3 views

Uploaded by Gopal Krishan

LES sphere

LES sphere

© All Rights Reserved

- Equations of Heat Transfer
- ME2135E Fluid Mechanics Formula SheetA0066078X Lin Shaodun Page
- Hydraulics
- PASTEURISER Holding Section Holding Time Calculation
- Massa Rotti 1998
- Mathematical Analysis of the Navier Stokes, Darcy Coupling
- Mechanics of Fluids Nov2004 RR 212101
- Computer Simulation of Intelligent Building Facades
- A Numerical Investigation of the Incompressible Flow Through a Butterfly Valve Using CFD
- 2_Conservation_Equations.pdf
- Fluent-v6.2-lect_all.pdf
- Henrik Rusche Phd 2002
- Ecin
- Handout15_6333.pdf
- Ch1-FW-151
- 10AE752-Gomputational Fluid Dynamics(1)
- Principles of Convection
- Ps7 Solutionsdvd
- arma2013Paper520-Javadi
- Numerical Simulation Wind Analysis for Plate-cone

You are on page 1of 12

at Re = 50 000

D-22305 Hamburg, Germany

* present address of the first and the third author:

CD adapco Group, Diirrenhofstr. 4, D-90402 Niirnberg, Germany

Summary, fn this work the large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to investigate in-

compressible flow around a sphere with trip wire. The sphere is located in a channel

with square cross-section, and the bulk Reynolds number is Re = 50 000. The com-

putational effort implied by demands for sufficient spatial and temporal resolution

of the flow structures requires parallel runs on a high-performance computer. The

numerical results are compared to the experimental ones in order to provide reliable

data for testing, calibrating and improvement of statistical turbulence models. The

time-averaged LES-results and the measured data obtained by the laser-Doppler-

anemometry (LDA) for the velocity and the Reynolds-stress components are in

reasonable agreement. Accuracy of the predicted mean-flow velocity component is

particularly good. Comparison of the Reynolds stresses shows certain deviations in

the far wake, agreement is however acceptable from the qualitative point of view.

1 Introduction

Statistical turbulence models - those used to close the Reynolds-averaged

Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations which are commonly used in scientific and

engineering practice - suffer from severe deficiencies in the computation of

flows with transition and separation. They fail in the prediction of the drag

force and the wake structure. Appropriate assessment of applicability of these

models and their eventual improvement require reliable information not only

on integral values such as drag force but also d a t a on the velocity field and

the Reynolds-stress field in the entire flow, particularly in the wake.

T h e lack of d a t a on the velocity and the Reynolds-stress field in the wake

behind a sphere at high i?e-numbers motivated a series of investigations at

our department, including b o t h experimental and numerical work. Essential

190 M. Torlak, G. Jensen, I. Hadzic

the wake. A sphere is characterised by simple geometry, but at the same

time, by complex, separated turbulent flow for practically relevant Reynolds

numbers. Transition appears either in the shear layer or in the boundary layer.

The separation point is not fixed owing to the absence of sharp edges. Thus,

analysis of fiow around a sphere is quite suitable for testing of turbulence

models.

Results of experimental studies with visualisations as well as drag and

pressure measurements for a range of different i?e-numbers, and LDA-

measurements for flows around a smooth sphere and a sphere with trip wire

at Re = 50 000 are given in [2]. An assessment of performance of the RANS-

simulations of the flow around a smooth sphere at Re = 50 000 is briefly

reported in [4]. The models tested: the Launder-Sharma k — e model, the

Menter SST k — uj model, and a Reynolds-stress model [5] delivered prin-

cipally bad representation of the flow p a t t e r n in the wake. In addition, the

predicted drag force (with an error up to 50%) and the turbulence quantities

(both the maximum of turbulence intensity and its location) were adversely

affected. Similar conclusions were drawn in [6] where the high-i?e version of

the k — e model and the k — uj model are tested. In [8] DNS to the flow around

a sphere at i?e = 5 000 is successfully applied. In [7] and [6] LES is used for

computation of the flow around a sphere at Re = 50 000. Another LES of

the same kind of flow is experimentally conflrmed by hot-wire and LDA mea-

surements [4]. In [6] it is shown t h a t modelling of subgrid-scale stress (SGS)

does not play an important role on sufficiently fine grids.

The use of DNS and LES seems to be promising in investigation of transi-

tional flows with separation. In this work, the study is concentrated on a flow

around a sphere with trip wire at Re = 50 000. The investigations are con-

ducted using LES. Unlike in the cases studied in the previously cited works,

the trip wire triggers transition to turbulence in the boundary layer which

considerably changes the flow structure. A flow p a t t e r n similar to t h a t of su-

percritical flow is obtained. For comparison of results, the LDA-measurements

from [2] are used.

2 Numerical m e t h o d

The starting point of LES is flltering the governing equations over a length

scale. For Newtonian fluids, a modified form of the Navier-Stokes equations

for incompressible fiow extended for the t e r m of the SGS-stress tensor is

obtained:

(1)

dxi

(2)

dt dxj dxj ^^ \ dxj dx,

LES of Flow Around a Sphere with Trip Wire at Re = 50 000 191

pressure, p and /i are the density and the dynamic viscosity of the fluid, rf^^

is the subgrid-scale stress tensor which is not resolved on the large scale.

Therefore it has to be modelled.

In the present study, the Smagorinsky model [9] is used to close the system

of eqs. (l)-(2). The SGS stress tensor is replaced by the following expression:

called Smagorinsky constant, and A = ] / ^ / ^ is the adopted filter width with

V being the volume of the control volume under consideration. T h e value of

Cs = 0.065 was used here. The contributions of the Leonard stress and the

cross stress to the SGS-stress were neglected.

T h e computations were done using the computer program Comet [1]. T h e

program is based on a finite-volume method [3]. It allows the use of unstruc-

tured grids with local refinement, with arbitrary shape of polyhedral control

volumes and collocated variable arrangement. Dependent variables are de-

fined at the centres of the control volumes. T h e S I M P L E algorithm is used

for pressure-velocity coupling. A discretisation practice of the second order is

employed: midpoint rule for approximation of integrals, central-differencing

scheme (CDS) for approximation of gradients, and linear interpolation. This

choice offers an appropriate trade-off between accuracy and costs of imple-

mentation for handling of arbitrary geometries and unstructured grids. For

the purpose of this study, capabilites of the program were extended in order

to account for the LES. T h e CDS was used for evaluation of the convective

flux in the bulk of the flow, combined with the upwind-differencing scheme

(UDS) applied in the regions far from the sphere and from the wake. This

is found to be a good compromise which delivers sufficient accuracy in the

regions of the most interest and avoids oscillations in the solution. Integra-

tion in time is done using the implicit three-time-level scheme which is also

second-order accurate.

Segregated solution algorithm is employed to form a set of systems of

linear algebraic equations established for each dependent variable: the large-

scale velocities, Ui^ and the so-called modified pressure, P = P + r^^^^/3. T h e

systems of equations are handled sequentially until prescribed convergence

tolerance is achieved. T h e system matrices are: quadratic with dimensions

N X N where N is the number of CVs, sparse containing Nj -\- 1 entries in

each row with Nj being the number of neighbouring CVs, unstructured with

an arbitrary bandwidth, and diagonally dominant. The systems are solved by

a preconditioned I C C G - m e t h o d for symmetric matrices and the B i C G S t a b

algorithm for asymmetric ones. The program is parallelised adopting a single

program multiple d a t a (SPMD) model. T h e domain decomposition approach

is used for parallelisation in space. Parallel processing in time is available as

well, but not used here. T h e communication between the processing units

192 M. Torlak, G. Jensen, I. Hadzic

takes place either through the Message Passing Interface (MPI) hbrary or

ParaUel Virtual Machine (PVM).

3 Problem description

The accompanying experiments were conducted in a closed wind tunnel

with square cross-section. T h e dimensions of the test section are 300 m m x

300 m m x 600 mm. The geometry of the sphere with position of the trip wire

and the dimensions is depicted in Fig. 1 (left). T h e sphere was placed at the

centre of the tunnel, and fixed by a supporting bar from its rear side, in the

wake. Thus, influence of the sphere support onto the development of the flow

was retained as small as possible.

trip wire

Fig. 1. Geometry of the sphere with trip wire and dimensions in mm (left). A part

of the solution domain with only a quarter being shown (right)

experimental set-up as accurate as possible. T h e conflnement of the chan-

nel and the sphere support were taken into account, as shown in Fig. 1

(right). T h e boundary conditions in the simulation accommodate those from

the experiment. T h e no-slip condition is applied over the sphere wall and

along the supporting bar. T h e channel walls are however treated as the slip

walls. At the inlet boundary, the uniformly distributed velocity constant in

time is specified. Zero gradient of all dependent variables is imposed at the

outlet.

The computations were performed on locally refined, unstructured grids,

as shown in Fig. 2. Local refinement allows better resolution of the fiow

properties in critical regions: boundary layer, shear layer and wake, avoiding

rapid increase of the total number of CVs. Two grids were employed: with

app. 8 - 1 0 ^ and 3.1 • 10^ CVs. Tests with the coarse grid gave poor results,

with the length of recirculating zone about 50% less t h a n observed in the

experiments. T h e results presented here are obtained on the fine grid. T h e

normalised wall distance of the computational points nearest to the wall, 7/+,

was less t h a n 2 in the stagnation region and in front of the trip wire; it was

less t h a n 0.5 behind the trip wire and in the recirculation region until x = D

measured from the sphere centre. Around the sphere equator, y~^ had a local

LES of Flow Around a Sphere with Trip Wire at Re = 50 000 193

Fig. 2. Longitudinal section of the computational grid around the sphere with trip

wire. Only upper part is shown. The grid consists of about 3.1 • 10^ CVs. Two levels

of local refinement — around the sphere and in the wake (left), and additional

refinement in the area of expected separation (right) can be clearly seen

maximum of about 0.75, and it was about 1.5 along the wall of the support

bar for x > 1.3D.

T h e time step size was At ^ 0.005D/Uo- T h e time averaging of the flow

properties (velocity, pressure, Reynolds-stress) started after SOD/Uo- T h e

subsequent averaging time in the simulation was taver ~ l^OD/Uo-

4 Computational aspects

The computational runs for the grid with about 3.1 • 10^ CVs were per-

formed parallel in space, using 64 processing units on the computer Cray

T 3 E . After automatic partitioning of the solution domain, about 47000 com-

putational points were assigned to a processing unit. Finer partitioning would

increase time overheads in the communication between the processing units.

The achieved load balancing was:

Np

99.9% (4)

NpvNp

where Np is the total number of computational points in the overall solution

domain, A^pu is the number of processing units, and Np is the maximum

number of computational points per processing unit. Here, Np also represents

dimension of the matrix of systems of equations to be solved. Several other

values used in the computational set-up which indicate consumption of the

computing resources are given in Tab. 1.

5 Results

In Fig. 3, the instantaneous fields of the mean-flow velocity component (left)

and the pressure (right) are shown. The turbulent boundary layer separates

194 M. Torlak, G. Jensen, I. Hadzic

Table 1. Computational set-up parameters and the resulting computing effort per

time step

start of the time averaging after 16 000 time steps

averaging period 30 000 time steps

number of averaging samples 30 000 (for each time step)

time step size 2.5- 10-^ s

convergence tolerance for outer iterations 10-^

maximum number of outer iterations required per 9

time step

computing time per time step about 65 s

from the rear side of the sphere, and is directed towards the mean-flow axis of

the channel. In the wake, whose width approximately equals the sphere diam-

eter, local velocity and pressure variations indicate a strongly turbulent flow

structure. The oscillatory n a t u r e of the velocity iso-lines, seen in front of the

trip wire, was triggered by the non-orthogonal grid along the non-matching

faces which are introduced by the local refinement. An instantaneous shot

from the fiow visualisation [2] is shown in Fig. 4. The instantaneous veloc-

ity vectors in the vicinity of the trip-wire are presented in Fig. 5. Laminar

boundary layer separates from the frontal side of the wire. Small vortices

which are generated behind the wire and trigger transition to turbulence in

the boundary layer are clearly seen.

Fig. 3. The iso-lines of the mean-flow velocity component Ux (left) and the pressure

(right) at an instant of time

' trip wire at Re = 50 000, ref. [2]

Fig. 6 (left) shows the time- and circumferentially averaged pressure dis-

P-PQ

tribution. A profile of the averaged pressure coefficient Cp along

a meridian of the sphere is depicted in Fig. 6 (right). In the region in front of

LES of Flow Around a Sphere with Trip Wire at Re = 50 000 195

LES, Re=50.000

invisicid fluid,

smooth sphere

_i_

90 120 150

coefficient Cp = ^ ^ ^ "o around the sphere (left) and its profile along a meridian of

^ 0.5PUQ

the sphere (right)

the trip wire, the pressure variation is similar to the one for flow around the

smooth sphere. Certain increase of the pressure in front of the trip wire and

a severe pressure drop behind it are noticeable. T h e variation of Cp is actually

continuous across the wire, and the pressure j u m p noticeable in the diagram

is due to distribution of interpolating points employed in the post-processing

stage. Interestingly, distribution of Cp does not show the minimum value at

a distinct value of the meridional angle (p. Instead, minimum of Cp extends

over a short range of (/?, indicating flat distribution of Cp behind the trip

wire. Shortly before the equator, about (/? = 85° measured from the frontal

stagnation point, the adverse pressure gradient arises, which is strong until

about 100°. Further, Cp increases and approaches zero in the vicinity of the

supporting bar while remaining negative. Slight local maximum of Cp around

170° is addressed to the effects induced by the supporting bar.

In Fig. 7, the time-averaged velocity vectors obtained from LES (left) are

compared to the time-averaged velocities obtained by LDA-measurements

(right). The vectors are constructed using the mean-flow component, Ux, and

radial component, Ur- A qualitatively good agreement of the global flow pat-

tern is observed in the simulation. Approximately at 105° measured from the

frontal stagnation point, flow separation is observed. The main flow stream

re-attached the support behind the sphere, bounding a recirculation area

about 0.95D long. Based on the LDA-measurements [2] the separation point

was visually estimated at the angle of 120° and the length of recirculation

196 M. Torlak, G. Jensen, I. Hadzic

area of about ID. T h e raster of the samphng points in the measurements was

too coarse near the sphere wah, so t h a t the very thin layer of backward flow

in the range between 105° and 120° could not be recorded.

A detailed quantitative comparison of the mean-flow velocity component

is shown in Fig. 8 (above). Agreement of the results in the vicinity of the

sphere and the near wake is very good. Deviations from the measured val-

ues are noticeable in the upper part of the far wake, for x/D > 1, where

LES LDA

Fig. 7. The time-averaged velocity in the wake of the sphere: LES results (left)

and LDA measurements (right)

x/D=0

x/D=0.167

x/D=0.333

x/D=0.500

x/D=0.667

x/D=0.833

x/D=1.000

x/D=1.167

x/D=1.333

x/D=1.500

x/D=1.667

x/D=1.833

0.5 1 1.5

x/D + 0.25 (U/U^)

x/D=0

x/D=0.167

x/D=0.333

x/D=0.500

x/D=0.667

x/D=0.833

x/D=1.000

x/D=1.167

x/D=1.333

x/D=1.500

x/D=1.667

x/D=1.833

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x/D + sqrtiujjJ/U^

Fig. 8. Profiles of the normalised mean-flow velocity component UX/UQ (above) and

normalised Reynolds stress \/UXUX/UQ (below): LES results (lines) and measured

values (symbols)

LES of Flow Around a Sphere with Trip Wire at Re = 50 000 197

ilar findings hold for the averaged Reynolds stress UxUx whereby LES re-

sulted in an overestimation, Fig. 8 (below). Discrepancies are more apparent

t h a n in the case of mean-flow velocity component. It is believed t h a t dis-

agreements of numerical and experimental results observed in the far wake

are to be addressed to insufficient resolution by the employed computa-

tional grid.

Fourrier-analysis of the velocity and pressure time history for two typical

points - near the trip wire and in the far wake - is presented in Fig. 9. It

indicates transition from a state with distinct high-frequency fluctuations,

shortly behind the trip-wire, to a wide spectrum of excited frequencies in

the wake. T h e lowest distinct frequency detected in the sphere wall vicinity,

behind the trip wire, corresponds to Strouhal number St = 7.28. At the point

in the far wake, there is no dominant frequencies, and a wide spectrum of

frequencies is obtained. Fig. 9 (right). The most dominant ones lie in a range

about St = 5.

10 f

id

Q. 10't

^10'

10 10

16' log St

Fig. 9. Fourrier transformation of the velocity (red) and pressure (blue) time his-

tories at a point immediately behind the trip wire (left) and a point in the far wake

(right)

averaged LES results. D a t a presented in Fig. 10 is obtained for a number

of points along the profile lines, shown in Fig. 8, as well as for a number of

points in the range 0.5D < r < 0.65D and 0 < (p < 180°. T h e anisotropy

invariant m a p indicates t h a t most states including isotropic, axisymmetric

and two-component turbulence can be found in the flow around the sphere,

contrary to the most flows used to calibrate RANS models in which typically

only a small range is covered. This illustration shows t h a t the adopted test

case is suitable for testing of turbulence models.

Finally, a comparison of the computed and measured time-averaged global

flow properties b o t h for the smooth and the sphere with trip wire is sum-

marised in Tab. 2. Note t h a t the predicted value of the drag coefficient for

198 M. Torlak, G. Jensen, I. Hadzic

Fig. 10. The invariant map of the anisotropy tensor for the flow around the sphere

with trip wire at Re = 50 000

Table 2. Global flow properties obtained after time averaging: (*) numerical results

from [6], (o) numerical results from [4], (o) experimental results from [2], and (•)

present numerical results

LES* LES<^ LDA° LES* LDA°

length of the recirculating area l.bD 1.261) l.bD 0.951) ID

position of the separation point 84° 84^ 82° 105° 120°

drag coefficient 0.465 0.557 0.51 0.249 —

the sphere with the trip wire is clearly less t h a n for the smooth sphere. This

finding is in accordance with experience. Unfortunately, measured values of

the drag force for the case investigated here are not available for a more

precise verification.

The flow around sphere with trip wire is substantially different t h a n for

smooth sphere. Locations of maxima and minima b o t h in the velocity and

the Reynolds-stress field, as well as their intensities differ [2]. Principally, the

flow structure is predicted by LES b o t h qualitatively and quantitatively well.

While quantitative discrepancies between the computed and measured values

of the Reynolds-stress in the far wake are observed in the present simulation,

comparison with the numerical results from [6] for smooth sphere shows t h a t

LES has predicted all changes in the right direction and also largely with the

right magnitude.

6 Conclusions

In this paper, it is shown t h a t LES captures all phenomena of separated flow

around a sphere with transition to turbulence. Prediction of the flow around

LES of Flow Around a Sphere with Trip Wire at Re = 50 000 199

a sphere using LES is much better t h a n with RANS-models, which may give

quahtatively wrong results for this type of flow, particularly drag force and

turbulence quantities.

Since LES is too expensive for every-day simulations, the RANS-models

still have to be used in engineering practice. Therefore, they need to be

assessed in detail by performing a term-by-term analysis. T h e LES results

can be used to validate new RANS-models or the ideas for improvement

of existing ones, since - contrary to experimental work - LES delivers all

necessary information for assessment of modelling assumptions. T h e accom-

panying experiments provide sufficient d a t a to confirm quality of the LES

results.

Further LES has to be performed on the finer grids, in order to examine

still noticeable deviations from experimental data. W i t h this validated LES

d a t a a term-by-term analysis of RANS turbulence models can be performed

in order to identify their deficiencies. Also, URANS and DES can be assessed

against the d a t a obtained from the LES simulation.

Acknowledgements

T h e financial support provided by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

within the project grant No. P E 350/15-2 is gratefully acknowledged. It is

also the authors' pleasure to t h a n k Dr. Milovan Peric, CD adapco Group,

for many helpful discussions. The computations were performed using the

program Comet on the computer Cray T 3 E of Hochstleistungsrechenzentrum

(HLRS) S t u t t g a r t , Germany.

References

1. Comet, Version 2.000 - User Manual CD adapco Group, 2000.

2. V. Bakic. Experimental investigation of turbulent flows around a sphere. PhD

thesis, TU Hamburg-Harburg, Arbeitsbereiche Schiffbau, Bericht 621, 2003.

3. I. Demirdzic and S. Muzaferija. Numerical method for coupled fluid flow, heat

transfer and stress analysis using unstrucutred moving meshes with cells of ar-

bitrary topology. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 125:235-255, 1995.

4. I. Hadzic, V. Bakic, M. Peric, V. Sajn, and F. Kosel. Experimental and numerical

studies of flow around sphere at sub-critical Reynolds number. In 5th Int. Symp.

on Engineering Turbulence Modelling and Measurements, Mallorca, Spain, 16-18

Sept. 2002, 2002.

5. K. Hanjalic, I. Hadzic, and S. Jakirlic. Modelling turbulent wall flows subjected

to strong pressure variations. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 125:235-, 1998.

6. M. Schmid. Crobstruktursimulation turbulenter Stromungen auf unstrukturi-

erten Cittern mit einer parallelen Finite-Volumen Methode. PhD thesis, TU

Hamburg-Harburg, Arbeitsbereiche Schiffbau, Bericht 616, 2002.

200 M. Torlak, G. Jensen, I. Hadzic

coherent structure capturing. In E. Krause and W. Jager, editors, High Per-

formance Computing in Science and Engineering '99, pages 304-311, HLRS

Stuttgart, 1999. Springer, Berlin.

8. V. Seidl. Entwicklung und Anwendung eines parallelen Finite-Volumen-

Verfahrens zur Stromungssimulation auf unstyrukturierten Cittern mit lokaler

Verfeinerung. PhD thesis, TU Hamburg-Harburg, Arbeitsbereiche Schiffbau,

Bericht 585, 1997.

9. J. Smagorinsky. General circulation experiments with the primitive equations.

I. The basic experiment. Mon. Weather Rev., 41:99-164, 1963.

- Equations of Heat TransferUploaded byDavid Oliver Zamor
- ME2135E Fluid Mechanics Formula SheetA0066078X Lin Shaodun PageUploaded byseptian_chandrika
- HydraulicsUploaded bygugi
- PASTEURISER Holding Section Holding Time CalculationUploaded byarenco
- Massa Rotti 1998Uploaded byhassan
- Mathematical Analysis of the Navier Stokes, Darcy CouplingUploaded bygeovanny84
- Mechanics of Fluids Nov2004 RR 212101Uploaded byNizam Institute of Engineering and Technology Library
- Computer Simulation of Intelligent Building FacadesUploaded byDobri Stef
- A Numerical Investigation of the Incompressible Flow Through a Butterfly Valve Using CFDUploaded byAhmed El-dawy
- 2_Conservation_Equations.pdfUploaded byJitendra Maurya
- Fluent-v6.2-lect_all.pdfUploaded byYaroslavBerezhko
- Henrik Rusche Phd 2002Uploaded by007kruno
- EcinUploaded byJorge Cabrera
- Handout15_6333.pdfUploaded byIzi
- Ch1-FW-151Uploaded byMajid Khan
- 10AE752-Gomputational Fluid Dynamics(1)Uploaded byashwa
- Principles of ConvectionUploaded byFaradiban Acosta
- Ps7 SolutionsdvdUploaded byBilal Zafar
- arma2013Paper520-JavadiUploaded byttscopo
- Numerical Simulation Wind Analysis for Plate-coneUploaded byQuoc Tri Phung
- Incompressible Turbulent Flow Simulation Using the - Model and Upwind SchemesUploaded bylumostar
- 9780387368368-c1Uploaded byAnonymous bjD4fCi
- Ada 323498Uploaded byIsaac Kocherla
- Ying_2011_a.pdfUploaded byAngel Cerriteño
- Flow SepertionUploaded byPraveen P Jose
- sssddsdfwesfsn4Uploaded byanon_129851196
- Boundary layer separation over a 2D aerofoil report--3434.docxUploaded bySaathvik Bhat
- cbbbclmt06Uploaded bynurlena siregar
- 1-s2.0-S1026309812001897-mainUploaded byPrashant
- Correlacion de CAIDA DE PRESION en lechos empacadosarticle.pdfUploaded byximena

- 32 Manufacturing of Gears.Uploaded byPRASAD326
- Reynolds StressesUploaded byGopal Krishan
- 1 VectorsUploaded byGopal Krishan
- turbltUploaded bynishith316
- V3I1Uploaded byGopal Krishan
- 26_1_1_8 2015Uploaded byMohit kolli
- Tubulent JetsUploaded byGopal Krishan
- Tennekes Lumley 8Uploaded byGopal Krishan
- Smu AssignUploaded byGopal Krishan
- Active Flow Control TechnologyUploaded byGopal Krishan
- Quinn 1994Uploaded byGopal Krishan
- chap4Uploaded byGopal Krishan
- Synopsis HermaanUploaded byGopal Krishan
- M.tech. AssignmentUploaded byGopal Krishan
- Week 1 - Fluid Mechanics(1)Uploaded byGopal Krishan
- 01 Slurm14.3TrainingHands OnUploaded byGopal Krishan
- Digital IndiaUploaded bykaushalmahan
- kiser1963Uploaded byGopal Krishan
- 2001 Thermal Interface MaterialsUploaded byGopal Krishan
- New Microsoft Word DocumentUploaded byGopal Krishan
- New Microsoft Word Document.docxUploaded byGopal Krishan
- Delna HandbookUploaded byAgnes Deng
- TurbulenceUploaded byAzharuddin_kfupm
- Multiphase Flows PptUploaded byAwadh Kapoor
- Pressure Vessel LectureUploaded byDubaiHMAR
- ME UG CurriculumUploaded byShiri Sha

- Chiral Transverse Electromagnetic Waves with E H i to study Circular DichroismUploaded byinventionjournals
- 1.Physics (Aieee) Model PaperUploaded byDeep Agarwal
- Analysis of Friction Excited Vibration of Drum Brake SquealUploaded byAnonymous PufNjg
- gold3.pdfUploaded byManula Pathirana
- 1-s2.0-S089417771400274X-mainUploaded byCriveanuNNarcis
- Cavity-flow Wall Effects and Correction RulesUploaded bysaba135
- Dynamics note sheetUploaded byDaniel Wiese
- 8b-Fluids Fr Practice ProblemsUploaded bydilsharakavi
- Motion in One DimensionUploaded byMohammed Aftab Ahmed
- Anand Mishra 1972 Solutions to JEEUploaded byYatharth Singh
- WaveInterferencePracticeProblems_Answers.docUploaded byClement Charles
- joan confirmationUploaded byLiza Pagaspas
- ENERGEIAUploaded byJairus Perez
- Chapter_2Uploaded byFahad Ali
- Ch-02 Satellite Orbits & Trajectories2Uploaded bySuren Sharma
- Wind Earthquake Effect Master 20111010Uploaded byDebajyoti Sen
- Physics FormulaeUploaded byApex Institute
- Phys10-Chap5-ApplyingNewtonsLawsUploaded byEngelbert Bicoy Antod
- chapter 3 phyiscsUploaded byapi-96362001
- 15. Torque and Drag CalculationsUploaded bysivakmu
- 1494Manual_SP11Uploaded byJae Hun Kim
- Single DOF Damped Free Vibrations (VI)Uploaded bySudheesh Ramadasan
- Analytical Dynamics - Problems Set 5Uploaded bySiddharth Rajamohanan
- SAS Turbulence modelUploaded byAlex Ruiz Muñoz
- Unit 3 Review on ForcesUploaded byJames Hansen
- Worksheet MotionUploaded byiskenderbey
- Jitendra.pdfUploaded byJitendra Chaubey
- An Introduction to Analytical Mechanics 2010Uploaded byantoniolamadeu
- IIT JamUploaded byRandheer Gautam
- 119004243-Chapter-13Uploaded byYash Shah