be regulate slow and carefully. we notice that some water still enter the beaker because of the slow response between the person who guide the stop watch and collecting beaker. do this experiment at steady place. it is better to take same person who guard the stop watch and the collecting beaker. the position of eyes during taking the value of water volume.0 RECOMMENDATIONS Compare with the result diagram in the laboratory. . To get appropriate laminar smooth stream flow.2. there are bit different between the results collected. When removing the beaker from the exit valve. Lastly. to avoid error flow rate error. time taken for the volume of water and regulating the valve which control the flow rate of water unstably. During the experiment there are several precaution steps that need to be alert. So to avoid this parallax error. This might be some of parallax error such as the slow response during collecting the water. and remove the beaker which uses to collect the amount of water at sharp when the time is up. control the clip and valve carefully to get long thin of laminar dye flow.
McGRAW Hill Book Company. Young.10)Eckert. C. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.6)B.1)Bruce R.9)Frank P. Incropera.1. Page 24-26 (2. John Wiley & Sons.1. 1994. Fundamental of Heat and Mass Transfer.1. United State of America. FUNDAMENTAL OF FLUID MECHANICS.htm (2.7)Reuben M. New York.1. DeWitt.1. David P.com/worksamples. Essentials of Engineering Fluid Mechanics. Olson. Inc (2. (2.1.R. Introduction To Heat and Mass Transfer. Papanastasiou.3)http://www.1 REFERENCES (2.413.wikipedia.(pg7-9) .G. 2nd edition.org/wiki/Reynolds_number (2.E. Harper & Row Publishers. Second Edition.1963.chonchol.2)Turbulent Flow in Engineering. New York(pg 122) (2. United States of America. New York. 1980.8)Tasos. 1970.2.S.1. Page 465 – 472 (2. Mechanics of Fluids. John Wiley & son.5)LAB MANUAL (2. 414. Munson. Inc.1.1. 2002.4)http://en. 5th Edition. 4th Edition. Applied Fluid Mechanics. John Wiley and Son (2.Massey. Donald F. 22.1. Inc. Prentice-Hall.
2a Flows of fluid .2 APPENDICES Figure 2.2.
Figure 2.2c Graph of Log hf/l vs Log v .2b Osborne Reynolds Apparatus Figure 2.