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# Turbulent Jets:

## Theory and Models

Environmental Hydraulics

Definitions

momentum

buoyancy

## Buoyant jet (forced plume) = boundary layer flow originating

from a source of momentum and buoyancy

Boundary layer:
high rate of change
across some
direction(s)

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Examples of Jets and Plumes

## Momentum jet Thermal plume

Jet in
air

Buoyant jet

Momentum: ρu2 A

Buoyancy: (ρ s − ρ) gV

## Densimetric Froude number:

u
Frd =
g ' ld

ρs −ρ
g' = g ld : a length scale
ρ

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Jet behavior depends on:

• jet parameters
diameter (Do), velocity (Uo)
• environmental parameters (receiving water)
ambient velocity (Ua)
• geometrical factors
water depth (h), orientation of discharge

Circular Jet

## Zone of flow establishment (jet development; 6-10Do)

Zone of established flow (fully developed jet)

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Zone of Flow Establishment (ZFE)

## Extends from the discharge point until water entrained at

the edges of the jet affects the centerline velocity.

## Velocity profile has a top-hat distribution initially, but

attains a Gaussian shape at the end of the ZFE.

Flow in ZFE:

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Q x ⎛x⎞
= 1 + 0.083 + 0.0128 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ x ≤ 6.2 Do
Qo Do ⎜⎝ Do ⎠

## Extends from where the water entrained at the edges of the

jet affects the centerline velocity and to infinity.

## Velocity profile has a Gaussian shape (concentration also).

Flow in ZEF:

Q x
= 0.32 x > 6.2 Do
Qo Do

## (Albertson et al. 1948)

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Flow Development in a Jet

Qo
Characteristic length scale: lQ = = Ao
Mo

umax D
= 6.2 0
u0 x

cmax D
= 5.6 0
c0 x

## Velocity and concentration in the circular jet:

u ⎛ r2 ⎞
= exp ⎜⎜−77 2 ⎟⎟⎟
umax ⎜⎝ x ⎠

c ⎛ r2 ⎞
= exp ⎜⎜−62 2 ⎟⎟⎟
cmax ⎜⎝ x ⎠

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Increase of flow occurs through entrainment of ambient water.

ΔQ = 2πrs vi Δx

dQ
= 2πrs vi
dx

## Using previous expression for flow:

0.32 1
vi = Q0 ≅ 0.05umax
D0 2πrs

Plane Jet

## Rectangular slot with large width in relation to height.

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Zone of Flow Establishment (ZFE)

## Extends from the discharge point until water entrained at

the edges of the jet affects the centerline velocity.

## Velocity profile has a top hat distribution initially, but

attains a Gaussian shape at the end of the ZFE.

Flow in ZFE:

q x
= 1 + 0.080 x ≤ 5.2d
qo d

## Extends from where the water entrained at the edges of the

jet affects the centerline velocity and to infinity.

Flow in ZEF:

q x
= 0.62 x > 5.2d
qo d

## (Albertson et al. 1948)

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Centerline velocity and concentration:

umax d
= 6 .2
u0 x

cmax d
= 2.0
c0 x

## Velocity and concentration in the plane jet:

u ⎛ y2 ⎞
= exp ⎜⎜−50 2 ⎟⎟⎟
umax ⎜⎝ x ⎠

c ⎛ y2 ⎞⎟

= exp ⎜−25 2 ⎟⎟
cmax ⎜⎝ x ⎠

Sample Problem

## Wastewater with a pollutant concentration of 20 mg/l is to be

discharged into the sea. Calculate the velocity and pollutant
concentration at the central axis 20 meters from where the
water was discharged if:

## • discharge occurs via a circular jet and the pipe opening is

0.1 m2 with a wastewater flow rate of 200 l/s.

## • discharge occurs via a plane jet and the height of the

opening is 0.1 m with a wastewater flow rate of 200 l/s per
meter.

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Model of Circular Jet
q
Volume conservation:
Q Q+ΔQ
dQ
=q
dx
Δx
Momentum conservation: ro

Q = ∫ 2πrudr
0
dM ro
=0
dx M = ∫ ρ2πru2 dr
0

## Top-hat velocity distribution:

rT
ro

Q = ∫ 2πrudr = πrT2 uT x
0

uT
ro

0

## ue = αuc = εuT q = 2πrT αuT

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Equations to solve:

d
dx
( πrT2 uT ) = 2πrT αuT

d
dx
(ρπrT2uT2 ) = 0 rT2 uT2 = ro2 uo2 = constant

ro2 uo2
rT2 =
uT2

Solution:

ro uo
uT = rT = ro + 2αx
ro + 2αx

Flow rate:

⎛ 2αx ⎞⎟
Q = πrT2uT + 2αx = πro2 uo ⎜⎜1 + ⎟
⎜⎝ ro ⎠⎟

Q x
= 1 + 2α
Qo ro

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Self-Similarity

## Velocity (and concentration) profiles look the same

everywhere properly scaled.
1.00

u ⎛r⎞
= Ψ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟
0.80

umax ⎜⎝ rM ⎠ 0.60

U /Um
0.40

_
0.20

0.00

## Scaling parameters: -0.20

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40

## • maximum (centerline) velocity ξ = r/(x+a)

• jet width

u ⎛ r2 ⎞
Example, Gaussian profile: = exp ⎜⎜− 2 ⎟⎟⎟
umax ⎜⎝ rM ⎠

Virtual Origin

## Jets typically exhibit linear 2.00

1800 rpm Counter flow
1.60 1200 rpm Counter flow

rM = mx 1.20
b/D

0.80
0.40

0.00
-4.00 0.00 4.00 8.00 12.00
x/D

Virtual
source

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Width Parameters for Turbulent Round Jets

## α j = 0.0535 ± 0.0025 (jet)

α p = 0.0833 ± 0.0042 (plume)

## Gaussian velocity distribution:

u ⎛ r2 ⎞
= exp ⎜⎜− ⎟⎟ self-similar velocity profile
umax ⎜⎝ rM2 ⎠⎟

Q = πrM2 u M

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M = ρπrM2 u2M
2

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