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An overview of available reactor designs 2012

Jim Thomson

The main designs worldwide are:


1. Areva EPR
2. (Areva Kerena BWR)
3. Areva-Mitsubishi Atmea
4. Atomstroyexport VVER-1200
5. CNGPC CPR-1000
6. GE-Hitachi ESBWR
7. KEPCO APR1400
8. Mitsubishi APWR
9. SNC Lavalin CANDU
10. Toshiba-Westinghouse AP1000
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January 2012 1
Nuclear power stations under
construction, 2011
2011 India, NPCIL Kaiga 4 PHWR 202 2013 China, CNNC Fangjiashan 1 PWR 1080 2016 Korea, KHNP Shin-Ulchin 2 PWR 1350
2011 Iran, AEOI Bushehr 1 PWR 950 2013 China, CNNC Fuqing 1 PWR 1080 2016 Romania, SNN Cernavoda 3 PHWR 655
2011 India, NPCIL Kudankulam 1 PWR 950 2013 China, CGNPC Hongyanhe 2 PWR 1080 2016 Russia, Energoatom Novovoronezh II-2 PWR 1070
2011 Korea, KHNP Shin Kori 1 PWR 1000 2013 Slovakia, SE Mochovce 4 PWR 440 2016 Russia, Energoatom Leningrad II-2 PWR 1200
2011 Argentina, CNEA Atucha 2 PHWR 692 2014 China, CNNC Sanmen 2 PWR 1250 2016 Russia, Energoatom Rostov 4 PWR 1200
2011 India, NPCIL Kudankulam 2 PWR 950 2014 China, CPI Haiyang 1 PWR 1250 2016 Russia, Energoatom Baltic 1 PWR 1200
2011 Russia, Energoatom Kalinin 4 PWR 950 2014 China, CGNPC Ningde 3 PWR 1080 2016 Russia, Energoatom Seversk 1 PWR 1200
2011 Korea, KHNP Shin Kori 2 PWR 1000 2014 China, CGNPC Hongyanhe 3 PWR 1080 2016 Ukraine, Energoatom Khmelnitsky 3 PWR 1000
2011 China, CGNPC Lingao II-2 PWR 1080 2014 China, CGNPC Hongyanhe 4 PWR 1080 2016 India, NPCIL Kakrapar 4 PHWR 640
2011 Japan, Chugoku Shimane 3 ABWR 1375 2015 China, CGNPC Yangjiang 2 PWR 1080 2016 India, NPCIL Rajasthan 7 PHWR 640
2012 Taiwan Power Lungmen 1 ABWR 1300 2014 China, CNNC Fangjiashan 2 PWR 1080 2016 China, several
2011 Canada, Bruce Pwr Bruce A1 PHWR 769 2014 China, CNNC Fuqing 2 PWR 1080 2017 Russia, Energoatom Leningrad II-3 PWR 1200
2012 Canada, Bruce Pwr Bruce A2 PHWR 769 2014 China, CNNC Changiang 1 PWR 650 2017 Ukraine, Energoatom Khmelnitsky 4 PWR 1000
2011 Pakistan, PAEC Chashma 2 PWR 300 2014 China, China Huaneng Shidaowan HTR 200 2017 India, NPCIL Rajasthan 8 PHWR 640
2011 India, Bhavini Kalpakkam FBR 470 2014 Korea, KHNP Shin-Kori 4 PWR 1350 2017 Romania, SNN Cernavoda 4 PHWR 655
2012 Finland, TVO Olkilouto 3 PWR 1600 2014 Japan, Tepco Fukishima I-7 ABWR 1380 2017 China, several
2012 China, CNNC Qinshan phase II-4 PWR 650 2014 Japan, EPDC/J Power Ohma ABWR 1350
2012 Taiwan Power Lungmen 2 ABWR 1300 2014 Russia, Energoatom Rostov 3 PWR 1070
2012 Korea, KHNP Shin Wolsong 1 PWR 1000 2014 Russia, Energoatom Beloyarsk 4 FNR 750
2012 Canada, NB Power Point Lepreau 1 PHWR 6352015 Japan, Tepco Fukishima I-8 ABWR 1380
2012 France, EdF Flamanville 3 PWR 1600 2015 China, CGNPC Yangjiang 3 PWR 1080
2012 Russia, Energoatom Vilyuchinsk PWR x 2 70 2015 China, CPI Haiyang 2 PWR 1250
2012 Russia, Energoatom Novovoronezh II-1 PWR 1070
2015 China, CGNPC Taishan 2 PWR 1700
2012 Slovakia, SE Mochovce 3 PWR 440 2015 China, CGNPC Ningde 4 PWR 1080
2012 China, CGNPC Hongyanhe 1 PWR 1080 2015 China, CGNPC Hongyanhe 5 PWR 1080
2012 China, CGNPC Ningde 1 PWR 1080 2015 China, CGNPC Fangchenggang 1 PWR 1080
2013 Korea, KHNP Shin Wolsong 2 PWR 1000 2015 China, CNNC Changiang 2 PWR 650
2013 USA, TVA Watts Bar 2 PWR 1180 2015 China, CNNC Hongshiding 1 PWR 1080
2013 Russia, Energoatom Leningrad II-1 PWR 1070 2015 China, CNNC Taohuajiang 1 PWR 1250
2013 Korea, KHNP Shin-Kori 3 PWR 1350 2015 China, CNNC Fuqing 3 PWR 1080
2013 China, CNNC Sanmen 1 PWR 1250 2015 Korea, KHNP Shin-Ulchin 1 PWR 1350
2013 China, CGNPC Ningde 2 PWR 1080 2015 Japan, Tepco Higashidori 1 ABWR 1385
2013 China, CGNPC Yangjiang 1 PWR 1080 2015 Japan, Chugoku Kaminoseki 1 ABWR 1373
2013 China, CGNPC Taishan 1 PWR 1700 2015 India, NPCIL Kakrapar 3 PHWR 640
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2015 Bulgaria, NEK Belene 1 PWR 1000 January 2012 2
Principal available reactor designs
• Seven of the designs – EPR, VVER-1200, APR-1400, AP-1000, APWR, Atmea and CPR-
1000 – are variants of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs).
• VVER is the Russian acronym for PWR. The VVER design is similar to PWRs but
employs horizontal steam generators.
• SNC Lavalin’s (formerly AECL) CANDU is a heavy-water moderated, pressure tube
design, with separate horizontal pressure tubes for each fuel channel, in a primary
circuit with steam generators, a pressuriser, and primary pumps.
• GE-Hitachi’s ESBWR is the latest version of their Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). This
design differs from all the others in that the steam generated in the RPV passes
straight to the turbine, so the turbine operates using mildly radioactive steam.
• PWRs, CANDUs and BWRs are all fundamentally proven designs in widespread use
around the world. The versions listed here are the most modern variants which are
currently offered by the designers.
• Current status of the Areva Kerena BWR is unclear (following Siemens withdrawal
from nuclear construction projects after Fukushima).
• Modern nuclear power plants are all designed for a nominal 50 to 60 year life.
• Site construction time for all designs is usually stated to be in the range 42 to 60
months.
• All designs except CPR-1000 are “Generation III+” designs which are said to offer
significant improvements in safety and economics over the Generation III advanced
reactor designs certified by the US NRC in the 1990s .

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January 2012 3
Areva European Pressurised Water
Reactor (EPR)
• Based on French N-4 and German Konvoi
• 1600 MWe
• Advanced safety systems

• First EPR is close to completion in Finland


• Construction in progress in France and China
• More are planned in France and the UK

• Currently being evaluated in UK Generic Design Assessment


• This design is the front-runner for UK new reactors
• Design of Control and Instrumentation systems has been changed due to UK and Finnish concerns
• Electricite de France (EdF) and Areva plan to build four units in the UK
• Horizon Power (joint venture between Germany’s E.On and RWE) is also considering this design

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January 2012 4
Areva Kerena BWR

• 1250MWe Boiling Water Reactor


• Used Gundremmingen BWR plant in Germany as basis
• Advanced safety features
• Load-following design
• The current status of this design is unclear following Siemens’
withdrawal from new nuclear projects

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January 2012 5
Areva-Mitsubishi Atmea

• 1100MWe plant, 3-loop


• Based on 900MWe Framatome-EdF unit design
• Claimed Generation III+ safety features
• Load-following design
• Smaller size (than EPR) intended for countries with smaller grids
• No orders yet (Jan 2012)

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January 2012 6
Atomstroyexport VVER-1200
• 1200 MWe
• Includes some passive safety features
• Planned construction in Russia, China,
Vietnam and Turkey

Tianwan twin VVER plant, China

• Developed from earlier VVER-1000 designs


• There are currently at least twelve units under
construction in Russia
• 4-loop design, horizontal steam generators
• Advanced safety features including 72 hour site
blackout capability

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January 2012 7
CNGPC CPR-1000

• Chinese development of French 3-loop 900MWe design (Gravelines is the reference plant)
•At least 20 are currently in advanced planning or under construction.
• Chinese plan to have 100 units operational by 2030, most of which will be CPR-1000 units.
• This is a Generation II design – the Chinese authorities have said they are reviewing for
extreme external events and site black-out, post-Fukushima.

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January 2012 8
GE-Hitachi ESBWR
• Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor
• 1600 MWe
• Passive safety features
• Modular construction

• The design was initially submitted to UK Generic Design Assessment but


GE withdrew because some aspects of the design were not sufficiently mature

• An earlier version, the ABWR (Advanced BWR), is in operation in Japan and Taiwan
• First ABWR began commercial operation at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa in Japan, in 1996
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January 2012 9
KEPCO APR-1400
• 1400MWe PWR
• Based on the Westinghouse/CE System 80+ at Palo Verde USA
• Four APR1400 are under construction in South Korea, first due to go to power in 2013
• KEPCO has won a tender to supply four APR1400 units to the United Arab Emirates

• First UAE nuclear power plant will be the fifth unit of the APR1400 plants in the world
• South Korean Shin-Kori plant will serve as the "reference plant" for the UAE program

• KEPCO design was not submitted for the UK Generic Design Assessment
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January 2012 10
Mitsubishi APWR

• 1700MWe, 4-loop design


• Generation III design
• 2 units were planned for construction at Tsuruga, Japan, but this
has been cancelled post-Fukushima.
• The design is undergoing certification by US authorities for possible
construction at Comanche Peak, Texas and North Anna, Virginia
• Mitsubishi has partnered with Iberdrola for possible APWR construction
In Europe

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January 2012 11
SNC Lavalin Advanced CANDU Reactor
(ACR-1000)
• 1200 MWe • Was in UK’s Generic Design Assessment
• horizontal fuel channel core • AECL withdrew from assessment
• heavy-water moderator
• on-power fuelling ACR development “has been put
on hold because there’s no market
demand” (Toronto Star 27th Oct 2011).

The older CANDU 6 design is still being


offered, however.

Differences from earlier CANDU designs:


• compact core design
• enriched fuel
• improved stability
• higher output
• Not built anywhere yet but CANDU 6
• light water coolant
(the preceding design) has been built
• less heavy water than earlier CANDUs
in South Korea and China.

• SNC Lavalin bought AECL in 2011.


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January 2012 12
Toshiba-Westinghouse AP1000
• 1100MWe PWR
• Passive safety systems
• Modular construction
• At least four units under construction in China

• Currently being evaluated in UK Generic Design Assessment


• Horizon Power (RWE/E.On) are considering AP1000 as an option to Areva EPR.

• One novel aspect is the use of explosive ‘squib’ valves


• These deliberately breach primary coolant circuit in accidents to enable passive cooling
• Design operation and maintenance of squib valves will be key aspects of safety approval

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