You are on page 1of 12

Turbulent Jets:

Theory and Models

Environmental Hydraulics

Definitions

Jet = boundary layer flow originating from a source of


momentum

Plume = boundary layer flow originating from a source of


buoyancy

Buoyant jet (forced plume) = boundary layer flow originating


from a source of momentum and buoyancy

Boundary layer:
high rate of change
across some
direction(s)

1
Examples of Jets and Plumes

Momentum jet Thermal plume

Jet in
air

Buoyant jet

Momentum: ρu2 A

Buoyancy: (ρ s − ρ) gV

Densimetric Froude number:

u
Frd =
g ' ld

ρs −ρ
g' = g ld : a length scale
ρ

2
Jet behavior depends on:

• jet parameters
diameter (Do), velocity (Uo)
• environmental parameters (receiving water)
ambient velocity (Ua)
• geometrical factors
water depth (h), orientation of discharge

Circular Jet

Zone of flow establishment (jet development; 6-10Do)


Zone of established flow (fully developed jet)

3
Zone of Flow Establishment (ZFE)

Extends from the discharge point until water entrained at


the edges of the jet affects the centerline velocity.

Velocity profile has a top-hat distribution initially, but


attains a Gaussian shape at the end of the ZFE.

Flow in ZFE:

2
Q x ⎛x⎞
= 1 + 0.083 + 0.0128 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟ x ≤ 6.2 Do
Qo Do ⎜⎝ Do ⎠

(Albertson et al. 1948)

Zone of Established Flow (ZEF)

Extends from where the water entrained at the edges of the


jet affects the centerline velocity and to infinity.

Velocity profile has a Gaussian shape (concentration also).

Flow in ZEF:

Q x
= 0.32 x > 6.2 Do
Qo Do

(Albertson et al. 1948)

4
Flow Development in a Jet

Qo
Characteristic length scale: lQ = = Ao
Mo

Centerline velocity and concentration:

umax D
= 6.2 0
u0 x

cmax D
= 5.6 0
c0 x

Velocity and concentration in the circular jet:

u ⎛ r2 ⎞
= exp ⎜⎜−77 2 ⎟⎟⎟
umax ⎜⎝ x ⎠

c ⎛ r2 ⎞
= exp ⎜⎜−62 2 ⎟⎟⎟
cmax ⎜⎝ x ⎠

5
Increase of flow occurs through entrainment of ambient water.

Mass balance equation for water:

ΔQ = 2πrs vi Δx

dQ
= 2πrs vi
dx

Using previous expression for flow:

0.32 1
vi = Q0 ≅ 0.05umax
D0 2πrs

Entrainment velocity is about 5% of velocity at jet axis

Plane Jet

Rectangular slot with large width in relation to height.

6
Zone of Flow Establishment (ZFE)

Extends from the discharge point until water entrained at


the edges of the jet affects the centerline velocity.

Velocity profile has a top hat distribution initially, but


attains a Gaussian shape at the end of the ZFE.

Flow in ZFE:

q x
= 1 + 0.080 x ≤ 5.2d
qo d

(Albertson et al. 1948)

Zone of Established Flow (ZEF)

Extends from where the water entrained at the edges of the


jet affects the centerline velocity and to infinity.

Velocity profile has a Gaussian shape (concentration also).

Flow in ZEF:

q x
= 0.62 x > 5.2d
qo d

(Albertson et al. 1948)

7
Centerline velocity and concentration:

umax d
= 6 .2
u0 x

cmax d
= 2.0
c0 x

Velocity and concentration in the plane jet:

u ⎛ y2 ⎞
= exp ⎜⎜−50 2 ⎟⎟⎟
umax ⎜⎝ x ⎠

c ⎛ y2 ⎞⎟

= exp ⎜−25 2 ⎟⎟
cmax ⎜⎝ x ⎠

Sample Problem

Wastewater with a pollutant concentration of 20 mg/l is to be


discharged into the sea. Calculate the velocity and pollutant
concentration at the central axis 20 meters from where the
water was discharged if:

• discharge occurs via a circular jet and the pipe opening is


0.1 m2 with a wastewater flow rate of 200 l/s.

• discharge occurs via a plane jet and the height of the


opening is 0.1 m with a wastewater flow rate of 200 l/s per
meter.

8
Model of Circular Jet
q
Volume conservation:
Q Q+ΔQ
dQ
=q
dx
Δx
Momentum conservation: ro

Q = ∫ 2πrudr
0
dM ro
=0
dx M = ∫ ρ2πru2 dr
0

Top-hat velocity distribution:


rT
ro

Q = ∫ 2πrudr = πrT2 uT x
0

uT
ro

M = ∫ ρ2πru2 dr = ρπrT2 uT2


0

Taylor’s entrainment hypothesis:

ue = αuc = εuT q = 2πrT αuT

9
Equations to solve:

d
dx
( πrT2 uT ) = 2πrT αuT

d
dx
(ρπrT2uT2 ) = 0 rT2 uT2 = ro2 uo2 = constant

ro2 uo2
rT2 =
uT2

Solution:

ro uo
uT = rT = ro + 2αx
ro + 2αx

Flow rate:

⎛ 2αx ⎞⎟
Q = πrT2uT + 2αx = πro2 uo ⎜⎜1 + ⎟
⎜⎝ ro ⎠⎟

Q x
= 1 + 2α
Qo ro

10
Self-Similarity

Velocity (and concentration) profiles look the same


everywhere properly scaled.
1.00

u ⎛r⎞
= Ψ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎟
0.80

umax ⎜⎝ rM ⎠ 0.60

U /Um
0.40

_
0.20

0.00

Scaling parameters: -0.20


0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40

• maximum (centerline) velocity ξ = r/(x+a)

• jet width

u ⎛ r2 ⎞
Example, Gaussian profile: = exp ⎜⎜− 2 ⎟⎟⎟
umax ⎜⎝ rM ⎠

Virtual Origin

Jets typically exhibit linear 2.00

spreading: 1800 rpm Coflow


1800 rpm Counter flow
1.60 1200 rpm Counter flow

rM = mx 1.20
b/D

0.80
m is about 0.11
0.40

0.00
-4.00 0.00 4.00 8.00 12.00
x/D

Virtual
source

11
Width Parameters for Turbulent Round Jets

α j = 0.0535 ± 0.0025 (jet)


α p = 0.0833 ± 0.0042 (plume)

Gaussian velocity distribution:

u ⎛ r2 ⎞
= exp ⎜⎜− ⎟⎟ self-similar velocity profile
umax ⎜⎝ rM2 ⎠⎟

Q = πrM2 u M

1
M = ρπrM2 u2M
2

Compare with top-hat distribution: rT = 2rM

12