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EDUCATION AND TRAINING EQUIPMENT

In a:cordancewidl die ElecttomagneticCompatibility (Amendmem)Regulations 1994 (SI No 3080)
andEMC Directive89/336'EECandCE MarkingDirective93/68/EEC.

This~ complieswith die abovedirectivesunderdie followingclause:

The use of the apparaws outside die classroom, JaOOratOry, sbldy area CKsimilar such
pL1K:einvalidates confonnity widl die protection requirements of the Electtomagnetic
Compatibility Directive (89/334/EEC) and could lead to prosecution.

P.A. HILTON LIMITED

HorsebridgeMill, King's Sombome.
Stockbridge,Hampshire, SO20 6PX.
England.

Tel No. National Ramsey (01794) 388382
International +44 1794 388382

Fax No. +44 1794388129

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INDEX

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SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 1

SYMBOLS AND UNITS 2

SUFFIXFS 3

INTRODUCTION 4

THE IUL TON AIR AND WATER IlEA T PUMP 5
InstalJationand Commissioning 5
Specification 6
Description 8
Operation 9
Safety Devices 10
MaintenaIx:e 11
Fault Fmding 12

THEORY: The Heat Pump - Thennodynamicsof ReversedCamot and
Yapom'Com~sion Cycles 13

USEFUL DATA 21

LOW GRADE ENERGY SOURC~ 22

CAPABILITIES OF IDL TON AIR AND WATER REA T PUMP 23
1. Detenninationof Power Input. Heat Delivered and CoPH 24
2. Productionof Heat Pwnp PerfonnanceCmves over a range of source
and delivery temperatures 26
3. Plotting the Vapour CompressionCycle on a p-h diagramand
comparingit with the Ideal Cycle 32
4. Productionof Heat Pwnp PerfonnanceCmves t.sed on the HFC 134a
properties81a variety of evap(n1ing and condensingtemperatures 3S
S. Energy Balancesfor the comJK)nents
and the whole cycle 42
6. Estimation of Volumetric Efficiency of the Compressorat a rangeof
pressme~ 46
7. Estimation of Overall Heat TransferCoefficients in the Evaporator
and Condenser so

TYPICAL OBSERVAnON SHEET (blank) 54

TYPICAL DERIVED RESULTS SHEET (blank) 55

GRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS
p-h Chan for Rl34a (blank) 56
Wiring DiagnIm 57
TransfonnerConnections S8

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) V Volume Fk>wRate m's. Ko1 v Specific Volume m' kg.. As an example: p . 10'N mol = 10'Pa c 100tN mol . Pressure Ratio s SpecifICEn~ J kg. numerical quantities obtained during experiments.2. d1ephysical quantity involved hasbeendivided by the units in which it has beenmeasured.2 SYMBOLS AND UNITS Svmool Quantitv Fundamental ~ CoPH Heat Pump Coefficient of PerfonTlance Cp SpecificHeatCapacity~ J kg"1 K-1 dT h Specific Enthalpy d1 Mass Flow Rate W Power w Pressure (Absolute) . are ex~ in a non- dimensionalmanner.) w W<XkTransferper Unit Mass J kg. That is.--' or p .etc. N m-1or Pa p Q Heat Transfer Rate W q Heat Transfer per Unit Mass r.l Ko1 t Tcmpcranue(Customary) OC T Temperature(Ab~lute) K U Overall Heat TransferCoefficient W m. 150 Thisindicaresthat 10' N.l x Time Interval s 11 Efficicocy 9 Tempcranue Difference K Presentation of Numerical Data In dris manual. 150 x 10' N m-2 alternatively p = ISO kN m-2 -Note:1 Bar .

erInlet to COO1~ Cooling Coil and EvaporatorInlet 6 Water at ConoonserInlet 7 WateJ'at Conde~ Outlet 8 Water at Evaporalm'Outlet a Ambient Air c Condenser e Evaporaux- r HR' 1348 w Water (general) sat Sablration t~ . 3 SUFFI~ AND/OR STATES 1 HFCl34aat CompressorInlet 2 HFCl34a at CompressorDelivery 3 ~l34a at CondenserOutlet 4 HFCl34aat Ex~on ValveOudet s Wat.

. Theseapplicationsmay be spaceheating. In these applicationsa heat plJDp can provide energysavings asswning that the scale and utilisation factors justify the increasedcapital cmts.canpressorsand filter/driers are usedon the unit. In dJemajority of theseapplicatiom d1eemphasisis upon maintaininga product or ~ a1a low temperaturewhilst rejectingthe heatex~ted to a sink a1 a higher temperahlre. This sink is usually the abnosphere. FCX'examplelarge dairy farms require chilled water for cooling the milk and heated water for washing and cleaning of pipework. UDlradiD2 or Heat The ClausiusSwcment of the SecoooLaw of Thennodynamicsstatesthat heat will not passfrom a cold to a hotter regioo witboot an "externalagerx:y"being employed.e CFC12 which bas been commonly used in danestic and c(XDmelcialrefrigeratorsand air conditioning systemsfor many years.water heatingor combinedapplications. The Hilton Air and Water ~ PumpR831 is a V3JX>ur compressioncycle unit utilising a small work input to aansfer heat from either an air CI'water sourceevaporatorto a water cooled condenser. It is taential that no gas odler d1anfOCl34a is addedto the R831 syStemand mat no mineral oil is addedto the unit The oil utilised is an Ester desipd exclusively for use with HFCI34a.pressuresand power inputs are measuredenabling the complete cycle to be investigatedroth diagrammabcallyand numerically. HFC 1348utilises 8 different oil to that usedon CFC12 systemsand in older to allow for the slight diffCIaICesin die thennodynamicand chemical properties of the material purJX>se made expansion valves. This external agency may be appliedin the form of a high grMIeenergyinlXlt of either "work" or a high gradeheat inpuL The high grwJeheatinput may lake ~ fmm of either high tem~bJre combustionproducts.electrical energy (in the fonn of heat) or solar ~. However die vapom compression"refrigeration" cycle may equally be utilised to upgrade heat from a low grade "~" such as d1eaanosphere. This is die Ozone friendly material designedto repla. All relevant Iempel'abJreS.the Hilton Air and Water HeatPwnp R831 operateS(Xl HFC 134a. Similar app1k:ations can exist in chemical plant.a water c~ (river) or the soil so mat it may be dischargedat a more useful higher tempemtmefCKsomeother application. commercialand domesticsinwiom throughoutdJeworld.pleting materialsthat havebeencanmon in the past.4 HILTON AIR AND WATER HEAT PUMP R831 INTRODUCTION The VaJX)ur compressionrefrigerationcycle finds applicationsin countlessindusbial. HFC134a In order to enablestudentsto becomefamiliar widt dte non-CFCrefrigerantsthat are going to replace the Ozonerr.

It is e~ntial for operatorsafetythat tbe Greenand yellowcablefrom the unit is connected to an earthing or groundingpoint that complieswitb the local regulations. and close to: (a) A cold water SUWlycapableof giving up to O. It b egential for operatorsafetythat the Greenand yellowcablefrom the unit is connected to an earthingor groundingpoint that complieswith the local regulations. Assuming that no damageis found. the voltage of the Icxal SUWly should be ~ between line (live) am neuual and the line connectedto the nearestw-u~..OW cable is die EARTH. H a transfonnerhasbeensuWlied the ~ (powerinlet) windings may have several line (live) tappings for connectionto the supply. Note that the water SUPPLY connection is (Xl the eXb'emeLEFT when facing the rear of the machine. In ~ where a transfonncr has beensupplied the voltage on the machineshoold correspondto the ootlet scx:kcton the lransform~. 3.This may be led to a coU~ting vesselor drain below this point . proceedas follows: PlJK:ethe unit on a strong level bench where there is goOOlight and ventilation. from die ttansfonner primary (power input side) shooldbe connectedto a fixed elecbical supply via a fusedoutlet which complies with me local electtical regulalions. Neuual and earth connectionsto the lransformer shoold be madeas labelled on the transformer. or if a transfonnerhas been supplied. In this case. C~t die 112"nylon reinforced h~ suppliedto d1e112BSP fitting at d1erear of the m-=hine using the adaptor supplied. p~ the clear plastic drain blbe into the drain and secureto ensurethat it is not ejectedat high flow rates. The BROWN cable is die LINE (X'LIVE The BLUE cable is me NEUTRAL The GREEN AND YE1l.xmding voltage rapping. 5 INST ALLA nON AND COMMISSIONING Removeme unit from its packing caseand visually inspect Any damagefound should be reportedto the insurersimmediately. 4.xmds to die l<X:allyavailable supply. 2.l at 10m head (b) A drain capableof receiving the above flow rate (c) A single phasepower supply (suitable for a 700 W load) aIxi earth. Conn~t a shmt lengthof plastic hoseto the condensatedrain at the oottOmof the evaporatOr. s.llilres S. The DRAIN is to the RIGHT of the JOWly connection. Ensure that the voltage label on the machineCCj&T~. The IX>wercable from the ~hine.

Pressure Gauges(2) To measureevaporatorand condenserP'CSSIJres ~vely.Provided widt condensationdrip uay and air fan. Solenoid Direct HFCl34a to eidter air sourceor warer sourceevaporator.I°C. Swept volume IS cm' rev-I. Calibration 5. Evaporator Cooling Water Controls water flow rare 10condenser and hence cootrols cvaporalor Control Valve pressure and evaporating temperature. Coodeuser Externally insulatedcoiled concentrictube. units. Conb'Ols1OC134a flow rate to the evaporator. HFC134a Flow Meter To measmeHFCl34a mus flow rate. Water Flow Meters (2) To measme water flow dIrough water ~ evaporator and through condenser.1. NODReturn Valves To Jl'event back flow into idle evaP<X'ator. 2800 rev.min-1on 50Hz. INSTRUMENTS Wattmeter Direct reading panel mounted WatUneter indicating JX)wer conswnption(Watts) of compressor.6 SPEcmCAnON Refrigerant Used HK'l34a Tetrafluoroethane CF. ResolutionO. . ROfationalspeedapprox. - Continuousblbe externally fmned copper/aluminiumgalvanized steel cOOS1nlction.) Fitted with thermaloverlolKl protection. VaJv~ and Indicator Lights Evaponton: (i) Using air a beat source . (h) Using water as heat soun:e Multi-layer plate type heatexchanger. CONTROLS CondeDserCooling Water Controls cooling water flow rate 10cOlxle~ and hencecontrols Control Valve conde~ pressureand condensingtemperatwe. Waf« flows through the annulus. (3400 rev. Expansion Valve Thermostatically conb'OUedinternally equalised. ChangeoverSwitch. Externally insulated. (Correspondsto 15 Bar absolute) Pauel Glassreinforcedplastic on which are mountedthe following: Compr~r Hennetically sealedand fitted with oil cooling coil.CH:aF Condensingtemperature Maximum condensingtemperaturelimited by high pressuresafety cut out to approximately55°C.min-1on 60Hz. Multi Way Digital 8 Type K dtennocoupleslocatedat relevantJX>intsconnectedto a Temperature Indicator single digital temperatureindicator widt channel ~lector switch.

Combined main switChand overload cut OUL 2.1at 10m head. 7OOW) Cold Water A cold water supply capableof giving up to 0.SinglePhase.. O. Residualcurrent cin:uit breaker. O. 3. Selectingdie air sourceevaporatoralso automatically turns on die air fan. OR 11OV. 4. SAFETY Electrical 1. Compressorfitted with automatic reset high tempel3turecut OUL HFC134aHigh Pr~ure Switches oft'the compressor if the condenser pressure exceeds 1400 Cut-Out kN m-1 gauge.roHz. This comparesthe incoming CmTentwith tOOoutgoing currenL In the event of thesebeing out of balanceby more than 3~A as in a leakage to earth situation.1 litres S. 7 EvaporatorChangeover Operates electric solenoid valves to select either air source Switch evaporator or waler source ev8lX>r8tOr.46Sm Width I.50Hz.6SSm Weight . .Lights adjacent to me switch ilKlicate which eV8JX>ratOr is in ~. Drain Capableof carrying the above quantity of wanned water to waste or for cooling and ~ycling. S9kg SERVIC~ REOUIRED 220/240V. All componentsconnectedto a common earthing point which in turn MUST be connectedto a local earthing conductor tha1 complies with local regulations. (Maximum load approx.3Om Depdt .SinglePhase. power is disconnectedautomatically. DIMENSIONS Height .

Befcxe leaving the colxic~ the liqujd refrigerant is slightly sub cooled below the satmation temperatm'efor the condensingIX'CSSUIe and this liqujd then flows to a liquid receiver.:)riIK:reasesthe pressure and temperabJreof me refrigerant vap>ur.Oupies anda panelmounteddigitaltemperanue indiCator.internal friction and the c<xnpressionprocessis not isentropic. In addition d1ereceiverensuresthat liquid is always availablefor changesin demanddue to evaporatorloading. The liquid ~eiv~ gives a large volume into which excessrefrigerantcan flow during certainoperating coIxIitions. This is quite normal and will disappeardming nmmal nmning.Thedtermocouples usedaretypeK (Nickel-Chrome. By passingthe cold water from the mains suWly through this coil befcxethe WaIa'is transferredto the conde~ the nonnally wasteheat from the oil can be a(kjed to that given up to the conoo~.! . 'Ibis hot high pressure gas flows to a concenb'ic tube wafer cooled condenser. All of th~ conditionsresultin someof the electricalenergyinJX1tbeing convertedinto heal The c<xn~ and motor are cootainedwithin the hermeticallysealooSteelcasingand nm in oil which during Donna!~ration is warmedby ciICuiationaroImdthe casingand coll«ts at the base of the unit During normal operation someoil will be carried around the systemand under certain COIXIitionsmay appearin the variable area flowmeter as a di~louration to the flow. In d1ecmdenser me gas is dcsuperheatedand dlen condensedat essentiallyconstant temperature.8 D~CRlFflON ro Fig. Sub cooled liquid HFCl34a at high presswe passes through a ~el mounted flowmeter to a thennoswically conb'Olledexpansionvalve. The eJectticalinput to me compressormotor is indicatedby a panel mountedanalORue meter. The rangeof sourcetempelabJrecan be extendedby directing WaDDed air from a fan healer81the air intake or by supplyingwarmedor chilled water to the sourcewater inleL Relevantsystemtempezanues are~ by dam<x. As the compress« is designedspecifically f(X'~ IXIInPusea copperheat ttansfercoil is kx:atedat the baseof the compressorwithin the oil reservoir. This exlractionof heat from air or water reducesthe temperatm'eof dJe air or water flow leaving the unit The wm done on the gas by the COOlpreS. On passingthrough the valve the pressmeis reducedto that of the evaporatorand d1etwo phasemixwre of liquid and vapoor beginsto evaporatewithin me sel~ted evaporator. Condenserand evaporatorpressuresare indicatedby panel molDltedpressuregauges. Control of the heat pump is by variation of the evaporationtempemwreby the sourceair (cx water) tem~ and flow rate. and by variation of die condensingtemperawreby the flow rare of the coOOe~ water. The CtIDpIeSSOr motor hu winding resisrancelosses.Schcmabc (Refer Diagram) HFCl34a vapolD'generatedby absabtion of low gradeheatin either the air or water sourceevaporator is drawn into dJecompessor. . Nickel-Aluminium). Walcr aIxI refrigetant flow rates are indicated by panel mounted variable area flowmeters.

The air ~tm:e evaporatorpreS8memay be redlx:cd by restricting the flow of air into the evaJX)ntor. If theair QDCe evaporatoris ~l~ted then it is ~ble to increasethe evaporatorpressureby directing warmair (from an electricfan heater)to~ theevaporator inlet side. Howeverunderexuemeoperatingconditionsdlis time may be longer or shorter. Assuming dJeunit is connectedto suitable servicest1D'Don the cooling water supply and adjUstthe coOOc~ cooling water flow and evaP<X8tor water flow to maximum.Page6. A pi~ of paperor card may be usedfor this purpose. With dJew~ ~ evaporaIor~leded.a cooling water supply. When initially nJmedon me fIOWmclerwill show v8lX>urbubbles. to increase the evaJX>l3tor pressureincrease the water flow rate through the evaporator. Turn on me main switch and the COOl pI'eSS(Xwill start to ~ . 1b~ should ceaseafter 10-15 minutesunderoom1aIconditions. However it should be noted mat it is possible to coUectice on the air cvap<ntor if the air flow is restrictedsufficiently. If the waIer~ evaJX)rator is to be ~ thenit will re n~essaryto ensurethatsufficientwateris ~ duooghtheevaP<Dforto . Note that if the cooling Waler tempetatUle is high (greater than 3OOC)then d1eoutput from d1eunit will be Ied\ad and die ex~enta1 range redoccd. Page5 and Specification. If fJeezmgshould occur bJm off me ccxnpressorand adjust the evaporatorwater ~ to maximum. The eV8lXJr8fDr ~ is selectedby die eva}X)ratOr changeoverswitch mounted00 the front ~l The eVa{XJralDrin ~ (Air or Water) is iOOicated by a small panel mounted lamp adjacent to die switch.-event~zing. 9 OPERAnON For normal~ the unit requires connection to a mains supply. The CV8JX)raroris a plate type beat exchangerand should not be damagedby freezing but dlis cannot be guaranteedif ~ occurs repeaIedly. .anda suiaabledrajn. However the unit will contin~ to operate until me high IX'eS5Urecut out operates at 1400 kN mo1gauge pressure. Freezingwill be indir:-a!~reSbicted coolingwaler flow (theflow maystopcompletely)aIKIthe inabilityto adjusttheevapcntorpres5lD'e. To shut down the unit bIm the condensercooling water flow rate 10maximum to reducethe cond~ pressureand then bIm off the main switch. Details of the services~uired are given in the Installationand Commissiooingsectioo. To increase the COIxSeDser pressmereduce the corxienxc cooling water flow rate.

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If tile RCCB fails to opezaretile device shooldbe investigatedby a competentelectrician. the cut-out shouJdopera1earxI isolate compress«mota.turn off the cooling water supply and observeme coIxIeDa ~ure gauge. Removethe rear paneland switch on the m~hinc. . If the cut-out fails to ~ at 1400 kN mol. The coble unit shouJdinunediately switch off. When it ~ 1400 kN mol.10 SAFETY DEVICES TestiD2 8mb Pre8ure Cut-Out This shooldbe dme by a resoonsibleDerSonat die beginningof eachsessionand after every 25 hoUlS running. The cut out is mountedon the sideof the small instnDnent conmle. The unit must not be onerated with a defective him Dressure cut-OUL The high pressmecut out shouldnot nonnally rQJWreadjustmentbut if for any reasonthe unit requires adjustmentdetainsare given in the Maintenancesectioo on Page 11. Turn on the cooling waterand as me condenserpressurefalls to betW~ 800. Pressthe 8Pfea to Test" buuon on the RCCB. With the unit nmning and the air evaporatorselected. Testin2RCCB PeriodicallytheRCCBsbouldbe ~ by a competent persoo. Switch the RCCB back 011and replace the rear panel.1(XX) kN molthe cmnpress<rmotor should again0peJ'ate. the com~ shouldbe tUrnedoff and me cooling water should immediatelybe bD'Ded00. and the ~ investigated.

11 MAINTENANCE Lubrication As me R831 utilises an hermetic compressorit is unlikely that any additional lubricating oil will be required. Leak Detection With pressure in the system. General Dust collecting amongthe connectionsand on the air sourceevaporatorfins should be blown away by a dry compressedair jet. Connectionto die high presstD'e side of die systemmay be madevia die back seatingvalveson the inlet and outlet of the liquid receiver. or an electtonic leak tester. The charging point is located on die compressorcasingand is a 1/4" Schraderfitting. By connectinga suitablecharging hosewidl a pin depressingcenD'eto d1isvalve die low pressureside of die system may be evacuated/charged. If a refrigerant leak is suspectedit must be detectedand ~tified.A. The original chargeweight from full evacuationto fully chargedis 1 kg of HFCl34a. . The leak must be rectified before recharging. The unit must be specifically designed for HFC use. If me System~ lost sufficient oil to require rechargingmen it is likely d1ata major failure has occm'redand me 1D1itwill also have lost its refrigerantcharge. Note dJatas the unit utilises HFCl34a and an Esteroil extta careshouldbe observedregardingmoiSture removal and exclusion. Abrasivesor solvents should not be used. Refriaerant Cbarae <R134a) When the unit leavesP. it hasbeencmectly chargedand tested. The lubricant usedis an Ester oil specifically designedfor use with HFCl34a systems. This has an internal spring loodedvalve widl a centtal actuatorpin. RecharRiDe Good refrigeration ~tise should be observedat all times during the rechargingprocess. Ester oil is panicularly hygroscopic(absorbswater) and a longer evacuation period should be used dIaDon CFC12 units to ensureall moistureis removedbefore recharging. Note that as die unit operateson HFCl34a die unit should NOT be charged widl n~al CFC type mineral oil. The ~el may be cleanedwidt dilute detergentand polishedwith a dry cloth. Hilton Limited's factory. Note that HFCl34a cannot be detected with a conventional electronic leak detector designed for the CFC type refrigerants. inspect all jointS with either soap suds. or preferably removed using a vacuumcleaner. Notethat the unit hasbeendesignedspecificallyfor operationwith HFCl34a ONLY and should not be chargedwith any other gas.

InBquate cooling water flow due to low maim pessure. Howeverthe symptomscaneasilyre confusedwid! ~on of die high pressurecut out If the high p'essurecut out has ~ men IX>w~ will be stoppedat the high pressmeswitCh terminals. isolatedie unit from the mainsand havea competent eleclrician c~ eanh continuityand the resistance betweenall comJX)nent lines and eanh. If an AC 2SOVvoltmeter indicatesd1atpower is being suppliedthrough to me compessor SWIer tmminalsand d1ecompressoris not nmning men it is likely dlat me high temperaturecut out has operated.Checkcondenserpressuregauge. Check mat the unit is swirchedon. Check d1athigh pressIn cut-out has not Operated.If this is d1e~ when d)Ccompressorcools me cut out should~t aOOd)Ccompressor restart If the COOlpresscxfails to start after cooling then it is ~sible that ~ compressorhas failed. To switchtheRCCBbIK:kon afta' a fault. Comoregor RODS Hot and Cuts Out On Hi2h TemoeratureCut Out 1.~move me rear panel and turn the switch on the RCCB to ON. Evaporatorsourcetemperature(air or water) UX>high. Isolated1eunit from the mainshavea competentelecbiciancheckthe wiring up to the compresscx. .12 FAULT FINDING COlDD~r DoesNot Start 1. Have a competentelectriciancheck for short circuit RCCB Ooerates This may be a "nuisance"bip (one oft) or indicate a leakageto earth. Cooling water UX>hot 2. ~ switchingdie lrip backon. Line to eanh resislance shouldre in unitsof MegOhms. 3. HaveelecU'ical~1i0lW (internalandexternal)checkedby a compcrcDtel~bician. An inrcrnal wiring diagram is locatedat the rear of this manual. restriction in flow etc. Circuit Breaker Switch/Cut-Out Operates 1. The high temperature cut out is mountedon the compressor itself and will resetwhen the compressa~ng cools.isolatemeunit from memains. Exceaive Condenser Pressure 1. (1 x 1(1Ohms) If a fault exists die RCCB will operarcagain when die unit is switchedback on. C~k mat cooling water flow is maximmn m dmt con<k:~ pressureis low 2. 2. 3.

for a heatpump.) Is the Ratio Rate at which heat is-. Heat Pumps and Refrigerators are examplesof ma:hines which transfer heat from a low to a high temperatureregion and the "externalagency" employedmay be either work or high grade heat.e. Heat transfer at low temperature+ Heat transfer at high temperatW'e = Work ttansfer.g. (i. From the First Law of Thennodynamicsit is apparentthat a refrigerator must reject heat at a higher tempelatureand the heat pwnp must take in heat at a lower temperablre. a dairy has the need fm.since the power may be: (a) Elecb'ical power to drive the motor. If the external agency is high grade heat (i.-- Power Input Coefficient or Performance of a Refri2erator (CoP. and bodt useful effects can be obtained from the same unit (e. there is very little difference between the two plants.both of which may be provided by dte same plant). Thus.. (The noImal sign convention must. (b) Shaft power to drive the compressor. The following notesawly only to the vapour compressioncycle. it followsthat heattransferat low temperature = + workinput heat transferat high temperature.e.refrigeration and hot water . Thus. then heat transfer at low temperature + heat ttansfers at higher temperatures = O.". the absorption cycle).) This is the Ratio RefriReratorRate or DUtY Power Input The power on which die CoP is basedand the Type of CoP should be clearly stated. _Refri2erator A machine whose prime function is to remove heat from a low temperature region (usually below ambient temperature). (c) Indicated or piston power to compressme vapour. die V81X>ur compressioncycle). Coefficientof Performanceof a Heat Pum2 (Cop. .) In die caseof a heat pump (or refrigerator) using a work input."It is impossible to ttansfer heat from a region at a low temperatureto anotherat a higher temperaturewithout the aid of an externalagency. DEFINmONS Heat Pumo A machinewhoseprime functionis to deliver heatto a high temperature region (usuallyabove ambient). (d) Thooretical power of an ideal compress«. 13 THEORY Thermodynamic Asoects or Heat Pumos The S~ond Law of Thermodynamicsincludes the statement. of course..delivered .be applied. The First Law of Thermodynamics statesdlat in a cycle the net heat transferis equal to the net work transfer.

to P.= . = TL& Heat Iransf~ in condenser.. The high ~ sabIraredliquid is expandedisen~ically from p. The cycle now rqJeats. Thenet ~ transferin thecycle. W.JrcoIKtensesand becomes satUJ3tedliquid at 3.~~~= Ca'1denS8' 12 High Pressure P.TH4s W. Q. = -TH& Since the compressionand expansion~~! ale isen~ic ~ are 00 other beat transfers. Thefollowingnotesawly to tat pumpsdrivenby a work input REVERSED CARNOT CYCLE (In&emal1y and Externally Revemole) The ideal refrig«atlJr is represenredby the ReversedCamot Cycle in which heat is taken in from a CODSlantlow tem~ somceat TL and is !ejected to a constant~ temperawresink at TH' ~T~ .2 a axrespooding cycle 00 a T -5 diagram for a VIJX}tD'. Q. TL4s.. I -- _I ~ Expander Evaporator Low ~ PreS8. = J'Tds Q.~ .l Fig. In the heatexchangerthe vapour evaporatesat a low temperaturetaking in heat from the low temperaturesourceand reachesstate 1. deliver ~I)' m<n heat than is laken in as high gradeenergyand can makea valuableconbibution to energyconservationand redtx:tion in generationof greenho~ gases. 1.14 PrKtX:al beat pumpscan. = .2 Fig.CL. follows: Wet V8JX>tD' at 1 is compesscd isentropically from a low pressure PI to a high pressure P2. Cycle AnalYsis Heat tmnsf~ in ~raIor. The cycle is .". ve and IeplesenlSa wmk 1NPlTI') . Vapour at 2 is ~ into a heat exchanger (condenser) and heat is rejected at constant pressme to a cooling medimn (sink) so dIat d1e vaJX:.:.:JJ~ ('I1Iis is . and me ~ting vezy Wet vaJX)m'is ~ into a heatexchanger(eV3JX>rator)at Slate4. Q.[1 Tds Q.l illusllates a plant diagramand Fig.. under suitableMUmlla~s. and from the First Law. + Q.~"-~ I Low T~ I ~ TL Fig.Jr8 PL ---.

sJ ~ = ~ Tds = T~s. 0.of ~.p T41 = TL(s. .>As ..This is Jargelybecameof the practicalpoblcms associatedwidt the designof an expan<k:r which would lake in high plesS1De liquid and pus oot very wet v8lK>urat a low pessure while prod&x:ing a smaJ1work OOtpuL Therewouldalso. = .. die reliability and simplicity gainedfar outweighdie small increaseof work input ~uircd. . (T£T£ CoP. -sJ . Heat delivered at a hiRh temoerature Work. Cycle AnalYSis The i~-ilL~1j plant and TIS diagramsare shown in FIgS. A.3and 4.it is in fact inevcrsiblcand cnuopy in~ from s. T£.T..Input Thus.TL THE mEALISED SIMPLE VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE AldtOUgb00 refrigeraIm'(X' beat IXJmPcan have a ~ffx:ient of perronnancehigher d1and181of a ReversedCarnot Cycle operatingbetWeenthe same~ and sink temperatures. In die m<xlem Vapour Compession Cycle. -T. ~-:~ -7'. Q. for die ReversedCamot Cycle. As T£ . Heat taken in at low temoerature Work Input Thaw. but for coovenierx:eit is usually written TI which is positive.:cording to sign cooveDlim. . 15 Coemcientor Perfonn8nce The Coeffk:ient of Perf(XD)al1CC of a Heat Pump is ~ ratio.for d1eRe~ Cand Cycle. AldlOUghthe dIrottling~ is consideredto be adiabatic. -W. CoP. a dtrottling process is substiwted for die isenuopic ex~oo process3-4 in the Camot CycJeand aldtough the coeff1Cientof perronDancesuffers due to the introduction of d1ishighly irreversiblepoccss. or -2- T.T£ The Coefficient of Perfcxmance of a Refrigerator is d1eratio. Strictly . TH . .r CT".> A. be irreversibilitiesin anyprxtical anemptto makea C8DOtCycle.the Carnot Cycle is lmattIaCtive.T. this is negati~.T. to ~ duringtheexpansion..

4 Sinc:c1-2 and 3-4 are adiabaticprocessesin the idealisedcycle. Q.J . this is a reja. .-1 q.. ~ .. ~ '7 ~-~-..rl. w = b1-~. T . ~ . TL(.Tp3 . ." Cyde.-~ W. T T 1 w~ EYalXX'QIa' 4 CD~e88a" I !Q4-1 I ~R8dCXt FiI..(b. + Qc . The correspondingp-h diagramis soown in Fig.-~+W but at die ~.5.-~ Notedial .sz> The CoP.but it is mm-econvenientin practice to illustrate cycles on p-h diagrams.0 b.Hol R. ~ Theseexpressionscan be evaluated.andW = lh. ~ W and CoP.-~and~ = dl.... Ex~'t VaiY8 ~~ .~ + w If compressionis adiababc.(bl-bJ Note that dlis implies an input of work which by conventionis negative.by sign cmventioo this is negative.3 Fig.. W. me net woJt rransfer. With referenceto Fiore 5: For the Compressor ~.. For the Condenser ~=~]=b.~4 = 0.tionof healfnxn die system.16 1M ldeall8ed Vapoi6 ~.D. ~:~~~."'J ..

17

p p
:3

p P,
4

Fig.5

For the ExoaosionValve

~ = ~-hs+w
but w = 0 and the dU'Ottling process is adiabatic

... ~:..,b.,

For the Evaoorator

~1 = CL = hi - h.+ w
w=o
:. ~~,.,;.Jl. andQ. = dl,(hl- hJ """1:"--;1Q'-1
Note that d1isis a heat input to the systemwhich by sign conventionis positive.

tic -- h,-~
CoP., = -;- [or ~.:!!:!
hi - ~
~-". )

18

THE PRACTICAL V APOUR COMP~ION CYCLE

Tbc prKtical cycle differs from the i~.wised cycle in the following ways:

(8) Due to friction. ~ will be 8 small press~ drop between the C<XDpressor discharge and
~ valve inJet,and betweenthe expansionvalve outlet and the C<XDpIessor
suction.

(b) The com~ion processis ncidJeradia~tic nor revelSible.(Iba'e will usuallybe a heatk>ssfrom
die COOlIB'es5a'
and. obviously. dJereare frictional effects.)

(c) The VllX>urleaving d1eeV8pOIata'is usually slighdy superheated.(This makes~ble automatic
control of die expansionvalve and preventscompressordamageby ensming no liquid entersdie
suction valve.)

(d) The liquid leaving die condenseris usually slightly sub-aX>led.i.e. it is red~ below the
sat1D'BtiontemperatmecODeSJX)nding widt its pressure. (This impoves the CoP and reducesthe
possibility of the fonnation of VaJX>ur
due to the pressuredrop in the pipe leadingto the expansion
valve.)

(e) Thm may be small heat inputs <X'k>ssesto and from the surroundingsto aU pans of the circuit
dependingupon dteir temperatm'erelative to the sunoundings. The nett eff~t of these")asses"or
irrev~bilities 00 the cycle diagram is slX>wDin Figure 6.

D-b Dialram far SimDIe Practical VaDOurCamDressianCycle

p

Fig.'

RECIPROCA 11NG COMPRESSOR PERFORMANCE

Refer to Fig.7

Froo1 FD'st Law

Q1-1 = ha-h. + w.
!{ flow is adiat..bC.Q1-1= 0 and w = h. - ha

Notc dJa1~ to sign conventiona wcxk input is regardedas negative.

19

However. most beat pump and refrigeralar canpressorsrun well
lrove ambient tempeI3bDeand mere is I beat lramfer frtXn d1e
compressrxto die surroundings. In additim as me comp-essoris
hermeticallyenclosedwith the mOlarwindings electrical (Currentt
x Winding Resistanceheating 1~ will be directly a(kJedto the
system.
The end1a1ov chan2e~ - hI is dlereforethe differencebetweenthe
electrical input and the tolal heat ~sfer fD die sunoundingsand
should thereforenot be re2ardedas the work mout to a DI'Icbcal
comoress<r .

~ - hi = ~4 - W.

Fig.7

Volumetric Efficiencv
The volume of gasor V8fK>ur(measuredat intake conditions) is lessthan the piston SWeptvolume for
the following reasons:

(a) L~~DC past the pisux1and through die valves.

(b) Pressuredrop and temperatUleincrease~S the intake system,bom of which reduce vapour
density.

(c) In a refrigeratorcompresscx.any dropletsof refrigerantliquid roil as they meetthe warm cylinder.
Note that droplets should not ex.istin theory if the exlliDsion valve is operating correctly and
maintaining a level of su~

(d) High pressureva~ left in the clearancevolume after delivery expandsand occupiesa portion
of the swept volume during d1C"suction" stroke.

The ratio Volume flow rate of ~DOur (meas/Uedat intake conditions) is called the Volumettic
Efficieocy. Piston J'Wtpt\/Olumerate

It can be shown mat the theoreticalvolumetric efficiency of a reciprocatingcompressoris,

1-- Yc (r
y. ',.-1
1
)
where ~ is the ratio of clearanceto swept volume.
V.
r, is ~ ratio of delivery JXeSSure
to suctioo pressure.

.this axjX:~ion ~ liteeff~u of a.= C which is a.uumedf(X'the expansion. Howeva-. b 8KIc.20 n is die index II in die JX>lytropklaw pV.

21 USEFUL DATA (SeealsoS~on) Comoressor Swept Volume = IScm3 Rotational Speed:- Rotational speed will vary widi compressorload and in particular die mains Freq~ncy .0875m7. heat delivered and compressorIX>werconsumptionwill be higher d1anon 50Hz supplies. Specific heat of water = 4.As die com~or rotatesat a higher~ 00 60 Hz die refrigerant flow rate.14mz . On 50 Hz supplies compressor rotational speedis typically 2800 rev min-1 On 60 Hz supplies compressor rotational speed is typically 3350 rev min-1 Note:. Condenser Mean heat b'ansferarea =O.18 kJ kg-l Evaoorata Mean heat transferarea = O.

-clty F unit volume and is a (XU cond~1Drof taL Despite its ~t disadvantagesair is frequcody used as a low grade SOUICe. Either ~tion result in inaeasedenergyconsumptioofor a given ovm11 ~ effecL Air aW basa low heatca. Other sourcesof low gradeheat include solar radiation. low presswesteam. ~ from die abn~ is flee andavailableeverywhere.By increasingthe tcm~ at which d1isheat is rejectr.processVapoUlS.a useful heat output can be obtained for little extta w<Xkinput Whateverthe somceof low gra<k:heat.However. Thesemay either use reversecycling (passingdie hot high pressmegas dIrough the evalX>r8tor)or electric heaters. Although this will reduced1e duty of the refrigerator and also its C~fficient of Perfonnance.seheat~UlCes available to practical heat pumps. the sourcemustbe reliable.g. High humidity and low evaporatortemperawreswill result in evaporator icing and ~ dIeDrequiresthe complicationof defrost cycles. Tbe SoUcan be usedas a sourceof heatproviding that sufficient areais availablerelative to the depth of me evaJ)(XatingbI))e. Imrbcularly in reversible summer/winter heating/coolingunilS. A supply of warmer air or gasis ~etimes availablefrom a variety of cooling or venlilaling processes and ~ can often be used~ die sourceof low grade heal ~ asa low gradebeat~ maybeavailablefrom rivers.flue or exhaustgasesetc.d.22 LOW GRADE REA T SOURCES Thereis a very wide rangeof low gr. .. the heat extlacted frOOla cold space)is also a ~ of low ~e heal Nonnally a refrigeratorrejectsheatto cooling wateror the aunosphere.processcooling. There have been instanceswhere the rate of heatexttaction at a particular depth hasbeen far greaterthan die incident solar energyresulting in a pernlafrostsitUationrendering the heat JRlIDPuseless.wells.at the high~t possible temperatureand "free". The following are typical examples..it is subjectto wide variatiom of tempcr3WrC and humidity.thesea.lakes. domcsdcandindusaialwasteeat.this heat will become~ful.to be viable. Refriaerators The cooling eff~t of a refrigeraror(e.

4.provides all the characteristics of a heat pump and the ~ compressim cycle.but tterKisand chaIaCteristicswill be simi1ar. Detem1inationof Power Input. EDtZgyBalancesfor die componentsandthe wholecycle. 2. after analysis. 6. It slX>uldbe noted dIat due 10manuf.:blring tolerances. Heat Ouqxlt and Coefficient of Perf(X'InaDCC. Among the capabilitiesare: 1. which. s. Plotting the V8JX>m' CompressionCycle on a p-h diagramand comparing it with the Ideal Cycle. Estimationof ~ HeatTransf«Coefficien~in theEvaporaIorandCondenser. Producaooof Heat Pump Perf(X'ln8nCe CID'Vesover a rangeof sourceand delivery tem~ 3. Estimationof VolumetricEfficiencyof theCom~ at a rangeof pressuremOos. 7. NOtealso dlat OPQ'ationof the unit on roHz electrical supplieswill result in higher h~t ttansfersand higher com~ power consumptioo. PrOOucDon of HQt Pump Perfonnancecmves basedon die HFCl34a lX'OJ)erties at a variety of evaporadng andcmdemingtemperanues. .die perfonnanceof individual units may differ from ~ given in die following pages. 23 EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILmESOF IDLTON AIR AND WATER HEAT PUMP The unit povi<k:s a considerableamountof data.

Procedure 1. DETERMINAnON OF POWER INPUT.6 133.c~. Thenreccxd: Calculations: c~ E1~tricalPowerInput W = 450W&US Heat deliveredto cooling ~ {r(Xn Comples8(X'.) . 2. . Selecttheair evapnlm' by ~g theevaporator changeoverswitchdown.18 x 10'(31. Q~ .t.9 WIIltJ CoPH= Rate of Heat Delivery CompressorElecaical Power Input If the heatdeliveredto the condenser m is considered.. 20 x 10-3x 4.9 450 = 3. . 20 x 10-s x 4.tt> .8- 1437. Cp.18 x 10-s(14. Set die condensergauge~me to between700 aIxIllOO kN/m-2by adjustmentof the condenser cooling Waferflow rate. HEAT OUTPUT AND COEFF1CIENTOF PERFORMANCE..24 1.then: COp. . x (" . 1437. 4.7WQItf Heat delivcled to Condensercooling WaIrJ'. = ~W . x (. Q~ s M. A1k>wthe Wlit time for all of the systempammetelSto reacha stablecondition. Turn on die ~ supply to d1elmit and DJmon die main swiu:h.19 . 3.

7Watts of me heat dclivemd would be lost if the compressorwere air cooled rather than having the infernal warercoolingcoil. heat by selecting the water heatedevapcnror. then: 4SO 3.i. 2S If the total heatdeliveredto the wafer is considered.e. . It is imlx.8OC dIaD would be poaible by direct electrical resistance heating using 450 Watts of power. Similar tests may be carried out using water as me sourceof low gra(k.1ant to note dlat due to com~ ~ (Cumnf x resiswICe)l~ aOOfriction 133. including the wasteheat fmn the compressor coo1ingcoil.1rXting heat frm1 die surrotmding air the heat pump is able ro deliver 3.49 Hence by ex.49 times as mlx:h hot wata' at 31.

2. 4. 7. Selectthe air CValJ(ntorby pressingme evaporatorchangeover switch down. Set the condensercooling water flow rate to maximumand allow the unit time fm-all of the syStem parametersto rea:h a stablecondition. This tem~1Ure soould be recordedfor reference. PRODUCTION OF REAT PUMP PERFORMANCECURVES OVER A RANGE OF SOURCEAND DELIVERY TEMPERATURES. S. . It may also be possibledependingupon locally availableresourcesto carry out thesetestsat a rangeof constantsourcetemperabJres by using heatedwater. In additim die proceduremay be repeatedusing water as the heat sourceby selectingthe water heatedevaporator. Procedure 1 Turnon meWafer supply to d1eunit and turn on the main switch. For d1is IXDJX)seit will be necessary to measure dJe air temperature locally to dJeevaporator using a suitable tbennoneter or meas1D'ingcEvX:e. Mate me observations~ out on Page24. 8. 6. 3. R~ this procedmeuntil the condenserpressureapproaches1400kN/m1gaugepressme. 9.26 1. Reducethe cooling water flow rate so that me condenserpressureincreasesby approximately100 kN/m1 gaugepressmed1enrepeatthe observations. The seriesof observadonsmay be ~ 81 another constant air tem~ about lOK ooucr than peviously tested by dilecting d1Cwarm ~ from a fan heater into the air eV8fX)ratm. In all ~ thelimitationwill be thehighpressure cut out rempelatlRof 1400kN/ml TypicalleSU1tslIe shown on Page27. Note that die high pressmecut out is factory set to 0Ja3Ie 81 1400kN/m1. It is assumed that die air source tem~bJre (laboratoryroomtemperabJre) will remainsensibly constantduring the tests.

.5 9. 27..6 14.8 133.9 15.4 133 .6 Taal heal de1iv~ Oa/Waaa 1514.5 16..S6 aA4 Calculations The calculationsale similar to th~ caITiedout for Experiment 1 on Page24 Typical ~<Xmance cmves are shown on Pages28 to 31.6 13.1 1570.61 3.98 2.4 114.3 1317.0 dI.7 .8 IaDper8D1Ie ('~Ier water mall Oow 25..8 36..7 120. 27 1 2 3 4 s 6 CaDpreU« e!edrical IX'WC1 420 450 450 500 520 540 W/WIUI i.0 .9 1m3 1m./"C ~ ~ ~ waler 13.2 16./8C ~tempeI8QJre.1 nIC o waaebe8t o-/WIUI 135. 3.49 3.0 12.9 1331.9 14.7 1531. II ..40 2. .£ OOP.4 .0 20.0 13 133 13.OiOiV .1 41./8(: 23 23 Z! 23 2S 23 ~ W8IermIe& 12.0 16.4 1488..-a Swr= ~.0 48..& 52.. ~Rr Wiler cxa1et 31./"C.

.

- .30 Heat delivered .Watts - 0 . 0 0 0 V\ 0 0 0 V\ 0 ~ 0 0 YJ u. .Watts . -.- 0 0 0 v..N N ~ .. : I .. ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 0 tV ~ 0\ 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 CompressorLoad . 0 N cr..

....-'.. !~ . ~ 0 u "0 ~ ..0 .. 31 dO:) ~ ~ 00...- ....- - ~ Q .- ~ ~ N . '.. . = ~ = I .' II L iii il ffi <:> 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~ 0 \r') 0 'r\ 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ M . roo.- ...- . 0 .. ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ N N C"'I ~ '~M Ii~ .- 0 - P~l~A!I~a 1.'B~H . .

3.-nsion valve outlet rc/OC -4. 651 discharge 1OC134a Absolute"Pressmeat ~ /kN m-l 756 compres8(I'discllarge ~l34a Tcm~ at compresscx "/OC 1. 4./OC 27. Allow the unit time for all of the systemparametersto leaCha stablecondition. IOSkN m-a Specimen HK'l34a GaugePreSS1D'e at compressor 145 P.Pressmeat compressor suclioo PI I kN m-2 250 HFC 134a Gauge Pressure at compressa' P1 /kN m-2.end1alpy diagram on Page 34. . gaugepressure + atmospheric pressure. Results: Refer copressme. Location of stare JX>inlS: (I) Is located by the intersection of Pt = 2SO kN m"2 and t1 & 2. 2. (h1 = 301 k1 kg-1 and V1 = 0. 756 kN mo2 (~ = SJ Ch:ao= 328 kJ kg"l) . Tmn on die WafersUWly to the unit and tmn on the main switch.2 discharge ~l34a Tem~ of condensed liquid r.032 m' kg"1) (25) Is ~~ by ~g constant en~y compession from state JX>int 1 to P2 . Make the observatiomset out below.PJ. Procedure 1.1.Thush. Thefollowingassumptions ale made: (a) The~ dropdn'Ough thecondenser velocity. HFCl34a TemperabD'e at ex. ~ = 350 kJ kg"1 and V2 = 0.4OC. PLOTnNG THE VAPOUR COMPR~SION CYCLE ON A P-H DIAGRAM AND COMPARINGIT WITH THE mEAL CYCLE. is insignificantdueto moderate (b) Thethrottlingprocess3-4 is sensiblyadiabatic.A sax:tion HFCl34a Tempcratmeat Colnpress<X' ~/OC 64. i. Absolute~. 1.32 3.e. I kN m-2 Slx:Don HFCl34a Absolute. Th~ P2. AunospbericPressure .2OC. SeJecteid1erthe air or waIeJ'evaJX>latCl" using the evaporatorchangeover swiu:h. Set the condensercooling watecflow rate to approximately50% of full flow and if using the water eV8fXJra1orset me ev8lXJr81or Waterflow to an intennediateflow rare.h4.0Sk.1 .084 m' kg-1) (2) Is 1<x:aIed by the intersection of P7o = 756 kN mo2 and 1z . 64.

bJ.the work transfer would be equal to die enthalpy change(hI . H Point 4 is k)CatMon the -4.condensedand then suIx:ooledat the high pressure. (II. (b) Valve and piston leakagesare throttling processesand will caux entropy to increase.-4.~ is die walk transferin an isen~c compressor.:ous and mecbanjcal)will have 8 "heating" effect on the HFCl34a and will increaseentropy.bJ hu beento d1econdenserwater aOOis the ~ful OUtputof the heat pump. point 4 would move to 4' as in the ideal cycle.~.1OCisod1ermand by die assumptionof 11.~ may be more or less dIaDdie actual work transfer to the HFCl34a. = 250kN m'2andh.25 The com~ ptx:ess 1-2s is that which would take place in a reversible and ~bIIJjc (isenlropic) compress<r. according to die net heat transfer.2 and 1.. Sincetheelectricmotoris within thesamecasingas thecompressor.(S~ diagramon Page34) Comments 1. 11. = 27.. = 137 kJ kg'l) Is locatedby the intc~bon of P. Frictional losses (bodt vi. It will be noted that the effect of d1is~ drop is 10increasethe evaporationtemperatmeand thus reducethe temperabD'e difference between~ soun:eand me refrigeranL .the HK'134a changesfrom high pressuresub-cooledliquid to low pressmewet vSIX'urwidt a drynessfractioo of 0. The reasonfor this inaeaseis complex: (8) The compressionwill be neidler reversible ncr ~~iabatjc.hi .2OC.. = 11. it is likely that the beattransferwill be to (+) d)e HFCl34a. Towardsthe end of com~ it maybe from (-) die HFCl34aasits tempelatm'e risesaOOve its surrowtdings. The~1Ua1comr--~ ~ 1-2JXocioccs a 1arg~enthalpychange(hI . It sbouk1be ~Pwised d18talthoogb hi . Without this pressmedrop.PI is due to resistancesin die evaporatorand in the non-retmn valve. The heat rransfer ~ ...20 (or 20% va(X)ur) ~ The wet VaJX)Uris converted to superbeared vapour and the enthalpy change (hI .Duringstx:tionand die fIrStpan of compression. Due to beat gains during ex~sion it is likely that h. but me eITOris likely to be insignifJCanL It will be ~n dw during the expansioo.. . (c) The net heat transfer during the compressionmay be positive or negative. The slight pessure drop P4. of p.2 and t. is slightly greater than h. = h.hJ is caused by a heat transferfrom the low ~ beat~urce. = 7S6 kN m. the I~ in the mOtor~ a generalrise of tQllpe~ in the regionof die compressor.. 33 (3) (4) (4') Is locatedby thein~bon Is locatcdby the in~bon cX.1OC aIK1 b. H The vaJK)m'is de-su~bea1ed. In s~h a pI'(X:eSS.

. . . = = --==! ! ! ! !! !!!! c c : . . i ! I. ~ i f . II I. i I II ..J --1. E:~ tt i~i Go .1 I! .... ~ :~ l ~ .~ .ttt ~rn i ( ~ . . i " Ii I.. ~ ~ ~ .-'-. IJI ~ I 1 -I a ~I I ] 1° I 1°1 ..J :acn UllliHi fit .-1-...m - I i . i "~ n' ~ .. . .' .c .tH! i 1j 'i. = . c ~l I . I I 0- ~. ~9 ~ I It I I . f . . CUR) . { ~ i t I \ I Ill' II .1 .l.. I. -- . I _L . Or"~. II i l l\" I . f :. f -r i . " . I rR ~ ~ .. . :a i 1.1 --.l i..1.. IiI!.. I I ~ I . ( Ir- I I .~: M . .. III. ~ I I I f. m 1tk 1 ~ i -+ It -+ i-t~ I !... . I -+' 1-' I i II xx ii l j~ ~ 1m I l. ~ - . I ..34 . i ~ . ~. 0 "V~ n ' i~JR' I. . . ~f ~m i ~4 till ~.. ]) ! : ~I .. I I 1 . --~ . :'. ~ .. ~.. ! !I ~I-I . ~. ~ ~ ~ 1 r . .' I: tH1 ~ ": A fl. llli . ~ £ ~ . I .

SOOC From p-h chart (Page38) or tables: hi . (X'near.imwnraIe. 1285kN m"2 absolute &a.J. The beatexchang~ is roOOstand no damageshould result but re~ occurrencesof this should be avoided. -1. 3. When stability is ~hed. 2. Calculations (FCX'Test 6 . its max. PRODUcnONOF REAT PUMPPERFORMANCECURVESBASEDON THE HFCl34a PROPER~ AT A VARIETY OF EVAPORATING AND CONDENSING TEMPERA~. 6. Ensurethe evlpcntor water SUWlyis flowing at. Procedure 1. Adjust the ~ water flow rate until r. Reducedie condenserwater flow rate so d1a1die condenser~ure (P2> in~ by appoximal:ely 100 tN mol. Turn on the water supply to the unit and bJm on the main switCh. 7. Observations SeePage37 for specimenobservations.Page 37) PI . = h. The test may oow be repeated81anomerconslantvalue of~. Adjust the cOlKienser to a high water to a high flow raIe. then make the observationsset out on Page37. 5. returns to or near its initial va1~ When stability is ~bed repeatthe omervanons. R~ in iDcIements of approximalCly 100kN m-l in me valueof P1unlil the pessure~hes about1400kN mol(gauge). Select the water evaporatorby pressingthe eV8lX>rator changeovez-switChup. Freezing will be indicated by the evaporatorwater flow ceasing8Jxi lack of control of d1e ev8lX>ratortemperawreand 1J'eSSure. note d)e condenserpessure (pJ aOOd)e evaJXntion temperawre(t. = 163kJkg"! . Warmed water may be usedas die heat Dm:e if available. 298kJ kg°i ~ . 358kJ kg'l h.) ~: If the evaporata water flow rate is too low it may freeze in the plate heat exchanger. 35 4.253 kN m"2absolute ts .4OC P1 . 4. (AllCm81ivelydie sourcewater flow rate may be red1x:edto decreasedie value of ~.

358) x 10' . 5..2OC Condensingtemperablre<.36 EvaporatingtemperallDe(tJ =-4. 5. Elecbical input to compressor = 470 Watts (This is Ie~ as a wort input to me system) ~. Note. CaJculated daIa is shown on Page 39 and the results are JX'esentedgraphically 00 Pages 40 and 41. -Ian This is. . PI to P2 b. me HFCl34a!g. . HMt DeaW1wl Work 1""" -.f!2m.28 It is of in~ to comparedie aOOve with theCoPof theidealcyclewith isenlmpiccom~on.111285 kN m"2) = 49OC . = b. . Similar results may be delcnnined for other evapcx-atingtemperatures and whenusingdte air heat source. however.cia. lLz> Heat ttansf~ in condenser.d1atthe heat deli~ doesnot take into accountthe energyderived from the motor cooling coil whkh will improve the actual COPH. = 163kJkg-Iasbefore .0 - 332 ~ This discrer-ncY in the Coefficien~ of ~mmance is largely accountedfor by one of the various l~ in the COOlpreBSOrunit aOO.5 x 10-3(163 . the condenserWIler and by connectionheal b'ansferto the systemand wmt b'ansf~ from the sySfCD1 are regardedas positive. 1072 470 -2. .-nicularly ~ l~~ in the el~bic motor. '". From p-h cban: hi = 298kJ tg"1asbefme ~ = 332k1 q-1 Isenlropicline from ~.

8 13./-C 13.5 18.10 85\ 9SO 11m ~ COIxIeDIerabldu~ BFC134a ~ PI I kN moZ m 7~ 855 9S6 tOSS 1m Con1JIeIIor auction .z Heal SolUte: Ail Water Atmospherictemperanue: 21OC (delete) T..'" 27.8 49.8 \".0 W8ter CO~IWIOI' 1nIet~ .s C«f¥eI8Of lucUOD PI! kN m-3 140 145 144 \45 146 148 puae~ COIr¥eIIor luccion .rc ~ Oudet ~ 14.I s.2 16.1 .0 W8ier Coademer C.6 12.1 0.5 Water Source Inlet IcmpcratDJC c..6 0." 11..2 13.2 66./-C \3.IDI .4 0.8 13.05 Bar = 105 kN m.1 15.-aD~ palin ~ I kNm~ I 245 2SO 249 ~ 251 m CoIKieDIcr gauae PI I kN m.0 11.0 13.3 30.0 7..4 ~ CompraIor deJivery 61.0 16.0 73.2 2. 37 an./"C ~ CoIxieased liqmd "lac 22.2 548 651 7.9 14.2 -4.IDI IDlettemperabDC ..5 15.2 .4 64..1.5 18.4 14. 1 2 3 .1 -4.4 0. 5 6 Blecttical input to ElectrIcal W/WaUI 400 4OS 430 44S 460 470 ~ Mas&wra& "1.7 27.4 M8s now raIe dl.2 ~ Colxl~~ oudet "/-C ~O 25.8 ~ M81fJow~ dIoI g I-I 50.0 14.0 27.7 38.4 0.rc 13.4 80.0 -4.8 12.0 C.7 0.8 15.. TON AIR AND WATER HEAT PUMP OBSERVA nONS Dare: Armospbericpressure: 1..0 14.8 12.1 14.0 12.0 13.2 3-'./-C 13.0 11.9 34.9 5.4 70.8 S.7 -4 -4.2 ~ Mua&wrale d'a/ll 50. 12.2 30.5.4 -1.0 Evaporator Oudct~ "/-C 8.0 .1.4 14./.1 44.1 14.-' ~ 6. 13.8 ~ Bvaporator inlet "lac -4.0 7.0 .5 0.4 39.

I I ~ ~ 11. i 00 ~ . ~ ~ 38 p . I I ~ . 0 -} ~ ~fj I ti . ffi m ill t ... J . ~ -. n 0 V ~ G ~ !.l. n a i : I I 0 lit t ! jjj.. w I -- 0 . .. .. ~ I rIll r- :J i I w ~ :~ ~ aQ" I = . i.. ! - ffii I l I fff.}. '" i 1ft Z ~ . . ~. ~ R- Q n i a . i ~ ~ i ~ a ! i I . s t~ ... ~ 0 Ii .

..-..TON AIR AND WATER HEAT PUMP DERIVED ~UL TS Ref: I 2 3 .-. ~ I tJ q-' 311 302 300 300 300 198 ~ deliVer) ~ I tJ q-t 348 350 3~ 352 354 358 c~ oudet ) ~ . eIectticaI W I Watts 400 4OS 430 445 460 470 power.. HFCl~ ~ ~~. 39 1m. kJ q"a 131 138 143 148 153 163 BvipCnlOl' inlet ) . 5 6 ~.

= 0 = = = ~ ~ ~ ~ n ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ""C = ~ 0 . ~ ~ ~t . rIJ ('D = 00 = .I I t). ~ .- "'0 . . ~ ~ 00 ~ . ~ _.)1 ~' "o\t .. 8...r ~ .40 Heat Delivered Watts 1'-..

rf') ('f") M N N N N .' ~ +~ . palaA!Iaa :I. .. 0 0 0 0 0 0 ('f') - ~ N ~ 0 N ~ tr') ~ ~ -- 0 SU'B M...L-- / c. ~~~ I :I: ~' ..- > "C' ~ ~ ..- - > = 0. ~ ~ .~ ~ Ii\. ~.'BaH ~ . C"! ~ .s =: / I I ~ "}1 . =.-' = - 0 ~ II ~ e Q) Q j -'.. ~ M ~ . 0 ~ ~ ~ .0 N ~ Q) . Tv iN I 1\0 .' Q) . -~ 'f'f") ~ :~ . = ~ e ~ ~ ~ Q) - f-I I 'e. ~ ~ . . '\. 41 dOJ ~ .. N. ~ .O --.0 I . ~ I :N ~ 0 u ..w u ~ c. u 0 = = ~ rIJ ~ . .. ~1 rj Q) . ~ To. .

(-1.4OC m-2 P2 . j# . J. Q14-1 . 2S3tN -1. 163kJ kg"1 Compressor (Electrical) Power Input W = -470 Watts EV8oorat2r Heat ttansfer!!Qm water soun:e. W -11. When the syStemhu been allowed time 10 ~h a stable condition record all of the values indicated011die observationsheetCIl Page44.0 . Heat transf~ 12 HFCl34a. Freezingwin be mmr-!t~ by die evaporatorwater flow ceasingand la::k of coouol of die evaporatortem~ and pessure. 3.. T~ on me water supply to die unit and QJrDon the main swiu:h. Calculations PI It . The heatexchangeris roOOstand no damageshouldresult but repealedoccurrencesof this should be avoided. Selectthe water evapor8r« by pessing d1ceV8porarachangeOVa'switch up. . Procedure 1.> x 10-'(2g&. ~: If die evaporat« water flow rare is too low it may freeze in the piare beat exchanger. Set the evaporatorwala' flow to ~ intermediatevalue. ENERGYBALANC~ FOR mE COMPONENTSAND THE WHOLE CYCLE. 298kJ kg-! ~ . Set die condensercooling wafer flow rare to a similar value. 358tJ kg"l h. 'ccp<" - .y(59 W) may be attributed to instrumentand observationerrors and to heat b'ansfer from the surrowxIings. ... . 4. 742 ".-mw r. II.cla.5 x 10-3X 41~13.42 5...2» W ~"'TLJ ~ = .OOC From p-b chart (Pagc45): hs .> 11.1285 tN m-2 ~ = SO.163) x 10' W The discrep8Jx. 2.

7.16.. it is not possibleto evaluatethe heattransferfrom the air since its mass now rate is unknown.. 5-')( 10-'(3-'8 . ~n die air sourceis in ~.(~.298)x 10' + (-470) Themscrer-.0 x 10-' x 41~16. +742 W In the condenser -1072 W In the compessor ..~ 43 Condenser Heat transfer to water.ncy(40. 7.5 x 10-'(358.4 .-2 m.h.8. + W .4)W Heat transfer from HFCl34a.) .Cp(I. ..-s = m..13. -140W : 5.5W) maybe accounted for by die heatlossfrom the ~g of die co~.in a cycle die Net ~t Transfer = Net Wcxk Transfer.(hz . For the CYCle From me First Law of Themto<iynamics.5 1f ~: Tbjs is acktedto die 977W above and contl'iootesto die useful output of die beat pump.0 =mw meCP<r.163) )( 10' W = 1012W (A disa"epancyof 7S W) Compressor . (J.470 W This is exactly equal to the net work (EJectricalinput) ttansferat the com)X'essor. '".> X 10-J X 4180(49... The calculatedHeat Transfers(to or from the Rl34a) are: In the evapaarDr . .h. Similar energy balancesmay be producedfor other operanngconditions.) Heal transferfrom HFCI34a. . Q..) Heat lransfer to water. -~W Net Heat Transfer .I.0)1f = 99. .

05 Bar = IOS kN m-1 Heat Source: Ail Water Atmospheric IcmpCl'aQJIe: 21OC (delete) T.. - PI! kN m.rc 16.2 ~ .. .8 aJ~ EvaporalOr inlet .: ~ I Con.J8C 13.-1 7..4 .-1 So! ~1«1ucd0D PIJIe~ COnIpI-eIICX'~ " I kN mol ~ .-er 1D1et~ .:!.0 I ~ ~ Oudet~ r./g .rc ~ I 4 C./l so! 11.0 ../-C 13.-.13 "'a~ paI1Da COIKIeMerpup PI I kN moZ 11~ p'a8.a 1285 8FC134a paIaIe COI11R8IQrIucQOll -1.5 t " Water Source lD1Ct~ c./-C -4./8(: ~ CoIMienlod liqmd 's/-C 44..8 .0 Ey8pontor I t Oudet~ 'a/8C -1. .2 ~ M8IIf»w.am~ MUI&w18k Ib.IDI CoIIdeDIeroutlet "lac 49.~./8(..-t'IIOI'delivery .. .4 M8II&w~ dIoliS-a Water ~ . TON AIR AND WATER REAT PUMP OBSERVAnONS Date: Aunospbcricpreaure: 1. dIcII ..z 2..-. J I J CODde.. ~ abldU1D PJ/ kN m.0 W8ter C o~ CooIlDI 1D1et~ r. 44 un. Electrical iJlpUt to i'JectrIcai W/Waua 470 ~ MMlfJDwrale m. 1 2 L!. l.

.

/ec 13.26 Calculations See test No 3 aoove Compressorsuction prCS8mePi = 275 kN m-1 Compressor delivery pressure P1= 80s kN m-1 . = 1.a 140 tSS 170 200 210 22S aaucCpellure ~sor SucttOD PI I kN m-l 245 260 27S ]OS 315 330 absolute~~ BFC 1348 CoIIdeDIer gauge PJ/kN m~ 540 620 700 900 1050 1300 praa~ COlKieDler ~. dlen Iecord the pammctcrsshown below. Allow die unit time to stabiliseand dlen repeatthe observations. Turn on die water supply to die unit and wm on die main switch. Adjust the condensercooling warerflow rare to maximumand if usingthe watersourceevaporator eosmean ~uate water flow rare to preventfreezing. S.~l 0.29 3.5 Specific V ciunz at Con.068 0.085 0.8 10. 76. 3.4 72. Allow the unit time for all of die systemparametersto reach a stablecondition.6 7.-essor SucUon v/rD'kg o.78 2.5 75.4 12.o 2.6 10. Observations Abnospheric temperawre: 21OC AbnospbericpressureP.7 Efficiency Plalme lad. 6. 2. 645 P1/ kN m.9 13.071 0. Reducethe condensercooling water flow rate so that die condenserpressure(pJ increasesby approximately100 kN m-1.080 0.065 Calculated Volumcaic Data 11.3 7. II s'\ S.4 COlJ¥r4a«~ PI I kN m.46 6.2 10.2 71S 80S 1155 JXeIIare 1005 1405 COIJ1IreII(X' ludion ~~a&ute r. Repeatin incrementsof approximately100kN m-1until the pressurereachesapproximately1400 kN m-1.1 7.9 6.9 68. Procedure 1.2 6.67 4.05 Bar = 105 kN m-2 Tea 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mass flow rare dI. ESnMA'DON OF VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY OF THE COMPRESSOR AT A RANGE OF PR~SURE RA11OS.0 70.93 3. Selecteither the air or water evaporatm-using the evaporatorselectorswitch.63 2.7 15. 4.

r.<*> ~J oS-I = 5.y~r(~)~ - Y. .-1 The C(XD~ swept volwne rate (asswningd1atit nms 812800 rev.min-I).' .05.t 47 -PJ Compressor P'CSSUteratio. 1 . it can be shown that the volwnebic efficiency.1-1 Volumeuic Efficiency.6 X 10-J x O...flow .lpressm y.93 Stale JX)int1 may be plotted on the p-h diagram at PI and 1sand it is found d18t: VI = ~m] kg"1 The volumeflow rateat compressor suction.~ lO~ 7 x 10'" . (ii) and (ill) only. (atInID8~) Compr~r ~ WJlIIMe . Yola-.4" A typical gmph showing the effect of pressureratio on volurnebic efficiency is given 00 Page49. ~ x 15 x 10" . ¥. is usually about 0.llpl where ~ = Clearance Volume V.28 .' . - PI -. Comments The volumeUicefficiencyof a compressor is a f1D1ction of: {i} The pressmera1io {ii} The clearance volwneratio (iiI) The ilKlexof dteex~oo process {iv} The pressmedrq>dueto resistances in theintakesystem {v} The temJx.28 X 10'" ~J . In small CCII..05 and n may be taken as 1. VI = mr x VI = 6. SweptVolume and n is die index of expansion. ms 275 . . .ranJre risein d1eintakesystem {vi} The mechanjcal conditionof the valvesandpisUXlseals Considering(i). 2.5. .7~.1-1 S) = 7 X 10'".

.05[(2.1] = 91. insttumentem:.1S This COIDIXia-es widt an . .93) i:m .. The disaeJ8DCYis ~ to die 8ssuIDptjonsmade. .0. and factors (iv) and (VI). .4'11. 48 Substi!1l~n-! to' r.2.93in this examplewe get 11. 1 1 .:Wal ~timated volumeaic effici~y of 75.

.

7.Page42. . 1.163) x 10' = 732W From d1eproportionof heat transferredduring constanttemperablreevaporation..(-1." -:M--'l4-c. ~110N OF OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS IN THE EV AroRA TOR AND CONDENSER. . Procedure and Observadoos as for S. Therefcxethe best that can be achievedis to estimateas follows.(O.we ~ thatduringthe~~ 4-1. 5. Energy BaJances. - CalcuJatioas Follow the sameprocedureas outlined for S. .2» OC = -12. . --.8OC . -'(296 . Ena1Y Balances. 296 . -~I .Page4SandFigure16. By refming to thep-h diagramFigure13.> . However the point P 81which d1eevaporationphasechangeat constantremperabJre and supcrbeatingbegins cannotbe !~&~.so . thefollowingpropationof beatis transferred duringcomtanttemperature evaporation. Evaporator t5-13 oa( Water t4.(A. The tan~ of die ~ at point p = 13.-4~.Pages42 1045.163 The beat transferra1edming CvaJ)(nbon.5 x . te--12-C i I i.O1S~) x (13. .5S . .163 = 98. ! Figure 15 The ~urtlJX)sition for die water and HFCl34a will be awroximalely asshownabove. m.A.

4» iii (-1.985 x 0. U=-2- A 8. ..4» ) 3 . -.14 x 72 717.14 = 0.2 .(-4.(-4.2 ~Ih) -11.5% of the ev8JX)raror length.8 .7:J11K H we assumedw die phasechangetakesplace in 98.138 m2. .55 .E3-- 0.2 -.(-1. . Thelef<Xein physjcal tenDSthe heat exchangercan be very small but due to its high surfaceareaand overall heat transfercoefficient can transfera large amount of energy.14.8. .2» \ (12. 51 Figure 16 Thus die logaridtmic mean remperanuedifference dming evaporation e .-1.~ (-1. The EstimatedOvelall Heat TransferCoefficient during ev8JX)ration can now be detennined..(12. A-8 "2 1 .2 .(-1. the area involved will be 0.3 W.2 r-1 Note mat me evapa'atOr is a plate type heat exchangerwhich has a very high heat transfer area to volume ratio.2) .

! i I ' .~ -!~" : . I t. = 17.4 Figure 17 Figure 18 (In me coIkIenser me p'eSSIUeis approximately 1285kN m-2and the saturationtemperatureat this pressmeis 49.80. I . ~.80(' t I 1 ! i ~-T5. . I i : .7OCaJx11. t6-16 . I.~ .Hencethe pb&1C changefron vapom to liquid will takep~ at this tempelabJre. =43.0 I : HFCma '93 49.-c. .7 16.6OC.3OC.52 CoDdeaser Condenser ! t7-49.-C ~ ! : 80.. . I ' . it is foundthat.-: t2.8 '36 448 Water 17. Using much the samepnx:ed1D'e as for die evaporator.) The tempembJredisttibution in die coodenserwill be approximatelyas in FiIUle 17.8°C T Water t3-44.

5~7 . . 825 0. 17.II..3 . .0696)( 15.me valuesof U are ~Je for cva}X)ralionand CO!!.lK:e in 79. 31~ .5 % of die tOIal aJa.3 .7 15.7) ~(49.43.5 x 10-'(325 . .~lionin clean water-cooledbeat excbang~. U. mrCh. .3 -17.d-.3 .1 785 W .. 5.6)) . .43. (49.--2- A 8.(49.-2 K-1 Comments Although a numberof a.I'M) x 10' W =825W Assuming d181 d1is takes pl. S3 Hence 8.6) .1K ) The Heat Tramfer during the phasechange(refer to Figure 18)..) .J~ \'.7» \ (49.uumptionshavebeenmOOcin thesecalculations.

../-C ~ ../8C Ev~ Oodet~ . COIKieDIeraUF PJ/kNr JRU~ CmKicDler ablciute PI! kN m-Z BFC134a paIme I ~ aueCon ./8C Masstmwrale "/11" Water Source 1n1et=npcran= r. Electrical iDPUt ~ EI«. COIMieIlled liquid ..rc I I MusOow~ d\ IS S../8(: ..1ricai W/Waas ~-- Mus&wrak "/1'-' ~ aucdoo PI ItN m~ ~peuare I f CCXJ¥eUOrlucbOD PI I kN m-3 a8i_p8Ime ./-C ~8blle EvlpOI'IfOr inlet .reIIcx' delivery ./-C ~ Con.../-C CocilDl Oudet~ .-I Water CO~resIor IDler temperabR r./-C ~ I Maat1ow~ d'oI g .S4 1m..I Water Coademer lnletlempcl'abm ~rc CoQlal COIxIeDIeroadct ~ . TON AIR AND WATER MEAT PUMP OBSERVAnONS Dare: Aboospberic pressure: kNmo1 Heat Source: Air Water Aunospbcrictcmperacme: oc (delete) T8 J 2 s 4 5 .

> Q..) Q.t..) Q. I kJ q. = ~ I kJ q.r.Qp w COIJIIKCIIorluclionvolume ~/m'1 flow rate VI = dI./W Heat Transfer in Condenser ~ ID"Cl34a .CX1 Te~ . .18(. ss HILTON AIR AND WATER HEAT PUMP ..m' q. ~ ~ ratio r.r..b.atp. dI..r.) 0 /w Plan Waa = dIox 4.) d1c Total HeatDcliv~ to Wiler To W~ =d1. -- DERIVED RESULTS Date: Ref: 1 2 3 4 5 ./W HC81TlanSfer in Commessa- ~-h'>-W ~-a I W To Waa (in w cooler) o-/W = x 4. VI SweptYoI~ tale "(At SOHz) V.) ~/W Ovn1 CoPs.18(is.~ .abIolute . ISx If16x~ 60 v ol~c efficielM:y . . = p.x 4./m's . x 418CXt.. .absolute P.y.1 Ev8pOr8tiOD T~ Ct/-C ('~-!at!.18(t.z/W To Waa .1 VI. Cc ~ PowerInput W/Waus 1R'134a Propa1ies hI I kJ q"1 b. h..1 h. 11'" V../OC Heat TJanIfer in EV81XDt« To HFC134a = d1r(ht.

! 'r. . al I I . III ..- " -4-:. l. :Vcn i . ! - S ~ I . ! ! ! ! I!!!! . -1. . i I Iu I 1 . %~ -- I ~I . i ! '!IiTiT/ ! .t I ! - I I i t i .... ~ i ~ 'S- .0 ~ .. I ~ I \. .. w .. ~ i I ~ 'II :IIi' I." i-:. I ' ~c I . .I ~ '_~- § ... ~ GO m ~ ~ ~ ~ . . I i ~. N = ~S6 e e : .-i-~r ! _ II .. . PMSIIJM(UR) ~ ~o~.+ i .i ~ ff~ il !. III I . .." "L ..fIt- w ~ . I~ r"r---HJ & -1 .t'I\I i . ' ~ ~ I Ii j I j. r II ~. 5 I I' .. I ! ' I tt1trl . ~ . . I .-vl .. I' Q C"I 7 "i I !- .! ~ i" ~rl N ..j- 9- i i ~ 0 !~ . .n.. .li'li~1 lIt . : ..0.- "' . . !I. = : = : --==1 . I . 1 -f .. '. I 0 ....- . .!-.. . : !! I !. : I . I.0 ". (' 0 a -c F rl Ii .' . I ~'.~ : :I ! . .' '" - z ~ . . I il '- "' . r' 5 I I ~~ ~ : :. 1T\I n 0 I t :i .I . f! I i i! I E:~ 0. '.. .I w ~- 8 . .

.

{"r n i'~ ":1 Ii ~ 0 . t R i 0 N~ .. 0... p i I i" ~ § I 3 C\ 9. .I ~ :1 In C . \II " I~ '~ I.- Q.. ill . 3 1'8 I Q ~ I .. ~ ~ . N ~ ' go r'! a p 'S i ~ ~ i n ~ ~ .i !ll Ii N .1 a .. a' Nr" "'~-4C 0 13 i ! 0*0-4 <-4 "tI \I.- . BrIt 0 II~ ~ 3= . 1 ..Co Ii~.c. I t0 eo ."1' = ..~ oC~ ..:! .~ .1.I~ ~ . . T c I~ ig . C -4 g. n I.io :*-4 I". 1 ~ '. I~ -4 . . . ~ .- s.- i '. ~.