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A "BROKEN"
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A TEXTBOOK
OF
FIELD
ASTRONOMY
FOR ENGINEERS.
GEORGE
C.
COMSTOCK,
Director of the Washburn Observatory, Professor of Astronomy in the University of Wisconsin.
FIRST ED TTTON
FIRST THOUSAND.
.
NEW YORK
JOHN WILEY &
London
:
SONS.
CHAPMAN &
1902.
HALL, Limited.
Copyright, 1902,
BY
GEORGE
C.
COMSTOCK.
/fsfroHM
.
ROBKRT DRUMMOND. PRINTER, NEW YORK.
PREFACE.
The
present work
is
not designed for professional
students of astronomy, but for another and larger class
found in technical
the author's
colleges.
For
many
years
it
has been
duty to teach to students
of engineering
the elements of practical astronomy, and the experience
thus acquired has gradually produced the unconventional
views that find expression in the present text and which,
to the author's mind, are
justified
by the following
considerations
In the engineering curriculum, work in astronomy
is
a part of a course of technical and professional training
of students
who have no purpose
it
to
become astronomers.
those
parts
of
Under these circumstances
instructor
to
select
seems the duty of the
for
presentation
astronomical practice most closely related to the work
of the future engineer and,
with reference to the narrow
limits of time allotted the subject, to
keep
in the
backin
ground
terest
many
collateral matters that are of
primary
and importance to the student
of astronomical practice
of
astronomy as a
science.
The parts
most pertinent to
PREFACE.
engineering instruction seem to the author to be
ing in the art of numerical computation
;
(a)
Train
(6)
Training in
the accurate use of such typical instruments of precision
as
the sextant and the theodolite, with special refer
ence to the elimination of their errors from the results of
observation;
(c)
Determinations of time, latitude, and
azimuth, with portable instruments, as furnishing subjectmatter through which a and b
realized.
If this
may
be conveniently
work
is
to be done during the single
semester usually allowed for the subject, the time given
to
its
theoretical side,
spherical astronomy,
must be
the
formulae,
reduced to the
minimum amount compatible with
and
student's intelligent use of his apparatus
and in the present work this pruning of the theoretical side has been carried to an extent that would be unpardonable in the training of an astronomer, but which appears
necessary and proper in this case.
Since
many
engineering students acquire from the
little
its
is
mathematical curriculum
spherical trigonometry
or
no knowledge
of
and
numerical applications,
the
first
chapter of
the work
devoted to a brief presenwith special refer
tation of the elements of this subject
ence to
its
astronomical uses and to the student's acquiin the
sition of
good habits
conduct of numerical work.
in
The astronomical problems presented
as best adapted to the author's
the following
chapters are those that have been indicated by experience
own
pupils,
and while
many
of the
methods given
for their solution arc not
contained in the current textbooks, in every case these
are either
methods
in use in the best geodetic surveys,
PREFACE.
V
or such as have been repeatedly tested with students and
found well suited to their use.
fied in the text as rough,
These methods are
classi
approximate, and precise, with
respect to their precision and the corresponding
of time
amount
and the
and labor required
is
for their application,
student
advised not to use the refined and laborious
result
is
methods when only a rough
required.
As a
rule, in
the development of formulas no attempt
to deal with the general case
has been
made
when the
the probis
solution of a particular case
would
suffice for
lem
in
hand;
e.g.,
the earth's compression
ignored
in treating of the effect of parallax, since its influence
is
vanishingly small in the great majority of cases that
the student will ever encounter, and cases in which this
influence
is
of sensible
amount should be avoided by the
is
instructor.
A
more
serious omission, but one required
by the
of
general plan of the work,
transit
found
in the
theory
the
instrument, Chapter IX, where broken
transits,
thread intervals, curvature of a star's apparent
path, flexure, etc., are passed
by without treatment
or
even suggestion.
They
are not required for the begin
nings of work with a transit instrument, and therefore
constitute a part of
more advanced study than
is
here
contemplated.
is
As a
partial guide to such study there
list
given upon a subsequent page a
of references to
works that
may
be consulted with profit by the student
of the processes
who
seeks a
more complete knowledge
follows,
of practical astronomy.
The adopted notation
tions,
with only slight devia
that of Chauvenet, to whose elaborate treatise
vi
PREFACE.
is
upon Spherical and Practical Astronomy the author
under obligations that are
writer
to
S.
common
and
to every presentday
upon those
subjects.
His thanks are also due
in particular to Dr.
many
of his former pupils,
D. Townley and
Mr. Joel Stebbins,
manuscript.
who have read
and
criticised portions of his
TABLE OF SYMBOLS.
The
following table contains a brief explanation of the
principal symbols
employed
in the text,
with references
to the page at which they are respectively defined.
There
of
are omitted from the table a considerable
number
symbols employed only
their definition.
in
immediate connection with
Mathematical.
2
h
p.
154
11
Summation symbol. The enclosed number
Altitude.
is
a logarithm.
Coordinates, etc.
Zenith distance.
Complement
of h.
Azimuth, reckoned from south. Azimuth,, reckoned from north.
Hour
angle.
Declination
Right ascension.
Latitude.
Longitude. Sun's semidiameter. Horizontal parallax.
Time.
Sidereal time.
44
Mean solar time. Time shown by a chronometer, whether right or wrong.
Chronometer correction. Chronometer rate. Equation of time. Date of an observation. Date of conjunction, mean sun with vernal equinox,
vii
a
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Introductory
Spherical trigonometry.
cal
I.
PAGE
i
Approximate formula?. NumeriLimits of accuracy.
computations.
Logarithmic tables.
CHAPTER
Coordinates
Fundamental concepts.
coordinates.
II.
22
Notation. Transformation of coordinates.
Definitions.
Table of
CHAPTER
TlME
III.
35
Longitude. Three time systems. Conversion of time. Chronometer corrections. The almanac.
CHAPTER
Corrections to Coordinates
Dip
of horizon.
IV.
49
Refraction.
Semidiameter.
Parallax.
Diurnal aberration.
CHAPTER
Rough Determinations
V.
59
Latitude from meridian altitude. Time and azimuth from single altitude. Meridian transits for time. Orientation and
latitude
by
Polaris.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Approximate Determinations
VI.
PAGH
79
Circummeridian altitudes for latitude.
altitude.
Azimuth observations
stars.
at
Time from single Time and elongation.
azimuth from two
CHAPTER
Instruments
The
spiritlevel.
VII.
99
Value
of half a level division.
Theory
of
the theodolite. nometers.
Repetition of angles.
The sextant.
Chro
CHAPTER
Accurate Determinations
Time by equal
altitudes.
VIII.
141
Precise azimuth with theodolite.
Zenithtelescope latitudes.
CHAPTER
The Transit Instrument
Preliminary adjustments.
IX.
16S
Theory
of the transit.
Ordinary
method for time determinations. Personal equation. Methods Time determination with and accuracy of observation. Azimuth of terrestrial mark. reversal on each star.
Bibliography
196
Orientation Tables
197
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
CHAPTER
I.
INTRODUCTORY.
i.
Spherical Trigonometry.
—Any three points
on the
surface of a sphere determine a spherical triangle, whose
sides are the arcs of great circles joining these points,
and whose angles are the spherical angles included between these arcs; e.g., on the surface of the earth,
assumed
to
be spherical
in shape, the
north pole, the city
of St. Louis,
and the borough
of Greenwich, England, are
three points
making a
spherical triangle,
two
of
whose
sides are the arcs of meridians joining St. Louis
and Green
wich to the pole
circle
;
the third side being the arc of a great
St.
connecting
its
Louis and Greenwich, and measur
ing
by
length the distance of one place from the other.
The
is
spherical angle at the pole between the
two meridians
the longitude of St. Louis, while the angle at St. Louis
its
between
meridian and the third side of the triangle
represents the direction of Greenwich from St. Louis, a
certain
number
of degrees east of north.
is
The
particular
number
of degrees in this angle
to be found
by
solving
2
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
i.e.,
the triangle,
determining the magnitude of
its
un
known parts by means of the known parts, and in this case we may suppose these known parts to be the difference of longitude between the two places, and the distance
of each place of its latitude.
from the north
pole,
i.e.,
the complement
The formulae required
triangle are best derived
for the solution of a spherical
by the methods
of analytical
geometry, and in Fig.
i
we assume
a spherical triangle,
ABC,
at 0,
situated on the surface of a sphere whose centre
is
and we adopt
as the origin of a system of rect
angular coordinates, in which the axis
the vertex, A, of the triangle,
OX passes through
the plane
OY
lies in
AOB,
and
OZ
is
perpendicular to that plane.
From
the vertex
C
let fall
upon the plane
0.4 B the perpendicular
to
CP, and
from
P
draw
PS perpendicular
OX and
join the points
C, S, thus obtaining the rightangled plane triangle
CPS.
INTRODUCTORY.
6
The
sent
lines
OS, SP,
PC
r, is
are respectively the x, y,
and
z
coordinates of the point C, and OC, which
we
shall repre
by the symbol
A, and
the radius of the sphere.
It is
evident from the construction that the points.
0, S,
C
all lie in
the same plane.
Also, 0, S, A,
B, and
P lie in another plane,
is
and the angle between these
two planes
measured both by the spherical angle
BAC
and by the plane angle CSP, and these angles must therefore
be equal each to the other.
We may now
express
a, b, c,
the coordinates of the point
C in terms of the sides,
and
angles, A, B, C, of the spherical triangle as follows i
OS = x = r cos
b,
SP=y = r sin b cos A, PC = z = r sin b sin A
.
(i)
If
the axis of
x,
instead of passing through
is
made
had
to pass through B, as
A had been shown by the broken line
,
OX', the axis of
Z
remaining unchanged, we should have
for the coordinates of
C
in this system,
= r y' = — r r z' =
x'
cos
a,
sin a cos B, sin a sin
(2)
B.
For the sake of simplicity each angle of the triangle
has been made
falls
ABC
y'
less
than 90
,
and the point P,
,
therefore,
between the axes OX, OX'
from the
thus giving y and
opposite signs, as shown above.
It is evident
x, x', y, y', are
figure that the relations
between
for the
those furnished
by the formulas
:
.
,
4
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
transformation of coordinates in a plane,
when the
origin
remains unchanged and
angle,
the axes are revolved through an
which
in this case is
measured by the
side c of the
spherical triangle.
„i
/J
We
have, therefore,
„ — 6, y' =y cose — x sine, x' = y sin c + x cos c
(3)
;
and introducing
into these equations the values of the
coordinates above determined and dividing through
r,
we obtain the
following relations
among the
sides
by and
angles of the triangle
B = sin b sin A sin a cos B = cos b sin c — sin b cos c cos A cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A
sin a sin
,
(4)
These are the fundamental equations of spherical
trigonometry and hold true not only for the particular
triangle for
which they have been derived, but
whatever
its
for every
spherical triangle,
2.
shape or
size.
4.
Numerical Applications of Equations
— We proceed
must be
parts
to apply these equations to the logarithmic solution of
the triangle above described, premising that in this solution the signs of all the trigonometric functions
carefully heeded, since
first,
upon them depend the quadrants,
second, third, or fourth, in which the
,
unknown
of the triangle are to be found.
shall reserve the signs
In this connection
we
+ and —
for natural
numbers and
place after a logarithm the letter
n whenever the number
negative.
corresponding to the logarithm
is
The student
:
:
4
INTRODUCTORY.
should accustom himself to this practice, since
it
is
the
one
in general use.
The assumed data
of the problem are
. . .
Angular distance, Greenwich to Pole. Angular distance, St. Louis to Pole Spherical angle at North Pole
b
£
= 38°. 5, = 51°. 4.
=90°.
A
and these data we
treat as follows
SOLUTION.
Logarithms.
sin sin
A
=0.000 6=9.794
Numbers. cos b sin c =40.613 sin b cos c cos A = —0.003
Logarithms.
sin a sin
sin a
B =9.794
9854
cos .4 =7.84472 cos c =9.795 sin 6 cos .4 =7.638^ cos 6=9.894
sin c
cos b cos c= 40.489 sin b sin c cos A = —0.003
log cos
cosB =9.785 B=45°6
sin
a
= 9.940
=9.893
0=
9.686
a=6o°.a*
In the solution printed above, the student should
examine the orderly manner
of the arrangement.
Each
number is labelled to show what it is, and from these labels we see that the first column contains the logarithms
of the several trigonometric functions that appear in the
second members of Equations
4.
The second column
These
contains natural numbers representing the values of the
several terms contained in these second members.
are obtained
the
first
by adding the proper logarithms shown in column, and looking out the corresponding num
bers in the tables.
"in
his
An expert computer will do this work head" without writing down a figure that is not
shown
in the printed solution.
At the bottom of the second column is given log cos a, obtained by looking out the logarithm of the sum of the two numbers that stand just above it. This sum being
positive
shows that the side a
lies in
either the first or
6
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
it
fourth quadrant, but
alone cannot decide between these
two
possibilities.
We
must now have recourse
from the
to the
third column,
sin a sin
which gives the logarithms of the products,
sin a cos B, as derived
first
B
and
and
second columns, and indicates that these products are
positive quantities, since no
n
is
appended to either
of the
logarithms.
sin a, sin B,
ing,
The products being positive, the factors
and cos
B must all have like signs,
is
and assum
temporarily, that sin a
a positive quantity
we
and
find that
B
must
lie
in the first quadrant, since sin
B
cos
B
are positive numbers.
To obtain
its
numerical
(subtract
value
we
divide
sin a sin
B by
sin a cos
B
mentally the corresponding logarithms) and
result of the division, log tan
find, as
the
B = 0.009.
This furnishes
the value of
B
given in the solution, and fixes as the
direction of Greenwich
from
St. Louis,
N. 45°.6 E.
Now, looking up
of sin
in the logarithmic tables the value
B
(log sin
B = 9.854),
and dividing
it
out from
sin a sin B,
tion for
we obtain the value, 9.940, given in the solusin a. This number might equally have been
obtained by looking up in the tables the value of cos
(
B
= 9.845) and
dividing
it
out from sin a cos B, and with
reference to this double possibility the label for the line
between
sin a sin
B
and
sin sin
a cos
B
is
omitted,
it
being
is
understood that either
B
or cos B, whichever
the
greater of the two, will be entered here
and used
in
the
proper manner to obtain sin
is
a.
The value
of log cos a
given in the middle column, and both sin a and cos a
is
being positive numbers, a
rant.
to be taken in the first quadof a
The agreement between the numerical values
.
INTRODUCTORY.
furnished
7
by the
sine
and
cosine, is a
check upon the accu
racy of the computation, and an asterisk or checkmark
is
placed after the value of a to show that this check has
been applied and found satisfactory.
In determining the quadrant of B, sin a was assumed
to be a positive number.
It
might equally well have been
assumed a negative number, which would have made
sin
B
and cos
B
both negative, and would have furnished
triangle
if
as the solution of the
B = 225°. 6,
a
= 2gg°.i.
circle
it.
This
is
also a correct result, for
2 2 5°.6 E.,
we
travel from St. Louis
in the direction N.
299°.i long,
over an arc of a great
we
shall find
Greenwich at the end of
The
first
solution represents the least distance, the second
solution the greatest distance, on the surface of the sphere,
between the two
it is
points,
and as a matter
first
of convenience to
customary to use the
is
solution
and
assume that
sin a
3.
a positive number.
Applications of Equations
4.
Analytical
—Equations
tri
4 suffice for the solution of any triangle in which there
are given two sides
and the included
angle,
but they are
not immediately applicable when other parts of the
angle are the data of the problem,
sides are given
e.g.,
when
the three
large part
and the angles are required.
A
of spherical trigonometry,
therefore, consists in purely
analytical transformations of these equations into forms
adapted to different data.
suggested,
a,
b,
For the particular case above
and
c given,
we
find
from the
last of
Equations 4
cos
A=
.
cos a — cos b cos c
.
sin b sin c
— ,—
,
(5) VJ/
:
:
8
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
of
by means
which the angle
A may
be computed with
the given data, and similar equations
the other angles.
may be
written for
By
transformations more tedious than
difficult,
and
involving the introduction of two auxiliary quantities,
defined below
into a
we may change Equation form more convenient for computation when all
by Equations
6,
5.
three of the angles are to be determined (see any treatise
on spherical trigonometry for the analytical processes
involved)
.
As a
result of these transformations
the following auxiliaries and the solution
we have involving them
s
= ±(a + b + c),
k
= ±yjr
sm
s
'sm(sa) sin(sb) sm(s— c)'
cot
\A=k
sin {s— a),
(7)
with corresponding expressions for the other angles,
cot cot
\B=k
\C = k
sin (s
sin
— b), (s — c).
Rightangled Spherical Triangles.
— Since
We
Equations 4
hold true for
all
spherical triangles,
we may apply them
i.e.,
to the special case of a triangle rightangled at A,
in
one
which the angle
cos
A
equals 90
.
shall
then have
sin A = i, obtain by
A
=0, and with these special values we
substitution the following equations, which
should be compared with the corresponding formulae
of plane trigonometry
INTRODUCTORY.
From
From
the
first
equation,
sin
B=
sin a
first
and second equations, tan
third equations, cos
B = sin
B
tan b
c c
'
(8)
From second and
tan
tan a
b cos
c.
From
the third equation,
cos a
= cos
These equations together with those derived in the
preceding sections, while far from covering the whole
field
of spherical trigonometry, will be found sufficient for the
purposes of this work.
4.
Approximate
Formulae.
— In
It is
an important
class of
cases all the preceding formulas
for numerical use as follows
:
may
be greatly simplified
shown, in treatises on
the differential calculus, that the trigonometric functions
may
be developed in
series; e.g.,
sin
x—x — 7H 6
x
3
;
etc.,
120
tanx=x + —
+—r + etc,
J
2%
(9)
5
2 x4 x< 77— etc., cosx = i—  +
9
,
2
24
where x
is
expressed
in
radians
(one
radian
= 57°. 3,
= 3437'75> =206264". 8).
exceed a few minutes of
arc,
When
are
still
the angle x does not
is
x radians
a small fraction,
and
its
powers, x
2
,
x
3
,
etc.,
smaller quantities, so
all
that in these series
first,
we may suppress
first
terms save the
or all terms save the
two, and the error pro
duced by neglecting these terms of a higher order, as
:
10
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
is
they are called,
approximately measured by the
first
term thus neglected.
For
illustration
we assume x=i°,
shown
in
and turning
this into radians find the results
the following short table
Radians.
Arc.
X=o. 0174533+ = £* 2 =o. 0001523+ =
1°
31". 42
^
It in a million
itself in
\x z =0.0000009
+ = 4 =o.ooooooo+ =
o".i8
^
if
o".oo
appears from the value of %x 3 here given, that
,
we
are prepared to tolerate in our
work an
of
i°,
error of one part
we may,
for
an arc
substitute the arc
latter
place of
its sine, in
any formula where the
2
occurs
;
and
similarly (from the value of hx
stitute unity in place of the cosine of
an arc
we may subof 1 °, if we are
)
willing to admit an error of one part
in seven thousand.
Expressed in arc these errors are as shown in the table,
o".2
and 31". 4
respectively,
and with reference
to these
numbers we may
establish the approximate relations:
the square of a degree equals a minute; the cube of a
degree equals a second
tions, the
;
and
find readily,
from these
rela
square and cube of any small arc, and thus
decide whether, in a given case, these quantities
may
or
may
not be neglected.
r
,
For example:
if
x = 2°, we
find
x 2 = 4 x 3 = &", and for any work in which the data can be depended upon to the nearest minute only, we may
assume
sin x
= x, but we cannot assume
in
cos x
=
1
without
sacrificing
It
some
of the accuracy contained in the data.
mind that the series given above are expressed in radians, and that when applied numerically, x and its powers must be transmust be constantly borne
:

)
INTRODUCTORY.
11
formed from arc into radians by dividing by the appropriate factors given above;
e.g.,
x (radians) =
%" —— — 206264.8
is
(1 1
The
divisor given
above
,
numerically equal to the
in place of the preceding
reciprocal of the sine of 1"
and
equation
it is
customary to write
x (radians) =x"
sin 1".
(12)
As these numerical
here their values
factors are of frequent use,
we
record
log sin 1"
=4.685574910,
206264. 8
= [5.3144251].
last
line.
Observe the peculiar notation of the
The
is
brackets indicate that the number placed within them
a logarithm, and the equation asserts that this bracketed
number
tion.
is
the logarithm of the
first
This
use of the brackets
is
member of the equavery common and
should be remembered.
We may
nometry the
the sides,
triangle
apply to the equations of spherical trigoprinciples here developed,
and assuming that
i°, i.e.,
a, b, c,
do not much exceed
that for a
on the surface of the earth the
Equations 8 become
vertices of the
angles are not more than sixty or seventy miles apart, we
shall find that
sm.B =
b
,
a
cos
B = , a
c
tan
.£>
= ,
c
b
a2
= b + c2
2
.
12
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
These are the formulae of plane trigonometry, and indicate
that small spherical triangles
may
be treated as
if
they
were plane.
The use
of these
approximate relations
is
not limited
to the solution of triangles, but they
may
be applied to
the trigonometric functions of any small angle wherever
found, and
we
shall
have frequent occasion to use them
in the following pages.
5.
Numerical Computations.
—Engineer and astronomer
and correct compuwill
alike should acquire the art of rapid
tation,
and as a means to that end there
be found
on subsequent pages examples
of numerical
work which
should be studied with reference to their arrangement and
the order in which the several processes were executed.
Often the order in which this work was done
is
not the
order in which the numbers appear upon the printed
page, although their arrangement
upon the page always
and
in
follows exactly the original computation,
is
no case
to be regarded as a
mere summary
of results, picked
out and rearranged after the actual ciphering had been
performed.
of §
2,
For
illustration
sin
we
the
revert to the example
first
and note that
A
is
number written
in
the solution and sin b stands second.
But the second
computation was
in
number
actually written
b,
down
for,
it is
in the
cos A, instead of sin
having found the place
which to look up
sin
A,
more convenient and more
than to turn away
for
economical to look up cos
A
at once, while the tables are
open at the right
place, rather
something else and then have again to find the page
and place corresponding
to the angle A.
Having
finished
INTRODUCTORY.
with the required functions of
out and was followed by cos
13
A
b,
,
sin 6
was next looked
although this required
the computer to skip two intervening lines of the com
putation and, temporarily, to leave them blank.
The general
is
principle here observed
is:
When
a table
it,
open at a given place, look up, before leaving
is
all
that
it is
to be taken
from that
place.
In order to do this
necessary to block out the computation in advance,
this
and
was done
in the case
under consideration, every
of the first
label,
from the
initial sin
A
column to the
its
concluding a of the last column, being written in
appropriate place before a
logarithmic
table
number was
The form
set
down
it
is
or the
opened.
is
of
computation
to be
thus prearranged
strongly urged
called a schedule,
and
upon the student as a measure
of econ
omy and good
practice, that he should draft, at
the
beginning of each computation, a complete schedule, in
which every number to be employed
the place most convenient for
its
shall
be assigned
use.
In general the
beginner will not be able to do this without assistance
from an instructor, or from models suitably chosen, and
for the purposes of the present
work the numerous examtaken as such models.
ples contained in the text
may be
Some
(A)
cardinal points in the arrangement of a good
schedule are as follows:
Make
it
short but complete.
Do
as
much
of the
work "in your head"
as can be done without unduly
burdening the mind, and write upon paper only the
things that are necessary.
But
all
things that are to be
written should have places assigned
them
in the schedule.
,
14
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
side
No
computations, upon another piece of paper,
should be allowed, and the entire work should be so
arranged and labelled that a stranger can follow
tell
it
and
what has been done. (B) When the same quantity
is
to be used several
times in a computation (sin b appears as a factor in three
different terms of the preceding example) the schedule
should be so arranged that the
only once,
sin
e.g.,
since sin b
is
number need be written to be multiplied by both
A
and cos
A
it
is
placed between these numbers
in the schedule,
sin b cos
and
for a similar reason the product
c
A
is
placed between cos
and
sin
c.
In adding
the logarithms to form the product
sin b sin c cos
A
cover cos b with a pencil or penholder and the addition
will
be as easily made as
if
the intervening
number were
not present.
(C)
Frequently, several similar computations are to
slightly different data, e.g.,
it
be made with
may
be
re
quired to find the direction and distance of half a dozen
American
cities
from Greenwich.
A
single
schedule
should then be prepared and the several computations
should be carried on simultaneously, in parallel columns,
all
placed opposite the same schedule;
e.g.,
look out
sin
A
and cos and cos
A
any
for all six places before proceeding to
find sin b for
sin b
of them, etc.
In this particular case
b,
depending on the latitude of Greenwich,
are the
same
for all the solutions,
and instead
of writing
their values in each column, they should be written
upon
the edge of a slip of paper and
to
moved along from column
for future
column as needed.
As a memorandum
4
:
INTRODUCTORY.
reference they should also be written in one
15
column of
the
computation.
is
Practise
this
device whenever the
same number
to be used in several different places.
See §§36 and 40 for examples of two computations de
pending upon a single schedule.
6.
The
Trigonometric
Functions.
—There
first
is
opened to
the inexperienced computer an abundant opportunity for
error in looking out from the tables the trigonometric
functions of angles not lying in the
quadrant.
is
The
best
mode
of guarding against such errors
the acqui
sition of fixed habits of procedure, so that the
same thing
shall
always be done in the same way, and to this end
the following simple rules
(1)
may
be adopted
first,
For any oddnumbered quadrant,
first
third, etc.
Reduce the given angle to the
out the nines from
its
quadrant by casting
of degrees (add
tens
and hundreds
these digits together and repeat the addition until the
sum
is
reduced to a single
digit, less
than nine), and look
up the required function of the reduced arc. (2) For any evennumbered quadrant, second,
etc.
fourth,
Reduce the angle
to the first quadrant, as above, to the one of course,
and look out the function complementary
given.
The
algebraic sign of the function
is,
in all cases
determined by
falls.
the quadrant in which the
original angle
See the following applications of these rules:
Quadrant. 2d, Even 3d, Odd 4th, Even 5th, Odd 6th, Even
etc.
Required. 29' tan 264 33' 51' sin 316 18' cot 4 1
cos 144
tan 499
etc.
49'
= = = = =
Equivalent.
Process
sin S4
84 46 +cot 54 —cot 49
+tan
— cos
29 33
51
i+4=S 2+6=8
3
18
4
+ I= 4 + i=5
49
Reject the 9
etc.
etc.
:
16
FIELD ASTRONOMY
We may
readily formulate a corresponding rule for
the converse process, of passing from the function to the angle, as follows:
(i)
When
the arc
lies
in
an odd quadrant.
Look
out,
in the first quadrant, the angle that corresponds to the
given function and add to
of 90
,
it
the required even multiple
i.e.,
o° or 180
.
(2)
When
the arc
lies in
an even quadrant.
Change
the
cot,
name
etc.).
of the function (for cos read sin, for tan read
Look
out, in the first quadrant, the correit
sponding angle and add to
of 90
,
the required odd multiple
i.e.,
90 or 270
.
See the following examples, in which
the required angle
we
represent
is
by
z
and suppose that there
tangent,
e.g.,
given
the numerical value of
its
log tan 2
= 9.654.
The process
of looking out in the several quadrants the
is
angle corresponding to this tangent
Quadrant.
as follows
INTRODUCTORY.
z
17
= o°
33'
1
7".
The
difficulty
comes from the rapid variadiffer
tion of the function, large
ences.
and changing tabular
z
On
the other hand, log cos
changes slowly and
If
may
be readily and accurately interpolated.
we take
the converse case and suppose the logarithmic function
to be given
and the corresponding angle required, we
shall obtain the opposite result.
The angle
will
be accu
rately determined
by the
sine or tangent
e.g.,
and very poorly
o° 36'
determined by the cosine,
log cos o° 33' 17" =9.99998
and every angle between
in the value of the angle
o° 29'
and
has this
cosine, thus leaving a possible error of several
minutes
determined from this function,
while the log
will
sin, if
correctly given to five decimal places,
determine the same angle within a small fraction of
a second.
In the interest of precision an angle should always be
determined from a function that changes rapidly (large
tabular differences), while a quantity that
is
to be found
from a given angle
is
best determined through a function
that changes slowly.
In the example of §
sin
2,
sin
a might
have been determined through
B
or cos B,
it
and the
former was used for this purpose because
varied the
more
slowly.
In cases of this kind, and they are very
common, use the function that stands on the righthand
side of the page, in the tables,
and subtract
it
from the
larger of the
it
two numbers,
employed.
in this
sin a sin
B
or sin a cos B, and
it is
will
be then unnecessary to consider whether
is
sine
or cosine that
The angle
its
a,
example, was determined through
,
tangent (log tan a = log sin a — log cos a) since the
18
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
tangent always varies more rapidly than either sine or
cosine
and should generally be preferred
for this purpose.
After obtaining a, its sine
and cosine were looked out
from the tables and compared with the numbers obtained
in the solution, for the sake of the
"check" thus
fur
nished upon the accuracy of the numerical work.
In
subsequent pages other checks will be shown, and these
should be applied to test the accuracy of numerical work
whenever they are
available.
is,
The mental
strain
accom
panying a long computation
stances,
under the best of circumsatisfied
considerable,
and a check properly
serves to relieve this tension
and
facilitate the subse
quent work.
8.
Accuracy
2
of Logarithmic
Computation.
—The examto to this use of
ple of §
was solved with logarithms extending only
and corresponding
three places of decimals,
a threeplace table the results are given to the nearest
tenth of a degree.
If it
were required to obtain results
correct to the nearest minute or nearest second, a greater
number
of decimals
must be employed
(four, five, or six
place tables).
The labor of using these tables increases very rapidly as the number of decimals is increased, and
a compromise
is
always to be made between extra labor
on the one hand and limited accuracy on the other.
As the choice
is
of a proper
number
of decimal places
is
usually an embarrassing one for the beginner, there
given below for his guidance a formula intended to repre
approximately, the limit of error to be expected in the results of computation on account of the
sent, at least
inherent imperfections of logarithms
(neglected
deci
INTRODUCTORY.
mals,
etc.).
19
fall
it
The actual
error
may
considerably
little.
short of this limit or
may
overstep
a
It
is
evident that the limit will be greater for a long compu
and if we measure the length by the number, n, of logarithms that of a computation enter into it and represent by m the number of decimal
tation than for a short one,
places to which these logarithms are carried, there
may
be derived from the theory of probabilities the following
expression, in minutes of arc, for the limit of probable
error:
Limit
= 2800'
.
s/~n
.
\o~ m
.
Applying
put w =
this
formula to the example of
§ 2
we may
i6,
^ = 3,
and
find 10' as the limit of unavoid
able error; corresponding well with the onetenth of a
degree to which the results were carried.
If
the data
were given to the nearest minute and
it
were required
to preserve this degree of accuracy in the results,
we
should write,
.i
/
= 28oo'
.
4.10'*,
and
solving, find
^ = 4.0,
i.e.,
a fourplace table
is
re
quired for this purpose.
Let the student verify by means of the above equations the following precepts:
To obtain
Use
Tenths of degrees
Minutes Seconds
Threeplace tables.
Fourplace tables.
Five or sixplace tables.
Tenths of seconds
Sevenplace tables.
20
If
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
the results are to be expressed in linear instead of
angular measure, the limit of error must be represented
as a fractional part of the quantity,
x,
that
is
to be
determined, and corresponding to this case
we have
Limit
=o
.
8
x y/n io~™.
.
.
Corollary.
Do
not attempt to obtain from a table
e.g.,
more than
and
it is
capable of furnishing;
do not
inter2,
polate hundredths of
a degree in the example of §
in connection with linear quantities
do not, as a
rule,
interpolate
more than three
significant figures
from a
threeplace table, four
9.
from a fourplace
table, etc.
Logarithmic Tables.
— There
exists
a great variety
of logarithmic tables of different degrees of accuracy,
from three to ten places of decimals, and having deter
mined the number
of decimal places required in a given
computation, the choice
is
among
the corresponding tables
largely a matter of personal taste.
The beginner,
however, will do well to observe the following rules for
distinguishing good tables from
(A)
bad ones:
differences
Wherever the tabular
exceed
parts,
10,
a
good table should furnish proportional
PP,
in the
margin of each page, so that the logarithms
may
be interpolated "in the head."
(B)
The
tables should be
accompanied by tables of
For an explanais
addition and subtraction logarithms.
tion of these, their purpose
and
use, the student
re
ferred to the tables themselves, but
we note
here that
by
their aid the
example
of § 2
might have been
much
:
INTRODUCTORY.
more conveniently
problem
in § 15.
21
solved, as
is
illustrated in a similar
The most generally
to have
useful tables are those of five
it
decimal places, but computers find
to their
advantage
and
use at least one table of each kind,
from three
to six or seven places.
In the examples solved in the
present work the following tables have been used
Threeplace,
Johnson.
Slichter.
Fourplace,
Fiveplace,
Sixplace,
New York. New York.
Berlin.
Gauss.
Berlin.
Albrecht.
Albrecht's
Bremiker.
Berlin.
As a very
a
sliderule
useful supplement to the logarithmic tables
and the extended multiplication
are highly esteemed.
tables of
Crelle
and Zimmermann
CHAPTER
II.
COORDINATES.
10.
Fundamental Concepts.
— For
may
most purposes of
be considered as
practical
astronomy the
i.e.,
stars
attached to the sky,
to the blue vault of the heavens,
which
is
technically called the celestial sphere,
and
is
re
garded as of indefinitely great radius but having the
earth at
its centre, so
that a plane passing through
any
terrestrial point intersects this sphere in a great circle,
and
parallel planes passing
through any two
terrestrial
points intersect the sphere in the same great circle.
If
the axis about which the earth rotates be produced
it
in each direction,
will intersect the celestial sphere in
two
If
points, called respectively the north
and south
poles.
a plumbline be suspended at any place, P, on the
earth's surface,
will intersect
and be produced
in
both directions,
it
the celestial sphere, above and below, in
the zenith and nadir of the place.
The
direction thus
determined by the plumbline
place.
is
called the vertical of the
The
of
figure (shape) of the earth place,
is
such that the vertical
intersects the
any
when produced downward,
rotation axis,
and a plane may therefore be passed through
22
COORDINATES.
this axis
23
its
and the
vertical.
This plane, by
intersection
circle
with the
celestial sphere,
produces a great
which
is
passes through the poles, the zenith and nadir, and
called the meridian of the place, P.
A
plane passed through
P perpendicular to
by
its
the direc
tion of the vertical produces
intersection with the
sphere the horizon of P.
vertical
is
Any
plane passing through the
called a vertical plane
and produces by
circle.
its inter
section with the sphere, a vertical
circle
That
vertical
is
whose plane
is
perpendicular to the meridian
called the prime vertical.
With exception
defined depend
of the poles, all of the terms
above
upon the
direction of the vertical,
and
as this direction varies from place to place
earth's surface each such place has its
upon the
meridian,
own
horizon,
zenith,
etc.,
while the poles of the celestial
all places.
sphere are the same for
A
plane passed through the centre of the earth perits
pendicular to the rotation axis produces by
section with the earth's surface the
inter
terrestrial equator,
it
and by
its
intersection with the celestial sphere
celestial
pro
duces the
equator.
in its orbit
Owing
to the
motion of the earth
we
see
anything within the orbit from different points of view
at different seasons of the year,
and by the
earth's
motion
the sun
is
thus
made
is
to describe
an apparent path among
the stars, making the complete circuit of the sky in a
year.
This path
a great circle intersecting the celestial
equator in two points diametrically opposite to each
other,
and that one
of these points through
which the

24
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
22
sun passes on or about March
the vernal equinox.
11.
of each year,
is
called
Systems of Coordinates.
— Most
of
the problems
of practical
astronomy require us to deal with the appar
ent positions and motions of the heavenly bodies as
seen projected against the sky, and for this purpose
there are employed several systems of coordinates based
upon the concepts above
of polar coordinates
in
defined,
and three
all
of these
systems we proceed to consider.
These are
systems
having the following characteristics
common:
(1)
The
origin of each system
is
at the centre of the
celestial sphere.
(2)
sists of
Each system has a fundamental plane and conan angle measured
in the
fundamental plane;
an angle measured perpendicular to the fundamental
plane; and a radius vector.
is
The
first
of these angles
frequently called the horizontal coordinate, and the
second the vertical coordinate, of the system.
Latitudes
of
and longitudes on the earth furnish such a system
coordinates.
coordinate)
is
The longitude of St. measured by an angle
which
is
Louis
(horizontal
lying in the plane
of the equator,
the fundamental plane of this
system.
is
The
latitude of St. Louis (vertical coordinate)
in a plane perpendicular
measured by an angle lying
to the equator,
and the radius vector
of St. Louis
is its
distance from the centre of the earth, which latter point
is
taken as the origin of coordinates.
(3)
In
each
system the horizontal
in
coordinate
is
measured from a fixed direction
the fundamental
:
COORDINATES.
plane, called the prime radius, through 360
tical
.
25
The
ver
coordinate
is
measured on each side of the fundato 90
.
mental plane from o°
(4)
Those vertical coordinates are called positive
that
lie
upon the same
side of the
fundamental plane
with the zenith of an observer in the northern hemisphere of the earth.
side of the
(5)
Those that
lie
upon the opposite
fundamental plane are negative.
frequently convenient to measure a vertical
It is
coordinate from the positive half of a line perpendicular
to the fundamental plane instead of
from the fundaas the vertical
mental plane
itself,
(e.g.,
in § 2
we take
coordinate of St. Louis
of
its
distance from the pole instead
is
from the equator)
.
In such cases this coordinate
always positive and
is
included between the limits o°
and 180
.
If
h represent any vertical coordinate measfirst
ured in the manner
described and z be the corre
sponding coordinate measured in the second way, we
shall obviously
have the
relation, z
= go° —
li.
The
differ
several
systems
of
astronomical
coordinates
among themselves
in the following respects
(a)
(b)
Different fundamental planes for the systems.
Different positions of the prime radii in the fun
damental planes.
(c)
Different directions in which the horizontal co
ordinates increase.
The data which completely
define each system of
coordinates are given in the following table
together
letters
with the names of the several coordinates, the
by which
these are usually represented, and the point
. .
26
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
toward
of the heavens, called the pole of the system,
which the positive half of the normal to the fundamental plane is directed. The terms east and west are used
in this table
with their
common
meaning, to indicate
the
direction toward
which
the horizontal coordinate
increases.
The
are
letters associated
with the several cothat
ordinates
conventional
symbols
should
be
committed to memory.
SYSTEMS OF COORDINATES.
System
Horizon Meridian
III.
Fundamental plane Prime radius points toward
Horizontal
coordinates increase
Equator Meridian
Equator Vernal Equinox
East North Pole Right Ascension = c
Declination = 8
toward
West
Zenith
.
.
West
North Pole
Normal points toward
Name Name
of horizontal coordinate. of vertical coordinate
Azimuth=/2
,
Hour angle=^
Declination = S
Altitude=/i
Exercises.
— Let the student define
by the
in his
own language
t,
the several
quantities above represented
i
.
letters
A,
?
a, h,
and
8.
2.
What is the azimuth of the north pole What do the hour angle and altitude of
the zenith respectively
equal?
3
4.
What What
are the azimuths of the prime vertical
?
are the declinations of the points in which the horizon
cuts the prime vertical? Does S in the second system differ in any 5
way from
S in the third
system ?
The
directions of the prime radius as above defined
I
for systems
and
II,
are ambiguous, since the meridian
cuts the fundamental plane of
in
each of those systems
two
points.
Either of these points
may
lies
be used
to determine the direction of the prime radius, but in
general that one
is
to be
employed which
south of
the zenith.
COORDINATES.
27
in
Let the student show the relation between the coordinates furnished System I by adopting each of the possible positions for the prime
radius.
12.
Uses of the Three Systems.
—
It is well to consider
here, very briefly, the reasons for using
more than one
system of coordinates, and the relative advantages and
disadvantages of these systems.
The coordinates
transit, since the
of
System
I
are well adapted to
e.g.,
observation with portable instruments,
an engineer's
horizon
is is
more
easily identified with
such an instrument than
any other reference
plane,
and the
defined
circles of
the instrument
may
be made to read,
directly, altitudes
and azimuths.
The horizon has been
by
reference to the direction of a plumbline,
spiritlevel,
but in practice a
liquid at rest, are
its position.
or the level surface of a
to determine
more frequently used
System
I
possesses the disadvantage that, through
its axis,
the earth's rotation about
both the altitude and
in a compli
azimuth of a star are constantly changing
a marked advantage.
cated manner, and in this respect System II possesses
Since the normal to
its
funda
mental plane coincides with the earth's axis, rotation
about
this axis has
no
effect
upon the
vertical coordi
nates, declinations,
which remain unchanged, while the
per hour, and are therefore easily
horizontal coordinates, hour angles, increase uniformly
with the time, 15
taken into account and measured by means of a clock.
Suppose a watch to have its dial divided into twenty four hours, instead of the customary twelve. If this watch be held with its dial parallel to the plane of the equator, the hour hand, in its motion around
—
28
the
dial, will follow
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
and keep up with the sun as it moves across the the watch be turned in its own plane until the hour hand points toward the sun, the time indicated upon the dial by this hand will be approximately the hour angle of the sun, and the zero of the dial will point toward the meridian, i.e., sotith. Let the student compare the ideal case above considered with the following rough rule sometimes given for determining the direction of the meridian by means of a watch with an ordinary, twelvehour, dial: Hold the watch with its dial as nearly parallel to the plane of the
sky.
If
(See § 13 for the position of this plane.) equator as can be estimated. Revolve the watch in this plane until the hour hand points toward the sun, and the south half of the meridian will then cut the dial midway between the hour hand and the figure XII.
A
further advantage
is
gained in the third system
of coordinates,
since here the prime radius shares in
the apparent rotation of the celestial sphere about the
earth's axis,
and both the horizontal and
vertical coor
dinates are therefore unaffected
by
this
motion.
In
struments have been devised for the measurement of
the coordinates in each of these systems, but
we
shall
first
be mainly concerned with those that relate to the
system,
and
shall
consider
System
III
as
employed
chiefly to furnish a set of coordinates
independent of the
earth's rotation
and
of the particular place
upon the
These
earth
at
which the observer chances to
be.
features
make
it
suited to furnish a
permanent record
so used in the
of a star's position in the sky,
and
it is
American Ephemeris
nacs,
(see
§21) and other nautical alma
where there
may
be found, tabulated, the right
ascensions and declinations of the sun, moon, planets,
and
several
hundred of the brighter
between the
stars.
13. Relations
Systems of Coordinates.
is
A
problem of frequent recurrence
the transformation
of the coordinates of a star
from one system to another;
COORDINATES.
29
indeed most of the problems of spherical astronomy are,
analytically,
nothing more than cases of such trans
formation, and as an introduction to these problems
we
shall
examine the
relative positions of the funda
mental planes and prime radii of the several systems.
The plane
of the equator intersects the plane of the
line,
horizon in the east and west
the two planes
is
and the angle between
it
called the colatitude, since
is
the
complement
of the geographical latitude of the place
30
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
its
and planes passed through
that the latitude,
<p,
centre,
it
is
apparent
equals the declination of the zenith
and
also equals the altitude of the pole.
is
The angular
distance of the zenith from the pole
latitude, 90
equal to the co
—
<p.
The second and third systems of coordinates have the same fundamental plane, and their relation to each other is therefore determined by the angle, 6, between
their
prime
radii.
Since one of these prime radii
is
directed toward a fixed point of the heavens, while the
other
lies in
a meridian of the rotating earth,
is
it is
evident
that the angle
continuously and uniformly variable,
in
at the rate of 360
twenty four hours.
Methods
of
determining, for any instant, the value of this angle,
which
is
called the sidereal time, will be given hereafter.
For the present we note that
may be
regarded as the
horizontal coordinate of the vernal equinox in the second
system, or as the horizontal coordinate of the meridian
in the third system,
and correspondingly we may
define
the sidereal time as either the hour angle of the vernal
equinox or the right ascension of the meridian.
14.
Transformation
of
Coordinates.
first
—The
transforma
tion of coordinates
is
from the
to the second system
of the "astronomical
conveniently made by means
i.e.,
triangle,"
zenith,
the
spherical
triangle
formed by the
the pole, and the star whose coordinates are
to be transformed.
In Fig.
3 this
triangle
is
marked
the
by the
celestial
letters
PZS,
P
indicating the position of the
observer's
zenith;
pole;
Z, the
and
5,
apparent place of the star as seen against the sky.
Imag
COORDINATES.
ine the triangle projected against the sky
31
and the three
points to be visible in their true positions.
PZ
is
an arc
of a great circle passing through the pole
of the observer's
and zenith and must therefore be a part
celestial meridian,
and
in Fig.
2
is
we have already
seen
that this arc of the meridian
equal in length to the
complement
of the latitude, 90
— 0.
The broken
line
Fig.
3.
— The
Astronomical Triangle.
HH'
of
in the figure, is
is
an arc
of a great circle, every part
which
90
distant from Z.
is
But the great
circle
90 distant from the zenith
the horizon, and the arc
HS
that measures the distance of
h,
the star's altitude,
ical triangle,
and the
side
5 from A A' must be SZ of the astronomis
being the complement of this arc,
In like manner,
equal
to
go° —
h.
is
EE', drawn 90
distant
from P,
an arc of the
celestial equator; the ax
SE,
that measures the distance of
declination,
d,
5 from EE'
,
is
the star's
and the
side
PS
of the triangle equals
9o°d.
:
32
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
The
this arc,
ically
star's
hour angle,
is
i.e.,
horizontal
coordinate
',
lying in the equator,
measured by the arc EE' and
is
by
a theorem of spherical geometry,
t,
numer
equal to the spherical angle,
is
included between
EP
and E'P, which
therefore the star's hour angle.
In like
manner the
spherical angle
SZE'
is
shown
to be
of
equal to the star's azimuth, A, and the angle
the astronomical triangle
third angle of the triangle,
called the parallactic angle.
is
SZP
equal to
i8o° — A.
The
is
marked
q in the figure,
To apply
replace the
to the astronomical triangle the fundamental
formulas of spherical trigonometry
derived in
§
i,
general symbols
used in Equations 4
we by
the particular values which they have in the astronomical
triangle, as follows
a = go°h
= 9 o°d = 90 — c
b
A=t B = i8o°A
into Equations 4
and introducing these values
the
we obtain
required formulas
for
transforming altitudes and
azimuths into declinations and hour angles, as follows:
cos h sin cos h
A = + cos d sin cos A = — cos <p sin d + sin sin d + cos sin h = + sin
t,
<p
<P
cos d cos
t,
(14)
cos d cos t
The transformation formulas between the second and
third systems are
much
simpler.
In Fig. 3
if
I7
repre
sent the position of the vernal equinox,
we
shall
have
the arc
VE'
,
or the corresponding spherical .angle at P,
6,
equal to the sidereal time,
since the sidereal time
is
the
COORDINATES.
hour angle of the vernal equinox.
33
Similarly the arc
VE
and
its
corresponding angle at
P
are equal to the
figure
right ascension of the star,
and from the
we then
obtain the required relations, a + t = 0,
d
=d
first
(i 4 a)
The transformation between the
is
and third systems
i.e.,
best
made through
Problem
in
the second system;
14a.
of
by using
both groups of formulae 14 and
15.
Transformation
11
Coordinates.
— At
the sidereal time 13
of a star
m 22
49
s
.
3
the altitude and azimuth
were measured at a place in latitude 43 4' 36", as follows: h = 6 1° 19' 36", A =253° 9' 42". Required
the right ascension and declination of the star.
The required transformation formulas may be obtained
from the astronomical triangle
Equations
14,
in the
same manner as
and
t
are:
cos d sin cos
= + cos h sin A d cos = + cos h cos A sin d = — cos h cos A a = dt.
t
,
sin
d>
+ sin
sin
h cos 0,
h sin
<t>
cos
<P f
Note that
6,
which occurs only
in the last equation,
is
expressed in hours, minutes,
that
15°
it is
ih
,
and seconds
t
of time,
and
customary to express both a and
etc.
in these units,
=
A
convenient
form
for
the
numerical operations
is
involved in solving these equations
the student should trace
it
given below, and
through, verifying each
the
numit is.
ber and ascertaining
why
work
is
arranged as
34
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
Compare and contrast this solution with the one contained in § 2. The difference of arrangement is largely
due to the introduction here of addition and subtraction
logarithms.
These are indicated in the schedule by the
it
is
words Add, Subtract, and
to be especially borne in
mind that the addition indicated by the word Add requires a subtraction logarithm when one of the given terms is itself a negative quantity, etc. The schedule
shows the algebraic operation required by the formula,
but the arithmetical character of the operation
is
altered
by the presence
of
an odd number
of negative signs.
:
CHAPTER
TIME.
1 6.
III.
In astronomical practice, time
differ in
is
measured by
watches and clocks that
no essential respect
astronomers employ
from those in
common
use,
but in addition to the com
mon
system of time reckoning,
several others, of which
we
shall
have to consider the
following
Sidereal Time, already referred to in § 13.
True Solar Time, which
ent Solar Time.
is
frequently called Appar
Mean
e veryday
Solar Time, which
life.
is
the
common system
of
These three systems possess the following features
in
common
:
In each system that
common
phrase
' '
the
time of day" means the hour angle of a particular point
in the heavens,
which we
of time
shall call the zero point of the
is
system.
case,
The unit
called a
day and
is,
in
every
the interval between consecutive returns of the
i.e.,
zero point to a given meridian;
of a given meridian past the
is
consecutive transits
point.
same zero
This unit
subdivided into aliquot parts called hours, minutes,
and seconds.
zero point
is
Each day begins at the instant when the on the meridian; i.e., on the upper half of
35
36
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
the meridian (noon) in astronomical practice, on the
lower half of the meridian (midnight) in
civil affairs.
In
astronomical practice the hours from the beginning of
the day are reckoned consecutively, from o to 24; in
civil practice
from o to
12,
and then repeated
to 12 again,
with the distinguishing symbols a.m. and p.m.
In con
sequence of the different epochs at which the day begins,
the astronomical date in the a.m. hours
is
one day be
hind the
civil date; e.g.,
Civil
Time
Astronomical
May Time May
10,
9,
5
h
11
.
a.m.
equals
17
In the p.m. hours the dates agree.
Since an hour angle
must be reckoned from a
deter
minate meridian, this meridian must be specified in order
to
make "the time"
a determinate quantity, and this
specification of the meridian should be included in the
name
assigned to the time;
e.g.,
Local Time denotes the
hour angle of the zero point reckoned from the observer's own (local) meridian. Greenwich Time is the hour angle
of the zero point reckoned
from the meridian
of Green
wich.
Standard Time
is
the hour angle of the zero point
reckoned from
e.g.,
qo°,
some meridian assumed as standard; meridians 75 in the United States and Canada the and 120 west of Greenwich are called standard, 105
,
,
Standard and Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific meridians. Times are hour angles reckoned from these Alike practice is followed in the use of the term Noon;
e.g.,
Washington Noon
is
is
the instant at which the zero
point
in the act of crossing the
meridian of Washington.
TIME.
17.
'
37
Longitude and Time.
—We have
' '
introduced above
a reference to the time at different meridians, and we have
now
to note that since
it is
'
'
the time
is
defined as an hour
of hours, minutes,
angle,
evident that the
number
and seconds expressing
ured.
either time or hour angle will
latter is
depend upon the meridian from which the
meas
The
difference
between the hour angles reckoned
from two
different meridians will equal the angle
i.e.,
between
the meridians,
if
their difference of longitude, so that
T'
and T" represent the times
of
any event (whether
sidereal,
mean
have
solar, or true solar
time) referred to two
is
X,
different meridians
whose
k.
difference of longitude
It is
we
shall
T — T" =
customary in astronom
ical practice to
express differences of longitude in hours
rather than in degrees, since both
members
of the pre
ceding equation should be given in terms of the same
units.
By
tion
transposition of one term in the preceding equa
we obtain
V = T" + A
and
this
(16)
extremely simple equation indicates that any
given time referred to the second meridian
may
be
re
duced to the corresponding time of the
first
meridian
this dif
by addition
ference,
A, is
of the difference of longitude,
where
to be counted a positive quantity
is
when the
second meridian
west of the
first.
A
very
common
Beware
blunder
is
to omit this reduction to the prime meridian
when
of
it,
interpolating from the almanac (see §21).
and note that the hour and minute
for
which a quan
38
tity
is
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
required to be interpolated are usually given in
the time of some meridian other than that of Greenwich
or Washington, for which the almanac
is
constructed,
and must therefore be reduced to one
meridians,
of these standard
by addition
of the longitude, before they can
serve as the argument for the tabular quantity sought.
18.
The Three Time Systems.
— The
several time
sys
tems
differ
one from another chiefly in respect of their
zero points,
and these we have now
to consider.
Sidereal Time.
of this system
is
—As already indicated,
it
the zero point
is
the vernal equinox, and since this
a
point of the heavens whose position with respect to the
fixed stars changes very slowly,
measures well their
diurnal motion.
In colloquial language, "the stars run
on
sidereal time,"
and
this
system is chiefly used in con
nection with their apparent diurnal motion.
Solar Time.
Solar
— As
their
names
indicate,
both True
Time and Mean
Solar
Time have
zero points that
depend upon the sun, and before drawing any distinction
between the two systems we
earth's annual
recall that,
owing to the
motion
in its orbit,
the sun's position
it
among
the stars changes from day to day (we see
from
different standpoints).
While
this
change
in the sun's
position
is
not an altogether uniform one and takes place
in a plane inclined to that of the earth's rotation (ecliptic,
and equator),
its
net result
is
that in each year the sun
makes one
less transit
entire circuit of the sky, so that
any given
over the
is
meridian of the earth, in the course of a year, makes one
over the sun than over a
star, or
vernal equinox. The number
of solar days in a year
TIME.
therefore one less than the
39
number
of sidereal days; e.g.,
for the epoch 1900, (according to Harkness,)
One
(tropical)
year
= 366.242197 = 365.242197
sidereal days
solar days.
.
(17)
It
appears from this relation that a sidereal unit of time
hour, minute)
(day,
must be shorter than the
corre
sponding solar unit, a relation that we shall have to consider hereafter.
Apparent, or True, Solar Time.
its
—This system has for
is,
zero point the centre of the sun, and the hour angle
of the sun's centre at
solar time.
any moment
is
therefore, the true
This system
very convenient for use in
connection with observations of the sun, but owing to
the
irregularities
in
the
sun's
etc.,
motion,
above noted,
apparent solar days, hours,
are of variable length,
a day in December being nearly a minute longer than one
in
September.
When
time
is
to be kept
by an accurately
is
constructed clock or watch such irregularities are intolerable,
and
for the sake of clocks
and watches there
viz.,
employed
for
most purposes the third system,
Mean
mean
time.
Solar Time.
— In
this
system the days and other
equal, respectively, to the
units are of uniform length
and
length of the corresponding units of apparent solar
The
zero point of the system
is
is
an imaginary
body, called the mean sun, that
supposed to move
uniformly along the ecmator, keeping as nearly in the
same
right ascension with the true sun as
is
consistent
with perfect uniformity of motion.
time at any
moment
is
The mean solar the hour angle of the mean sun
6 1
:
,
40
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
it
and, numerically,
solar time
differs
from the corresponding true
by the
difference
between the hour angles,
or right ascensions, of the true
difference
is
and mean
suns.
This
fast"
called the equation of time (the
' '
"sun
and
and
' '
sun slow
of the
common almanacs and
calendars)
its
value for each day of the year, at Greenwich noon
and at Washington noon, is given in the American Ephemeris (see § 21) and other almanacs.
To change local solar time from one system to the other
we have
therefore to interpolate the equation of time
from the almanac, with the argument the given local time, reduced to the Greenwich or Washington meridian
by addition
with
its
of the longitude,
and apply
this difference
proper sign to the given local time.
For exam
ple, let it
be required to find for the meridian of Denver,
and
for the date
May
10,
1905, the local apparent solar
time corresponding to the
below.
A.
mean
solar time,
is
M,
given
The course of the computation
of
as follows
Denver west
Greenwich
Solar
6 h 59™ 47 s
3
5
>
.
M, Denver Mean
Greenwich Mean Solar Equation of Time Denver Apparent Solar Time
Time Time
10.5
58
I
.
2
10
4
8
+
3
2
+3 442
3
54
.7
2
+
3
19.
Relation of
Sidereal to
Mean
Solar
Time.
— Since
the sun
in
makes the complete
it
circuit of the
heavens once
each year
must, once in each year, have the same
right ascension,
and therefore the same hour angle, as the vernal equinox. At this particular moment, which we shall represent by the symbol V, sidereal and mean
solar time will agree,
but at any other moment they
will
,
,
TIME.
differ, since,
41
the sidereal units of time being shorter than
the solar ones, sidereal time gains continuously and uni
formly upon mean solar time, with a daily rate that we
may
given
represent
by the
letter a.
Let
D
represent any
moment
of the year,
and
let
and
M be the corre
sponding sidereal and mean solar times; we shall then
have, at the instant D,
0M = a{DV),
where the interval
since a
is
(18)
in days,
DV
must be expressed
is
a daily gain.
This daily gain
clearly equal
solar day,
to the difference of length of the sidereal
and
and putting
i
i
Sidereal
Solar
Day = i =i Day
Day — a" Sidereal Day \a'"
Solar
where a" and a'" are the values of a expressed respectively
in solar seconds
and
in sidereal seconds,
we
readily find,
from Equation
17,
a" = 2353.910,
a'" =2363.556.
(19)
Where only
assume
in
a rough determination of the difference
is
between sidereal and mean solar time
Equation
18,
required
we may
V = March
and obtain,
22.6,
a = a"'
=4 m [i TVl,
d=M + 4 m (D March
two minutes.
22.6)
[i TVl
(20)
This formula will furnish a result correct within one or
42
If
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
greater precision than the above
is
required
we
must use more accurate values of V and a, and to this end there is given in the American Ephemeris, for Wash
Mean Noon of every day of the year, the value of the term a(DV), which is there We shall reprecalled the Sidereal Time of Mean Noon. we note that for sent this quantity by the symbol Q, and
ington (and Greenwich)
any other time than noon, or any other meridian than that of Washington, the difference between sidereal
and mean
solar time,
and
M respectively,
is
equal to
Q, plus the gain of
one time upon the other
in the interval
from Washington mean noon to the given d or a place whose longitude west of Washington
sented by X
M
;
e.g., for
is
repre
we
have,
0M = Q+(M+X)ar".
In this equation, for any given place, the term Xa'"
constant, whose value
is
a
may
be determined once for
of the
all
and written
for
in the
margin
page containing the
values of Q, so that
we may take out from the almanac
glance,
any given day, at a
and without
interpola
tion, instead of 0, the
sum,
(21)
is
Q+Xa'"=Q v
where
Q
x
is
for the local meridian
what Q
for the
Wash
ington meridian.
We
shall
then have as the relation
between the
local
and M,
d=M + Q
which
is
l
+ Ma'",
(22)
to
be used
for the accurate conversion of
mean
solar into sidereal time.
TIME.
43
For the converse process, converting sidereal into mean solar time, we have the corresponding relation
M = {dQ ){dQ )a",
l
l
(23)
where the
last
term
is
the equivalent of the
is
Ma'"
are
of the
preceding equation, but
expressed in sidereal units.
The numerical values
of {0
—Q
x
)a" and
Ma'"
most
conveniently to be obtained from Tables II and
the end of the almanac.
III, at
They
give the values of these
terms for each minute and second of the twentyfour
hours,
with the arguments
—Q
t
and M, expressed,
respectively, in sidereal
and mean
solar time.
Take
Xa'",
the constant correction to Q, from Table III, with A as the argument.
To
illustrate
the actual process of changing time
shall, for
from one system to the other we
an assumed
date given below, convert the Boston mean solar time, h m 26 s .6;, into the corresponding sidereal time, and 9 i9
then reconvert this sidereal time into
mean
solar time.
The
final result should,
of course, be the
same
h
as the
initial
value of
M.
The
is
difference of longitude
between
i
s
.
Boston and Washington
assumed
to
be
X
= — o 24™
44
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
It
parison only.
of
forms no part of the actual conversion
M into
20.
d.
Chronometer Corrections.
— As
already indicated,
is
in actual practice the measurement of time
made by
from an
clocks or chronometers.
A
upon
chronometer does not
differ essentially
is
ordinary watch, and like the latter
its face,
designed to show
solar time (or
at each
moment, the mean
sidereal time) of
some
definite meridian, e.g., the merid
ian 90
west of Greenwich.
Since the time indicated
by such an instrument is seldom correct, the error of the timepiece must usually be taken into account, and in
astronomical practice this
6
is
done through the equation,
= T + JT,
or
M = T + AT,
by the chronometer
(24)
(or
where
T
is
the time shown
watch) and
i.e.,
AT
is
the
correction of the
chronometer,
the quantity which must be added, algebraically,
to the
watch time
in order to obtain true
time of the
too slow
given meridian.
is less
When
the chronometer
is
T
than the true time at any moment, and
AT
is
there
fore positive in this case
and negative when the chro
nometer
is
too fast.
While the symbol
AT
always repre
sents a chronometer correction its numerical value in a
given case depends upon the particular use required,
i.e.,
whether the chronometer time
is
to be reduced to
sidereal, or solar, local, or
standard time.
In the two
Equations
24,
therefore,
AT
represents quite different
quantities, since
and
M are usually different one from
memorandum
the other, and in every case a special
.
5
TIME.
45
relates to
must be made showing whether the given AT
sidereal,
If
mean
solar,
o~:
apparent solar time.
it is
the chronometer gains or loses,
will
said to
have a
If
rate
and AT
then change from day to day.
rate, the relation
we
6
assume a uniform
between
T and
becomes
= T + AT o +p(TT o),
where the subscript
°
(25)
denotes the particular value of
AT
belonging to the chronometer time
of the chronometer per
T and
,
p
is
the rate
day or per hour, positive when
time.
the chronometer
is
losing
The
interval
for
T—T
which
p
must be expressed
is
in the
same unit as that
rate, etc.
given, hours for
an hourly
A
similar equap
tion represents the relation
between
T and M,. but
and
AT
in
will
be numerically different from the values required
25
Equation
A
sidereal
chronometer,
differs
i.e.,
one intended to keep
sidereal time,
from a mean solar chronometer
its
only in the more rapid motion of
in fact
mechanism, and
is
s
.
an ordinary timepiece
Similarly a
for
is
for
which
p=—3 m
hour.
56
per day.
sidereal timepiece
may be which jO= + io
watch
regarded as a
per
s
A
sidereal
chronometer
most convenient
for use in obser
vations of stars, since their diurnal motion in hour angle
is
proportional to the lapse of sidereal time, but these
observations
or other
may
perfectly well be
made with
is
a watch
treated
if
mean
solar timepiece, provided this
as a sidereal chronometer with a large rate;
e.g.,
p
denote the hourly rate of the watch relative to
mean
solar
46
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
time, its hourly rate
upon
sidereal time will be
p'
=p+
10 s
.
Use Equation 25
to determine from of J7.
21.
in
connection with this value of
p'
minute to minute the varying value
The Almanac.
is
— The
American Ephemeris and
Nautical Almanac
an annual volume issued by the
for the use of navigators, astron
U.
S.
Navy Department
omers, and others concerned with astronomical data.
These data are for the most part quantities that vary
from day to day and whose numerical values are given
at
convenient intervals of Greenwich or Washington
solar time, e.g., the
and the
moon,
right
and Q of the preceding sections, ascensions and declinations of the sun, and principal
fixed stars.
E
planets,
The
varia
tions of these quantities are due to
many
causes, orbital
etc.,
motion, precession, nutation, aberration,
general,
lie
that, in
beyond the scope
of the present work, but
in §§ 18
we
ties
shall
have frequent occasion, as
and
19, to
take from the almanac numerical values of the quanti
above indicated, and these values are to be
inter
polated for some particular instant of time, usually that
of
an observation
in connection
with which they are
required, as logarithms are interpolated to correspond
to
some particular value
of the
argument
of the table.
Since quantities are tabulated in the almanac for selected
instants of Greenwich or as the
Washington time, the time used
argument
for their interpolation
§ 17).
must be
referred
to one of these meridians (see
For a detailed account
is
of the
way in which the almanac
end
of
to be used, consult the explanations given at the
TIME.
47
each volume, under the
title,
Use of the Tables.
it
In
addition to those explanations
should be noted that
under the heading Fixed
Stars,
pages 304399, there
are given three separate tables, from the last of which,
bearing
the
subtitle
Apparent Places
for
the Upper
Transit at Washington, accurate coordinates of most of
the stars
may
be obtained for use in the reduction of
observations.
For the remaining
stars, five in
number
and
this
all
very near the
is
celestial pole, special provision of
kind
made
in the
second table, which bears the
subtitle
Circumpolar
Stars.
Look here
for the coor
dinates of Polaris.
The
first table,
under the subtitle
for all
Mean
and
that
Places, etc., gives in very
compact form,
stars contained in the other
two
tables, right ascensions
declinations, together with their
Annual Variations,
only approxe.g.,
may be consulted with advantage when
imate values of these quantities are required,
in the
preliminary selection of stars suitable to be observed.
In this connection the second column of the table
of
Mean
Places, entitled
it
Magnitude, deserves especial
notice, since
furnishes an index to the brightness of
is
the stars, which
an important element
for
is
in deciding
upon
their
availability
a given instrument.
represented
scale,
The
brightness of each star
by a number
adapted, upon an arbitrary
so that a very bright star
o,
is
to that brightness,
represented
one
at
the
limit
of
naked eye
visibility
by the number by 6,
mag
and intermediate degrees
of brightness are represented
by
the intermediate numbers, carried to tenths of a
Polaris
is
nitude.
of the
magnitude
2.2,
and
is
a con
48
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
spicuous object in even a very small telescope, provided
the telescope
is
properly focussed.
In the telescope
of an engineer's transit, stars of the
magnitude
4.0 or
even
5.0
may be
readily observed, while with a sextant,
under ordinary conditions, the third magnitude
be taken as the limit of availability.
may
CHAPTER
IV.
CORRECTIONS TO OBSERVED COORDINATES.
It has already been pointed out that the problems
of practical
astronomy are
in great part cases of the
transformation of coordinates between systems having
a
common
origin
but different axes, and
it
should be
noted that the observed data for these transformations
frequently require some correction before they can be
introduced into the equations furnished by the astro
nomical triangle.
Aside from errors arising from de
fective adjustment or other purely instrumental causes,
the observed coordinates of a celestial
body may
is
require
any or
22.
all of
the following corrections.
Dip of the Horizon.
altitude
is
— This
correction
required
when an
Owing
to be derived
from a measurement
sea horizon.
of the angle of elevation of a
body above the
to the spherical shape of the earth the visible
lies
sea horizon always
below the plane of the observer's
of this depression
true horizon,
easily
and the amount
might
be determined from the geometrical conditions
it
involved, were
not that the rays of light coming to
the observer from near the horizon are bent
by the
49
at
mosphere
(refraction), in a
manner that does not admit
50
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
of accurate estimation in
any given
case,
although
its
average amount
is
fairly
well known.
We
therefore
abstain from any formal investigation
tion,
of this correc
and expressing by£,
in feet, the observer's elevation
sufficient
above the water, we adopt as a
to the observed
approximation
amount
of the depression, either of the
following formulas,
ITy/e—TlW*,
The values
in
#" = [I.7738V*
(26)
of
D
given by these equations are expressed
minutes and seconds, respectively, but owing to variain
tions
the
amount
of
the refraction the numerical
values furnished in a given case
several per cent.
may
be
in error
by
As a
correction
D
must always be
so applied as to diminish the observed elevation above
the horizon.
Note that
if
the depression of the visible horizon
be measured with a theodolite or other suitable instrument, Equation 26
will furnish
an approximate value
of the elevation of the instrument above the water.
23. Refraction.
— In
general
the
apparent direction
of a star
is
not
its
true direction from the observer, since
sees
it
the light
by which he
has been bent from
its
original course in passing through the earth's atmos
phere.
The
resulting displacement of the star
is
from
its
true position
effect
called
refraction,
and, like the
its
similar
noted in the previous section,
analytical treat
ment presents mathematical and physical problems whose solution must be sought in more advanced works than the present. Some of the results of that solution
5
—
51
CORRECTIONS TO OBSERVED COORDINATES.
which we
follows:
shall
have occasion to use hereafter are as
altitudes, less
Save at very low
whole
than
io°,
the
refraction does not sensibly change the
star,
azimuth of a
but
its
effect
is
to increase the altitude, so
it
that every star appears nearer to the zenith than
would
of this
appear
if
there
w ere no
r
refraction.
The amount
in
displacement depends chiefly upon the star's distance
from the
zenith,
but
is
also
dependent
some measure:
its
upon the temperature
pressure.
If
of
the air and
barometric
we
represent
tance, as affected
true zenith
by z' the star's apparent zenith disby refraction, by z the corresponding distance, by t the temperature, in degrees
and by
Fahr., of the air surrounding the observer,
B
the barometric pressure in inches, the
refraction, in seconds of arc, will
amount
of the
be furnished by the
all
following two equations, which for
altitudes greater
than
1
faithfully
reproduce the refractions of the
Pulkowa Refraction Tables, and furnish values that may be relied upon to within a small fraction of a second
of arc.
log
s
F = [4.079 io](353° +
,
2;
*)
tan 2
2',
—
r =[2.0022 DJ slv=r vv 1
,B
tans'
456° +
,
(27)
1
F
n
For most purposes of
equations
field
astronomy the
first
of these
may
be suppressed and the
divisor, F,
be put
equal to unity; the resulting error in the computed
refraction will rarely be greater than 1".
The readings
of a mercurial barometer, B',
do not
52
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
immediately the barometric pressure, B, but
i.e.,
furnish
require a "reduction to the freezingpoint,"
rection to reduce the reading to
a corif
what
it
would be
the
mercury were at the normal temperature assumed
theory of the barometer.
in the
This reduction
may
be ob
tained with sufficient accuracy from the equation
B'B =
where
Fahr.,
B
'
(T ~ 29 °\ i T\), 10 000
(28)
T
is
the temperature of the mercury, in degrees
its
and the barometer reading and
Semi diameter.
resulting cor
rection are expressed in inches.
24.
—Observations
and the
of the sun or other
body presenting a
cally called the limb,
is
sensible disk
are usually
made by
pointing the instrument at the edge of the body, techniresulting altitude or azimuth
that of the limb
observed, while the data furnished
by the almanac
relate to the centre of the body.
The
the
semidiameters of the sun, moon, and
angles subtended at the earth
planets,
i.e.,
by
their respective radii,
are given in the almanac at convenient intervals of time,
and the interpolated values
of these quantities
may
be
used to pass from the observed coordinates of the limb
to those of the centre of the body, e.g., the sun.
In
the case of the altitude or zenith distance
we have the
very simple relation
h'=h"±S,
where
(29)
h! are, re
5
denotes the semidiameter and h" and
spectively, the observed
and the corrected
altitude.
The
CORRECTIONS TO OBSERVED COORDINATES.
sign of
53
5 depends upon whether
the case of
the lower or the upper
limb was observed.
In
an azimuth the relation
is
more
of
complicated.
From
the rightangled spherical triangle
formed by the
zenith, the sun's centre
is
and that point
the limb at which the latter
(see Fig. 4)
tangent to a vertical
circle
we
obtain,
sin z sin (A'
— A") = sin S,
(30)
which determines the correction, A' — A", for difference
of
azimuth between centre and limb.
15',
Since
S
does not
much exceed
we may
in
most
cases assume the arcs to be proportional to their sines
and simplify
this
rigorous equation to the form,
A'
in
=A" ±S
sec h,
is
(3i)
which the positive sign
to be
used for the following and the negative for the preceding limb.
25. Parallax
— In
to
the
reduction
it
of
astronomical observations
is
usually necessary
combine
the
altiFig.
4.
observed coordinates, azimuth,
tude, etc., with data
—Semidiameter.
and
declina
obtained from
right
the
almanac,
e.g.,
the
ascension
tion of the
body observed.
But the
is
origin to
which
these latter coordinates are referred
the centre of the
earth, while the origin for the observed coordinates is
54
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
and before combining these heterogeneous data we must reduce them to a common
at the eye of the observer,
origin, for
which we
5 let
select that
used in the almanac.
In Fig.
C
represent the centre of the earth,
O
the observer's position, and
respective distances p
P
r
the observed body, at the
and
from C.
Neglecting the
Fig.
5.— Parallax.
slight deviation
is
earth's compression,
i.e., its
from a truly
spherical form,
the line
OC
the observer's vertical
and, therefore,
OPC
is
a vertical plane and marks out a vertical
circle,
upon the
the body
or C.
celestial sphere
against which
P
will
appear projected whether seen from
will,
Its
azimuth
therefore,
be the same for the
to the centre of the
two
origins
and requires no reduction
earth.
The altitude, however, does require such a reduction, and to determine its amount we let OH in Fig. 5 represent the plane of the observer's horizon and obtain as
.
CORRECTIONS TO OBSERVED COORDINATES.
the observed altitude of
55
h'
P
the angle there
marked
As seen from the
will
figure,
centre of the earth the altitude of
P
be measured by the angle PIH, marked h in the
and from
principles of elementary
geometry we
have
h=h'+ LOPC.
This last angle
resenting
it
is
called the parallax in altitude,
find
and rep
by
P we
from the triangle
OPC
p sin (90°
+ h') =r
sin P.
Since r
is
always
much
greater than
p,
P must be a
§ 4,
small
write,
angle and, applying the principles of
in place of the preceding equation,
we may
P=h — W = 206265 —cos h'
which
is
t
(32)
the required correction to reduce an observed
altitude to the corresponding coordinate referred to
an
origin at the centre of the earth.
For the fixed stars
sible, less
this correction is absolutely insen
than o".oooi, on account of their great distance
from the earth.
For the sun and planets
its
it
amounts
to a
few seconds of arc, and in
coefficient,
computation the value of the
206265
—
,
should be taken from the almanac,
is
where
it is
given for each of these bodies and
it is
called
their horizontal parallax, since
the
is
amount
of the
parallax in altitude
when the body
it
is
in the horizon,
h'=o°.
For the sun
usually sufficient to assume
56
8". 8
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
as a
constant value for
is
its
horizontal parallax.
The moon's parallax
much
greater,
about
i°,
and the
simple analysis given above neglects some factors that
are of sensible magnitude in this case, although for ordi
nary purposes they
may
be ignored in connection with
every other celestial body.
Since the effect of parallax
farther from the zenith than
for parallax
signs.
26.
is
to
make
is,
the
body appear
it
really
the corrections
and refraction
will
always have opposite
Example.
— In
the application of the several coraltitude they should
rections required
by an observed
be applied
in the order in
which they have been treated
above, and each successive partially corrected altitude
should be used as the value of h required in computing
the next correction.
As an example
of such corrections
we take
at
the following observed angle between the sun's
upper limb and a water horizon as seen by an observer
an elevation
of 63 feet
above the water.
The data
REDUCTION OF AN OBSERVED ALTITUDE.
Temp,
t
CORRECTIONS TO OBSERVED COORDINATES.
furnished directly
57
top of the
first
column.
h'
by the observation are placed at the The tan z' used above is of
and was taken from the
logarith
course equal to cot
mic tables as a cotangent.
In accordance with general custom the symbol log
is
printed in the above schedule only
when necessary
to
avoid misunderstanding, as at the bottom of the
first
column.
Usually the figures themselves indicate whether
e.g.,
they are logarithms or natural numbers;
the several
numbers marked Const, are
constant coefficients.
the
clearly the logarithms of
For similar reasons of convenience
—
10 that strictly should be placed after a logarithm
is
whose characteristic has been increased by 10
left to
usually
the imagination.
Diurnal
Aberration.
27.
— There
is
a very small cor
rection to observed data, arising from the fact that the
observer himself
is
is
not at rest relative to the
stars,
but
his
always in rapid motion toward the east point of
horizon, carried along
by the earth
it
in its diurnal rotation.
This correction
is
so small that
may
usually be omitted
and we therefore abstain from an analytical investigation
of its effect, such as
may
be found in the larger
treatises
upon
spherical astronomy,
all stars
and note as a
result of that
investigation that
when near
the meridian are
displaced toward the east point of the horizon through
an angular distance equal to o".32 cos
notes the observer's latitude.
4>,
where
de
As a
result of this dis
placement each star comes a
than
(
little later
to the meridian
it
otherwise would
come and
in arc of
since the rate of
motion
propor
f
a star
when measured
a great circle
is
58
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
tional to the cosine of its declination, the
amount
of this
retardation,
expressed
in
time,
is
o .o2i cos
s
sec
d.
See the theory of the transit instrument for an example
of the application of this correction,
and
see also the de
termination of precise
diurnal aberration
is
azimuths for another case in which
to be taken into account.
CHAPTER
ROUGH DETERMINATIONS OF
AZIMUTH.
28.
field
V.
TIME, LATITUDE,
AND
of
General
Considerations.
— For
the
purposes
astronomy, which are the only ones contemplated
in the present work, the
most important astronomical
problems relate to the determination of time, latitude,
and azimuth.
A
time determination implies the making and reduc
ing of astronomical observations which suffice to furnish
the correction, AT, of a chronometer or other timepiece,
and
for this purpose
we obtain from
t
§§ 15
and 20 the
(
relations
a+
= d = T + AT,
33 )
where a and t represent the right ascension and hour angle
of
any
star at the
chronometer time T.
The student
is
should particularly note that the chronometer
not
supposed to be correctly set
;
T
is
the time shown
by the
chronometer regardless of whether that time be right or
wrong, since the
this kind.
AT
fully
compensates for any error of
In the case of the sun
we
have, from the rela
tion between
mean and apparent
t
solar time,
(34)
E + = M = T + AT,
where
E
denotes the equation of time at the instant T.
59
60
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
Since a and
E may be obtained from the almanac,
T
will
suffice
any
observation which determines the hour angle of a
celestial
body
AT,
at the observed time
to determine
and such an observation when properly reduced
constitutes a time determination.
An azimuth
trial points,
determination
may
be required either
for fixing the true
azimuth of the
line joining
two
terres
or for determining the relation of a particular
e.g.,
instrument to the meridian;
ing,
to determine the read
K, to which the azimuth
circle of a theodolite
must
be
set, in
order that the line of sight shall point due south.
is
A
theodolite
said to be oriented
when
i.e.,
its
verniers have
been set to read the true azimuth of the object toward
which the
line of sight is directed,
By
a latitude
when K = o. determination we mean any set
of ob
servations from which a knowledge of the
latitude
observer's
may
be obtained.
For each of these determinations, time, azimuth,
latitude,
differ
many methods have been devised and these greatly among themselves with respect to the
instrumental equipment and expenditure of time and
labor which they require, and with respect to the corre
sponding degree of accuracy furnished in their
In any given case a choice must be
results.
made among
convenience
these
of the
methods with reference to the required precision
results
and
also
with
reference
it.
to
and
economy
in obtaining
To
in
facilitate this choice the
methods to be presented
classified as:
the following pages are
(A)
Rough Determinations;
in
which there
may be
ROUGH DETERMINATIONS OF TIME,
permitted in the
final result
ETC.
01
an error amounting to two
minutes of arc or one tenth of a minute of time.
(B) Approximate Determinations; in v\h ch the final
:
errors
ought not to exceed 15" and
i
s
respectively.
(C) Accurate Determinations ; in
which the required
of the instru
precision
is
limited only
by the capacity
and
for a
ment and
limit
of the observer.
In the case of a sextant this
may be placed
.
at 2" or 3",
good engineer's
transit at 1"
We
proceed
first
to consider that class
in
of
observations whose
advantage consists
economy
of time
29.
and
labor, viz.,
rough determinations.
Latitude.
—A
of
determination of any one of the
is
quantities time, latitude, or azimuth
greatly facilitated
if all
by a knowledge
one or both of the others, and
three are unknown, the simplest
mode
by
of procedure
§ 32.
is
to observe the Pole Star as set forth in
But
this
commonly
requires observations
night,
is
which
may
be inconvenient, and by day the sun
readily available.
the object most
From
it
is
i.e.,
the astronomical triangle, or from Equations
is
14,
apparent that when the sun
on the meridian,
if
when
t
= o,
its
altitude
is
a
maximum, and
this
maximum
equation
altitude be
measured with a sextant or theod
olite it will furnish
a latitude determination through the
<p
= d + z = 9 o° + dh,
(35)
which
may be
obtained by inspection from Fig.
2,
or
analytically from the last of Equations 14.
With the
instrument employed, follow the sun's motion in altitude
62
until
it
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
begins to diminish, and take the greatest reading
ODtained as corresponding to the This reading, or the altitude,
maximum
h'
,
altitude.
it,
derived from
will
require correction for instrumental errors, semidiameter,
etc.,
as
shown
arc,
in
Chapter IV, but the application of these
be
abbreviated by interpolating,
in
corrections
may
minutes of
the combined correction for refraction and
parallax from the following short table, instead of com
puting these corrections by the formulas of §§ 23 and
25.
These corrections are not limited to meridian altitudes, but
may
be applied to any observed altitude of the sun
is
where only approximate accuracy
required.
They
and
correspond to an average condition of the atmosphere
represented
by a barometric pressure
Fahr.
of 29.0 inches
a temperature of 50
h'.
PLATE
I.
An American
Engineer's Transit.
Diameter of Horizontal Circle 7 inches. Approximate Cost $350. [To face p. 62.}
:
—
:
ROUGH DETERMINATIONS OF TIME,
lination, as furnished
ETC.
63
23°26'.o.
by the almanac, was,
is
d
=—
The reduction
of the observation
as follows
57° 44' 30" Sextant Reading — 1 50 Instrumental Corr. Corr'd Sextant 57 42 40 28 51.3 h'
Ref.Par.

1.6
Semidiameter
h
go°
+16.3
296.0
+S
66 34.0
37 28.0
Latitude,
Make a determination
lar
of
your own latitude by a simi
method.
30.
Time and Azimuth from an Observed
Altitude.
If
the latitude be thus observed at noon, time
may be
determined with a sextant, and both time and azimuth
may
be determined with a theodolite, by measuring an
altitude of the sun
when
it is
at
some considerable
its
if
dis
tance from the meridian,
or more.
e.g.,
when
azimuth
is
6o°
Observations of this kind,
made
for the
determination of time only,
may
be reduced by the
shall here treat of
method developed
observations
in
§
36,
and we
made
for the determination of
both time
and azimuth.
There should be at least two such observations made,
one Circle R. and the other Circle
instrumental errors
the sun, not
its
L., in
order to eliminate
(see
§
50).
Observe the edges of
results for semiis
centre,
and correct the
the instrument
diameter
(§ 24);
but
if
provided with
stadia threads, this correction
may be
avoided as follows
Point the telescope at the sun so that the two horizontal
64
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
off
threads cut
equal segments from the upper and lower
edges of the sun, and by turning the slowmotion screw
in altitude,
keep these segments of equal area as the sun
a position
drifts across the field of view, until it reaches
in
which the vertical thread bisects each segment.
this
Record
time to the nearest second, and also record
the readings of the four verniers of the instrument.
Before reversing the instrument to obtain the second
observation, read
and record both
its
levels
(azimuth
§§48 and 50), and after reversing bring the bubbles back, by means of the le veilingscrews,
and altitude
levels,
to the position thus recorded. errors of level.
This process eliminates
The
better class of engineer's transits are usually
provided with shadeglasses to moderate the intensity
of the sun's light
and permit
it
to be viewed through
the telescope.
sary, since
But these
glasses are
by no means
necesof the
an image
of the sun
and the threads
instrument
may
be projected upon a piece of cardboard
and be there seen and observed quite as accurately as Pull the eyepiece out, away from in the telescope.
the threads, until the latter can no longer be seen distinctly with the eye
;
then allow the sun to shine through
the telescope upon the cardboard held behind the eyepiece,
and
shift
the cardboard toward and from the
is
instrument until a position
found in which the projected
distinct.
images of the threads
appear sharp and
Then
turn the focussingscrew until the edge of the sun's
image
will
also appears well defined
and the projected images
be ready for observation.
.
:
ROUGH DETERMINATIONS OF TIME,
Reduction of the Observations
ETC.
65
—We
shall represent
by
mean of the two recorded times of observation of the stm, by H' the mean of the corresponding readings of the horizontal circle, and by h' the measured
the
altitude furnished
T
by the two observations.
the sun's true altitude,
§ 29.
The
cor
rections for refraction
and parallax required to reduce
h,
the instrumental
h' to
may
be
taken from the table in
The data
of our
problem
consist of the three sides of the astronomical triangle,
which we
shall
represent
by the
letters
:
a,
b,
c,
and
obtain their numerical values as follows
interpolating from the
a
= 90 — d, by
the
almanac the sun's declination
time
d>,
corresponding
observation
is
;
to
the
c
T
;
b
= 90 — h, from
latitude,
and
= 90 —
7
from the
which
here supposed to be known.
To
these data
I
we
ap
ply
Equations 6 and
of
Chapter
and determine
the sun's hour
the three angles of
angle,
t,
the triangle,
viz.,
its
azimuth reckoned from the north point,
of the triangle,
q,
A Nt
and the third angle
Putting
quantity,
k, s
as follows
= %(a + b + c), we
introduce the
auxiliary
denned by the
relation,
±k
and
find, in
\sm(sa)sm(sb)sm(sc)'
it,
(36)
terms of
cot
%A N = k
sin (s
— a),
(37)
cot \t cot \q
=k
sin (sb),
=k
sin (s
— c).
66
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
For an a.m. observation use the
tion the
—
,
for a p.m. observa
+
sign for k.
q,
The angle
'check' which
for
which we have no direct need,
is
included in the solution for the sake of the following
it
furnishes
upon the numerical com
putations
:
Multiplying together the three equations last
given and replacing k 2 in the product
by
its
value in
terms of
s,
we
obtain,
cot
%A D
cot %t cot \q
=k
sin
s,
(38)
an equation that must be
in the logarithmic solution.
satisfied,
within one or two
units of the last decimal place,
by the numbers obtained
to note the following
in the prog
The student should not
relation as
ress of the numerical
fail
an additional check to be applied
work:
(sa)
+ (sb) + (sc)=s.
t,
(39)
Transforming the hour angle,
into
mean time by
from the
means of the equation of time, E, whose value corresponding to the instant
almanac,
T
is
to be interpolated
we
obtain as the chronometer correction, re
ferred to local
mean
solar time,
JT = + ET.
t
(40)
If
we add
to the sun's
computed azimuth,
AN
,
the
circle reading,
H'
',
we
shall obtain the index correction
of the circle,
i.e.,
the vernier reading for which the line
of sight points
due north, and the azimuth (from north)
of
any
terrestrial point
may
then be found by subtractit
ing from the vernier reading corresponding to
the
ROUGH DETERMINATIONS OF TIME,
index correction thus found;
e.g.,
ETC.
67
for the
azimuth of have
(41)
any
terrestrial point
observed in connection with the
circle
sun and for which the
reading was
P we
f
,
A=P'{H' + A N).
But note that
hour angle,
for
an observation made before noon the
negative value of k makes
t,
AN a
negative quantity.
The
an
may
also be reckoned as negative for
11
.
a.m. observation,
and increased by 24
A
form
is
for the record
and reduction
of such obser
vations
shown below
in connection with a set of obser
vations
made
at a place
whose latitude and longitude
4'. 6
(from Greenwich) are respectively 43
and
h
5
58™.
ALTITUDES OF SUN'S CENTRE.
At Station A. April 16, 1897. Engineer's Transit, B. Watch No. 6. Observer, C.
—
68
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
The true azimuth of Station B was known to be 187 54' 10", and a comparison of the watch with standard
time furnished as the true value of AT,
+57
seconds.
The
differences
between these
results
and those found
in the preceding solution furnish a fair idea of the pre
cision to be expected in such work.
31.
Time by Meridian
Transits.
—
If
astronomical ob
servations are to be
made
for
any considerable length
it
of time at a given station, as at a university,
will
be
convenient for
of a
many
purposes to determine the azimuth
line,
permanently marked
at one end of which an
If
instrument can be set up and oriented.
a theodolite
be thus mounted and
its line of sight
brought into the
very simply made
of transit of the
meridian, a time determination
may be
by observing the chronometer time
sun's preceding
and following limbs past the
Since the thread
is
vertical
thread of the instrument.
by sup
position in the meridian, the hour angle of the sun at the
mean
of the observed times, T,
is
zero
and we have
AT = aT
or
(Sidereal),
AT=E—T
If
(Mean
is
solar).
(42)
the azimuth of the line
well determined, this
method may rank
there
as an approximate rather than a
rough determination, since under ordinary circumstances
must be an
error of nearly
2'
in the orientation 6 s in the chro
of the instrument, to produce
an error of
nometer correction.
be carefully
direction,
In any case the instrument must
levelled, particularly in the east
and west
and
in
the following example the readings
ROUGH DETERMINATIONS OF TIME,
ETC.
(
J
of the striding level are employed as a control
upon
this
adjustment.
Observe the
slight variation of
method here
Circle L.
intro
duced
in order to obtain in place of a single observation
two observations, one
Circle R.,
and one
TRANSITS OF SUN FOR TIME DETERMINATION.
At Station A.
Theodolite, F.
April 17, 1897.
6.
Watch No.
Observer, G,
Instrument oriented on Station B.
Circle.
70
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
terrestrial object before setting the tele
upon a distant
scope for the star.
32.
Orientation by Polaris.
—
is
If
a rough determination
of time, latitude, or
azimuth
to be
made by
night, or
if
a theodolite
is
to be oriented as a preparation for other
of the Pole Star
work, observations
by the following
method
almanac
will
is
be found
required
especially
convenient, since no
and no instrumental equipment
other than an engineer's transit and a watch approxi
mately regulated to local mean solar time.
If
Polaris were exactly at the pole of the heavens,
the instrument might be oriented by pointing directly
upon the by
star,
and
setting the verniers to read
180
,
and simultaneously the
latitude
might be determined
<P
measuring the star's altitude, since in this case,
Polaris
is
= h.
As
actually
more than a degree
is
distant from
the pole, this ideal
ciples
method
it is
inapplicable, but the prin
upon which
based
may
be applied by means
of the tables
at the
end
of this book,
which furnish
,
directly, for the year 1900
and
for the latitude 40
the
amounts, a and
b,
of Polaris differ at
by which the azimuth and altitude any moment from the corresponding
coordinates of the pole.
t,
The argument
its
of the first table,
is
the star's hour angle, and
value at any given
moment may be determined from an ordinary watch as follows: If AT represents the correction vc quired to reduce the watch time, T, to local mean solar time, we shall have as the hour angle of the mean sun at the instant T,
t'
= T + JT.
;
ROUGH DETERMINATIONS OF TIME, ETC.
Once
same and
if
?1
in
each year Polaris and the
mean sun have
shall
the
right ascension
and therefore the same hour angle
we represent
this date
by E, we
have
for the
difference J' of their
hour angles on any other date, D,
an expression of the form
J'=StarSun = c7(L>E),
where
C
be
is
the daily increase of the
mean
sun's right
ascension over that of the star, and the interval,
is
D — E,
time,
to
expressed
in
days.
In minutes
of
C = 4(1 — ^o)
and, therefore,
J'
= 4(D  E)
we have,
{
1
 TVI
,
(.minutes.)
(43)
For the date
D
therefore, as the expression
of the Pole Star's hour angle,
t
= T + JT + J'.
(44)
The
correction to the watch, AT, need be only roughly
e.g.,
known,
within two or three minutes, or even more;
and, correspondingly, the value of the last term in this
expression need be computed only to the nearest minute.
Table IV gives, to the nearest tenth of a day, the value
of
E
for each year
from 1900 to 1930, expressed
in the
mean
solar time of the meridian 90
west of Greenwich.
The date
D
is
to be similarly expressed,
and
it
must be
remembered that
a.m.
in astronomical practice the
day begins
at noon, so that, for example, an observation
5
made
at
on May 10 has
for the corresponding value of
D,
May
9.7.
With the value
of
t
furnished by Equation 44
72
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
interpolate from Table
I
we may
the quantities a and b
corresponding to the position of Polaris as seen in the
year 1900 by an observer in 40
north latitude.
The
proper algebraic signs to be used with a and b are printed
m
Table
I,
preceding or following the numbers according
t
as the
argument
is
found in the
left
or righthand
column
of the table, the plus sign indicating that the
star has a greater
pole.
azimuth or altitude than that of the
Since both a and b depend
upon the
star's distance
from
a
is
the pole,
also a
which varies from year to year, and since
function of the observer's latitude, these
quantities
will
interpolated
in
general
require
some
correction in order to give the star's real position with
spect to the pole.
dinates of Polaris,
We
therefore write as the coor
A = iSo° + F a,
t
h
=
(p
+ F b,
2
(45)
where the
coefficients,
F
t
and
and
F
2,
are factors required
to transform the tabular a
tities
b into the required quan
that
fit
the time and place of observation.
The
III,
numerical value of
F may be interpolated
2
t
from Table
with the year in which the observation was made, as the argument, while F must be interpolated from Table II (double entry), with the year and the observer's
approximate latitude as arguments.
a given place E, F v and F 2 are conshould stant for a year, and when once interpolated
Note that
for
be written down and preserved for future use. To illustrate the use of the tables we take the
fol
ROUGH DETERMINATIONS OF TIME,
lowing observations
ETC.
73
made
in
latitude
approximately
43
,
with a carefully adjusted engineer's transit
of local
and a
watch supposed to be three minutes slow
solar time.
Saturday, April
26, 1902.
mean
At Station A.
Object.
Theodolite, F.
Observer, C.
74
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
The instrument being now oriented, was turned into the meridian by making Vernier A read o° o', the telescope was set to the computed altitude of the star
/?Virginis (Table V),
h = 90°
0+5 = 49°
:
9'>
and the time
observed, as in
of its transit behind the vertical thread
§
31, at
the recorded time, g h 25™ 45 s
electric light,
.
Readings to a distant mark, an
then taken to determine
tion was repeated
its
were
azimuth, and this observa
in the reversed position of the instru
ment
as a check
upon
errors of adjustment.
The
close
agreement of these readings, Circle L. and Circle R., shows
the adjustment to be satisfactory, and
we have imme
diately, as the true azimuth of the mark, the circle read
ing 308°
1'.
Since
F b =h—<p, we
2
obtain from the preliminary
circle,
computation and the reading of the vertical
= 4io
which
is
59'
+ io
5'=43°4',
within a minute of the
known
latitude of the
instrument.
For a time determination we obtain from the almanac
the right ascension of
subtracting
/?
Virginis, a
= nh
45
m
38
h
s
,
and
,
from
this
the
observed time, 9 25™ 45 s
we
find
JT = + 2 h
19™ 53 s
.
(Referred to sidereal time.)
A
comparison of the watch with a standard sidereal
clock furnished as the true value of AT,
+2 h
19
111
55
s
.
i
i
ROUGH DETERMINATIONS OF TIME,
The
ETC.
75
entire determination of azimuth, latitude,
and
ac
time thus made,
occupied
less
than thirty minutes,
including both computation and observation.
The
curacy of the results obtained
is
fairly typical of
what
may be
and
expected from the method when instrument
tables are carefully used.
,
If the assumed correction of the watch, AT = + 3 m were wide of the truth, serious error might be introduced into the results, and we have now to learn whether the assumed AT was in fact seriously wrong. Since T + AT =a + t, we find for the instant of orientation, using for the right ascension of Polaris the value of its a given in Table III,
t=g h
which
is
20 m
+ 2h
19™ 53 s
—
h
24™
=io h
i6 m
,
io h i5 m ,
a sufficiently close agreement with the assumed hour angle, and the assumed AT = \^ m
.
The
right ascension of the time star, in this case
j3
Virginis, should
be taken from the almanac whenever one is available, but in the absence of an almanac the method above outlined may still be applied through the use of these tables, without overstepping the limits of error adopted for a rough determination. Table V contains a list of time stars suitable for observation with an engineer's transit, and gives their declinations to the nearest minute and their right ascensions to the nearest second (neglecting the nutation), for the year 1900 and the date contained in the last column of the table. The given dates are those at which the stars come to the meridian at 8 p.m., local mean solar time, and it is presumed that this will be, on the whole, the most convenient hour for observation. But any star that crosses the meridian before midnight may be observed and its right ascension for the given date obtained from the table within one or two seconds by adding to the a there given, the amount of the annual variation (Ann. Var. in the fourth column) multiplied by the number of years that have elapsed since 1900. Applying Table V to the preceding example, we obtain for the right ascension of j3 Virh ginis in 1902, 45 m 3 s + 2 X3.1 = 1 i h 45 m 37 s agreeing within one second with that furnished by the almanac. The declinations of these stars are also subject to an annual variation which, for the present purpose, may be ignored. As an aid to identifying the particular stars convenient for observation at a given time, we note that having computed the hour angle h 20™ by the watch, we may obtain of Polaris, t, corresponding to 9
n
,
76
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
the corresponding sidereal time by adding to t the right ascension of Polaris as shown in Table III, a + t = 6. We find thus h 39 " as the sidereal time corresponding to 9 h 2o m by the watch, and Table V shows by its column of right ascensions that the first star coming to the meridian after the orientation at g h 20" was j3 Virginis, which was therefore chosen as the star to be observed. The time 9 h 2o m was, in fact, selected with reference to having a suitable time star available immediately after the orientation.
n
1
1
33.
Mathematical Theory of the Quantities
2.
a,
b,
and
F
—
Fv
If in
Equations
replace d
14, for
its
the transformation of
coordinates,
we
by
equivalent go° — p, where
p
is
the distance of Polaris from the pole,
we may
sub
stitute for the resulting sin
p and
cos
cos
p
their values,
sin
p = p,
2 p = i — \p
,
with a similar substitution for sin
A
and cos A and
,
and
obtain, in place of the rigorous transformation formulae,
approximate
accurate
for
ones
more
convenient
sufficiently
our
purpose.
The maximum quantity
is
neglected in this substitution
in the case of Polaris,
of the order
p
3
,
which,
amounts
to less than 2".
this substitution,
Leaving to the reader the details of
we
write
down
as the resulting development of
A
and
h,
correct to terms of the order
p
2
,
inclusive,
A — 180°= — £sec0sin£— ^(£>sec0) sin0sin2^ + etc., h— = pcost— ^(£>sin2) tan + Rcot + etc,
2 2
where the
last
term
in the expression for
h represents
approximately the
star's
effect of refraction in increasing the
apparent altitude.
With an assumed
latitude,
= 40°, an assumed
value of p corresponding to the
ROUGH DETERMINATIONS OF TIME,
ETC.
,
77
epoch 1900 and represented by the symbol p
a value of the coefficient
and with
Fahr.,
R
corresponding to an average
condition of 'the atmosphere (Thermometer, 50
Barometer, 29.00 inches), the second members of these
equations have been tabulated as the a and b of Table
It is
I.
evident from an inspection of the equations that
the factors required to change the tabular a and b into
the coordinates corresponding to a different year and
place (different values of p and 0) are approximately
/>
F
where
/
>=t;
F
£
sec
,
>=Ki^P,=
l
fF »
(47)
represents that part of
latitude.
The values
of
F F and F
l
that depends upon the
2
contained in Tables II
since
fac
and
III are derived
from these expressions, but
these are only approximate and neglect
tors of the problem, a certain
is
some small
amount
of additional error
thereby introduced, so that the resulting coordinates
of Polaris in
some cases may be more than a minute
e.g.,
of
arc in error;
the aberration of light and the nutation
is
are entirely neglected in this analysis, as
also the vary
ing
amount
of the refraction in different latitudes, etc.
In considerable part these influences may be taken into account and the precision of the results somewhat increased by using values of the factors ,F 2 obtained from the following supplementary tables l
F
,
The argument instead of the values contained in Tables II and III. of Table B is to be determined by the season of the year at which the observation is made and may be either the year itself or the preceding
or following year, as
shown below:
As Argument for Table B, Use The Preceding Year in March, April, May, June, July. The Given Year in January, February, August, September, he Following Year in October, November, December.
78
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
correct the error of refraction indicated above,
b,
To
values of
when
the latitude of the place
is
add + 1' to between 20° and 30
.
alt
CHAPTER
VI.
APPROXIMATE DETERMINATIONS.
34. Latitude
by Circummeridian Altitudes.
— An
ob
vious
method
of refining
upon the rough determination
to
of a latitude
from a
single observation of the meridian
§
altitude of the sun or a star (as in
series of altitudes
29)
is
measure a
during the few minutes preceding and
h,
following the
maximum
and
to derive
from
all
these
observations, which are called circummeridian altitudes,
a better value of the meridian altitude than a single
measurement can be expected
ured altitude will usually
altitude
ian,
if
to furnish.
Each meas
differ
from the
maximum
merid
by an amount
called the reduction
to the
and
this reduction
may
be accurately computed
either the
hour angle or the azimuth of the star at the
is
time of observation
If
known.
the observations are
made with
a sextant, the hour
angle will be most convenient for the reduction, and
the time of each observation should therefore be noted,
to the nearest second,
by the use
of
some watch or other
timepiece.
To obtain
a convenient
method
of reduc
tion for the observations
sin
we put t = o
<f>
in the equation,
t,
h
= sin
<f>
sin d + cos
cos d cos
(48)
79
80
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
for the
and obtain
maximum
<p
altitude
<p
sin
h = sin
sin d
+ cos
cos
d.
(49)
Since in the cases here considered the hour angles are
m not to exceed io or 15
111
,
we may put cost =
of
i
—
\t
2
,
and subtracting the
first
the preceding equations
from the second obtain,
2 sin
%(h
— h)
cos %(h
+ h) =J
cos
0cos
d
2
.
t
,
(50)
which
is
approximately equivalent
.
to,
h
—h=
.
cos
2
cos d
;
2
cos n
••— t sm
77
1
(51) J
This
is
the equation of a parabola having h for
t
its
maxi
mum
ordinate and h and
infer
for rectangular coordinates;
and we may
from
it
that
if
the sextant readings
be plotted as ordinates
upon
crosssection paper with
the observed times as abscissas, the resulting curve will
be a parabola whose
maximum
ordinate will be the
sextant reading corresponding to the
of the
maximum
altitude
body observed.
be read directly from
with greater precision
This
the
maximum ordinate may curve, or it may be derived
of the
by means
theorem that the area included between
its
a parabola and any chord perpenditular to
axis,
equals two thirds of the length of this chord multiplied
by
any
its
distance from the vertex,
A = \xy.
The
inter
cept of the plotted curve
line
upon the
is
axis of x, or
upon
parallel to this axis,
such a chord, whose
A PPROXIMA TE DE TERM IN A TIONS.
length
81
may
be directly measured, and the distance of the
is
vertex from this axis
fore,
the quantity sought.
x,
If,
thereof the
the length of the intercept,
and the area
corresponding part of the curve, A, be directly measured,
we have
at once,
(52)
*flF:
Friday May, 4 1897.
Sextant No. 5096.
Index corn —3' 34".
Observer, C.
Barometer
29.10.
Thermometer 69 Fahr.
Horizon Roof Reversed.
Horizon Roof Direct.
Limb.
82
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
be approximately determined from the curve, by
may
noting, as the chronometer time of apparent noon, the
point at which the axis of the parabola intersects the
axis of x.
Let the student plot the preceding observations
made
upon the
sun's upper
and lower
limb,
and derive from
the area of the curve the sextant reading corresponding
to the sun's meridian altitude.
Before plotting, each
sextant reading, double
altitude,
must be corrected by
interpolated from the
i.e.,
twice the sun's semidiameter,
almanac
for the date of observation,
±31' 47",
in
order to obtain the corresponding reading to the sun's
centre.
For an approximate method of determining latitude
from altitudes of Polaris the student
the end of the volume.
35.
may
consult the
American Ephemeris, Table IV, and explanations at
Reduction to the Meridian.
—
If
circummeridian
it
altitudes are to be
measured with a theodolite,
will
usually be convenient to orient the instrument and deter
mine from a reading
of the horizontal circle the azi
muth corresponding
solution
to each observation.
A
graphical
may
then be
made
precisely as in the case of
the observed times treated in the preceding section, or
we may
derive from Equations 15,
sin d
= sin
<P
sin h
— cos
of
§
cos h cos A,
34,
(53)
and from this, by the method
h
we find the relation,
— h = cos<pcosh
secd.
A
2
hetc.
(54)
:
APPROXIMATE DETERMINATIONS.
Through
this equation
83
and the known values
its
of A,
com
pute for each observed altitude
the meridian.
own
reduction to
The
quantities h
— h and A
are here supposed to be
it is
expressed in radians, but in practice
convenient to
express the azimuth in minutes and the reduction to
the meridian in seconds of arc.
Representing the azimuth
in
when
so expressed
by
a'',
we make
Equation 54 the
following substitutions
A
(radians)
= a'
.
^^,
(h
h)
(radians)
=
^^p
all
and uniting
the symbol
into one, all the numerical factors that are
altered,
found in the equation as thus
/
and introducing
as an abbreviation for the product of
a',
factors not containing
we
obtain,
sec
/
= [7.9407] cos cos h (h h)" =f{a')\
",
d,
The
accents,
in
',
denote that the marked terms are
expressed
minutes and seconds respectively.
for the
Use
an estimated, approximate, value of h
tation of
/.
compu
The preceding
A,
is
results
cannot be directly applied to
a star north of the zenith, since for such a star the azimuth,
a large quantity; but
if
the azimuth be reckoned
i.e.,
from the north point instead of from the south,
if
we put
0! is
a'
= i8o° — ^4, we may
derive formulas identical
with the above, which therefore apply to this case when
defined as the supplement of the azimuth.
For a
84
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
i.e.,
star at lower culmination,
on the meridian below
instead of a maxi
the pole, the altitude
is
a
minimum
mum, and
the reduction to the meridian must therefore
sign.
be given the negative
Note that
this
can be
accomplished in Equation 55 by considering d to represent the supplement of the star's declination instead
of the declination itself.
These formulas for reduction
whose hour angles
Time from
to the meridian should not be applied in the case of stars exceed io m or 15°*. For an applica
tion of the formulae see
36.
§
73.
Altitudes
near the
Prime
Vertical.
—
With a sextant an approximate determination of time is best made by measuring a series of altitudes of the
sun or a star when the body
is,
as near as
may
be,
due
east or west, noting the chronometer time, T, of each
observation.
The formulae
for the transformation of coordinates
furnish for each such observation the equation,
sin
h
= sin
<f>
sin d
+ cos
<t>
cos d cos
t,
which
is
readily transformed into,
cos
t
= sec
sec d sin h — tan
tan
d,
(56)
and by means
of this equation the
hour angle correbe derived.
sponding to each observed time
may
The
chronometer correction
will
then be furnished by one
of the following equations:
For the Sun For a
Star,
,
JT = E + t— T, AT = a + 1— T,
Local
Mean
Solar
Time
.
.
.
Local Sidereal Time.
(57)
2 1
APPROXIMA TE DETERMINA TIONS.
The symbol
cal value
is
85
Its
E denotes the equation of time.
p.
numeri
most conveniently derived from the Solar
400 of the almanac.
Ephemeris,
DOUBLE ALTITUDES OF ARCTURUS, NEAR EASTERN
PRIME VERTICAL.
Wednesday, March
Sextant, Cameron.
29, 1899.
Chronometer, B.
Observer, C.
Index Corr. +18' 37".
Sextant.
Barom.
28.81. «
h.
Therm. +19 Fahr.
*. s.
Chronometer. h. m. s.
+
AT.
s.
m.
54 30 ° 55 55 3°
55 9 3° 31 29
32 5°
9 29
56 30 27.9
3i 5° 2
599
61.
598
Horizon roof reversed.
56
56
o
30
o
34 14 35 36 36 58.5
57
33 12.5 34 348 35 57i
61.5
61 61 .4
.
Mean JT
60.8
86
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
of the process increases rapidly with increasing distance
from the prime
vertical,
and the time interval mast be
correspondingly diminished.
In the preceding example of a time determination
from sextant
altitudes, the sextant
was
set accurately to
30',
a set of readings differing by a uniform interval of
and the times noted at which the observed body came
to the corresponding altitudes.
In the reduction ad
vantage
value of
is
taken of this circumstance by computing the
for the first
a\t
and
last observations only,
and
interpolating
the
t
intermediate
values.
Observe
that the columns a +
and A T, although placed near the
filled
beginning of the reduction, are really the last to be
out.
37.
Azimuth Observations at Elongation.
of
— An
excel
lent
approximate determination
the azimuth of a
terrestrial
theodolite,
mark may be made by measuring, with a the horizontal angle between the mark and
its
a circumpolar star at the time of
elongation,
i.e.,
its
maximum It may
elongation
digression from the meridian.
be seen by inspection that at the instant of
the
astronomical triangle, Fig.
3,
is
right
angled at the
star,
and we obtain from
it,
sin ,4,
cos
te
= cos = cot
d sec d tan
<P,
<P,
,
n
.
(58)
where the subscript
e
shows that the azimuth and hour
angle are those at elongation. elongation
is
The
sidereal time of
then given by
de
= a±t
e,
(59)
APPROXIMATE DETERMINATIONS.
where the upper sign
is
87
to be used for the western,
If
and
the lower for eastern elongation.
D
denote the meas
ured angle between the star and mark, positive when
the
mark
is
east of the star,
we
shall
have
(60)
Azimuth
of
Mark = A e + D.
in
The formulae given above leave nothing to be desired respect of simplicity, but the method suffers a serious
it
limitation in that
ticular times,
can be applied only at certain par
which
night.
may
fall
at very inconvenient hours
is
of the
day or
Polaris
if
the star most frequently
te
employed
in this
way, and
§
we put
equal to the ex
pression derived in
32 for the star's hour angle,
we
shall find in terms of the A' of
Equation
43, for the local
mean
solar time of its elongation,
M = T + AT=±t A',
e
(61)
the upper sign for the western elongation.
angle
te
The hour
may
be interpolated from the following short
table with the observer's latitude as the argument:
20
te
30
m
5
h
4 o°
50 m
5
h
6o°
m
5
h
h
5
58
57
m
5
h
56
54
52
For any other star whose polar distance, p, is less than 5 we may assume te =6 h 4 tan <f>.p°. This formula gives the last term in minutes of time when p° is expressed in degrees.
Within the
limits of the
United States
if
Polaris
is
observed at any time within four minutes of elongation
its
true azimuth will differ from
its
;
azimuth at elonga
tion
by
less
than one second of arc and since
M may be
:
88
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
found by the above formula with an error considerably
less
than four minutes, we may establish the rule During the four minutes preceding and following the
time
M, measure
the angle between Polaris and the
mark an equal number of being careful to make the
the
times Circle R. and Circle L.,
readings of the azimuth level
of
same
in
the
two positions
at elongation.
the
if it
instrument.
Reduce the mean
observation
of the observations as
It
were a single
made
is
far
more im
portant
to
eliminate
instrumental errors by suitable
observations in both positions of the circle than to
make
the time of observation agree closely with the com
puted time of elongation.
Observations of stars other than
similarly treated,
Polaris
may
be
and the interval from elongation within
is
which they must be made
given by the expression,
*€
where
x,
r is
cos
sec
d,
(62)
the required quantity, in minutes of time, and
is
in seconds of arc,
the
maximum
,
permissible error
in the result; e.g., for the star d Ursas Minoris,
observed
at elongation in latitude 43
negligible error x
we adopt
as the limit of
= 2", and
find
z= ± 3.5™.
be made
14,
4'
To plan an observation
at a place whose latitude
of d Ursae Minoris to
at eastern elongation on the evening of
is
May
1902,
assumed to be 43
37",
is
and for which the Standard Time in common use m 2.4 slower than local time, we proceed as follows:
APPROXIMA TE DETERULXA TIOXS.
43 86
.
89
4' 37'
te
56
45
sec <j> o 13642 cos 6 8.77150
tan
cf>
9
.
97082
90
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
We
find
£>
from the above record,
24'
= *(25i°
o" 4 °
,
39' 5")
= 123°
=308
22' 28".
Azimuth Compare
of
Mark = A + D
o
52.
this result
with the rough determination of the
in
§
same azimuth made
38.
32.
lent determination of time
An excelTime and Azimuth from Two Stars. may be made by measuring
of
—
the difference of azimuth between Polaris and a southern
star
and noting accurately the chronometer times
If
the observations.
readings to a terrestrial
mark
are
combined with the above observations, these will furnish,
with very
of the
little
additional labor, a good determination
azimuth of the mark.
In order to eliminate the
effect of
instrumental errors from the resulting time and
azimuth, both stars and
mark should be observed
i.e.,
in
each
position of the instrument,
Circle R.
and
Circle L.,
and the observations should be arranged symmetrically
with respect to time, as in the following example.
For the reduction of the observations we recur to
Equation
14,
cos h sin
A =cos
d sin
t,
(63)
and note that the observed (chronometer) time
tion,
of
any
observation, T, together with the chronometer correc
AT, and the right ascension of the
t,
star,
a,
suffice
to determine its hour angle,
through the relation,
(64)
a+
t
= T + JT.
Similarly the azimuth of each object observed will differ
from the corresponding reading
of the horizontal circle,
PL ah: n.
An American
Theodolite.
Diameter of Horizontal Circle 8 inches. Approximate Cost $400. [To face p. 90.]
APPROXIMATE DETERMINATIONS.
R, by a constant quantity, JR, which
correction of the circle, so that
is
91
called the index
we
shall have, (65)
A=RJR.
The
altitude,
h,
may
be determined directly from
readings of the vertical
circle,
and
if
all of
the above
intro
quantities are correctly known, their values
when
duced into Equation 63
will satisfy
it.
If
they do not
satisfy the equation, something
must be wrong with the
find
assumed values and we proceed to
a
from Equation 63
so that
let
means
of correcting the
assumed AT and JR
For
this
they shall satisfy the equation.
purpose
u and
m
represent values of
AT and JR
2
provisionally
assumed, and made
veniently estimated,
as nearly correct as can be cone.g.,
within
m
and
30' respectively,
and denote by x and y the unknown corrections which must be added, algebraically, to u and m in order to
obtain the true chronometer correction and the true
index correction of the azimuth
circle.
We
shall
then
have
for
each
star,
t
= T + u + xa,
A=R(m+y),
and introducing
x
into these equations the abbreviations,
fi
= a— (T + u),
= R — m,
Equation 63
we
find that, in terms of these symbols,
takes the form
cos h sin
{(i
— y) +cos
d sin (r — x) =0.
is
(67)
When
x and y are quantities as small as
above sup
posed, their squares
and higher powers may be neglected
:
92
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
these
without producing errors greater than 10", and
errors,
being multiplied by the factor sin
A
or
its
equiva
lent, will
be reduced to
less
than i" whenever the stars
observed are within 6° of the meridian, in azimuth.
Assuming that the observations
near the meridian,
sin
will
be limited to stars
we may put
sin
x=x
.
sin i",
y
=y
.
sin i"
,
cos #
= cos
;y
= i,
and expanding Equation 67 and introducing these values
we
find,
y.
.
cos h sin n — cos h cos
y
.
sin 1"
.
+ cos
d sin t — cos d cos r
x
.
sin 1"
=0.
(68)
Dividing this equation through by the factor,
15 sin 1" cos h cos p,
and introducing the abbreviation,
g
= cos
d cos t sec h sec
ft,
we obtain
in place of
Equation 68 the
relation,
? + g*= I5sin
^ (tan/z + gtanr).
an equation
two
stars
(69)
Each
in
tities,
star observed will furnish
of this form,
which the second member contains only known quan
and from observations
of
we may
therey.
fore determine the
two unknown quantities x and
These
will
be furnished by the solution, expressed in
seconds of time as the unit, on account of the factor
—
15 sin
1
77.
We
G
shall hereafter represent this factor r
bv J
the letter
and employ the numerical
log
value,
G = 4.13833.
APPROXIMATE DETERMINATIONS.
It is
93
given for
sometimes convenient to use, instead of the equation above g, another form in which the altitude, h, does not appear explicitly, since it will then be feasible to omit the observation of the For stars' altitudes and thus simplify the observing programme. this purpose, assuming that t= —r, we readily find from Equations
14 the relation,
cos h cos
cos o cos
in
A =sm 0.
,
r
is
cos <b * cot d COS
,
,
(70)
g.
N
T
which the lefthand member troduce the auxiliary quantity,
cot
the reciprocal of
S cos
If
we now
in
D = cot
g= sin
r,
(71)
we
shall find in
terms of the new auxiliary
cos
,
D
(72)
(<t>D)'
39. Effect of
Erroneous Levelling.
— In
the preceding
analysis
it
is
tacitly
assumed that the instrument was
fulfil
perfectly levelled,
and the observer should seek to
this condition as nearly as possible.
After finishing
is still
the observation Circle R. and while the telescope
pointing south, read the striding level and record the
position of the bubble in its tube.
Then, without revers
ing the level on the axis, reverse the instrument, to
Circle L.,
and by means
its
of its levelling screws bring the
i.e.,
bubble back to
former place in the tube,
to the
same
will
scale reading.
By
this process the vertical axis
in the
be as much out of plumb
it
one direction,
east,
for Circle L., as for Circle
in the
was out
in the other direction, west,
R.,and these errors will compensate each other
result.
mean
sometimes happen, however, that the readings of the bubble Circle R. and Circle L. will be appreciably different and then the average inclination of the vertical axis to the plane of the meridian, which we shall represent by b' must be determined from the level readings, as shown in § 42. To determine the effect of this error upon the computed x and y we have recourse to Fig. 6, which represents a part of
It will
,
94
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
the celestial sphere, where P and Z are respectively the pole and zenith, T is the terrestrial mark whose azimuth is to be determined, and B is the point of the sphere toward which the mean position of the The observations, uncorrected for level vertical axis was directed. error, have determined through x and y the chronometer correction and the azimuth of T referred to the meridian BPH' instead of to
Fig.
6.
— Effect of Level
Error.
the true meridian ZPH, and the error in AT is therefore the angle, /9, Similarly the error in the computed between the two meridians. azimuth of T is the arc of the horizon, HH' intercepted between the two meridians. From the figure we find,
,
Jx=j3 =b sec
f
4>,
Ay=H —H' =/? sin
which are the required
40.
<j>=b'
tan
(73)
<£,
level corrections.
Example.
—We
now
collect
and
slightly rearrange
our formulas in the following group of equations which
.
:
APPROXIMATE DETERMINATIONS.
95
are to be used in the actual reduction of a set of observations
:
Compute
for each star the following quantities
= a— (T+u), H = R — m,
r
log
(7
= 4.13833,
t
jx
cot
cos d cos
D = cot d cos cos D
(<£—£>)
r.
'
t,
.
.
^
~ cosh cos =G 3> + g x
*
~ sin
tan
fi
+ gG tan
From
more
x and
the equations of this type furnished
stars find,
y,
by two
or
by an
algebraic solution, the values of
and from these values
JT=u+ {% — b' sec
AR = m+i${y + b'
The
axis
is
0),
tan 0).
(70 /0
vertical
,
%
level
constant,
6',
positive
is
when the
tipped toward the east,
here supposed to be
expressed in seconds of time, and the coefficient 15 in
the last equation transforms both y and
into arc.
b'
from time
The azimuth of the mark
T
is
to be obtained
by applying the index
For
stars within
15
correction, JR., to the
mean
of
the circle readings to the mark.
or 20
of the equator
we may
usually substitute in place of the formulas given above
the simpler, approximate expressions,
D = d,
G tan — p
fi
(in
seconds of time)
(76)
The following example shows the record and reduction of such a determination of time
and azimuth, made
with an engineer's transit:
96
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
AZIMUTH OF STATION
Monday, April
14, 1902.
D.
At Station M.
Engineer's Transit, F.
Observer, C.
Chronometer,
S.
Object.
APPROXIMATE DETERMINATIONS.
97
AT and
the azimuth of Station
D
by — o s .i and + 1"
of
respectively.
Approximate
readings
the
vertical
circle (one vernier, to the nearest' minute) are contained
in the record,
and from them the value
if
of g for each star
may
lows
the
:
be computed
the latitude
of
it
is
supposed unknown.
The assumed values
Since
e
and
m
it
it
are obtained as fol
Corvi was observed near the meridian and
mean
of the times recorded for
star's right ascension,
is
does not differ
is
much
from the
evident that the
this cor
chronometer correction
rection,
i.e.,
small,
and neglecting
treating the observed times as true sidereal
of Polaris and,
times,
its
we obtain the hour angle
by Table
I,
azimuth at the time of observation.
This azimuth
proves to be about the same as the corresponding circle
readings,
the
instrument had been roughly oriented,
and we therefore assume
vations of
e
m = o.
we
Returning to the obser
Corvi,
and when necessary subtracting
find
m
from the
circle readings,
by
interpolation be
tween the two observations that the chronometer time
corresponding to the corrected circle reading o°o',
the star's meridian transit, was approximately
i.e.,
to
i2
h
5™
agreeing so closely with the right ascension of the star
that, to the nearest minute,
we might assume u = o. For
This method will
the sake of illustration,
however, a slightly different
value
is
adopted in the reduction.
always furnish sufficiently accurate results for u and
if
m
the instrument
is
approximately oriented before be
ginning the observations.
from a watch,
e.g.,
i.e.,
solar
When the time, T, is taken time, u may be a large number,
.
anything from o to i2 h
98
41. Subsidiary
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
Determination of Time.
—The
method
is
of
§
40
is
especially convenient
when
the accurate azi
muth
of a
mark
is
to be determined
and the time
required only for this purpose.
polar star
The angle between the
as
Circle R.
and the mark should then be measured
shown
and
in §53, while one or
more measurements,
Circle L., of the angle
between the mark and a south
ern star near the meridian, will determine
needful precision and with a
labor.
AT
with
all
minimum
expenditure of
The reduction
of these observations will differ
from
the method given above only in the following respects:
We
here put
of the
m
equal to an assumed approximate azi
muth
mark, represent by
star,
L
the measured angle
for each star,
between the mark and
and compute,
the quantity n from the formula
H=m±L,
using the upper sign
greater than that of
(77)
when the azimuth of the star is the mark. The quantities x, y, and
and the
resulting
will
AT
are then to be determined as above
azimuth of the mark
be
(78)
A M = misy.
CHAPTER
VII.
INSTRUMENTS.
In the several determinations thus far considered
we have
most part assumed that the data furnished by the instruments employed were free from
for the
purely instrumental errors, and in approximate work
this
may
usually be done
if
due care has been bestowed
upon the adjustments.
precision
is
required
it
But where a higher degree of becomes necessary to study the
itself
instrument employed, as being in
that need to be eliminated, and
to a
a source of errors
therefore
we must turn
some
more
detailed consideration of
in field
of the instruclass
ments used
of
astronomy before taking up the
methods
42.
called accurate.
Spiritlevel.
The
— The
spiritlevel
is
used
in
astronomical practice to measure small deviations of a
line or surface
from a vertical or horizontal
of
position,
to
and incidentally to adjust a part
such a position.
an instrument
It consists essentially of a glass
circle of large radius
is
tube
bent or ground into an arc of a
so
and
mounted that the plane
of this circle
filled
approximately
vertical.
its
The tube being nearly
with ether and
air or
99
ends hermetically sealed, the small volume of
100
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
is
vapor that remains in the tube
collected into a bubble
circle,
which always stands at the highest point of the
so that a line
tre
drawn from its
of the
is
middle point through the cenis
of curvature
tube
vertical.
The upper
surface of the tube
usually provided with a scale of
equal parts, and the position of the bubble in the tube
is
determined by the readings of
its
ends upon this
scale.
The angle subtended
at the centre of curvature of the
is
tube by the space between two consecutive lines
called
the value of a division of the level, and this value, which
will
be represented by
2d, is require
1
for transforming
the indications of the level into seconds of arc.
Note
that d represents one half the value of a level division.
Let such a level be supposed attached to a theodolite,
the inclination of whose vertical axis to the true vertical
is
to be determined
from readings
of the bubble.
e.g.,
We
the
are here concerned with angular measurements,
angle that the axis angle
makes with the true
vertical; the
moved over by
the level bubble, as seen from the
centre of curvature of the tube,
is
when the instrument
etc.,
turned from one position to another;
and as the
simplest
method
of dealing with these angles
we
shall
imagine the whole apparatus projected radially upon
the celestial sphere, so that the arc joining the points
in
which any two projected
lines
meet the sphere, measThis method of
ures the angle between these lines.
analysis
by projecting the parts of an instrument upon the sphere is in common use, and the student should
acquire a clear conception of the simple case to which
it is
here
first
applied.
INSTRUMENTS,
101
To determine the
relation of the bubble readings to
the required inclination,
we imagine the
axis of the in
strument and the plane of the level extended until they
meet the
celestial sphere, as in Fig.
7,
which represents
L
FlG.
7.
— Theory of the Spiritlevel.
a small part of the sphere adjacent to the zenith, Z.
In this figure
V
is
the point in which the produced axis
meets the sphere, and
level
LB is
the trace of the plane of the
The projection of the middle of the bubble upon the sphere must be at B, the point in LB nearest to Z, and found, therefore, by letting fall If, now, the theoda perpendicular from Z upon LB.
tube upon
the sphere.
olite
be turned 180
in azimuth,
i.e.,
rotated about
V
as a pivot, the level
tube will be revolved about
,
V
as a
centre, into the position L'B'
and the point
B
will fall
at B', but the middle of the bubble will stand at
B"
instead of B'
zenith.
',
since this
is
now
is
the point nearest to the
considerations,
From elementary
,
geometrical
the space
VM = \B'B"
where B'B"
moved over by
is
the level bubble
when the instrument
turned from
:
102
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
one position to the other, and
VM
is
the projection
arc,
upon the plane
of the level
tube of the
VZ, that
measures the angle between the axis of
the true vertical.
senting
rotation
and
Calling this projection b
and repre
by
a',
b'
,
a"
,
b" the scale readings of the ends
of the bubble in the two positions,
b
we have
^
Ja^L_a^V:\ 2d Ja'V') + (b'a'') d {)
customary to record the several readings in the
(Actual observations.)
It is
form,
(Symbols used above.) S N
a'
N
16.4
S
b
f
32.2
9.1
a"
b"
39.6
735
The
letters
N
and S denote the north and south ends
of the level tube, or
some equivalent system
the Level
of distinguish
ing between them.
43. Discussion of
Readings.
— The
is
student
should
(a)
now note
The
that
coefficient of
d in Equation 79
the
mean
of
the diagonal differences in the square array formed
by
the four numbers tabulated in the preceding example.
This example represents the manner in which level readings should be recorded,
differences, 7.35, written
and the mean
line,
of the diagonal
below the
should be worked
out and entered with the record.
(b)
If
the bubble readings have been correctly taken
is
and there
no change in the length of the bubble during
the observation, these differences must be equal, one
INSTRUMENTS.
to the other, thus furnishing a check of the level readings,
103
upon the accuracy
If
which should always be applied
the temperature
immediately after recording them.
is
changing rapidly, the length of the bubble
may
be
changed and the check impaired without necessarily
diminishing the accuracy with which b
(c)
is
determined.
If
the greatest of the four numbers stands in the
of the level tube
is
column marked N, the north end
axis
on
the whole higher than the south end, and the vertical
is
tipped toward the south.
Determine the sign
of b in this manner.
(d)
The
zero of a level graduation
is
sometimes placed
at one end of the scale and sometimes in the middle, but
the
method
It is
of record
and reduction given above applies
to both cases.
(e)
apparent from the figure that the point of
the level tube
midway between
B' and
is
B" marks
that
radius of the level tube which
most nearly
parallel
with the rotation axis of the instrument.
Since this
radius ought to pass through the middle point of the
scale,
and does
so pass
when
the level
is
in adjustment,
we have
as the error of adjustment of a level
numbered
continuously from one end to the other,
£
2
a'
+ + a" + &'
fc'
(80)
where
level
e
s
represents the total
number
of divisions in the
5
scale.
In the example given above
= 50 and
is
=0.7 division.
The
essential element in the determination of b
104
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
level
the reversal of the
with the resulting displaceit is is
ment
of the bubble,
this
and
a matter of indifference
whether
displacement
produced by revolving
it is
the level about a vertical axis to which
attached,
as in the case considered above, or by picking the level
up bodily from a plane or line upon which it stands, turning it end for end and replacing it in the reversed
position, as
is
done
in
measuring the inclination of an
axis.
approximately horizontal
Let the student show the
that the inclination of this
axis to the plane of
horizon
may
be obtained from the bubble readings
exactly as the inclination of the vertical axis was deter
mined above.
The
greatest
of
the
four readings
is
adjacent to the high end of the axis.
Determine in this
way
the inclination of the horizontal axis of a theodolite.
fine level is
A
an exceedingly
in its use.
sensitive instrument
and requires great care
supported
its
Unless unusually well
readings
may
it
be vitiated by the observer
passing from one side of
to the other, or even
by
shift
ing his weight from one foot to the other.
Therefore
observe the following precepts:
i
.
Keep away from the
level as
much
e.g.,
is
as possible.
it.
2.
Don't allow the sun to shine upon Don't hold a source of heat,
near a level longer than
3.
a lamp or your
own hand,
4.
strictly necessary.
the level has a chamber with reserve supply of length air at one end of the tube, use it to regulate the of the bubble, keeping this always about one half as
If
long as the scale.
5.
Make
the inclinations that are to be measured
INSTRUMENTS.
as small as possible, in order to avoid
105
any considerable
run of the bubble and the resulting effect of possible
irregularities in the level tube.
44.
Value of a Level Division.
is
— The
value of a level
division
most conveniently determined by measuring
circle,
with a micrometer, or finely graduated
angle through which
its
the vertical
tube must be tipped in order
to cause the bubble to run past a given
sions of the scale.
If
number
of divi
the necessary apparatus for such
a determination
is
not at hand, the following method
will furnish equally good results
and requires only an
engineer's transit, to which the level
must be attached
with
its
plane approximately vertical.
Let the instrument be firmly set up but very
out of
y,
much
angle,
less.
level, e.g.,
with
its
vertical axis
making an
2
,
with the true vertical amounting to
p.
more or
See
109 for a
method
will
If
of determining the exact value
of this angle,
which
be required in the reduction of
is
the observations.
the transit
now turned
slowly
about
will
its
vertical axis (azimuth motion), the level bubble
its
run back and forth in
tube,
and two positions
of
the instrument
may
be found at which the bubble
its scale.
will
come
to the middle of
We
shall designate the
readings of the azimuth circle corresponding to these two
positions
by
or
A
2
x
and
A
2.
Any
from
slight
turning of the instrument either
will cause a
way
A
t
A
corresponding slight motion
relation of the bubble
of the bubble,
and to determine the
readings to the corresponding circle readings
to Fig.
8,
we
resort
which represents a portion
of the celestial
106
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
sphere adjacent to the zenith, Z.
V is
the point in
which the deflected axis of the instrument meets the sphere, and SV is the trace upon the sphere of the plane
which is assumed to have been adjusted approximately parallel to the vertical axis of the transit.
of the leveltube,
Small errors in this adjustment are of no consequence.
Fig.
8.
— Determination of d.
turned in azimuth, carrying the
As the instrument
leveltube with
it,
is
the arc
SV
its
must revolve about
V
as
a pivot, and the amount of
rotation will be measured
It
by the
successive readings of the azimuth circle.
z of
may
be seen readily that the angle
circle
the figure correis
sponding to any particular
reading, A,
given
by the equation
z
= ±(A + A )A,
1
2
(82)
^(A
1
\A 2 )
being the
circle
reading at which
SV coincides
with VZ.
.
INSTRUMENTS.
Since a levelbubble always
107
stands at the highest
point of
its
tube, the point nearest the zenith,
we may
find the point in the figure corresponding to the middle of the level bubble
circle
by drawing from Z an arc of a great perpendicular to SV, and the intersection, 5, will
In the rightangled spherical
be the required point.
triangle
SVZ
thus formed
we have
the relation,
r,
tan p
in
= tan
y cos
(83)
which p measures the distance of the middle of the bubble from the fixed point V. To find the effect upon
p
of
any small variation
will
in
r,
i.e.,
to find
is
how
far the
bubble
run when the instrument
turned slightly
in azimuth,
we
differentiate this equation
and obtain
(84)
— dp = tan
and substituting
finite
7
cos 2
p
sin z dz,
differentials,
in place of these
small
increments of the respective quantities,
2
we obtain
(85)
d(b'b")=tan
r cos
2
p
sin z (A'
A"),
where d represents the value of half a
b'
and and b" are the scale readings of the middle of the bubble,
level division
circle readings
corresponding to the
A' and
A"
d,
Equation 85
justment of the
may be
level,
used to determine the value of
is
but whenever ordinary care
i.e.,
bestowed upon the ad
to
make
the radius passing
through the middle point of the scale parallel to the vertical axis of
the theodolite (Equation 80), the readings
A
t
x
and
A
2
will
be so nearly 180 apart that we
i,
may
put
= qo°, cos£ =
for all positions of the
bubble within
108
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
its scale,
the limits of
and thus obtain
in place of
Equa
tion 85 the simpler relation
d=
In this equation A'
A' — A" tanr 2{b'b")
b'
"
(86 ^
— A" and
of
— b"
are to be derived
from the readings
respectively,
the horizontal circle and level,
for their deter
and
is
in
making observations
mination
it
well to bring the bubble as near as
circle to
may
be to one end of the tube and set the
nearest integral 10'.
successive 10' or 20'
of the
read the
Then turn the instrument to each reading, and record the readings
which repeat the operation
in
bubble until the former has traversed the entire
its scale,
length of
after
the inverse order, using the same circle settings as before.
With
these
reference to the direction of the bubble's motion
two
series
will
be designated as Forward and
Backward.
Having completed these observations, turn
from
the instrument to the second position in which the bubble
plays, e.g.,
A
1
to
A and make
2,
a similar double set
of readings.
The readings obtained
and therefore a value
a considerable
at
any two
settings of the
b'
instrument will determine values of A'
of d, but
it is
— A" and
— b",
advisable to secure
number
of these determinations, ranging
over the whole length of the leveltube, in order to test
its
uniformity.
Supposing such a
series to
have been
b'
made, the manner of forming the differences
illustrated below,
— b"
i.e.,
may
b
be followed with advantage,
subtract the
first
from the
first
one following the
INSTRUMENTS.
middle of the
set,
109
the second b from the second one after
the middle, etc.
The angle
y of
Equation 86 should be determined
:
at the time of deflecting the axis, as follows
After having
carefully levelled the instrument, take a reading of the
vertical circle
when
the line of sight
is
directed toward
of the
a fixed mark, that
we may
call
P.
By means
i°
if
levelling screws deflect the axis exactly
toward or from
the vertical
P
through some convenient angle,
reads to seconds,
3
if it
e.g.,
circle
reads only to minutes, and
circle.
y.
again point upon
of the
P
and read the
is
The
difference
two readings
the value of
is
To make
sure that
the deflection of the axis
made
in the proper direction,
by means
that
of the levelling
level (see
§
screws
make
same
the reading of
after deflection
will
the azimuth
it
50) the
was before
Example.
deflection,
and there
then be no
component
45.
of deflection perpendicular to the direction P.
— We
have the following example of
first
the record and reduction of the
set of observations for the
half of a complete
d.
determination of
In the
reduction
86
is
we note
that the divisor 2(6'
2b'
— b")
is
of
Equation
equivalent to
— 2b" and
',
since b
is
the scale read
ing of the middle of the bubble, 26
equal to the
sum
two
of the readings of the ends of the bubble.
The column
of the
headed 26
sets of
is
found in this
way from
of the
the
mean
bubble readings opposite each
circle reading.
The regular progression
2(6' — b")
numbers
in the
column
suggests a
leveltube of variable curvature,
is
but the amount of data
with certainty.
not sufficient to decide this
More observations are needed.
2
110
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
Friday, Dec. 7, 1894. Alidade Level of Universal Instrument, No. 2598. Readings to Mark.
Mic.
I,
Mic.
II.
Mean.
Axis Vertical Axis Deflected
180 179
26' 45'
26'
45
6
27
o
27
180 179
o
26'
45"
3
27
59 42
Bubble.
Azimuth
Circle.
Forward.
Backward.
29
1
°
o'
o"
26.3
28.
1
10 O 20 O 3° ° 40 o 5° o
30.2
3 2 3 34 o
36
.
0.2 2.3 4.2 6.4 8.1 10.2
26 .0
27.7 297 32.1 34.2 36.5
30'
7
0.4 1.9 39 6.2 8.5 10.6
2b
2 (b'
b")
A'
A"
= 1800"
239 25s 907 401
52
26.45 30.0 34 o 38.5 42.4 46.75
log tan
8. 38.
log04' A" colog 2 {b'b")
12.05
12 .40
log d
o.
2.
12.7s
12 .40
d
46. Inequality of Pivots.
—When a
line,
spiritlevel is
used
to determine the inclination of a
such as the hori
zontal axis of a transit,
its
readings and the resulting
inequality which
inclination will be vitiated
by any
may
exist in the diameter of the pivots
upon which
it rests.
To
test for
such an inequality
let
the instrument be
b' , lift
firmly
mounted and the
inclination,
§
be measured
the axis out
it
with the level as shown in
of the wyes, turn
it
42
;
then
end for end, and replace
so that
what was the
ings
east pivot shall
now
,
rest in the
west wye.
level
Again measure the
inclination, b"
and repeat the
and
reversals several times, so that
any systematic and b"
shall
difference
which
may
exist
between
b'
be
well determined.
We now put
i=Ww\
(87)
)
INSTRUMENTS.
where
i is
Ill
the correction for inequality of pivots, and
find for the true inclination of the axis in the
tions,
two
posi
bt
= b'i,
i
b2
= b" + i.
(88)
The correction
applied to
47.
all
should be carefully determined and
of the inclination.
measured values
The Theodolite.
— This
is
instrument, which
is
also
called
engineer's transit,
etc.,
is
altazimuth,
universal instru
ment,
one with whose general appearance and supposed
sufficiently familiar
construction the student
to recognize
of
its
close relationship with the coordinates
System
I,
altitude
and azimuth.
and
III,
Trace out this rela
tionship in Plates
I, II,
which represent different
line of sight (telescope)
types of this instrument.
is
The
a radius vector of undetermined length;
the horialti
zontal
tudes,
and
vertical circles
measure azimuths and
or zenith distances,
and
in
an ideally perfect
should be the
instrument the readings of these
true azimuth
circles
and
altitude of
the line of sight, or at
most should
correction.
differ
from these only by a constant index
It
may
readily be seen that
among
the conditions
which must be
satisfied in the construction of
such an
instrument are the following:
( 1
(2)
The axes must be perpendicular to each other. The line of sight must be perpendicular to the
The
vertical axis
horizontal axis.
(3)
must be truly
vertical.
Owing
to unavoidable imperfections of mechanical
112
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
it is
work
is
not probable that any one of these conditions
exactly fulfilled in any given instrument, and they
are therefore to be regarded as so
many
sources of error,
whose
effects
may
be made small by careful adjustment,
in
but whose complete elimination must be sought
other way;
e.g., if
some
the vertical axis
as follows the
is
not truly vertical,
for correcting
we may determine
means
the effect of this error upon the measurement of altitudes.
48. Zenith Distances.
— In
Fig. 9 let
HZ be
the direc
Fig.
9.
— Measurement of Zenith
HV,
Distances.
tion
of
is
the vertical; 5, a point whose zenith distance,
to be determined;
ZHS,
the projection of the
vertical axis of the instrument
upon the plane HZS;
INSTRUMENTS.
and
let r'
113
circle
denote the reading of the vertical
is
when
r'
the line of sight
let
directed toward 5.
After reading
the instrument be turned about the vertical axis
line of sight into the
through an angle of t8o°, bringing the
position
US' and then
,
let
the telescope be turned about
the horizontal axis until the line of sight again points
at the object 5,
and
let r" If
be the reading of the vertical
is
circle in this position.
the circle
numbered
in quadr'
rants, as
will
is
very
common
in small instruments,
and r"
be approximately the same number but with a
,
graduation extending from o° to 360
posed, they will be widely different.
as
is
here supthe figure,
From
the angle
SHS'
is
measured by the difference of these
since
circle readings, r'
— r", and
VHS = VHS' we
',
have
the
for the angular distance of the point
5 from V
equation,
VHS=z" = i(r'r").
When two
and
it is
(89)
pointings of the telescope are
is
made
as
above, the instrument
said to be reversed
its
between them,
customary to designate
two positions as
Circle
Right and Circle Left, respectively, the reference
being to the vertical circle of the instrument, which
faces to the observer's right in the one position
his left in the other.
and
to
The student should note that the
angle z"
is
here determined quite independently of the
adjustment of the verniers, which
the reversal eliminates the difference
r'
may
be intended to
else,
read altitudes, zenith distances, or anything
all
is
since
question of adjustment from
— r", and
made
for this purpose.
114
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
The
true zenith distance of
5
is,
however, not z" but
the angle,
ZHS = z"+
and b" may be determined,
of the spiritlevel,
b",
42,
as in
§
from readings
in
LL, attached to the instrument
plane
is
such a
way
that
its
parallel to the line of sight,
is
HS.
Such a
level, i.e.,
one whose tube
perpendicular
to the horizontal axis of the instrument, will be called
the altitude
level of
the instrument.
A
convenient method of taking into account the
readings of the levelbubble
by applying them
directly
to the circle readings instead of to the
is
measured angles,
of that point
as follows: Let
n represent the reading
of the level scale
through which passes that radius of
parallel to the vertical axis,
let
the level which
in the figure,
is
H V,
Cn
and
n denote the position
of the
middle
of the bubble corresponding to the
i.e.,
circle
reading /;
since the bubble always stands at the highest point
of its tube,
n
is
the point exactly above the centre of
curvature, C.
It is
evident from the figure that
)2d
b"
= {n — n
=
(a
+ b— 2W
)<i,
(90)
where d
is
the value of half a level division, and a and b
are the actual scale readings of the ends of the bubble.
If
the instrument had been, from the
first,
perfectly
we should not have obtained r' as the reading to the point 5, but in place of r' a number either greater or less than it by the amount b" and if, therefore, we apply to r' and r" level corrections determined by the equation above given for b" we shall reduce the readlevelled
; ,
PLATE
III.
:
INSTRUMENTS.
ings to
115
what they would have been
for a perfectly levelled
instrument, and
of
therefore obtain the zenith distance
5 immediately from
the half difference of the corrected
readings.
Since any constant term which appears in the
level correction will be eliminated
from
this difference of
the
corrected
readings,
r'
— r", we may
,
substitute in
Equation
90, in place of 2»it
is
any constant number whatof divisions included in
ever, e.g., zero, but
this
usually convenient to take as
number
5, the total
number
the level scale, since in the long run this will
level
make
the
corrections
finally,
small.
Making
this
substitution,
we
have
Level Correction
=±
(a
+ b — S)d,
(91)
where the ambiguous sign depends upon the direction
in
which the numbers increase along the
for
all,
level
scale,
and may be determined, once
for a given instru
ment
as
follows:
Two
readings of the vertical circle
of a certain instrument were taken to the
same
object,
but with the instrument thrown out of level in such a
way
that the bubble stood at quite different parts of
;
the scale in the two observations
Observation.
e.g.
Level Corr.
Corrected
r.
Bubble.
Circle.
a
b
First
2.0 7.9
25.8 31.9
91° 9'
8'
+18".
7
90
9'
26".
7
Second
919
40
—12. 5
919 27. 5
The numerical values of the quantities above marked Level Corr. were computed from Equation(gi) with an assumed value of d = 2".6, and since the effect of these corrections must be to bring the corrected circle readings into agreement, it is evident that the + sign must be used for the first observation and the — sign for the second. The whole number of divisions in the level scale being 35, the formula for this instrument becomes,
6"
=+ 2 ".6
[35
(a+b)].
116
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
A similar formula may be obtained for every instrument, and a table should be constructed from it, which with the argument a + b will show the value of b" for any given position of the bubble. Part of such a table is given below, and from it the level correction corresponding to any ordinary position of the bubble may be determined by
inspection.
a
+b
INSTRUMENTS.
lent to the corrected circle readings derived above,
117
and
therefore require no further correction for level error.
This mechanical device, although convenient for some
purposes,
is
of inferior accuracy.
of Errors
of
49. Effect
Adjustment.
—A
geometrical
investigation similar to the above
may
be made to show
the effect of each source of instrumental error, but
shall find it
we
more convenient
to develop the
combined
effect of these errors
through an analysis based upon
celestial sphere,
Fig. 10,
which represents a part of the
Fig. 10.
— Theory of
V
is
the Theodolite.
where Z
is
the zenith,
the point in which the vertical
cuts the sphere,
axis of the instrument,
when produced,
and S
is
H
is
the point of the sphere determined
by the prolongafrom
tion of the horizontal axis,
a star or other object
whose azimuth and altitude are
readings of the
to be determined
horizontal and vertical circles of the
of these
instrument.
The angles measured by means
118
circles lie in
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
the planes of the
is
circles,
but just as the
of the
azimuth of a point
measured either by an arc
horizon or by the corresponding spherical angle at the
zenith,
so the data furnished
by the
Thus
vernier readings
may
be regarded as spherical angles having their ver
tices respectively at
V
and H.
if
r represent the
is
reading of the vertical circle
directed toward 5,
is
when
the line of sight
and
r
is
the reading
in the arc
when
this line
differ
directed toward
,
some point
ence, r — r
larly, for
measures the spherical
circle,
HV, the angle VHS.
Simi
the horizontal
vertical axis,
by rotating the instrument
about
its
H may be moved from its present
new
circle
position,
corresponding to the reading R, into a
position falling
upon the
arc
VM, and
if
R
t
be the
t
reading in this position,
the spherical angle
we
shall find that
R—R
equals
HVM. From
these spherical angles,
determined by the
the true direction,
tance,
circle readings, it is
required to find
dis
MZS=A
f
,
and the true zenith
ZS = z,
of the star 5.
It is
evident from the figure that the arc
VH = 90 —
i,
measures the angle between the vertical and the horizontal
axis of the instrument,
and that
go° + c
i is
therefore the error
1,
of adjustment of the axes, corresponding to Condition
§
47.
Similarly,
HS
=
measures the angle beline of sight,
tween the horizontal axis and the
and
c is
2.
the error in the adjustment corresponding to Condition
Also,
i.e.,
VZ = y
is
the error of level of the instrument,
deviation of the vertical axis from the true vertical,
to
corresponding
Condition
3.
The
arc
HZ = go° — b
measures the angle that the horizontal axis makes with
INSTRUMENTS.
the true vertical, and b
axis.
is
119
therefore the level error of this
is
Note that as the instrument
turned into
differ
ent positions
quantities
fore
y,
i,
by rotation about the axes V and H, the and c remain unchanged and are thereconstants,
called
instrumental
since
they define
its
the condition of the instrument with respect to
several adjustments.
The
level error,
is
b,
is
sometimes
included
of them,
among
these constants, but
not strictly one
is
since its value changes as the instrument
turned in azimuth.
We
2',
shall
suppose the instrument to be so well ad
justed that none of the instrumental constants exceeds
and
cle
H will then VZM that we
be so near the pole of the great
cir
may assume
without sensible error
HVM = HZM
and, replacing these quantities
by
their
equivalents, obtain
RR
or
1
= ( 9 o° + w)+A'
A^RiR. + go^w.
The azimuth
of
5,
(92)
reckoned from the true meridian
instead of from the arc
VM,
differs
from A' only by
the substitution of another constant, the index correction of the horizontal circle, in place of
R + 90
1
;
and as
this index correction must in any case be separately
determined
i? t
(see § 38),
,
we may
replace the constant term
+ 9o° by R
the index correction referred to the true
meridian, and
we shall then have for the true azimuth of 5,
A=RR
w.
(93)
120
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
The auxiliary quantity w has thus far been defined only by means of Fig. 10, where the spherical angle HZS To determine the value of w in terms is labelled go°—w. of the instrumental constants, we have from the triangle
HZS
by means
of Equations
b cos z
4,
the relation,
b sin z sin w,
is
— sin c = sin
which, since b and
c
— cos
are small quantities,
c
equivalent to
w = . sin
or,
b
z
Vtan
,
z
(94) y
replacing the zenith distance,
z,
by the
star's alti
tude, h,
w = c sec h + b tan h.
Since neither
i
(94*)
nor y enters into this equation, the effect
of these errors
must be taken
spiritlevel,
into account through
b,
the inclination of the horizontal axis.
This
is
to be deter
mined with a must
and each
circle
reading, R,
be corrected for the particular inclination of the
axis that corresponds to R.
The
factor tan A
becomes
zero for an object in the horizon,
and
for this special case
(
the effect
is
zero.
upon the azimuth readings of an error of level On the other hand, when the object to be,'
is
observed
at a considerable elevation,
e.g.,
the Pole'
tan/z,,
Star in an azimuth determination,
the factor,
becomes large and the
It is in fact
effect of level error is magnified.!
one of the chief sources of error in such deter
minations.
50.
Determination of Errors of Adjustment.
c
is
—The error
and
above represented by
called the
collimation,
INSTRUMENTS.
its effect is
121
usually to be eliminated through a reversal
of the instrument.
Since the angular distance of
is
5 from
one end of the horizontal axis
90°
+ c,
c
its
distance
from the other end must be go° — c, and as in the reversal these
ends change places the effect of
Circle R.,
one sign
and the opposite
sign Circle L.,
must have and
will therefore
be eliminated from the mean of observa
tions taken in both positions.
In precisely the same
effect of
i,
way
it
may
be shown that the
is
error of adjustment of the axes,
of observations
eliminated
from the mean
tions,
taken in the two posiis
and wherever any considerable precision
in the
required
of hori
in
azimuth observations or
measurement
fail
zontal angles, the observer should not
to
make an
equal
number
of pointings in each position of the instru
ment
to secure this elimination of errors.
In the triangle
HVZ
the angle
HVZ = HZM
is
very
nearly equal to go°
find
+ A', and assuming
cos y — cos
this equality
we
from
this triangle,
sin b
= sin
i
i
sin y sin A',
(95)
which
is
equivalent
to,
b=i—
The quantity
after
y sin
A
r
.
(96)
arc
y sin A', which we shall represent hereby the symbol b', and which corresponds to the ZI of Fig. 10, is that component of the level error
y,
of the vertical axis,
line of sight
which
lies
at right angles to the
and which may therefore be determined
from the readings of a level parallel to the horizontal
:
;
122
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
axis of the instrument.
Such a
level
is
called the azi
muth
level,
and
if
resting
upon the
it
is
axis
and capable of
fastened
reversal
(stridinglevel),
most conveniently used
b.
to determine the level error of this axis,
If
to the frame of the instrument and incapable of reversal,
it
may
be used to determine, from bubble readings taken
Circle R.
axis,
and
Circle L., the value of
b'
for the vertical
shall
and corresponding
to these
two cases we
have
the following expressions of the level corrections to be
applied to readings of the horizontal circle
Stridinglevel,
— btanh.
— b'
tan
h.
Both
Circle R.
and
Circle L.
Fixed Level,
If,
Mean
of Circle R.
and L.
from
as
is
usual, the graduation of the circle increases
b
left to right,
and
b'
are to be considered essentially
of the horizontal axis has
5.
positive
when the high end
an
azimuth 90 greater than the object
The student should not
fail
to note in connection with
if
the use of a fixed azimuth level that
the bubble
is
brought to the same scale reading, Circle R. and Circle
b
r
L.,
will
be zero and the level error
result.
will
be eliminated from
the
mean
A
let
reversal furnishes a convenient
method
For
for deter
mining or adjusting the collimation.
R' and
this
purpose
R"
be readings of the horizontal circle corre
sponding to observations of a fixed mark in or very near
the horizon,
made
in the
two positions
of the instrument
then, from Equations 92
and
94,
2C=R'R".
(97)
INSTRUMENTS.
133
i,
To determine the
error of adjustment of the axes,
,
let
the inclinations of the horizontal axis, b v b 2
be meas
ured in two positions of the instrument differing 180
in azimuth,
i.e.,
when Vernier A reads
o°
and when
96,
it
reads 180
.
We shall then have,
bl b2
from Equation
=i— r = ir
sin
A
r
,
sin (A'
+ i8o°)=*'+rsinA',
from which we obtain immediately
2i = bt
If
+ b2
.
(98)
the inclinations b v b 2 positive when the circle end of the axis is too high, a positive value of i will indi
we
call
cate that the
same end
is
too high,
i.e.,
it
makes too
small an angle with the
axis.
upward extension
will
of the vertical
The value
of 90
of
y,
which
seldom be required,
may
be found from four values of b determined at intervals
in azimuth.
51. Additional
Theorems.
it
— By an
analysis similar to
that employed above,
gles
may
be shown from the trianb, c,
HSZ, HZV,'oi
Fig. 10, that the errors
and
i
have
no appreciable influence upon observations of altitude
or zenith distance.
Indeed,
it
may
i
be seen without
formal analysis that
when
c, b,
and
are small quantities,
H
is
so nearly the pole of the circles ZS, VS, that these
arcs are
i.e.,
measured by the corresponding angles at H,
of the vertical circle uncorrected
by the readings
is
for instrumental error.
Since the error corresponding
to
7
taken into account in the approximate analysis
124
of
§
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
48,
we may adopt as definitive the results there The correction b" there determined is the obtained.
arc
VI
of Fig. 10,
i.e.,
it is
the projection of y upon the
line of sight,
VS.
The demonstration of the following theorems, which
are of
left to
1.
some consequence
the student.
If,
in the use of a theodolite,
is
as
is
quite
is
,
common
in engineer's transits, the
vertical circle
graduated into quadrants instead of
from
in
o° to 360
observations of altitude should be
made
the
way
already indicated, but in their reduction
we
shall have, in place of the
formula for
2",
the substi
tute,
/*"
= Kr'.+ r"),
(99)
i.e.,
the
mean
of the readings gives directly the instru
mental altitude.
2.
The
altitude level of such
an instrument usually
middle of the tube,
has the zero of its scale placed at the
and when such
be marked
is
the case readings of that end of the
bubble nearest the objective end of the telescope should
0,
and those
e;
of the
end nearest the eyepiece
should be called
the formula for level correction then
becomes,
b"
3.
= {oe)d.
reversed
(100)
A
theodolite
its
may be
by
lifting
the tele
scope from
supports, turning the axis end for end,
it
and replacing
This
in the
wyes
in the
changed
position.
mode
of reversal eliminates errors of level
and
colli
mation quite as well as does the one above described,
:
INSTRUMENTS.
and
also eliminates the inequality of pivots
of
b.
125
from the
determination
It
is
therefore
to
be preferred
when
it
can be conveniently practised.
from the
Circle Readings.
52. Errors Arising
— Numerous
which
errors of a class not considered above, creep into the
results of observation
through the
less
circle readings,
may
be vitiated in greater or
degree by:
(a)
(b)
Defective graduation of the circle
itself.
The plane The
circle
of the circle not being
normal to the
rotation axis.
(c)
not being truly centred upon the axis.
large or too
(d)
The spaces on the vernier being too
small relative to those on the
circle.
(e)
Error of focussing (runs) in the reading microscopes,
etc. etc.
etc.
The
detailed study of these sources of error
of the present work,
lies
bein
yond the scope
but we note that
great part their effects
may
be eliminated by taking the
of observations in
mean
of a considerable
number
which
the circle readings are symmetrically distributed through
out the whole 360
of 120
of the graduation.
Thus
if
an angle
between objects
circle
A
and
B
is
measured three times
and the
turned i2o°after each measurement so
as to obtain the following system of readings
To
A.
ToB.
o'
RA.
Observation
1
2
3
o° o' o" 120 120 o o 240 o o 360 240
o" 120
o o
o'
o"
o o
o o
120 120
o o
126
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
whatever graduation errors
reading 12 o°
value
o'
,
may
affect
the particular
oo"
will
be eliminated from the
of B — A
since this reading enters into that
mean mean
If
once with a plus sign
the required angle
is
and once with a minus
small, e.g.,
i°,
it
sign.
will
not be con
venient to carry out the above programme of reading
around the entire
circle,
but the elimination of errors
may
still
be made by
shifting the circle so that the
readings to object
A may
be symmetrically distributed
e.g.,
through the entire circumference,
every 30
.
every 6o° or
For an instrument provided with two verit
niers or microscopes
will suffice to distribute the read
ings of each vernier over
53.
an arc
of 180
.
The Method
of
Repetitions.
— A peculiar method
be adopted with
is
of measuring horizontal angles
may
advantage
if,
as
is
often the case, the instrument
provided with two motions in azimuth
called, respectively,
upper and lower, one of which produces a change
vernier readings, while in the other, verniers
in the
circle
and
remain firmly clamped together and turn simultaneously, without change in the circle reading. Reverting to
§
52,
we may note
that the circle readings 120
if
,
240
,
there recorded, are quite unnecessary since,
the
,
first
reading, o°, be subtracted from the last one, 360
and
the result divided
by
3,
we
shall
is
have as the value of
the angle 120
the
o'
o", which
precisely the
same as
all
mean of the three that mean can furnish.
This process
is
values of
B — A,
and
is
that
called the method of repetitions
and
consists, essentially, in
making a
series of pointings
upon
INSTRUMENTS.
127
two objects between which an angle is to be measured, turning always from A to B upon the upper motion of the instrument and from B to A upon the lower motion,
so that the vernier reading in the latter turning
is
not
changed.
A
series of
such pointings
is
called a set
first
and
last
the verniers need be read only for the
pointings of the
set.
and
If
the initial and final readings be
represented by R' and R", and n be the
ings to each object contained in the set,
number of pointwe shall have, as
shown above,
R'R" a An S le = ~~^~'
i
(
ICI )
It is
often advantageous to reverse the instrument at
set,
the middle of a
turning 'on the lower motion, and thus
secure an additional elimination of instrumental errors.
The advantages
readings and,
coarse,
of the
method
verniers
of repetitions are a
saving of labor through the diminished
number
of vernier
where the
are
comparatively
an increase of accuracy through the introduction
of the divisor
n into the value
of the angle.
The
pre
cision of a small instrument, such as
an engineer's
transit,
may be
larger
considerably increased in this way, but for the
instruments,
provided with micrometer microresults are to be
scopes, experience
shows that the best
obtained by reading the microscopes after every pointing.
Where a
repetitions,
horizontal
is
angle between objects at very
different altitudes
to be
measured by the method
of
as in an azimuth determination,
an addi
tional source of error requires careful attention, viz., the
effect of a lack of parallelism
between the axes corre
:
128
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
sponding to the upper and lower motions of the instrument.
To
eliminate this error
we proceed
in the follow
ing manner: The
axis of the lower motion should be
made
as nearly vertical as possible,
it
and whatever may
produce no
effect
is
be the error of the upper axis
will
upon the
final result
if
the
number
of repetitions
;
so
chosen that the set extends through 360
for in the
successive turnings about the lower motion the upper
axis has been
made
to describe a complete cone about
the lower axis, and any error which
may have been caused
is
by
a deflection to the east in one part of the set
error,
bal
anced by the opposite
caused by a deflection to
If
the west, in another part, etc.
the angle to be meas
ured
is
so small that the set cannot be
,
made to extend
set of
through 360
the following observing programme will
:
also eliminate the error of the axis
Measure a
it is
any
desired
number
of repetitions.
When
completed
leave the instrument clamped at the last vernier reading, reverse
about the lower motion and repeat the
i.e.,
set in
the opposite direction,
last sighted
beginning with the object
upon and with approximately the vernier
be
reading last obtained.
The
level
level correction to the circle readings should
§ 50, is
derived in the ordinary way,
from readings of a
reversed about the
taken when the instrument
lower axis.
54. Precepts
for
the Use
of
a Theodolite.
— The
all
ex
perience of the principal geodetic surveys indicates that
the following precepts should be observed in
precise
work with a theodolite
INSTRUMENTS.
(i)
129
An
equal number of measurements should be
made
(2)
in each position of the instrument, Circle R.
and
Circle L.
An
equal number should be taken in each direcleft
tion,
i.e.,
the line of sight turned from right to
and
from
left to right.
(3)
The
position of the circle should be so shifted from
time to time that the readings to each object are symmetrically distributed throughout the 360
.
(4) The observations should be made as rapidly as the observer can work without undue haste.
55.
The Sextant.
—A
sextant consists essentially of
of a circle,
two mirrors and a graduated arc
for
about
6o°,
measuring the angle between the planes of the mir
rors.
The
peculiar value of the instrument
light
lies in
the
and portable, requires no fixed support, and may therefore be used for the measurement of angles at sea as well as on shore, and in any plane, verfact that
it is
tical,
horizontal, or inclined.
For the purpose of deto be
scription
and analysis we suppose the sextant
its
placed upon a table, with the plane of
arc horizontal,
etc.,
and we
shall use the
terms altitude, azimuth,
with
reference to this special position of the instrument.
The
conclusions
drawn from
this
consideration of the in
strument apply equally when
it is
used in any other plane.
The
Fig. 11
essential
parts of a sextant are indicated in
which should be compared with Plate IV.
of
At
a
the
centre
the
arc
is
a vertical
axis
carrying
vernierarm, V,
and
also supporting
I,
one of the mirrors
is
called the indexglass,
whose plane
vertical, passes
130
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
nearly through the axis and rotates with the vernier
arm
as the latter
is is
turned in azimuth.
the other mirror,
At one
,
side of
the sextant frame
zonglass,
H
called the hori
with
its
plane vertical and fixed parallel to
is is
that radius of the graduated arc which
numbered
T,
o°.
Only the lower half
upper half
is left
of the horizonglass
silvered, the
is
transparent.
A telescope,
mounted
on the
side of the
its
frame opposite to the horizonglass
directed toward the latter.
and has
line
it
of sight
From
Fig.
n
may
be seen that an observer looking
Fig. ii.
— Elements
of a Sextant.
into the telescope
and through the unsilvered upper
directed,
half
of the horizon glass will see that
part of the horizon
toward which the telescope
superposed upon
reflected
it
is
and
will also see
a view of another part of the horizon
of the
from the index glass to the silvered half
horizonglass,
scope.
and from
this again reflected into the teleis
This part of the horizon
said
to
be seen
3
3
INSTRUMENTS.
reflected,
131
is
while the part seen through the horizonglass
direct.
observed
Any
reflected
is
image which
is
super
posed upon a direct image
the latter, and
in the
said to be in contact with
we shall represent these images telescope, by I and H respectively.
as seen
By
turning the indexglass in azimuth, different parts
of the horizon
may
be reflected into the telescope, and
since the rays of light incident
upon and
its
reflected
surface,
is
from
it
the mirror
make equal
i°
angles with
is
apparent that for every
that the mirror
turned, the
azimuth of
'the
2
point reflected into the telescope will
.
be changed by
There
may
be found by
trial
a setre
ting of the indexglass at which both a direct
flected
and a
image of the same object
may
be seen simul
taneously and
may
be made to pass one over the other
is
as the vernierarm
slightly turned.
Let
R
denote
the vernier reading
contact,
object,
when
these images are brought into
and
/,
is
let
R
be the reading at which any other
brought into contact with the
it
H
just obdiffer
served; then
appears from the above that the
ence of azimuth between / and
included between
tiplier, 2,
H
is
twice the angle
R
and R.
On
account of this mulis
each half degree of the sextant arc
numbered
as
if
it
were a whole degree, and we have, therefore, for
the difference of azimuth,
HI=RR
The — R which appears
index correction, and
it
.
(102)
is
in this equation
called the
should be observed that, owing
to the angle subtended at the object
H
by the space
132
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
separating the index and horizon glasses, the reading
will
R
depend upon the distance
near at hand,
of
H from the instrument.
R
should be
If it is
less than three miles,
determined as above and the axis of rotation of the
index glass should be centred over the point at which
is it
desired the vertex of the measured angle should
fall.
If
the objects are very remote,
is
all
question of the exact
position of the vertex
eliminated,
and a mode of deterwill
mining the index correction given hereafter
be found
more convenient than the above.
It
may now
be seen that the following conditions
must be
satisfied in order that the
Equation
102, given
above, shall furnish the true value of the angle between
H
and
(a)
I:
The rotation axis and the plane
of the index glass
must be perpendicular
arc.
If
to the plane of the graduated
they are not perpendicular, this arc cannot
mirror.
accurately measure the
(b)
amount of rotation of the The horizonglass must be perpendicular
If it is
to the
plane of the arc.
not perpendicular, the direct
and
reflected images of
H
cannot be brought into con
tact,.but
one
will pass
above or below the other as the
in the sextant hori
vernierarm
(c)
is
turned.
The objects
H
and I must
lie
zon, for otherwise the difference of their azimuths
would
not be the true
angle
between them.
The sextant
the plane of
horizon must here be understood to
mean
the graduated arc, and this condition will be satisfied
if
the sextant
is
so held during the observation that this
plane passes through the objects
H and /.
INSTRUMENTS.
56.
133
Adjustments
of the
Sextant.
—Take
By
— (A) The Indexglass.
support, set
it
the telescope out from
of the arc,
its
on
end at any part
and turn the indexglass
one side of the telescope.
until its plane passes a little to
holding the eye a
little
to the right of the line joining
the index glass to the telescope a reflected image of the
telescope
may
be seen simultaneously with a direct view
of
and these two images should be parallel, provided the telescope stands normal to the plane of the arc.
it,
Any
error in this last condition
may
its
be eliminated by
axis
turning the telescope 180
ing the test.
about
own
if
and repeat
No
it
adjusting screws are provided for the
index glass, but
may
it
be adjusted,
filing
necessary,
by
re
moving
it
from
its
frame and
is
down
the bearing
points against which
held.
(B) The Horizonglass.
flected
If this
tilt
— Bring
the
direct
if
and
re
images of a distant object into contact
possible.
cannot be done, bring them near together and
of its
the horizonglass by means
adjusting screws
until
by turning the vernierarm the images can be made
The Telescope.
to coincide.
(C)
—To
enable the observer to
make
the plane of the sextant pass through the objects
H
and /
it
is
customary to place
in the eyepiece
of the
telescope a pair of coarse threads which should be set
parallel to the plane of the sextant.
By means
of its
adjusting screws the telescope
should be tilted up or
down
until the line of sight passing
is
midway between
If
these threads
parallel to the plane of the sextant.
the objects
H
and / are brought midway between these
134
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
threads
lie
when contact between them
the telescope
is
is
made, they
will
in the plane of the sextant as required.
if
To
two
deterwell
mine
properly
apart,
is
tilted, select
defined objects about 120
and bring them
into
contact
when
the sextant
so held that they are both
seen in the upper part of the field of view.
Then
shift
the position of the sextant plane
so as
to bring the
objects to the lower part of the field
and note whether
;
they remain in contact or appear separated
appreciably
if
they are
further
separated
the
telescope
requires
adjustment.
57.
Outstanding Errors of the Sextant.
—The
methods
of adjustment
above described are only approximate, and
the readings of the instrument will be affected
by what
ever error remains in the adjustment.
effect of these errors will
In general the
be small for small angles, but
will increase rapidly
with the magnitude of the angle
measured, and the adjustments should be
to within
10' if
made
correct
the resulting errors for an angle of 90
are to be
insensible.
However
will
carefully these adjustments are
made
there
remain a source of error which cannot be removed
effect
by adjustment, but whose
must be determined
if
and applied as a correction to the readings
the maxirequired.
mum
It is
falls
attainable precision of the instrument
is
assumed above that the centre of the graduated arc
exactly at the centre of motion of the index glass,
is
but the maker
seldom able to secure this exact agreeit
ment, and without
the readings of the vernier are not
of the
an accurate measure
amount
of rotation of the
INSTRUMENTS.
mirror.
tricity,
135
is
The
effect of this error,
which
called eccen
combined with the
effect of all other
outstanding
errors of the instrument,
is
best determined
by
carefully
measuring with
it
a set of
known
angles of different
magnitudes, from o° to the largest one possible, and treating the difference between the measured value and the
true value of each angle as a correction to the corre
sponding reading of the sextant.
These corrections
may
be plotted as ordinates with the sextant readings as
abscissas
and a curve drawn, from which intermediate
values of the correction
may
be read.
The length
of
the arc joining two stars whose right ascensions and
declinations are given,
may
be computed and used as a
known
angle for this purpose, provided the effect of
is
refraction in altering this distance
duly taken into
account; or
if
a distant part of the horizon can be seen,
a set of angles
for
may
be measured with a good theodolite
results.
comparison with the sextant
58.
Index Correction.
—
Since
the value of the index
is
correction for very distant objects
constant so long
as the adjustments of the sextant remain unchanged,
it
may
be determined from special observations
made
fre
for this purpose,
but the determination should be
is
quently repeated since the adjustment
easily disturbed.
tele
Let a shade glass be placed over the eye end of the
scope and the direct and reflected images of the sun
brought into contact, externally tangent to each other,
in each of the
left of /.
two possible positions, H first right, then The mean of the corresponding sextant read
ings will be the required value of
R
.
Since the index
:
136
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
correction enters into the value of every measured angle,
it
should be carefully determined from several settings,
as in the following example
DOUBLE DIAMETER OF SUN FOR INDEX CORRECTION.
INSTRUMENTS.
the resulting
13?
scum
(oxide)
with the edge of a card.
lies
is
The
reflected
image of the sun or star
as
much below
it,
the true horizon as the real object
above
and
if
the angle between the two
it
is
measured with the sextant
See
29 for an ex
gives at once the double altitude of the body, subject
§
to correction for index error, etc.
ample.
60. Precepts for the
Use
of a Sextant.
—
1.
Keep your
fingers off the graduation.
2.
It tarnishes readily.
Focus the telescope with great care so as to secure
sharply defined images.
Make the direct and reflected images equally bright, by moving the telescope to or from the plane of
3.
the sextant with
the adjustingscrew provided for this
purpose.
4.
Bring the images into contact midway between
the guide threads.
5.
Don't try to hold the images
still
in the field of
view.
Give the reflected image a regular oscillating
wrist,
motion by twisting the
direct image as
6.
it
and note
its
relation to the
swings by.
In observing the sun take an equal number of
observations on each limb (edge).
7.
Take an equal number
of observations in each
position of the horizon roof, direct
8.
and reversed.
Determine the index correction as carefully as the
angle which you wish to measure.
9.
Whenever
possible use a shadeglass over the eye
piece instead of those attached to the sextant frame.
10.
Work as rapidly as you can
without hurrying.
138
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
61. Chronometers.
—This
section will
be confined to
a consideration of the proper care and use of timepieces.
For an account of
article
their mechanical construction see the
Watches
in the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
is
A
chronometer
a
large
and
finely
constructed
watch, whose face, hands, and train (wheels) are to be
considered as a mechanical
device
for
automatically
steel helix,
counting and registering the vibrations of a
called
spring
the balancespring. In most chronometers this makes one complete vibration every half second,
(tick) of the
producing a beat
chronometer and a forward
movement
spring
of
the
seconds
hand through o s .5.
fast,
This
may
vibrate too slow or too
it is
thus producing
a rate of the chronometer, and
practically convenient
that this rate should be small, but the real test of excellence in a timepiece
its
is
not the magnitude of
its rate,
but
uniformity of rate from day to day.
In order that the rate of a chronometer shall remain
constant, every precaution
must be taken against
dis
turbing
the balance spring, and most of the following
precepts for the treatment of a chronometer have reference
to this condition. to
Of the various mechanical disturbances
experience shows that a quick
is
which
it
is
subject,
rotary motion about the axis of the balancespring
the
most
injurious.
According to the chronometer makers
a single quick motion of this kind through half a turn
and back may change the chronometer correction several
seconds and so disturb the rate that
its
it
will
not resume
normal value
for hours or
is
even days.
A
chronometer
usually supported in gimbals and
INSTRUMENTS.
should be allowed to swing freely in them
in order that it
139
when
;
at rest,
may assume
a vertical position but
when
carried about, the gimbals should be locked since the
oscillations
that would otherwise be imparted to the
balance spring are more injurious to the rate than the
isolated shocks that
it
may
receive
when
firmly held in
in
one position.
place, not
it
A
chronometer should be kept
a dry
exposed to magnetic influences.
If possible
e.g.,
should always rest in the same azimuth,
It
the zero
of the dial always pointing north.
should be
wound
at regular intervals,
and
its
temperature should be kept
as nearly uniform as possible.
The average chronometer
runs best at a temperature near 70 Fahr.
62.
Comparison
of
is
Chronometers.
—A
problem of
fre
quent recurrence
with another,
of one
the comparison of one chronometer
in order to
e.g.,
determine the correction
from the known value of
AT
for the other.
This
comparison consists in noting the time indicated by one
chronometer at a given time shown by the other, and
presents
little difficulty
when no
is
greater accuracy than
If
s
the nearest half second
is
required.
the comparison
.i,
to be
made
correct to the nearest o
the
method
of coincident beats
may
be employed
if
one of the chro
nometers keeps sidereal and the other solar time.
Since sidereal time gains 236 seconds per day
upon
mean
solar time
and the chronometers beat
half seconds,
there will be 472 epochs during a day, at which the
chronometers beat in unison,
i.e.,
a coincidence of the
beats occurs every three minutes throughout the day,
and
if
the comparison be
made
at one of these coinci
:
140
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
its
dences by noting by each chronometer
indicated
time when the beats are coincident, no fractions of a
second need be determined and the comparison can be
made
correct within one or
two hundredths
is
of a second.
This mode of comparison
illustrated in the follow
ing example of the comparison of two meantime clocks,
M
and F, with each other by comparing each with a
H.
sidereal clock designated
OBSERVED TIMES OF COINCIDENT BEATS.
M
H
The
H, m
interval
is 3
i
h
9
3o
m
49 s
1
F
b i
9
34
ra
55
s
io
42
H
10
46
o
between the coincidences, as measured by
(sidereal),
m
59
s
and
this interval
reduced to mean
solar units
and added to M, or subtracted from F, gives
a comparison between the meantime clocks as follows
M
F
either
i
h
9
34
m
47 35
55 .00
s
i9
h
3° 30
m
B 49 °o
19
34
19
s
56
.65,
form showing that
F was
7
.
6 5 faster
than
M.
' '
Every observer should acquire the
the beat" of a chronometer,
i.e.,
ability to
carry
to listen to
and count
nearly
the beats while attending to something
all
else, since
observations in which
it is
required to note the time
of
an event,
e.g.,
the transit of a star over a thread,
special mechanical devices,
require this ability unless
such as a chronograph, are employed.
(See
§ 79.)
CHAPTER
VIII.
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS.
63.
General
is
Principles.
— Where
a
high
degree
of
precision
desired in the results of observation, the
purely instrumental sources of error that have been
examined
in the preceding
chapter must be eliminated
by
the methods there shown, or
by others equivalent
and we
note,
to them.
But
this alone
is
not
sufficient,
for example,
that an instrument taken from a
warm
place and set
up
in a cold one undergoes a process of of its parts that, while in prog
cooling and contraction
ress,
renders the errors of adjustment variable quantities,
effects
whose
cannot be represented by the formulae
derived for the case of "instrumental constants."
We
have therefore as a rule to be carefully observed when
precision
is
required: Let the instrument be
levelled in the place
where
it is to
be used, at
up and least half an
set
hour before observations are commenced.
Let the sur
roundings of the instrument during this period be as
nearly as possible like those under which the observations are to
etc.
be made,
i.e.,
shutters open, lamps lighted,
As a
corollary to this rule
we have the
further pre
cept that during the progress of the observations the
141
:
142
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
observer and his lamp should be kept
away from
the
instrument as
much
as possible.
for the display of
There
is
large
room
good judgment
in the selection of stars to
be observed for a given pur
pose, such as the determination of time or azimuth,
and
precepts bearing upon this choice, both with reference
to the precision of the observations themselves
and
to
the elimination of errors in the right ascensions and
declinations of the stars as furnished
by the almanac,
are
given in the following sections.
Whenever observations
siderable
of time
in
are to be
made upon
a con
number
of different stars, as in determinations
and
latitude,
an observing
list
should be prepared
stars,
advance, giving the names and magnitudes of the
arranged in the order in which they are to be observed,
and giving
sions,
also such data as
may
be required for finding
e.g.,
them with the given instrument,
their right ascen
declinations, zenith distances, etc.
Also, a
form
should be prepared in which to record the observations,
each figure that
record having
is
to be written
down
as a part of the
it!
its
proper place allotted
This place
must be
up before the observation is complete, and the presence of an unfilled space in the form is to
filled
»
be considered as a reminder that something remains to be done.
64.
Time by Equal
Altitudes.
— The
best
method
of
determining time involves the use of a transit instru
ment
tion
(see
Chapter IX), but an excellent time determina
may
be made with a theodolite, zenith telescope,
or sextant
by the method
of equal altitudes, as follows
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS.
143
We
note the chronometer time,
Tu
at which a star
west of the meridian reaches the zenith distance zt and
the time,
T
2
,
at which another star, east of the meridian,
,
reaches a zenith distance, z2
possible
to
which
differs as little as
it
is
from
zv
if
In sextant observing
the sextant
is
customary
For an
assume that
set to the
same reading
in the
two observations we
left firmly
shall
have
zx
=z
2.
instrument of the other type (theodolite) the telescope
must be
clamped
in altitude as it slight
is
turned
from one object to the other, and any
change in
the altitude of the line of sight must be carefully deter
mined from readings
ment.
If
of the altitude level of the instruits
the bubble changes
is
position in the levelfirst
tube when the latter
star, it
turned from the
to the second
should be brought back to
its original
place
by
the levelling screws of the instrument, but the angle
between the telescope and leveltube must not be altered.
If
the instrument
is
provided with an azimuth
its
circle, it
will
be well to note
readings,
R
1
and
R
2
,
correspond
ing to the observed 7\
and T 2
.
For the reduction of the observations we take from
the formulae for transformation of coordinates,
§ 14,
the
equations
cos z 1
= sin <P sin o + cos cos z 2 = sin <p sin d + cos
x
<P <P
cos d t cos
cos d 2 cos
/
,
(103)
t
2
2
,
and
in these relations
if
we could assume,
zi
= **
o1
=d
2,
we should have
at once,
t,
cos
=
cos
t
2
and
i=—
12 .
144
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
this last relation
From
we
obtain,
1
(r
i
+ J7)a =a (7 + jr),
2
2
and
solving this for AT, find,
jr = K« + « ;i(r + r
1
2
1
2 ).
(io 4 )
This ideal case
may
be realized in practice by observing
the times at which a given star comes to equal zenith
distances on opposite sides of the meridian,
i.e.,
before
and
of
after its culmination, but this
may
involve a delay
it
several hours
between the observations, and
will
usually be
in
more convenient and expeditious
to observe
quick succession two stars of nearly equal declination
but widely different right ascension, one east and the
other west of the meridian.
To adapt Equation 104 new quantities, z, B, d, D,
lowing relations:
z
to this case
t,
we assume
six
fol
and L, defined by the
+ B=z v
2,
d+
D = dv
2,
t
zB=z
and from the
dD = d
+ L = tv tL =
t2 ,
last pair of these
equations
we
obtain,
by
the method followed
in deriving
l
Equation
l
104,
AT = \{a + a )\{T
2
+T )+L.
2
(106)
To determine the value
tracting the
first
of
L we
introduce into Equations
103 the quantities defined in Equations 105,
of these transformed
and subfrom
equations
the second, obtain the rigorous relation,
sin z sin
B = — sin
+ cos + cos
<t>
cos d sin
<P
D sin d sin D cos cos d cos D sin
t t
cos
L
(107)
sin L.
—
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS.
This equation
is
145
quite too
cumbrous
for use,
but
is
if
in the
plan and execution of the observations care
taken to
make B and
powers
D
small quantities whose cubes and higher
it is
may
be neglected,
readily reduced to the
simpler form,
tan tan d B — j. L=v—£> 7 D + sin tan cos <p sin A
T
__
__
t
t
—
(108)
,
n.
From Equations
105
we
find for use here,
dift + dj, 0K*»?i). = ±(a a )±(T
1
B = i(z z
2 ),
t
2
l
2
T
(109)
1
).
It
appears from these relations that the quantity
B
is
change of zenith distance suffered by the of sight in passing from one star to the other, and
half the
line
this
change should be measured with
all
possible care
If
by
means
of the altitude level of the instrument.
we
represent
by
b the
observed displacement of the bubble
between the two observations and by d the value of half
a level division, we shall have
B=
where the positive sign
is
±bd,
to be used
(no)
when the bubble
observation.
it
stands nearer to the objective end of the telescope at
the
eastern
than
at
the
western
The
value of
B
is
required in seconds of time, and
will there
fore be convenient to express
d
in
terms of the same unit
instead of in seconds of arc.
The
declination factor, D, should also be expressed
in seconds of time,
and
since declinations are usually
given in arc,
we reduce the
difference d
t
—d
2
to seconds
—
146
of arc,
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
and dividing
this
by
15 obtain in terms of the
required unit
DMtiW65.
(in)
Example.
Time by Equal
Altitudes.
—The followengineer's
ing example illustrates the application of these equations
to the reduction of observations transit
star's
made with an
provided with stadia threads, over which the
vertical transits
were observed, the instrument
being turned between times so that the transit over the
horizontal thread should always occur near
section with the vertical thread.
its
inter
The
three terms con
tained in the value of
sented by the
L (Equation symbols Lv L L v
2
,
108) are here repre
EQUAL ALTITUDES FOR TIME.
Thursday, April
30, 1896.
At Brick
Star
Pier.
Instrument, Heyde.
Observer, C.
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS.
For the sake of
time, but this
147
illustration the reductions in the pre
ceding example are carried to hundredths of a second of
is
a quantity quite inappreciable in the
telescope of an engineer's transit,
and with such an
instru
ment, or with a sextant,
it
will usually
be sufficient to
Corre
carry the reductions to tenths of seconds only.
sponding to this degree of accuracy the difference of
declination of the stars
may
be as great as two or three
degrees without the introduction of sensible error into
the results
by reason
of the
approximate character of
difference should not exif
the reduction formulae.
The
ceed one half of this amount
are to be taken into account.
Observing
hundredths of seconds
List. Without transgressing these rather narrow a considerable number of suitable pairs of stars may be selected from the almanac, as is illustrated by the short observing list given below, and such a list should be prepared for the particular time and place at which observations are to be made. At least one of the stars in each pair should be a bright one, easily recognized and found with the telescope by sighting over its tube. The second star of the pair, even though much fainter, may be readily found by the method given below. In the selection of pairs of stars care should be taken to secure those that are as near as may be to the prime vertical at the time when
66.
—
limits for d 1
—S
2
,
their altitudes are equal, since the motion in altitude is then most rapid and most accurately observed. The analytical expression for this condition is
tan h(d,
+ d ) =tan
2
cos i(a
l
—a
2)
;
(112)
and
this equation is satisfied by the coordinates of any two stars that differ but little in declination, these stars will be near the prime vertical at the instant when their altitudes are equal. But this conif
dition should not be too ricrorouslv insisted upon,
deviations from
it
may
and even considerable be permitted in order to secure a suitable
of stars,
number of bright stars. Having chosen a pair
sidereal time.
8.
we may determine
as follows the
at which their altitudes will be equal: In Equation 106
2
we put JT=o, r,=r
=9, and obtain
d=\(a, +
a 2 )+L,
(113)
148
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
where the value of L is to be derived from Equation 108, omitting the term in B. It will usually be convenient to observe the first star about five minutes before the computed time, Finding the Faint Star. If the two stars have equal declinations, their azimuths at the instant of equal altitudes will be numerically equal but of opposite sign, i.e., A +A 2 =o, while if their declinations, differ slightly, there will be a small difference in the azimuths which
.
—
1
will
transform this equation into
A +A + dA
1
i
i
=o.
(114)
To determine
the value of dA 2 in this equation astronomical triangle the relation (Equation 15)
sin d
we obtain from the
(115)
=cos
z sin
$— sin z cos
9"
9 cos A,
and
differentiating this, treating
of
change
azimuth
of
and z as constants, we find as the the second star produced by a small change of
declination,
cos d dd =cos
<j>
sin z sin
A dA =cos
<f>
cos d sin
t
dA,
(116)
from which,
dA =
Let
circle
cos
rr—..
9
sin
(117)
t
R R R
lt
2
,
when
the telescope
represent respectively the readings of the horizontal is directed to the western star, to the eastern
;
star,
and to the meridian we
shall
then have
A^RiR*
and substituting
in
A =R R
2 2
,
(118)
Equation 114 these relations together with the
dd = d 2
approximate values,
—d
1)
t=\(a 2 a^,
(119)
we
obtain
R +R = 2R + cos
l
1
2
r. rJiv 2 —aj 9 sin h (a
(120)
The
last
term
in this expression,
computed
for
9"
=43°,
is
tabulated
it
in the observing list
under the heading AR, and by means of
first
and
the reading
circle,
2
,
R to R may be
x
the
star of a pair, the reading of the horizontal
found
at
which the instrument should be set and the
arrival of the second star in the field awaited at a time as
much
after
For the computed 6 as the first observed time was earlier than 0. As a convenience' sake orient the instrument and make R„=o. control upon the sign of AR, note that the star that has the larger declination must be the farther from the south point.
.
2
A CC URA TE BE TERM IN A TIONS.
TIME BY EQUAL ALTITUDES.
Partial Observing List for
Mag.
R. A.
<j>
149
=43°.
AR.
h.
Dec.
m
44
a Ononis. a Serpentis.
.
0.9
2.7
5
15
7
5° 39 34 39 39 43
3
7
6
5
23 45
10
o
42
54
a Can. Min. a Serpentis.
/?
oS 23
15
7
6
29 45
16
11
34
o
Geminorum.
.
.
H Herculis.
a Leonis. a Ophiuchi.
.
35
i3
2
.
17
28 27
12 12
8
47 28 38
36
12
43
—o
40
41
10 17
19
9
30 46 36
13
46
16
a Aquilae. o Leonis.
0.9 33
14
44
67.
Precise Azimuths.
— The
azimuth of a
terrestrial
line, e.g.,
the line joining the centre of a theodolite to a
by measuring the difference of azimuth, D, between the mark and a star at an observed time, T. From the observed time and
distant mark,
may
be determined
the right ascension of the star
derived,
its
hour angle,
obtain,
t,
may be
division
and from Equations 14 we
by
and introduction
of the auxiliary quantities,
g = cot 6 sec 0,
the relation
&
= cot<?tan0,
t
(121)
tan
A
g sin
 k cos V
of the star at the
(122)
from which the true azimuth
observation
is
time of
of the
readily computed.
The azimuth
mark
where
is
then
A'=A+D,
the east.
(123)
D is assumed to be measured from the star toward
150
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
The
precision of A' depends equally
upon
D
and A,
and through
A
it
depends upon the assumed latitude,
declination, right ascension,
and chronometer correction
that are employed
in the computation.
The observaany
of these
tions should therefore be planned with reference to elim
inating whatever minute error
data,
may
exist in
and
to
overcoming,
below and
in § 54, the effect of instrumental errors
by the methods indicated upon
the measured angle D. Errors in the
Assumed Data.
— The effect of these errors
star, e.g. Polaris,
may
g
is
be greatly diminished by selecting for observation
a star very near the pole of the heavens, since the factor thus
made
small,
and such a
should
is
always be chosen.
If
the chronometer correction
well
determined, the observations
may
be made at any con
venient hour, whether near elongation or not.
to the required precision in
As a guide
AT we
note that for observa
tions of Polaris within the limits of the
United States
an error
of 2
s
in the time will in
no case produce in the
than
1".
computed azimuth an
If
error greater
is
the highest precision
required, the star should be
its
observed at two points of
diurnal path which are
i.e.,
diametrically opposite to each other,
there should
be two groups of observations separated by an interval
of twelve hours, or
some odd multiple
will
of twelve hours.
Errors in 0,
inated,
d,
and a
then be almost perfectly elim
and there
will also
be eliminated any systematic
personal error of observation depending
tion of the
star's
upon the
is
direc
apparent motion, such as
sometimes
found to exist in the work of even the best observers.
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS.
151
A
similar
but
less
complete elimination of errors
may
be
if
obtained from observations
made
at a single epoch
these are equally divided between stars
sides of the pole
and equidistant from
6
it.
upon opposite Examples of
condition
pairs of stars
which approximately
Ursse
fulfil this
are
Polaris
and
Minoris;
51 H. Cephei and
8 Ursas Minoris.
The angle
D may be measured with either a repeating
or a nonrepeating (direction) instrument, and the student
should observe the following respects in which their use
differs:
For a repeating instrument the azimuth
level
should be used to determine the inclination of the vertical axis corresponding to the lower
motion of the instruIn both
ment.
For a nonrepeating instrument the inclination
is
to be determined
that of the horizontal axis.
cases the bubble readings are to be taken
of sight
is
directed toward the star
when the line and also when it is
levelling will not
turned toward the mark, unless the latter has a zenith
distance of 90
,
in
which case erroneous
it.
affect the readings to
With any type
is
of instrument the horizontal circle
to be
turned in its
own
plane from time to time during
the observations, so that the vernier or microscope readings shall be symmetrically distributed throughout the
entire 360
of the graduation
let
;
e.g., for
an instrument with
two microscopes
observations be
one ninth of the total number of
the circle reading to the
made with
o°,
mark approximately
reading 20
,
another ninth with the circle
40
,
6o°, etc.
But
see
§
53 for the peculiar
152
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
in
manner
which the
circle settings
should be changed
in the case of a repeating instrument.
Level Corrections.
—The
b'
correction for level error
is
to be applied to each circle
reading as shown in
§ 50,
but for observations made by the method of repetitions
the level correction,
tan
h,
there given for the reading
to the star, must be multiplied
by
n,
the
number
by n
of point
ings in a set, since the difference of the corrected readings to star
and mark
is
to be divided
It will
in order to
obtain the measured angle.
usually be expedient
to arrange the form of record of the observations so that
the level corrections
may be applied and the angles worked
out in the record book.
68.
Reduction of the Observations.
— After
t
the hour
angles have been formed from the relation
and the constants g and k computed with the
nation and latitude, the computation of
difficulties,
= T + JT—a, known declipresents
A
no
but
it
may
be
considerably
abbreviated
through the use
of Albrecht's
Tables
(reproduced in
Appendix VII, Annual Report U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 189798), which with the argument log x give
the logarithm of &
——
* 1
.
x
Calling this last factor F,
and
putting k cos t=x,
simple form
Equation 122 assumes the very
tan
A = gF sin
t.
(124)
In the absence of special tables for F its value may be readily obtained from an ordinary table of addition Representing and subtraction logarithms as follows:
3
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS.
by
i.e.,
153
.4
and
B
the argument and function in such a table,*
^4=logx,
/L
B = \og{i+x) we
y
have, whenever cos
t
is
negative,
positive,
=log
(k cos
t),
log
F = — B. When
4
cos
t
is
we
use the development
i
—x
(i
+x)(i
+x
2
)(i
+x
)(i
+x
3
),
etc.,
and interpolating from the table
the values of
of addition logarithms
Bv B B v
2,
etc.,
corresponding to the argu
ments
x,
x
2
,
x*,
we
find
(125)
logF = B + B 2 + B + etc.
1
i
of Polaris made within the limits of the United never be necessary to use more than the first two terms of this series, e.g., corresponding to this case the greatest possible value of k cos t furnishes log x and the several values of B given below:
For observations
it will
States
log x log x 2
log* 4
8.39386 6.7877 3575
log
B B
x
0.0106248
2663
2
2 i
B
F
0.0 1 089 1
In ordinary practice the value of log
places of decimals,
F
will
be required to only six
and
B +B
l
2
furnishes this degree of precision.
is
Where the
customary
highest degree of precision
sought,
it is
in the reduction of the observations to
com
pute for each observed time the corresponding value of
A, but this process
treating the
may
be very greatly abridged by
mean
of a considerable
tions as a single observation
recorded times.
will
made at The azimuth A
number of observaT the mean of the computed from T Q
,
not correspond exactly to the observations, but the
is
correction required on this account
* Do not confound Equation 124.
this use of
readily obtained.
A
with
its
wholly different meaning
in
154
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
develop by Taylor's Formula the relation bein the form,
)
()
We may
tween azimuth and time
A=A
+ f(A )(TT + ir(A )(TT y + etc.,
for each observed
an equation which obtains
corresponding A.
If
T and
its
mean of these several equations and note that the mean of the (T—T )s is necessarily zero, since T is the mean of the Ts, we find
we take
the
for the average of the set,
\lA = A +f"(A )±Z(TT oy +etc,
where the
last
(126)
term
of the expression
is
the required
correction to reduce
A
to the
mean
of the observed
this
azimuths.
For the numerical application of
formula
we need
to introduce a convenient expression for
f (A
f
),
and there must
also be a numerical factor such that the
value of the term shall be given in seconds of arc
when
T—T
is
expressed in minutes of time.
the coefficient \
This factor,
combined with
equation,
is
which appears in the
readily
shown
*
to be,
60X15WX 206265 = —±
^206265,
[0.2930].
The
of
differential coefficient,
is
f"(A
),
does not admit
an expression that
star near the pole,
both simple and rigorous,* but,
with entire accuracy at the pole and approximately for
any
we may
)
write
,
f"(A
*
= smA
)
The complete expression
7j
for /" (A
is
= —cos $
2
sin
A
{
(sec 2 h
+ tan
2
h)cos
A +tan
<J>
tan h\.
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS.
and combining these several expressions we correction to the computed azimuth, A
,
155
find as the
JA =
where n
is
+[0.2930] sin
of
,
A^KTT.y,
in the
(127)
the
number
7s included
mean,
T
,
and the
of time.
differences,
T—T
are to be expressed in minutes
so applied as to bring
JA
§
must always be
the computed
A
for
nearer to the meridian. the extremely small effect of diurnal
See
85
aberration
69.
p.
upon azimuth determinations. The example on Precise Azimuth. Example.
—
—
156 represents a determination of azimuth
made with
an engineer's transit, using the method of repetitions, four pointings in a set, and combining two sets in such
a
way
as to eliminate the effect of lack of parallelism of
the axes of the instrument, see §53.
errors are not here eliminated,
The graduation
sets
and other
with read
ings symmetrically distributed about the circle are re
quired for this purpose.
70. Precise Latitudes.
— Zenith
Telescope Method.
— In
5
X
Fig. 12 let
V
represent any point on the meridian,
Fig. 12.
— Zenith
Telescope Latitudes.
and S 2 the
stars,
points,
on opposite
sides of V, at
which two
the
of
declination d t
and d 2
respectively, cross
let z 1
meridian in their diurnal motion, and
and
z2
denote
156
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
PRECISE AZIMUTH DETERMINATION. At Station M. Monday, May i, 1899.
Instrument No. 386. Chronometer, S. Observer, C. Chronometer AT = — 2 m 39 s .7. 4 tan h.d = io".y.
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS.
the arcs
of V,
157
VS and VS
1
2.
Denoting by
<t>"
the declination
we have from
the figure
and by subtraction,
2<f>"
= (d +d ) + (z Z ).
1
2
i
2
(128)
Since V,
by
supposition,
it
is
any point
of the meridian,
we may now
olite
define
as the projection
upon the meridcelestial
ian, of the point in
which the
vertical axis of a theod
or
other similar instrument
meets the
sphere,
of V,
and we may represent by b" the zenith distance
lies
reckoned positive when the zenith
pole.
between
V
and the
Since the latitude
is
equal to the declina
tion of the zenith,
2<P
we
shall
have
l
= 2{cf>" + b")={d + d +2b") + {Z Z
2
l
2 ).
(129)
In the
all
practice
of
American government surveys
precise determinations of latitude are based
upon
this
equation and are
made with an
instrument, the
zenith telescope, especially designed for the micrometric
measurement
.of
small differences of zenith distance,
the zx — z 2 of the equation.
But Equation 129 may be
alti
applied with any instrument capable of measuring
tudes
— theodolite,
but
little
sextant, etc.
— and
in general
it
will
furnish better results than other
modes
of using the
instrument, since
differs
if
the stars are so selected that z x
z2
,
from
any constant
errors
which
may
be present in the instrumental work will be very nearly
the same for the two stars, and will be approximately
eliminated from the difference zx — z2
.
We
shall
here
158
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
develop the zenithtelescope method with reference to
its
use with an engineer's transit provided with a gradi
enter and an altitude level, which latter
may
be
its
stridinglevel properly fastened to the alidade at right
angles to the horizontal axis.
With very small modibe applicable to the
fications the resulting formulae will
zenith telescope as usually constructed.
The
first
step in the application of the
method
is
the
selection of
an observing programme, consisting
of
stars
of
a
number
of pairs
whose right ascensions and
declinations, for each pair, satisfy the conditions
a 2 a 1 <20 m
,
d2
+ d —20<±G,
1
(130)
where
G
denotes the greatest angle that can be con
veniently measured with the gradienter.
Write upon
2 0,
the edge of a
slip of
paper the approximate value of
list
and turning
to a suitable
of stars, e.g., the list of
mean
places given in the almanac, subtract each decli2
nation in turn from
and seek within the given
whose declination
If
limits
of right ascension a star
little
differs
but
from the difference thus obtained.
bright enough
to be observed with the given instrument,
any two
stars
thus related will constitute a latitude pair.
Having prepared such an observing list, before the first of these stars comes to the meridian let the instrument be carefully levelled and oriented and its telescope
set to the
zi
is
s
approximate
l
zenith
distance
of the star,
=±( P—d
<
).
When
brought into the
field
thread, a pointing in
by its diurnal motion and passes behind the vertical altitude should be made upon it
the star
PLATE
V.
'
A
Zenith Telescope as used at the International Latitude Station? Telescope 52 inches. Approximate Cost 51600.
Length
of
[To face p. 15S .]
:
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS,
159
with the gradienter, and the readings of the altitude
level
and gradienter head recorded immediately
pointing.
after
the
Leaving the telescope firmly clamped
it
in altitude, let
be
now
revolved 180 in azimuth with
out loosing the altitude clamp, and with the gradienter
bring the line of sight to the zenith distance of the second
star,
If
z2
= =F(0— #
is
2 )>
and observe
its
it
precisely as before.
the levelbubble changes
position in the tube as the
first
instrument
turned from the
to the second star,
it
should be brought back to
of the levelling screws.
its initial
position
by means
The readings
of the level in the of b"
,
two positions deter
mine the average value
and
if
R
t
and
R
is
2
represent
the respective gradienter readings and k
the angle
is
moved over by
the line of sight
turned through one complete revolution,
z1
71.
when the gradienter we shall have,
2 ).
z =±k(R
2
1
R
(131)
Minor Corrections.
— Before
introducing this value
to
into the expression for
2
we proceed
examine some
from a d via
matters that require further explanation,
Level Error.
viz.
—The small term 26"
amount and
of
arises
tion of the vertical axis of the instrument
vertical
Its
from the true
sign are to be determined
level,
from readings
an altitude
as
shown
levelling
in
§
42
Make
if
this error small
by turning the
first.
screws,
necessary, so that the bubble readings shall be the
same
for the second star as for the
Refraction.
—The
effect of refraction
upon the
latitude
observations
is
most readily determined by substituting,
160
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
in place of the true declinations of the stars, their appar
ent declinations as affected
places each star
by the refraction. This distoward the zenith by the amount, (§23)
982"
456
B
*
+
tan z;
(i3 2 )
and
since for the southern star this displacement in
creases,
while for the northern star
it
diminishes, the
declination,
declinations,
we
shall have as the
sum
of the apparent
<V
+ <y = d + d +
t
2
$6
+
t
(tan zx
 tan
z2 )
,
which
o7
is
equivalent
2
to,
+ <v = ^ + a +
982"
.
sin i°
B
456
1
{z.z.y.
(133)
cos z l cos z 2
+ t_
this equation,
The following table gives the value of the bracketed coefficient in computed with the argument z=±(z +z ), for an aver1
2
age condition of the atmosphere, barometer 29.00 inches, temperature In all ordinary cases the correction for refraction may 50 Fahr. be found with sufficient accuracy by multiplying the tabular number, s, by the difference of the zenith distances of the two stars, expressed
in degrees,
r=s(z1 z2)°.
,
(134)
Since s is a positive number, the correction thus found will always have the same sign as the term z± — z2 measured with the gradi enter.
REFRACTION
,
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS.
Reduction
to
161
the
Meridian.
—
It
is
sometimes conve
nient or necessary to observe a star at some other instant
than that of
its
meridian passage, and for this purpose
the instrument
may
be turned out of the meridian, set
at an azimuth that
we
will represent
by
a',
and the obevident that
star
servation
made
precisely as before.
It is
this is equivalent to observing
on the meridian a
whose meridian altitude
given star at the
is
equal to the altitude of the
of observation,
moment
and whose
latter star
declination, therefore, differs
from that of the
by the reduction
azimuth
servation
a',
to the meridian corresponding to the
55).
(Equation
In the reduction of the obto substitute
in place of
we have
the relation
therefore
d,
the star's true declination,
a corrected declination, d"
given by
d"
= d±f{a')\
a' is to
f
= [7.9407]
cos
cos h sec
d,
(135)
where
be expressed in minutes of arc and the
pole,
upper sign applies to a star between the zenith and
the lower sign to
all
other cases.
it
For the sake of increased precision
be advantageous to make
will frequently
several gradienter pointings
upon a
star in different azimuths,
1
during the two or
its
three minutes
at precede
and follow
culmination,
and, having
first
oriented the instrument, to determine
circle the
from readings of the horizontal
corresponding
azimuths required in the reduction.
72. Errors
of
the
Screw.
— In
Equation 131
it
is
tacitly
of
assumed that the angle moved over by the line sight when the gradienter is turned from one reading
162
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
is
to another
strictly proportional
to the
amount
of
turning of the screw.
This
is,
however, an ideal con
dition seldom realized in fact,
of the instrument are to
and
if
the
capabilities
be
fully utilized the
errors of
the gradienter must be investigated, and a set of corrections,
C,
determined,
line of sight
such that the angle moved
through by the
when the
2
gradienter
is
turned
from the reading
R
t
to
R may
be
strictly proportional
to the difference of the corrected readings, R'
=R + C
1
1,
R" =R2 +C2 ,i.e.,
zl
z =±k{R'R").
2
(137)
This calibration of the screw
may
be made as follows:
Let some fixed vertical angle,
vation of two
e.g.,
the difference of ele
terrestrial points,
be measured upon con
secutive parts of the gradienter screw, from the begin
ning to the end of
its
run, so that, calling this angle
v,
we
shall have,
= k[(R + C )(R + C )], v = k[(R + C )(R + C )], v=k[(R 3 + C3 )(Ra +C2 )l
v
1 1
2
2
1
1
(137*)
v=k[(R m + Cm ){R m _ + Cm
x
. z
)l
The second reading of the screw in the first measurement of v must be the same as the first reading in the second
measurement,
etc.,
and to secure
this
the gradienter
should not be touched after the second pointing,
Rv
has been made, but the telescope should be undamped,
set
back by hand, approximately, upon the
first point
:
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS.
and the accurate pointing completed by means
levelling screws.
163
of the
From the mean of the preceding equations we obtain
k
m
m
k,
,
°
J
which contains the three arbitrary quantities
Cm C
,
and
is
the only equation that these quantities are re
quired to satisfy.
tional relations
We may
therefore impose
two addi
among them, and, as convenient ones for the present purpose, we assume C m =C = c, where c is a constant whose value we shall, for the present, leave
undetermined.
Representing by p the value of T cor
responding to these assumptions,
R,K — Re
m
and introducing
lowing results
it
(i39)
into Equations 137,
we
find the fol
C C C C
=
t
+c
2
= (R + P) = (R + 2 p)
3 = (R + 3P)
R R ~R
x
+c,
+c,
+c,
(140)
2
3
C,„
= (R + mp) R m + c.
The
corrections thus derived from the readings, R,
may be
all
plotted in a curve, from which values of
C
for
intermediate readings
may
be obtained.
The par
ticular value assigned to c will
have no influence upon
164
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
its
the shape of this curve, but will determine
position
to c
with respect to the axis of
x,
and we may assign
with advantage a value that
lie
will
above the
:raxis, i.e.,
one that
make the entire curve will make all the values
of
C
positive quantities.
The following example represents the record and
reduction of a set of readings
made
for the investigation
of the errors of the gradienter of
an engineer's
transit.
The
quantities in the
column
R
are those directly ob
served;
the column
m
gives the serial
number
corre
sponding to that used in the above analysis.
Thursday, June
7,
1900.
Gradienter of Instrument No. 386.
Observer, P.
m
ACCURATE DETERMINATIONS:
corrections
165
must always be applied where a high degree
is
of precision
required in the use of
e.g.,
a gradienter or
other similar micrometer,
the eyepiece micrometer
of a zenith telescope or transit,
and particular care should
k,
be given to them in determinations of
revolution of the gradienter screw.
the value of one
In a similar manner the gradienter should be examined for periodic errors,
i.e.,
errors peculiar to a particular
part of a turn and which repeat themselves whenever
the
same part
of the head, as the o,
comes under the
revolutions
index, regardless of
the
number
of whole
at which the screw stands.
73.
Gradienter
Latitudes.
Example.
— We
may now
write the equation for zenithtelescope latitudes in the
form,
2
<f>
= d + d2 + 2b"±[k(R R")+r],
' '
f
1
(141)
through which a value of the latitude
may
is
be derived
This
from each pair of
stars observed,
if
k
known.
value of a revolution of the screw,
k,
may
be determined
angle, such
by measuring with the gradienter a known
as the difference of declination of
two
stars, or it
may
to
be treated as an unknown quantity whose value
is
be derived from the latitude observations themselves.
In the latter case at least two pairs of stars, preferably
ten to twenty pairs, must be observed for the deter
mination of the two unknowns,
and
k,
and these should
is less
be so selected that in one pair the sum of the declinations
is
greater than
2
and
in the other pair
than
2 0.
The following example represents the observation
166
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
of a single pair of stars
I,
and reduction
gated in
made with the
as directly
instrument shown in Plate
§ 72.
whose
errors are investi
The gradienter readings
there
are given
observed are given in the column marked R, and in the
following column
the
corrections
to
these readings as interpolated from the table at p. 164.
The instrument having been oriented by the method of §32, the readings of the horizontal circle, in the column
H.C., furnish immediately
the
azimuths,
a'',
required
for computation of the reductions to the meridian, which
are here represented
ian altitudes, h
,
by the
letter
M.
The
stars'
merid
that are also needed for the
compusuffi
tation of these reductions,
may
be obtained with
cient accuracy from the declinations and the known
approximate latitude of the place, 43
a revolution of the gradienter,
20' 30",
k,
.
The value
of
was known
to be about
dif
and
of
this value together
with the observed
zx
ference
the gradienter readings determines
— z2
with sufficient precision to permit the refraction correction
to be interpolated
correction, 26"
from the table at
7", is
p.
160.
The
level
=—
negative since the level read
ings
show that the
vertical axis of the instrument pointed
i.e.,
north of the zenith,
in too great a latitude.
The declinations of the stars are taken from the American Ephemeris, but in the case of Polaris, which
was observed
from 180
at its transit over the lower half of the
is
meridian, sub polo, the almanac declination
subtracted
in order to obtain the distance of the star
is
from the upper half of the equator, which
the quantity
used in the analysis and required in the reduction.
ACC URA TE DE TERM IN A TIONS.
Monday, May 20, 1901. At Azimuth Stake. Instrument No. 389.
Star.
167
Observer, C.
CHAPTER
IX.
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
74. General
Principles.
— Adjustments
of
the
Instru
ment.
—
If
the celestial meridian were a visible line
drawn
across the heavens, the local sidereal time corresponding
to this meridian
might be determined by observing the
chronometer time, T, at which a star of known right
ascension,
a,
crossed this
line.
We
should then have
for the correction of the timepiece
employed,
JT = aT.
The transit instrument, different forms in the Frontispiece and in Plate VI,
the visible meridian above supposed.
are illustrated
of
is
which are shown
a substitute for
Its essential parts
by the
telescope
and standards
of a large
theodolite firmly mounted, with the horizontal axis of ro
tation perpendicular to the plane of the meridian,
i.e.,
east
and west, and
level.
The
telescope
is
usually provided
with several vertical threads (an odd number of them), each of which, as seen by the observer,
is
projected against
the sky as a background, and each of which,
telescope
is
turned about the rotation axis,
virtue of this rotation, a circle
Also, one or
when the traces upon
is
the sky,
by
whose plane
perpendicular to the axis.
more horizontal
points
threads are usually introduced to
of the transit threads.
mark the middle
168
PL ATI'.
VI.
A
Straight Transit Instrument.
Length of Telescope 30 inches. Approximate Cost $1000. [To face p. 168.]
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
•
169
A
transit instrument
circle
is
said to be perfectly adjusted
its
when the
thus traced upon the sky by
middle
vertical thread coincides with the local meridian,
and
for
such an instrument
it is
evident that the time of a star's
transit over this thread
may
be substituted for the time
of its transit over the visible meridian
above supposed,
and the chronometer
correction, AT, will then be fur
nished by the equation printed above.
it
But
in general
cannot be assumed that these adjustments are perfect,
so
in
and we must consider them as
of error
many
possible sources
whose
effects
must be
some way eliminated
from the
results of observation.
Optical
Adjustments.
— We
assume that great care
has been given to the optical adjustment of the instru
ment, so that both the transit threads and the star are
sharply defined and distinctly seen.
the eyepiece should
first
For
this
purpose
be so set that the threads appear
black and
distinct,
and threads and eyepiece should
star, preferably
then be moved in or out together until a
a double
star,
presents a clear image without trace of
fuzziness, projecting rays, or stray light.
This last ad
justment
may
be a
little
more accurately made by cov
ering the upper half of the telescope objective with card
board or paper and making an accurate pointing of the
horizontal thread
upon a circumpolar
star
near
cul
mination.
shift the
Having made a satisfactory pointing, quickly card so as to cover the lower half of the objective
free the
and leave
if the threads are not properly adjusted with respect to the objective,
upper part, when,
there will be a slight vertical displacement of the star
170
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
with respect to the thread, and this must be corrected
by further adjustment.
Vertically of Threads.
— To make the threads perpenin
dicular to the rotation axis, point the telescope at a terrestrial
mark,
and turning the telescope
altitude
with the slowmotion screw, note whether the mark in
its
apparent motion up and down the
field of
view runs
exactly along the thread.
this
Any
outstanding error in
adjustment
may
be removed by slightly rotating
;
in its
own
plane the collar which carries the threads but
a small error here
may
be rendered harmless by always
pointing the telescope, at the times of observation, so
that the stars cross the same part of the
field, e.g.,
be
tween the
parallel horizontal threads.
The
principal
errors of
adjustment that remain to
be considered in connection with the use of a transit
instrument are three in number,
a,
is
viz.
:
The azimuth
error,
the angular
deviates to
amount by which the rotation The level error, the south of due west.
The
collimation error,
is
axis
b,
is
the angle of elevation of the rotation axis above the
western horizon.
c,
the
amount
and the
line of
by which the angle between the
sight
line of sight
.
west half of the rotation axis exceeds 90
as here used
The
line
means the imaginary
passed
through
the optical centre of the objective
and the midgroup of
dle transit thread, or through the
mean
of a
transit threads.
75.
Theory
of
the Instrument.
—To determine the
rela
tion of these several instrumental errors to the time, T,
at which a star will pass behind a given transit thread
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
171
we have
recourse to Fig. 13, which represents a projec
tion of the celestial sphere
upon the plane
of the horizon.
Z
is
the projection of the zenith,
P
of the pole,
H
of the
point in which the rotation axis, produced toward the
west, intersects the celestial sphere,
tion of a star observed at the
and 5
is
the projec
moment
of its transit over
Fig. 13.
— The Transit
Instrument.
a thread whose angular distance from
H
is
measured
c
by the
arc 90° +
c.
From
the definitions given above,
represents the collimation of the particular thread in
question,
and
similarly b
and
a,
in the figure, are the
level and azimuth errors above denned.
r
The symbol
star,
of the figure represents the
east,
hour angle of the
is
reckoned toward the
90
d
the star's declination,
the distance of the star
—k
is
the arc
HM,
and
X is
from the meridian measured along HS.
This latter arc
172
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
must not be confounded with the diurnal path of the star; the one is an arc of a great circle defined by the
points
its
H
and
5, while the other
is
a small circle having
pole at P.
Note that
in all cases the
symbols here
defined represent
the actual magnitudes of the arcs
of their projections
and angles on the sphere, and not
the plane of the horizon.
on
From
tion,
the spherical triangle
PMS
we
obtain the rela
cos d sin x
— sin
A sin #,
(143)
and from the
triangle
ZHM we find,
+ cos
b sin £ sin a.
sin k
= sin
b cos £
(144)
These equations
may
be greatly simplified by substi
tuting arcs in place of sines whenever the quantities a
and
b are so small that their cubes
and higher powers
assume that
exceeds
may
be neglected,
and we
shall therefore
we have
10'.
to deal with
an approximately adjusted instru
ment, in which neither of these quantities
much
On
£
this supposition the point
H
is
so nearly the
sin
pole of the meridian,
PZM,
<P
that
we may put
$
=1
and
=
— d, where
denotes the latitude of the place
of observation,
and our equations now take the form,
t
=
A sec d,
K
=b
cos ((p—d)
+a sin
(145)
(<t>—d).
From
the figure
we have
Q0
the relation,
+ C = QO° K+X,
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
and eliminating
r
173
find,
X
between these equations we
.
= sin (0— d)
r is
sec d a
+ cos (0— d)
sec o.6
+ sec
d
.c.
(146)
Since
an east hour angle, we have
also, in
terms of the
star's
observed time, the chronometer correction, and the
right ascension,
T + AT = ar,
from which we obtain, by the elimination of
equation of the transit instrument,
r,
(147)
Mayer's
a—T = AT + sin
or,
(<P—d) sec d
.
a
sec d
.
+ cos (0— d)
as
it is
6
+ sec
d
.
c,
(148)
usually written,
aT = JT + Aa + Bb + Cc,
where the capital
letters are
(149)
introduced as abbreviations
i.e.,
for the coefficients given above,
A
=sin (cp—d) sec
a,
d,
B = cos
(<P—d) sec
d,
C = sec
o.
(150)
Since
T,
and AT are expressed
it is
in time (hours, minutes,
and seconds),
customary
a, b,
in connection
with this
equation to express
76. Discussion
and
c in
seconds of time.
of
Mayer's Equation.
—The
coefficients
A, B,
C
are called transit factors,
and when many obserlatitude,
<f>,
vations are to be
made
in the
same
as at
an
observatory,
it
is
customary to tabulate their values
with the declination as argument, and to interpolate
from these tables the values of the factors corresponding
to the particular stars observed.
In the U.
S.
Coast and
Geodetic Survey Report for the year 1880 there
may be
:
174
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
found extensive tables of this kind for different latitudes
covering the whole extent of the United States.
In the use of such tables the following distinction
must be
carefully observed:
is less
Every
star
whose distance
from the pole
than the latitude remains continu
ously above the horizon throughout the twentyfour
hours,
and during
this period crosses the
e.g.,
meridian twice,
zenith,
once above the pole,
between the pole and
and once below the
northern horizon.
pole, e.g.,
between the pole and the
is
The
latter transit
usually desigf
nated sub
the star
its
polo,
and from
its
Fig.
13,
where S represents
it
5
near
transit sub polo,
may
be seen that
coordinates at this transit will be obtained
by
sub
stituting in place of the a to 5,
i2
h
and 90°—^, corresponding
+ a and —(90° — ^).
When
it
these values are
introduced into Mayer's equation
becomes, for stars
observed sub polo,
i2
h
+ aT = AT + A'a + B'b + C'c,
(151)
where the new transit factors have the following values
A'=sm(<P + d)
seed,
B' =cos (0 +
0.
5) sec d,
,
N
C = —sec
As an
(1^2)
exercise in analysis the student
may show
that
the transit factors for a star above and below the pole are
connected by the relations,
A+A' = 2
sin
(f>,
B + B' = 2
cos
(p,
C + C'=o.
(153)
Use these equations to derive A',B',C from the tabulated
values of A, B, and C.
From
a consideration of the trigonometric functions
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
175
that enter into the transit factors the algebraic signs of
these factors are found, to be as follows for places in the
northern hemisphere:
Factor.
South
of Zenith.
.
.
.
Zenith to Pole
Below Pole
Note that
+ — +
ABC
+ + —
++—+
in every case the transit factors for a given
star have opposite signs above and below the pole, and.
compare with
site sides of
this
statement the fact that stars on oppo
the pole
move
in opposite directions, east
to west above pole and. west to east below pole.
Query.
—The
above relations of sign are
for a place
in north latitude.
How
must they be changed
to adapt
them
for C,
to a place south of the terrestrial equator ?
In explanation of the double set of signs given above
we
recall
what was shown
go° — c
is
in
§
50, that
a reversal
of the instrument
changes the sign of the collimation
substituted for the 90° + c of
constant,
Fig. 13,
it,
c; i.e.,
by
lifting
the axis out of the wyes and replacing
It is
turned end for end.
c,
customary to ignore
this
change of sign in
and
to represent its effect in Mayer's
equation by changing the algebraic sign of
C when
the
instrument
is
reversed;
Circle
Circle
e.g.,
For
For
W
E
c,
C( + c)
= ( + Qc
C(c) = (~C)c
The collimation constant,
negative, depending
may
be either positive or
ment but
;
it
retains
upon the adjustment of the instruthe same sign in both positions of the
176
circle,
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
while the collimation factor, C,
is
positive (above
pole)
when
it
the circle end of the axis points west, negative
when
points east.
77. Choice of Stars.
— In
the righthand
member
c,
of
in
Mayer's equation, as printed on page 173, there are
volved four unknown quantities, AT,
which,
b,
a, b,
and
one of
the inclination of the axis to the plane of the
horizon,
is
always to be determined by some mechanical
the use of a spiritlevel.
method,
constant,
§
e.g.,
c,
The collimation
this
may
also be determined mechanically (see
shall
84),
but for the present we
assume that
has
not been done and that the instrumental constants a
and
c,
as well as the clock correction AT, are to be deterof stars.
mined from observations
three observations, and
Since there are three
quantities to be thus determined, there
it is
must be
at least
practically convenient to
make
of a
four the
minimum number
instead of three; ob
serving two stars Circle E. and two Circle
W.
for the sake
c,
good determination of the collimation,
through
the reversal of the instrument.
The
stars thus chosen
should not
all
lie
on the same
side of the zenith,
but
the
should be distributed on both
sides, so as to
make
sum
of their
azimuth factors as small as
effect of the
possible.
When
IA
=0, the
azimuth
error, a, is
completely
eliminated,
and a nearly complete elimination may
usually be obtained
by care
stars
in the selection of stars.
is b'
,
In
the
example
of
§
78 this condition
approximately
d!
,
satisfied
by the four
marked
a'
,
e'
,
and the
student after tracing through the reduction there given,
should note that
if
the azimuth star,
1
H. Draco., were
—
'
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
177
dropped and the azimuth error entirely ignored, the
resulting value of
AT would
case,
be substantially the same
is
as
is
obtained when the azimuth error
In this
is
taken into
account.
therefore,
an accurate deter
mination of a
78.
of little consequence.
Example.
Ordinary Determination
of
Time.
— The
the
following example, taken from the time service of the
Washburn Observatory,
= 43°
4'
37",
illustrates
record and reduction of a set of transit observations.
addition to the date and the measured inclination,
of the horizontal axis, given in the
for the
In
b,
column
of Constants
two positions
of the instrument, Circle
W. and
Circle E., the observed data are contained in the three
columns marked, at the
I,
foot,
with
Roman
numerals,
II,
are
The observed times of transit given in III each the mean of the observed times of transit of
III.
1 5 c,
the given star over
threads,
is
and
in the reduction the
refer to the
collimation constant,
assumed to
mean
Note
of these threads instead of to the
middle thread.
that this particular convention with regard to c can be
adopted only when each star
is
observed over precisely
the same set of threads as every other star.
to observe a single star at
its
The
failure
transit over one of the
threads will require either the rejection of the transits
of other stars observed at this thread, or a determination
of thread intervals
for
and a
' '
reduction to the
mean thread
7,
'
which reference
may
be made to Appendix
U.
S.
Coast and Geodetic Survey, Annual Report for 189798.
The remaining columns
are
marked with Arabic nu
merals, showing the order in which they are reached in
o
o
178
FIELD ASTRONOMY. Of these columns
(in this case
i
the computation.
and
2
are obtained
from the almanac
the Berliner Astronomisches
Jahrbuch, plus the corrections given in Astronomische
Nachrichten, No. 3508).
The
declinations are taken to
the nearest minute
only, while the right ascensions are
accurately interpolated for the instant of the star's transit
over the local meridian,
i.e.,
0.3
day
after their transit
is
over the meridian for which the almanac
constructed.
The
third star,
being observed sub polo (and before midhalf a
night),
was observed
day before
its
its
transit over
is
the local upper meridian, and
fore interpolated for
right ascension
0.2
there
an instant
day
before its transit
over the Berlin meridian.
The transit factors contained in columns 4, 5, and 6 were interpolated from tables of such factors, and the products contained in columns 7 and 8 were next filled in by the use of Crelle's multiplication tables. It may be noted that the effect of diurnal aberration shown sec S, in column 7 has already been found (§ 27) to be — s .o2i cos which, for the given latitude, is equal to — s .oi5 C, and the collimation These corrections factor C was employed in computing the correction. were next added mentally to the numbers contained in III, and the resulting times subtracted from the right ascensions in 1 thus giving the absolute terms of the equations numbered 9. The first members of these equations, 3, 4, 6, are obviously derived from Mayer's equa<f>
,
tion.
We
tities
have now five equations involving only three unknown quanand presenting, therefore, a case for the application of the Method
of Least Squares.
A
57
is
rigorous solution
by that method
furnishes the
following values of the quantities sought: a=4o s .S58, JT = +2 m s .oio,
c=+o
s
.966.
rather laborious, and a simple method of obtaining approximately accurate results is indicated under the heading Solution, where the symbols at the left indicate the manner in which Equation k' is derived from the successive equations are derived. i' by dividing through by the coefficient of c, and V is similarly de
But such a
solution
rived from h' using the coefficient of AT, as divisor and substituting
,
in place of c its value given
by
k'
.
Equation m'
c
is
obtained from
c'
by substituting
in place of
AT and
their values as given in k'
and
V.
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
The value
/'
179
of a furnished
by
this equation
when
of
gives
definitive values of
AT and
c,
all
substituted in k' and which are entered in
the column of Constants. By means of these values of a and c, columns 12 and 13 are filled up and the sum of the corrections contained in columns 7, 8, 12, 13, is entered in 14 and added to the corresponding numbers in III, thus
Only the seconds furnishing the corrected times contained in 15. The indiare entered here, since the minutes remain unchanged. vidual values of the clock correction contained in 16 are now obtained by subtracting 15 from 1, and their agreement, one with another, is
a check upon the accuracy of the entire work, both observations and computations. For the sake of this check it is better to proceed as is here done than to rely upon the value of AT furnished by the solution of the equations. The numerical work here shown is greatly facilitated by the use of a sliderule or an extended multiplication table such as that of Crelle. It
may
readily be seen from the course of the above
c,
solution that the collimation,
is
,
obtained from the
,
four observations
a,
is
marked
a'
,
b'
,
d!
e'
while the azimuth,
furnished
1
by the
third observation.
is
A
star near
the pole, like
ing
H. Draco.,
introduced into the observ
programme
solely to determine a,
it is
and with
star,
refer
ence to this use
others are
called
an azimuth
it is
while the
known
as clock stars, since
they that deter
mine the value
of AT.
As there
i.e.,
is
always a possibility
of disturbing the azimuth,
changing a in the act of
all strictness,
reversing the instrument, there should, in
be two values of a determined, one for Circle
as the one above found
Circle E.
;
W.
as well
from the observation
it
of a star
but in the present case
may
readily be seen
that there was no such disturbance, since the value of a
for Circle E. brings into perfect
agreement the values
of
AT
furnished
by the two
stars observed Circle W.,
although their azimuth factors are widely different.
Whenever
necessary, introduce into the solution
two
azimuths, one for each position of the instrument, as
180
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
<
<
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
181
unknown
two
is
quantities.
It is
not necessary to introduce
collimations.
79.
Methods
of Observation.
—A
clock or chronometer
an indispensable auxiliary to a transit instrument, and
latter consists in determining,
an observation with the
as accurately as
may
be, the
chronometer time at which
a particular star transits over one or more of the threads.
In the best astronomical practice a recording machine,
called a chronograph,
is
used in this connection, but we
shall here suppose the observer not to be provided with
a chronograph and constrained, therefore, to use the
older
method
of
observing by eye and
ear.
In this
method the observer picks up the beat
i.e.,
of the chronometer,
counts mentally the tick corresponding to each suc1,
cessive second,
2,
3,
4,
etc.,
and while thus counting
of the
looks into the telescope
and watches the progress
star across the field of view, noting its position at the
instant of each counted beat.
If,
by any chance, the
star should appear exactly behind a thread at the instant
when the counted beat was
this thread
26,
the time of transit over
cor
would be recorded 26.0 seconds, and the
face of the
responding hour and minute subsequently determined
by looking at the
eter.
chronom
It
will
usually
happen, however,
the thread
that the star passes behind
between two chronometer beats instead
of
simultaneously
as
with
one
Fig.
of
14,
them,
somewhat
there
is
shown in
where
fig. 14.— Transits
indicated the position of the star
s
by Eye and Ean
s
,
with respect to the thread at 26
and at 27
as noted
182
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
and temporarily remembered by the observer.
the two star images
From
the manner in which the thread divides the space between
it is
evident that the actual transit
s
,
over the thread occurred at 26.4
recorded.
and
it
should be so
The
fraction of a second depends
upon the
observer's estimation (an estimate of space seen in the
telescope
and not time as counted by the
ear),
and a
its
skilled observer should
be able to follow a star in
progress across the field of view, observing and recording
to the nearest tenth of a second the times of transit over
as
many
threads as
may
be desired, without taking the
eye from the telescope during the process.
He
should,
while watching the star, give no heed to the hour and
minute, but
concentrate
attention
upon the seconds
counting seconds,
and
fractions of a second, until the transit over the last
still
thread has been recorded; then,
let
him look back
if
at the face of the chronometer
and
and
note
the time there shown
count.
by the seconds hand agrees
beat,
with
if it
his
This
is
called checking the
checks properly, the minute and hour corresponding
to the last observation should be written
of the record.
80. Precision of
down
as a part
the Results.
— By the method above
mean
of several
is
outlined a skilled observer may, from the
threads, determine the time of a star's transit within very
small limits of error;
e.g.,
there
found for the probable
error of a transit of a single star over the
mean
this
of
from
10 to 15 threads,
precision
is
some o
s
.o2 or
o
s
.03.
But
apparent
in
some degree
fallacious, for
most observers
possess individual peculiarities, called personal equation,
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
183
by which they tend to observe all stars either too soon late, by a nearly constant amount, and the probable error of a transit based upon the agreement of indior too
vidual results, one with another, furnishes no indication
of the presence or
error.
magnitude of
this constant personal
Closely related to the precision attainable in esti
mating the times
of transit of a star over the threads of
an instrument,
is
the degree of accordance to be expected
among
of
the values of J T furnished
set,
by the
several stars
composing a
§ 78.
such as that of the illustrative example
of values there exhibited,
The range
is
while
smaller than
to be expected
from a beginner,
may
be
regarded as fairly typical of the results to be obtained by
an experienced observer provided with a good
ment.
See in this connection the example of
§ 82,
instru
where
the results show an even closer but
by no means abnorequation, alof
mal agreement.
81. Personal
Equation.
— The
personal
though a
error,
is,
real
and oftentimes a considerable source
however, of small consequence save where the
observations of different persons are to be combined, one
with another, as in a determination of longitude.
cases,
In such
however, the problem of personal equation must
be met and seriously dealt with, and various devices have
been employed for this purpose;
observers at the middle of the
its first
e.g.
:
(1)
An
exchange of
work
in question, so that
half
may
be affected with the personal error in
one direction and the second half in the opposite direction,
thus eliminating this influence from the mean.
A
184
(2)
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
The determination
of the exact
sonal equation for each observer,
amount by means
of the perof socalled
personalequation machines,
is
sometimes attempted;
but at present the best device for the elimination of
personal equation seems to be:
(3)
The Repsold Transit
are
Micrometer, an apparatus in whose use the methods of
observing above set forth,
§ 79,
completely aban
doned, and as a substitute for them the observer, while
looking into the telescope, seeks to keep the image of a
star, as it
moves
across the
field,
constantly covered
by
fin
a micrometer thread, which he manipulates with his
gers
and which
is
so connected with a
chronograph as
to give an automatic record of the star transits.
The
experience of the Prussian Geodetic Institute indicates that in this
mode
of
of
observing,
personal differences
between observers are nearly annihilated.
82. Reversal
the
Instrument upon Each Star.
—
method
eter,
of
using a transit instrument introduced into
general practice in connection with the transit microm
but which
may
be equally well applied with the
or
ordinary chronographic
sists in
eyeandear
methods, con
noting the time of transit of a star over a group
of threads placed at
some
little
distance from the centre
of the field, then, after quickly reversing the instrument,
to observe the
their
same
star again
It
is
on the same threads
in
new
position.
is
obvious that the effect of
collimation
thus completely eliminated from the
mean
of the observations
on each thread and
therefore from
the general
tion, while
mean
of the observed times.
of this
This elimina
an important advantage
mode
of ob
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
serving,
is
185
far
from being the only one, and a considerable
number
of sources of error
which have not been con
sidered above, but which are dealt with at length in the
larger treatises, such as Chauvenet, Spherical
cal
e.g.,
and Practi
Astronomy, are equally eliminated by the reversal;
inequality of pivots, flexure, thread intervals, and
the disturbance of the spiritlevel incident to reversing
it
upon the
axis.
When
the telescope
is
reversed upon
every star a hanging level
may
be allowed to remain
since the
upon the axis without ever being reversed,
level readings in the
its
two positions
which
is
of the axis then give
mean
inclination,
the
datum
required for the
reduction of the star transits.
Whenever
upon every
illustrated
in
it
can be employed the method of reversal
is
star
to be preferred to the older
method
requires
the preceding example,
but
it
special facilities
for quick reversal of the
its
instrument
without disturbing
present.
azimuth, and these are not always
The following
is
an example of the record and reduc
tion of such a series of observations,
made with
the same
instrument and arranged in nearly the same manner as
the example on p. 180.
Each
star
was observed on
for
five
threads in each position of the instrument, and a value
of the level constant,
b,
was determined
level,
each star
from readings of the hanging
taken immediately
before or after the observed transits in each position
of the circle, the level remaining unreversed
upon the
axis during the entire set of observations.
186
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
O
sT
u <v w
>
o
00 ON O0
IT)
t3
2
o
in CD
03
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
83.
187
Instru
Determination of Azimuth with a
Transit
ment.
— Let
the line of sight of a transit instrument be
terrestrial
supposed directed accurately upon some
mark,
and the telescope then turned up
time of a
star's transit
to the sky
and the
over the line of sight observed.
From
this
observed time the hour angle of the star
may
be derived, and this hour angle, in connection with the
known
declination
and
latitude, will
determine the
If
star's
azimuth at the instant of observation.
instrumental
will
there are no
errors
present,
this
computed azimuth
be the true azimuth of the terrestrial mark at which
the line of sight was originally directed.
This simple method of determining azimuth requires
some modifications on account
selection of stars
of instrumental errors, but
when these are duly taken into account and a proper
and mark
is
made, the method ranks
azimuth determination.
be very near the pole,
as the best of
all
known ones
if
for
The
star to be observed should
usually Polaris, and
is
the chronometer correction, AT,
accurately known, the observation
e.g.,
may
be made at
any convenient time,
the time at which the star
established.
If
stands directly above a
mark already
is
the chronometer correction
not well determined, the
the star
is
observation should be
tion,
made when
is
near elongaof
since the effect
in the
upon the computed azimuth
then a minimum.
an error
this
assumed AT
But
latter
procedure requires the establishment of a
special
mark whose azimuth shall be very approximately equal to that of the star when at elongation, and it will
often be
more convenient
to determine the time with
188
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
e.g.,
the required accuracy,
one tenth of a second, and
thus .obtain more freedom in the choice of a mark.
A
transit instrument of the better class
is
usually
provided
with
an eyepiece micrometer,
i.e.,
one or
more threads
parallel to the fixed transit threads,
field of
but
capable of being moved to and fro in the by a screw whose axis is parallel to the
of the instrument.
view
rotation axis
This screw
is
provided with a grad
uated head whose readings indicate the successive positions of the thread
and measure the amount
of its
motion
between consecutive pointings upon the star and mark.
When such a micrometer is present, transits of the star may be observed over its threads as long as the star remains within the field of view, and many comparisons between star and mark may be substituted for the single
one above supposed.
The instrument should be
must be
re
versed at least once during these observations, and the
inclination of its axis,
since, as will
b,
carefully determined
appear
later,
the level error has an important
effect
upon the azimuth.
Theory
of
84.
the Method.
— To
derive
from
the
micrometer readings upon star and mark the difference
of their respective azimuths
we have
recourse to Fig. 15,
which represents a projection of the celestial sphere upon represent respectively the plane of the horizon. S and
M
the star and the mark,
angle
Z
is
the zenith, and the spherical
SZM
is
the required difference of azimuth.
Let
H be
the point in which the rotation axis of the instrucelestial
ment, produced toward the west, meets the
sphere,
and the arcs go° — b, go° + c,
will
then have the
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
same
significance as in Fig.
13.
189
The
spherical angles
HZS
and
HZM
are represented
by the symbols go^ + w
Fig. 15.
— Azimuth with a Transit
HZS we obtain,
— b)
(90
Instrument.
and 90
\w
f
,
and the zenith distance
of the star, ZS,
by
z.
From
cos (90
the triangle
(90
+ c) = cos
cos z
+ sin
which,
to,
c
— b)
sin z cos (90
+ w)
,
(154)
when
b
and
c
do not much exceed
10', is
equivalent
+b
cos z
=w
sin
z.
(155)
in place of z
In this equation
we
and
substitute go°
it
—h
and
put sec h
=1+
<y,
becomes,
(156)
w = c\c<t + b tan h.
From
the triangle
ZHM
w'
f
we
find in a similar
manner
for
the mark,
= c + c' o' Arb
tan/*'.
(15 7)
190
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
the mark,
When
M,
is
in or very near the horizon, as
it
should be, the last two terms of Equation 157 vanish
and we obtain by subtracting
it
from Equation
h.
156,
A—A'=w — w'=c — c + c<r + b tan
f
(158)
Let k represent the angular equivalent (value) of one
revolution of the micrometer screw,
R
the reading of the
screwhead corresponding to any position of the movable
thread,
and
R
the particular reading at which the angle
line
between the rotation axis of the instrument and the
of sight defined
,
by the thread equals 90 i.e., R is the reading corresponding to c = o. For any other position
of the threads corresponding to the reading
R we
shall
have
c=±k(RR
),
(159)
where the ambiguous sign depends upon the position of the instrument, whether Circle W. or Circle E. For any
given instrument
for
all,
it
is
well to determine,
by
trial,
once
in which
of these positions the readings of the
micrometer head continuously diminish as the micrometer thread
star near
is
made
to follow the diurnal
motion of a
upper culmination, and, with reference to the
sign in Equation 159, designate this as the positive, the
other as the negative, position of the instrument.
Corresponding to the positive and negative positions,
respectively, let
R
t
and
R
2
be readings of the micrometer
is
head when the micrometer thread
pointed upon the
is
same
fixed object, e.g., the
mark whose azimuth
to
,
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
191
be determined; we shall then have as the distance of
this object
from the
line of
no collimation,
Positive Position,
Negative Position,
s=+k(R — R 5 = — k (R — R)
x
Q)
°
,
2
from which we readily obtain,
2S
=+k(R R ),
1
2
2R = R + R 2
l
<
.
l61 )
The
first of
these equations determines the distance,
s,
of the terrestrial
mark from the
it
collimation axis of the
instrument, and
of the
should be used to
make
the distance
azimuth mark small, by properly placing the instrument, whenever an azimuth determination is to be made.
The second equation determines
eter thread
of the
R
,
and through
R
the
collimation corresponding to any position of the microm
may
be found;
e.g., let
R
denote the reading
is
micrometer when the movable thread
placed
in apparent coincidence
with any fixed thread of the
This method of determining
transit reticule, then will the collimation of this thread
be given by Equation 159.
collimation
may
be employed in connection with time
§
determinations, as indicated in
77.
To apply these equations to the reduction of a set
5 represent the mean of several micrometer readings made in quick succession the mean upon the star, and similarly we represent by
of azimuth observations
we
let
M
of
several
readings
to
the mark.
Introducing these
quantities into Equation 159,
we
find for the star
and
mark, respectively,
c=±k(SR
),
c'
=
±k{MR
Q ),
(162)
192
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
in
and substituting these values
Equation
158,
we obtain
(163)
AA' = ±k{(SM)+
This equation
<r
(SR )\+b tank.
may
if
be used for the reduction of the obthe instrument has been frequently
it
servations; but
reversed during the progress of the work,
will
be more
convenient to combine in one computation consecutive
observations
in
its
positive
1
and negative
2 to
positions.
Employing the subscripts
vations
and
distinguish obserobtain,
Circle
taking the
made in these respective positions, we mean of the resulting equations,
and introducing a correction
by
W.
and
Circle E.,
for diurnal
aberration,
A'=A + \(S
2
(
2
M )(S M
2
1
1)
+
<r
(SzSjl
)
b
tan h + Di. Ab.
(164)
In this equation
A
represents the
mean
of the azi
muths
of the star at the several times of observation,
and
for this
corresponding to the
level
mean there may usually be substituted the azimuth mean of the times (see § 68). The constant, b, represents the mean of the inclinations
two positions
if
of the horizontal axis in the
of the instruis left
ment, and
it
should be noted that
the level
undis
turbed upon the axis during the reversal, the resulting
bubble readings, Circle
W. and
from the
Circle E., will give this
effect of inequality of
all
mean
pivots.
inclination, free
In the case of a hanging level
necessity for
its rela
lifting it
from the axis or
is
in
any way disturbing
tion to the instrument
85. Diurnal
thus removed.
Aberration.
— In
explanation of the last
term
of
Equation 164 we note that the precision attain
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
able with a transit instrument
is
193
sufficient to
demand
a
consideration of the effect of diurnal aberration, and the
student
may show from
the data in
§
27 that for
any
star near the pole this effect is fully
compensated by
adding to the computed azimuth of the mark the correction,
Di.
Ab. = +o".32 cos
<P
sec h.
(165)
Since
stars,
<p
and h are very nearly equal
for close circumpolar
this correction is practically constant
and equal
Transit.
to +o".32.
86.
Example.
—Azimuth Determination with
instrument of
the
'
'
—
The following example represents the record and reduction of a single set of azimuth observations
made with
'
the
large
in
transit
broken
'
type
shown
about
the
Frontispiece.
Note that the recorded
at
sidereal times
9
show that the observations were made
a.m.,
21'
1
or 10 o'clock
i.e.,
or 22
11
astronomical
reckoning,
in
broad daylight.
Values of the instru
mental constants and other data required for the reduction follow immediately after
the record, the value of
the chronometer correction, J T, having been determined
for
this
purpose from time observations immediately
following the azimuth work.
At the time
of the
azimuth
observations Polaris was near upper culmination, and an
inspection of the micrometer readings to the star, shows
that they diminish progressively for Circle W., which
therefore the positive position of the instrument
to receive the subscript
of Polaris
is
1
is is
and
in the reductions. 124.
The azimuth
computed from Equation
194
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
POLARIS AND AZIMUTH MARK.
Wednesday, May
7,
1902.
S.
Bamberg
Transit.
Chronometer,
Observer, C.
Circle.
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
To
set of
3
95
eliminate any error that might exist in the assumed
value of a revolution of the micrometer screw, a second
comparisons of the star and mark was
made
a half
hour later than those reduced above, when the star was on the opposite side of the mark and at an approximately
equal distance from
muth
of the
The resulting value mark was A' = 179° 5 6 3 6 " 2 °it.
'
of the azi
When
number
the highest accuracy
is
required a considerable
of such sets of observations
should be made,
extending over at least three or four days and,
when
pos
sible, so timed that the star will be observed at opposite points of its diurnal path, i.e., near its upper and lower
culmination, in order to eliminate errors in
right ascension
its
assumed
and
declination.
A
study of the errors
of the micrometer screw should also be
made
(see § 72),
and the
resulting corrections for periodic
error applied to the several readings.
and The azimuth
progressive
of
the star should, in general, be computed with sixplace
logarithmic tables, but when, as in this case, the star
is
very near the meridian five places of decimals are quite
sufficient.
Query.
—
Is it legitimate in this case to neglect the
by Equation 127? For an extended treatise showing the methods used in the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey for the determination of time and azimuth with a transit instrument,
corrections,
,
JA
represented
reference
may
be made to Appendix
7,
Annual Report
of
the Survey for 189798.
:
REFERENCE WORKS.
For
spherical
a more detailed treatment of the problems of
and
practical astronomy than
is
contained in
the preceding pages, the advanced student
may
consult
with profit
i.
the following works
Chauvenet.
A
Manual
of Spherical
and Practical Astronomy.
Various editions. Determination of Time, Longitude, Latitude, and 2. Hayford. Appendix No. 7, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. SixtyAzimuth.
2 vols.
Philadelphia.
seventh Annual Report.
3.
Albrecht.
Albrecht.
Wa h ngton. 1899. Formeln und Hiilfstafeln fur Geographische OrtsThird Edition. 1894. zum Gebrauche des Zenitteleskops auf
bestimmungen.
4.
Leipzig.
Anleitung
den Inte.nationalen Breitenstationen. Berlin. 1902. Anweisung zur Behandlung der Universal Instru5. Bamberg. mente und Theodoliten mit mikroskopischer Ablesung, etc. Berlin.
1883.
Of the above works No. 1 is the standard treatise upon the subject; an elaborate manual known and used rmong astronomers of every No. 2 is much more limited in its scope, but presents well the land. methods in use in the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. No. 3 presents similarly the current German practice and is ace mpanied by a No. 4 i a special monograph, valuable series of numerical tables. and No. 5 a trade pamphlet presenting details of the use and care of

geodetic instruments not readily accessible elsewhere.
196
TABLES.
197
TABLES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF
AZIMUTH, LATITUDE, AND TIME
WITHOUT THE USE OF AN ALMANAC.
See Sections 32}}.
TABLE
t
198
FIELD ASTRONOMY.
TABLE
II.
<!>
TABLES.
199
TABLE
Mag.
V.
TIME STARS.
Ann.
Var.
£ b P.M.
i
Ceti
Ceti
. .
33
2
.
p Ceti
2
14 24 38 37
1
+ 3i
 922
Nov.
Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb. Feb. Feb.
3° 18
3o
3i 3i 2.8 2.8
25
1
S
a Piscium. y Ceti € Eridani y Eridani. v Eridani. P Orionis. k Orionis.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
38 39 36 3» 33 4.1 0.3
9
5
+ +
.
.
P Canis Maj.
Sirius.
tj
.
.
.
1
.4
56 10 14 23 31 20 9 45 2 43 18 19 6 40 46 56 38 28 53
32 8 42 2 17
2
11 21
49
9 48
3
13 48
Canis Maj. p Argus. a Mali a Hydrse. A Hydras. v Hydras.
.
.
2 .4
72010
8 3 18 8 39 36 9 22 42 10 5 44 10 44 43 11 14 22 45 3i 12 10 41 12 36 37 13 19 57 o 42 14 14 37 49 15 11 4o 15 59 39 16 23 19 17 4 4i 17 3i 55 18 16 11 18 49 7 19 15 55 19 47 26 20 15 26 20 42 19 21 26 21 22 o 42 22 23 44 22 52 11 23 17 46 23 43 46
.
2.9 36
.
.
.
.
3o 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.9 2.9

33 19 42 9 17 54 16 35  29 6
8
31 12 19 29
7
16 25
3
24
1
March March March
April April April
13 23
2
3 2

5°
8 14 11 52
13 23
3
.
.
d Crateris. P Virginis.
y Corvi y Virginis.
Tt
fi
.
.
.
.
n
3° 15 3° 14
3i 3i
40
.
.
Spica Hydras.
.
.
.
Virginis. P Libras. P Scorpii.
fj
.
.
.
.
.
.
Antares. Ophiuchi.
.
.
.
£ Serpentis.
t)
.
Serpentis.
.
35 39 2.8 2.7 i3 2.6 37 3°
3o 32 34 32 32
3

+
June June  26 12 June
10
5
14 2 20 o 17 o 54
May May May May
11
19 25
1
39
14
1
12
22
1
9
3 3
3
3
19 26 15 15
+
32 13 tjuly 36 Aug. 20 Aug. 55 25
July July July
2
Aug.
Sept. Sept. Sept. Sept. Oct. Oct. Oct. Oct.
10 23 29 8 14 26
3
<y
Sagittarii.. p Sagittarii.
.
3 3
26
15
tj
Aquilas.
.
.
3
18 3 o 45
5
P Caprieorni.
Aquarii. P Aquarii. a Aquarii. Z Aquarii.
e
. .
.
34 32
3 2
10 18 25
2
.
.
.
.
.
Fomalhaut
98 Aquarii.
.
.
i3 4.1
3i 3i 33
3 2
— — — —
9 52 6
d Sculptoris.
4.6
+ 3i
39 — 28 41
20
o o 32 30 9
13 21
Nov. Nov. Nov.
28 4 10 16
'
INDEX.
Aberration, diurnal, 57, 102
Accurate determinations, defined, 61 General principles, 141 Addition logarithms, 20, 34 Adjustments, of level, 103 Of theodolite, 117, 120
Circumpolar stars, 47 Clock stars, 180 Colatitude, 29 Collimation, 120
Elimination Factor, 176
of,
121
of,
Of Of
sextant, 133
transit, 168, 191
Mechanical determination Coordinates, systems of, 24
Their uses, 27 Mutual relations, 28 Transformation of, 30
191
Almanac, The, 46
Altitude, 26
Reduction
of,
56
of,
American Ephemeris, 46
Angles, computation
16
Crelle, multiplication table, 21
Apparent solar time, 35, 39 Approximate determinations, 61 Approximate formulae, 9 Numerical limits for, 10 Artificial horizon, 136
Astronomical triangle, 31 Azimuth, defined, 26 Computation of, 65, 152
Da y
35
Declination, 26 Determinations' of azimuth, latitude, time, 60 Diurnal aberration, 57, 192 Dip of horizon, 49
Azimuth determination, from sun,
63. 6 7 From Polaris,
28,
Elongation, defined, 86
Formulae
70
85,
for,
86
at,
Azimuth determination
89
88
From star at elongation, From two stars, 90, 96
With theodolite, 149, 156 With transit, 187, 193 Azimuth star, 180
Barometer, reduction Bibliography, 196
Celestial sphere, 22
of,
Limits for polar star, 88 Engineer's transit, ill Equator, celestial, 23, 26
Equation of time, 40
Eye and ear
Precision
of,
observing, 181 182
52
Equinox, vernal, 24
Gradienter, 158 Calibration of, 161 Value of a revolution, 165, 167
Chronograph, 181 Chronometer, care Correction, 44
Rate. 45 Beat, 138
of,
138
Precepts for use of, 139 Comparisons, 139
Circle readings, errors
of,
Horizon, defined, 23 Dip of, 49 Hour angle, 26
Of
125
Polaris, 71
Circummeridian altitudes, 79 Graphical treatment of, 80
Index correction, 131, 135
Inequality of pivots,
1
10
201
202
Latitude, 29
INDEX.
Sextant, 129
By meridian altitude, 61 By circummeridian altitudes, By zenith telescope, 155, 167
Least Squares, 178 Level, spirit, 99 Errors of, 93
Corrections, 115, 152, 159 Logarithmic computation, 5,
12,
Adjustments
79
of,
132, 133
Eccentricity of, 135 Precepts for use of, 137 Sidereal time, 30, 38
of, 40, 43 noon. 42 Sidereal chronometer, 45 Solar time, 35, 38
Conversion
Mean
16
Accuracy
of,
18
Conversion
of,
40, 43
1
Tables, 20
Spherical trigonometry,
Longitude and time, 37
Magnitudes, stellar, 47 Mayer's equation, 173
Fundamental formula Derived formulae, 8
Spiritlevel,
of,
4
Mean
solar time, 35, 39
of,
Rightangled triangles, 9 99 Value of a division, 100, 105
Meridian, 23, 26 Micrometer, calibration
Nadir, 22
161
Theory of, 101 Adjustment of, 103
Precepts for use
ot,
Stars, coordinates of,
104 47
Negative sign for logarithms, 4 Noon, 36 Numerical solution of triangle, 5 Computations, 12, 16
Visibility in telescope, 48,
69
Subtraction logarithms, 34 polo, 166, 174 Sun's altitude, refraction correction,
Sub
Observing
list,
142, 147
62 Observed by projection, 64
Theodolite,
Orientation, 60, 70
Tables for Polaris, 78, 197 Theory of tables, 76
Parallactic angle, 32 Parallax, 53 Personal equation, 182, 183 Pivots, inequality of, Polaris, orientation by, 70, 73 Poles, celestial, 22, 26
m
of,
117 Errors of adjustment, 117, 120 Precepts for use of, 128 Time, different systems, 35
of,
Theory
Determination
60
HO
altitudes, 63, 84 Meridian transits, 68, 74
From
Two
stars, 90,
96
Prime
vertical,
23
Radians, 9, 11 Reduction to meridian, With given hour angle, 81 With given azimuth, 83
For zenith telescope, 161 Refraction, nature of, 50
Formulas
for,
51
Coefficients for zenith telescope, 160 Repetitions, method of, 126 Influence of axis error, 128
Subsidiary determination of, 98 Equal altitudes, 142, 146 Transit instrument, 177, 184 Precision of determination, 182 Transit factors, 173 Signs of, 175 Transit instrument, 168 Adjustment of, 169 Theory of, 170 Trigonometric functions, 15
Repsold Transit Micrometer, 184. Reversal of instrument, 113 Effect of, 122, 184 Right ascension, 26 Rough determinations, defined, 60
Schedule for computation, 13 Semi diameter, 52
Vernal equinox, 24, 26 Vertical, 22 Plane, 23 Circle, 23 Coordinate, 24
Zenith, 22, 26 Zenith distance, determination
of,
112
Zenith telescope, 157
,
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