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PTC 30-1 991


Air Cooled
Heat Exchangers

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A S I E PTC*30 7 1 O757670 0 8 8 3 2 2 7 T m


Heat.Exchangers CODES

ASME PTC 30-1991




Center 345 East 47th Street N e w York, N.Y. 1O01 7

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Date of Issuance: May 30,1991

The 1991 edition of this documentis being issued with an automatic addenda
subscription-service. The use of an addenda allows revisions made in re-
sponse to public review comments or committee actions to be publishedas
necessary; revisions published in addenda will become effective 1 year after
the Date of Issuance of the document. This document will be revised when
the Society approves the issuance of the next edition, scheduled for 1996,

ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretationof technical

aspects of this document.The interpretations will be included with theabove

addenda service. Interpretations are not part of the addenda to the document,

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Copyright O 1991 by
All Rights Resewed
Printed in U.S.A.

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(This Foreword is not part of ASME PTC 30-1991.)

In May 1960 the Board on Performance Test Codes organizedPTC 30 on Atmospheric


Cooling Equipment to provide uniform methods and procedures for testing air cooled
heatexchangers,and the means for interpreting the test results to enable reliable
evaluation .of the performance.capabilityof the equipment. This Committeewas chaired
by Mr. R. T, Mathews, and under his guidance a preliminary Draft of PTC 30 for Air
Cooled Heat Exchangers was developed. Following the deáth of Chairman Mathews the
Board on Performance Test Codes directedthe reorganization of this Committeein 1977
under the leadership of. interim Chairman Mr. J.C. Westcott. The newly reorganized
committee was entitled PTC 30 on Air Cooled Heat Exchangers. On April 20, 1977 Mr.
J.C. Westcgtt relinquished the Chair and Mr. J.C. Campbell was elected Chairman.
This Code was approved by the PTC 30 Committee on May 22,1990. It was approved
by the ASME Board on Performance Test Codes and adopted as a standard practice of
the Society on October 5, 1990. It was approved as an American National Standard on
February 15,1991, by theBoard of Standards Reviewof the American National Standards


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(The following is the roster of the Committee at the timeof approval of this Standard.)

J. C. Campbell, Chairman
R. B. Miller, Vice Chairman
J. Karian, Secretary

J. A. Bartz, Edison Power Research Institute
K. J. Bell, Oklahoma State University
J. M. Burns, Stone and Webster Engineering Corp.
J. C. Campbell, Lilie-Hoffman Cooling Towers, Inc. (retired)
R. R. Carpenter, Duke Power Co.
M. C. Hu, United Engineers and Constructors, Inc.
B. M; Johnson, Battelle Northwest
G. E. Kluppel, Hudson Products Corp.
P. A. Lindahl, The Marley Cooling Tower Co.
P. M. McHale, Ebasco Plant Services Inc.
R. B. Miller, Stone and Webster Engineering Corp.
D. S. Parris, Jr., American Energy
J. G. Yost, Environmental Systems Corp.


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J. S. Davis, Jr., Vice President

N. R. Derning, Vice Chairman
W. O. Hays, Secretary

A. F. Armor P. M. Gerhart R. P. Perkins

R. L. Bannister R. Jorgensen R. W. Perry
R. J. Biese D. R, Keyser A. L, Plurnley
J. A. Booth W. G. McLean C. B. Scharp
B. Bornstein G. H. Mittendorf, Jr. J. W. Siegmund
. H. G. Crim J. W. Murdock R. E. Sommerlad
G. J. Gerber S. P. Nuspl J. C. Westcott



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Foreword ............................................................................... ...

Committee Roster ..................................................................... V

O Introduction .................................................................... 1
1 Object and Scope .............................................................. 3
1.1 Object ...................................................................... 3
1.2 Scope ...................................................................... 3
I .3 Urrcertainty ................................................................. 3
2 DefinitionsandDescription of Terms ........................................ 5
2.1 Terms ...................................................................... 5
2.2 Letter
Symbols ............................................................. 8
3 Guiding
Principles ............................................................. 11
3.1 General ..................................................................... 11
3.2 AgreementsPrior to Test .................................................. 11
3.3 Selection of Personnel ..................................................... 11
3.4 Pre-Test Uncertainty Analysis ............................................. 11
3.5 Arrangement of TestApparatus ........................................... 11
3.6 Methods of Operation During Testing .................................... 12
3.7 Provisions tor EquipmentInspection ...................................... 12
3.8 Calibration of Instruments ................................................. 12
3.9 Preliminary Testing ........................................................ 12
3.10 Conduct of Test ............................................................ 13
3.1 1 Permissible and Nonpermissible Adjustments to Test
Procedures 13
3.12 Duration of Test 13
3.J 3 .................................................
Number of TestReadings 13
3.14 .....................................
Permissible Lirnitsof TestParameters 13
3.1 5 Degree of Constancy of Test Conditions ................................. 14
3.16 Causes for Rejection of Test Readings or Results ......................... 14
3.1 7 ............................................
Post-Test Uncertainty Analysis 14
4 InstrumentsandMethods of Measurement .................................. 15
4.1 General ..................................................................... 15
4.2 Measurement of PhysicalDimensions .................................... 15
4.3 Fan Measurements ........................................................ 15
4.4Measurement of Air Flow., ................................................ 15
4.5 Measurement of Air-SidePressure Differential ........................... 17
4.6 Measurement of Fan Driver Power ....................................... 18


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4.7 Measurement ofSoundLevel ............................................. 19
4.8 Measurement of AtmosphericPressure ................................... 19
4.9 Measurement ofEnvironmentalEffects ................................... 19
4.10 Measurement of Wind Velocity ........................................... 19
4.1 1 Measurement of Air Temperatures ........................................ 19
4.12 Measurement of Ambient and Entering Air Temperatures ............... 20
4J3 Measurement ofExit Air Temperature .................................... 20
4.14 Measurement of Process Fluid Temperatures ............................ 20
4.1 5 Measurement of Process Fluid Pressures................................. 20
4.1 6 ........ .......................
Measurement of Process Fluid. Flow Rate .c 21
4.1 7 Measurement of Composition of Process Fluid .......................... 21
5 Computation of Results ........................................................ 23
5.1 General ..................................................................... 23
5.2 ReviewofTestDataandTestConditions ................................. 23
5.3 Reduction of TestData .................................................... 23
5.4 Determination of MaterialandHeatBalances ............................ 24
5.5 Computation ofEffective
Difference ............................................................... 25
5.6 Computation of OverallHeatTransferCoefficient ....................... 25
5.7 Determination ofAir-SidePressureLosses ............................... 26
5.8 Determination of Process Fluid PressureLosses.......................... 26
5.9 Adjustments of TestData to DesignConditions .......................... 28
6 Report of Results ............................................................... 47
6.1 Composition of Report ..................................................... 47
6.2 Data ................................................................
Report 48

4.1 Location of Air Velocity and Temperature Measurement
Points Across Fan Ring ........................................................ 16
4.2 Typical Velocity Distribution Across Fan Stack ................................. 18
5.1 Mean Temperature Difference Relationships - Crossflow
Unit .- 1 TubeRow,Unmixed ............................................... 33
. 5.2 Mean. Temperature Difference Relationships- Crossflow
Unit 2 TubeRows, 1 Pass.Unmixed ..................................... 34
5.3 Mean Temperature Difference Relationships - Crossflow
Unit - 3 TubeRows, 1 Pass,Unmixed ..................................... 35
5.4 Mean Temperature Difference Relationships - Crossflow
Unit - 4 TubeRows; 1 Pass,Unmixed ..................................... 36
5.5 Mean Temperature Difference Relationships - Crossflow
.Unit 2 Tube Rows, 2 Passes, Unmixed Between Passes ................. 37
5.6 Mean Temperature Difference Relationships - Crossflow
Unit - 3 TubeRows, 3 Passes, Unmixed Between Passes ................. 38
5.7 Mean Temperature Difference Relationships- Crossflow
Unit - 4 Tube Rows. 4 Passes. Unmixed Between Passes ................. 39
5.8 Mean Temperature Difference Relationships - -Crossflow
Unit - 4 Tube Rows in 2 Passes, 2 Tube Rows per Pass,
Mixed at the Header ......................................................... 40
5.9 Schematic of Process Fluid Piping ............................................. 41
m -

Fin Efficiency of Several Types of Straight Fins ................................ 42

5.1 l Efficiency Curves for Four Types of Spine Fins ................................ 43
5.12 Efficiency of Annular Fins of Constant Thickness .............................. 44
5.13 Efficiency of Annular Fins With Constant Metal Area for
Heat Flow .................................. .................................
i 45

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4.1Recommended Minimum Number of Air Velocity
MeasurementPoints for FanRingTraverse ................................. 17
5.1Values of Fu for Equation5.38 ................................................. 31

. Appendices
A Guidelines .............................................................. 49
B Example ......................................................................... 51
C Example Uncertainty Analysis .................................................. 57
-D SpecialConsiderations for Computation andAdjustment of
Results ........................................................................ 65
E Fouling .......................................................................... 77
F Recirculation of Air .............................................................. 79
G References ...................................................................... 81

R.1 Moody-Darcy Friction Factor Chart for Flow Through Plain
Tubes ......................................................................... 66
D. 2a Chart for Calculating In-Tube Heat Transfer Coefficients for
Water ......................................................................... 69
D.2b Correction Factor to Fig D.2a for Other Tube Diameters .................... 70

D.3Two-Phase Flow Friction Pressure Drop Correction Factor ................... 72

D.4 ß as a Function for JI ,. for the Chaddock Method ............................ 73
D.5 Colburn Correlation for Condensation on a Vertical.Surface
No VaporShear ........................................................... 74

C.1 aSensitivityFactorsforUncertaintyAnalysis .................................... 60
C.l b Sensitivity Factors for. Uncertainty Analysis .................................... 61
C.2 Error Estimate ValueS.for Capability ........................................... 62
C.3 . ErrorEstimateValues for Capability ........................................... 63
C.4 Two-Tailed STUDENT-t Table for the 95 Percent
Confidence Level .............................................................. 64

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2 .

ASME PTC 30-1991


Code on

This Code provides instructions for the testing of
air cooled heat exchangers. The equipment, as herein
defined, refers to apparatus for the transfer of heat
from process fluids to atmospheric air.
The testing methods described in this Code will
yield results of accuracy consistent with current en-
gineering knowledge and practice.
The purpose of this Code is to provide standard

directions and rules for the conduct and report of
performance testson air cooled heat exchangers and
the measurement and evaluationof relevant data.
This Code is a voluntary standard; adherenceto it
depends on prior mutual’agreementof all parties in-
volved in the performancetesting of specificair
cooled heat exchangers.
Unless otherwise specified, all references herein to
ofher codes refer to ASME Performance Test Codes.
Terms used but not defined herein are defined in the
Code on Definitions and Values (PTC 2 ) . Descriptions
of instruments and apparatus, beyond those specified
and describedin this Code, but necessaryto conduct
the tests, may be found in the Supplements on In-
struments and Apparatus (PTC 19 Series).
When using this Code,a careful study should first
be made of the most recent issuesof Codes on Gen-
eral Instructions (PTC I),and Definitions and Values
(PTC 21, togetherwithall other codes referred to
herein. In the event of any discrepancies between
specificdirectionscontainedherein,andthose in
codesincorporated by reference,thisCodeshall

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1.1 OBJECT presented. Such modifications shall be agreed bythe

parties to the test.
The objectof this Code is to provide uniform meth- The scope of this Code also includes, directly or
ods and procedures for testing the thermodynamic by reference, recommended methods for obtaining
and fluid mechanical performanceof air cooled heat data,measurements,observations,andsamples to
exchangers, and for calculating adjustments to the determine the following:
test results to design conditions for comparison with (a) PhysicalDimensions
the guarantee as defined in para. 5.9.4. (b) Air FlowRate
Excluded from the scope of this Code are evapo- (c) Air-Side Pressure Differential
rativetypecoolers(wetcoolingtowers),andany (d) FanDriverPower
cooling equipment which combines evaporative and (e) SoundLevel
convective air cooling (wet/dry type). (0 Atmospheric Pressure
This Code does apply to wet/dry type heat exchan- @ EnvironmentalEffects
gers when, by mutual agreement, the heat exchanger (h) Wind Velocity
can be operated and tested as a dry type unit. (i) Air Temperatures
0) Entering Air Temperature
(k) Exit Air Temperature
1.2 SCOPE (I) Process Fluid Temperatures
(m) Process Fluid Pressures
The scope of this Code covers, but is not limited (n) Process Fluid FlowRate
to, the testing of mechanical draft heat exchangers, (o) Composition of Process Fluid
of both the forced draft and induced draft types; nat- (o) Percent Capability
ural draft heat exchangers; and fan assisted natural (9) Process Fluid Pressure Drop
draft heat exchangers.
From a heat transfer surface standpoint, this Code
covers all tube bundle orientations, including: verti- 1.3 UNCERTAINTY
cal, horizontal, and slanted conduit heat exchangers.
Both bare surfaces and finned surfaces are included In keeping with the philosophy of the Code, the
as conduit type heat exchanger components. While best .available technical information has been used in
conventional round tubes with circular fins are as- developing the recommended instrumentation and
sumed in this Code, the procedures can be modified procedures to provide the highest level of testing ac-
by mutual agreement to apply to other surface con- curacy.Everymeasurementhas someuncertainty;
figurations. therefore, so do the test results. Any departure from
While the cooling fluid is restricted to atmospheric Code recommendations could introduce additional'
air, the tube-side fluid can be any chemical element, uncertainty in the measurements beyond that consid-
compound or mixture, in single-phase flow, liquid or ered acceptableto meet the objectives of a Code test.
gas, or in two-phase flow. The expected uncertainty level(s) of tests run in ac-
This Code is written under the assumption thatthe cordance with this Code, based on estimates of pre-
Air Cooled Heat Exchanger (ACHE) may betested as cision and bias errors of the specified instrumentation
having a discrete process stream or that only one and procedures, is f two to five percent.
process fluid stream is being investigated. In other Users of the Code shall determinethe quality of a
cases, modifications must be made to the procedures Code test for the specified equipment being tested

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by performing pre-test and post-test uncertainty anal-

yses. If either of these indicates uncertainty exceeding
& five percent, the test shall not be deemed a Code
An example of the magnitude of the uncertaintyin
individual measurements and the manner in which
individual uncertainties are combinedto obtain over-
all test uncertaintyof final results is included in Ap-
pendix Cfor a typical jacket-water cooler.
Test results shall be reported as calculated from
test observations, with only such corrections as are
provided in this Code. Uncertainties are not to be
used to alter testresults.
TheSupplement on Measurement Uncertainty
(PTC 19.1) provides additional information on com-
bining types of errors into an overall test uncertainty.

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In this Section only those terms are defined which
are characteristic of air cooled heat exchangers and
the requirements for testing them.For the definition
of all other physical terms, or the description of in-
struments usedin this Code, reference is made to the
literature and to PTC 19 Series on Instruments and

Term Description

Adjusted Value A value adjustedfrom test conditions to design conditions.

Air Mixture ofgases and associated water vapor around the earth; dry air plus its
associated water vapor. This term is used synonymouslywith atmosphere or
moist air.

Air Cooled Heat A heat exchanger utilizing air as the heat sink to absorb heat from a closed circuit
Exchanger process fluid. This term is used synonymously with dry cooling tower in the
(ACHË) power industry,

Air, Dry Reference to the dry gas portion of air.

Air Flow Rate The mass per unit time ofair flodng through the ACHE.

Air, Standard Dry air at standard temperature (70"F) and pressure (14.696 psia) which has a
density of approximately 0.075 IbdfF.

Alternate Process A fluid selected for use in performance testing when use of the actual design fluid
Fluid is impractical for testing purposes dueto proprietary.or other reasons.

Ambient Air The temperature of the air measured upwind of the ACHE within its air supply
Temperature stream.

Ambient Wind The speed and direction of the wind measured upwind of the ACHE within its air
Velocity supply stream.

Approach The minimum temperature difference betweenthe process stream and air stream
Temperature at an exiting condition:
Difference '(a) r2-tl (counterflow)
or, (b) Tl -t2 (counterflow)
or, (c) T2-t2 (cocurrent flow or cross flow)


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Term Description

Aspect Ratio The ratio of certain key dimensionsthat establishes similarity of shape or

Atmospheric The pressure of the atmosphere at the location of the ACHE. .


Bare Surface The surface areaof the bare conduit excluding extended surface.-This termis
used synonymouslywith prime surface.

One or more tube bundlesserved by one or more fans complete with structure,
plenum, and other attendant equipment. This term is used synonymouslywith

Bundle Assembly of headers, tubes (conduits), tube supports and side frames.

Calibration Establishment of a correction basis for an instrument by comparison to an

acceptable reference standard. (See PTC 19 Series).

Capability Thermal performance capability expressed in terms of test capacity, that is, the
actual quantity of process fluid the ACHE will handle at design conditions of fluid
inlet and outlet temperatures, fluid inlet pressure, fluid composition, air inlet
temperature and fan power.

Design Values Performance conditions upon which the designof the ACHE was guaranteed.

Drive Train The fraction of the driver output power whichis transmitted to the fan.

The temperatureof the air enteringthe ACHE. 8
Exit Air The temperature of the air leavingthe ACHE.

Extended Surface Surface area added to the bare surface.

Face Area The gross airflow area through the ACHE heat transfer surfacein a plane normal
to the air flow.

Fan Assisted A type of ACHE utilizing a combination of chimney effect and fan(s)to provide
Natural Draft the required air flow.

Fan Input Power

Fan Pitch
The power which is actually transmitted to the fan.

The angle from the fan plane atthe designated pitch measurementlocation to
which the bladesof a fan are set.
Fan Speed The number of fan revolutions per unit time.

Fin Efficiency The ratio of the total heat dissipatedby the fin tothat which would bedissipated
if the entire fin surface were atthe temperature of the fin root.

Finned Surface, The contact surface exposedto the process fluid. This term is used synonymously
Inside with inside extendedsurface.

Finned Surface, The contact surface exposedto the air flow. This term is used synonymously with

Flow Regime
outside extendedsurface.

A fluid mechanics definition of flow characteristics, e.g., laminar Or tUfbUlent flow. a


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Term Description

Forced Draft A type of mechanical draft ACHEin which the fan is located in the air current
upstream from ttie heat exchanger surface.

Fouling Accumulated foreign material suchas corrosion products or any other deposits on
the heat transfer surface.

Free Flow Area The minimum air flow area through the ACHE heat transfer surfacein a plane
normal to the air flow.

Induced Draft A type of mechanical draft ACHE in which the fan is located in the air current
downstream from the heat exchanger surface.

Initial Temperature difference between entering process temperature and entering air
Temperature temperature, T, 4 , .

Interference Disturbance of the performance of an ACHE caused by an external heat sourceor


Mechanical Draft A type of ACHE in which the airflow is maintained by mechanical air moving
devices such as fans or blowers.

Motor Output The net power delivered by the motor outputshaft.


Natural Draft A type of ACHE in which the air flow is maintained by the difference in the
densities of the ambient air andthe exiting air streams.

Prime Surface The-surface areaof the bare conduit excluding extended

surface. This term is
used synonymouslywith baie surface.

Process Fluid The fluid circulated within the closed conduitof an ACHE.

Process Fluid Generally, an average bulk temperature of the process fluid defined at some
Temperature location entering, leaving, pr within the ACHE.

Process Fluid The difference between inlet and outlet temperatures of the process fluid.

Process Fluid The total hydraulic loss, including dynamic and static (if applicable) losses,
Pressure Drop between defined locationsas the process fluid enters and leavesthe ACHE.

Process Fluid . The mass per unit time of process fluid flowing through the ACHE.
Flow Rate

Recirculation The flow ofexit air into the ACHE air inlet.

Test Run A complete set of data that w i l l allow analysisof capability per this Code. In some
cases multiple test runs are taken and averagedto yield the capability.

Test Uncertainty The overall uncertainty in results dueto the combined effects of instrument
inaccurcy, unsteady state conditions, and reading and methodological error.

Test Value A value measured during a test with its calibration correction applied.

Tube Row All of the tubes or conduits within an ACHE which have axial centerlinesfalling
within a plane normal to the air flow. This term is synonymous to tube /aver.

Unit One or more tube bundlesin one or more bays for an individual service.


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Symbols that do not conform with this list will be
defined in thetextimmediately following their
usage. Numerical constantsused in theequations
andexamples in the Code,unless otherwise spec-
ified, are based on US. Customary Units.

. . Dimensions
Symbol Definition U.S. Customary Units SI Units
A Heat transfer surface area ft= mz

ACFM Actual cubic feet per minute ft3/min

B Barometric pressure in. Hg Abs. Pa

BWG Birmingham wire gage, a unit for Dimensionless Dimensionless

measurement of thickness

, Specific heat at constant pressure Btu/lbm.OF J/kg°C

C" Specific heat at constant volume BtuAbm"F J/kg°C

d Wall thickness ft m

D Diameter ft m

D.¶ Equivalent diameter, 4Sl /Zl and 4S0 lZe ft m

DBT Dry-bulb temperature "F "C

E Elevation above mean sea level ft m

EMTD Effective mean temperature difference "F "C

F Temperature correction factor equal to Dimensionless Dimensionless


fM Friction factor Dimensionless Dimensionless

t; Fin thickness ft m

g Acceleration dueto gravity ftlsec' m/SZ

gc Proportionality factor in 32.18 Ibmft 1 kgm
Newton's 2nd Law Ibfssecl N*s2

G. Mass veloclty, W& and WIS, Ibm/hr*ft2 * k&mZ

h Coeffdent of-heattransfer Btu/hr.ft2*"F W/m2-"C

hP Fan driver output power hP W

H Enthalpy BtuAbm

HL Gtent heat of vaporization of process fluid Btu/lbm

iTD Initial temperature

difference, (T, -t,) "F

k Thermal conductivity Btu/hrft*"F

I Fin height ft

L Length ft
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Symbol Definltion U.S. Customary Units SI Units

LMTD Log mean temperature difference "F "C

N Number of tubes Dimensionless Dimensionless

N Number of measurements Dimensionless Dimensionless

Nh Number of fins per unit length ft-1 m-'

Nm Fan speed ' RPM rPs

NTU Number of transfer units Dimensionless Dimensionless

Nu Nusselt number, bD/k Dimensionless Dimensionless

P Air
pressure . Ibf/ft2 Pa

P Thermal effectiveness, (i2-tJ/fll -tJ Dimensionless Dimensionless

P Process stream pressure Ibf/fta Pa

Pr Prandtl number, c, IJk Dimensionless Dimensionless

Q Heattransferrate . Btuhr W

r Radius ft m

R Temperature difference ratio equal to Dimensionless Dimensionless

(TI -T& -4)

R Thermal resistance hrft*."F/Btu m2.'CIW

RH Hydraulic radius . f t m

R, Gas constant of air 53.32 ft-lbf/lbm."R 286.9 JkgK

Re Reynolds number, GD/& Dimensionless Dimensionless

RPM Rotational speed Revolutions per


s Net clear distance betweenfins ft m

s Cross sectional flow area ft2 m2

SCFM Standardcubicfeetper minute measuredat ft3/min

70°F and 14.696 psia, dry air

st Stanton number, b/c,G = - Dimensionless Dimensionless

t Air temperature "F

T Process fluid temperature OF

Tg Torque Ibf-ft

U Overall heat transfercoefficient Btuhr.ft2."F

V Speed Wmin

W Air flow rate Ibtnhr

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Symbol Definition U.S. Customary Units SI Units
Process fluid flow rate Ibm/hr kds
Wet-bulb temperature "F "C
Flow area wetted perimeter ft m

Summation Dimensionless Dimensionless

Density Ibm/ft3 kdm3

Efficiency Dimensionless Dimensionless

Thermal effectiveness Dimensionless Dimensionless

Fin efficiency Dimensionless Dimensionless


Two phase flow multiplier Dimensionless Dimensionless

Differential Dimensionless Dimensionless

viscosity Ibmihr4t kgkm

Subscript Description

a Air
af Air film
b Bond
d Dirt
d Dry
e Electrical
f Fouling
fn Fin
Prime tube
R Fin root wall
r Reference surface
, s Static
T Total
V' Vapor
V Velocity
W Wall
Z Zone
1 Inlet
2 Outlet

Superscript Description
* Design value
Test value
f Adiusted value
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3.1 GENERAL (h) the procedures and frequency for cleaningthe

o .
Theperformance of atmospheric cooling equip-
mentisinfluencedby the conditions of the atmos-
phere in whichitoperates.This.Coderequires
air- and/or tube-side surfaces;
(i) the scope of the test beyond.this Code, includ-
ing partial testing or any other departures from this
recognition of the fact that changes in the ambient
and other operating conditionswill affect the equip- ci, the fouling factorsto be assumed for analysisof
ment performance. Extraneous sources of heat and results (see AppendixE).
those variables which affectthe air flow must be re-
corded and evaluated. It is extremely important that
performance tests be conducted under stable oper-
ating conditions, 3.3 SELECTION OF PERSONNEL
The test shall be conducted by, or under the su-
pervision of, personnel fully experienced in plant and
3.2 AGREEMENTSPRIOR TO TEST equipment operating procedures.The test procedure
@ Theparties to any testunderthisCodeshallreach
definite agreement'on the specific objective of the
shall conform to the latest requirementsof all appli-
cable industry, local, state, and Federal regulations.
test and the method of operation. This shall reflect Testing an air cooled heat exchanger presents poten-
the intent of any applicable contract or specification. tially hazardous conditions which may include rotat-
Contractualtermsshallbeagreed to concerning ing equipment, high temperatures, hazardous fluids,
treatment of uncertaintyrelative to acceptance of- noise, and danger of falling.
equipment based on reported capability. Any speci-

specified performance conditions that are pertinent
to the objectives of the test, shall be ascertained.Any 3.4 PRE-TESTUNCERTAINTYANALYSIS
omissions or ambiguitiesas to any of the conditions Prior to the test an uncertainty analysis shall be
are to be eliminated or their values or intent agreed
@ uponbefore the test is started. performed. An example of uncertainty analysis isin-
cluded in Appendix C. Theanalysisisbeneficial in
The parties to the test shall reach agreement, prior
that it will highlight those parameters that are major
to the start of test, regarding the following items:
(a) the specific methods and scope of inspection
contributors to test uncertainty.
prior to and during the test; Parties to the test shall add or improve instrumen-
Ib) the number of test runs and reading intervals; tation or increase the frequency of readings if such
(c) the method for startingthe test;
actions will materially improve test accuracy.
(d) the method of operation of the equipment;
(e) the fan. blade settings;
(f) the type, quantity, calibration, and location of
(g, the allowable bias in instrumentation and mea- The performance test shall be conducted with all
surements, andthe maximum permissible overallun- components of the ACHE oriented as specified for
@ certainty in the test results (see Appendix Cfor normal operation. Any changes from normal opera-
discussion); tion or orientation shall be agreed priorto the test.

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3.6 METHODS OF OPERATION DURING Prior to the test, the parties to the test shall reach
. TESTING agreement on the calibration procedures to be fol-
lowed. Supplements on Instruments and Apparatus
Although it is preferable to evaluate the-perform- (PTC 1.9 Series) may be used as a guide for the se-
ance of air cooled heat exchangers under complete lection,use,and calibration of instruments. Instrui
design and steady-state conditions, this si normally ment calibrations and correction curves should be
not practicablefor an on-site evaluationof this equip- prepared in advance.
ment. Therefore, prior agreement shall be established Removal and replacement of any instrument during
for procedures to adjust the test results
to the design the test may require calib!ation of the new instrument
conditions as in para. 5.9. prior to continuing the test. All calibration curves
shall be retained as part of the permanenttest record.


The information in para. 1.2 should be used as a
guide in examination of the equipment prior to and Preliminary or partial testingto evaluate certain as-
during the test, with special attention to the foll0.w- pects of the heat exchangerperformance may be con-
ing. sidered when a complete set of data is not required
(i$ Examine the general condition, as it affects the or is not applicable. This may.includethe following.
thermal performance and air flow.
(b) External heat transfer surfaces shall be.essen-. 3.9.1 Testing at Factory for Air Flow,
tially free of scale, dirt, oil, and other foreign debris Performance, Sound level, or Vibration. Complete
that would affect the.heat transfer and obstruct the air flow and fan performancetests can be conducted
air flow. If the need is established, the unit shall be at the factory and results adjusted to design condi-
cleaned by commercially acceptable methods. tions. Vibration and sound level measurements can
(c) Internal heat transfer surfaces and headers shall be obtained to ensuremechanicalperformance
be essentially clean-andfree of scale, rust, dirt, and within specification requirement.
other foreignmatter. i f the need is established, these
surfaces shall be cleaned by commercially acceptable
3.9.2 Testing at Factory for Process-Side Pressure
Drop. Design fluids can be circulated through the
(d) Mechanical equipment shall be in good work-
heat exchanger and pressure drop measured and re-
ing order, and checked for freedom of movement.
sults adjusted to design conditions.
Fansshall be checked for. properrotation,blade
pitch, speed, and tip clearance.
Provision shallbe .made to ascertain that all equip- 3.9.3 Substitute Fluid Testing. Substitute fluid test-
ment and instru’ments are in good working order, free ing may be donefor many reasons suchas when the
from defects and obstructions, and accessible, as re- description of the process fluid is considered confi-
quired for repair,replacement,andobservation. In dential or proprietary, when the processfluid is haz-
the event the equipment is not in satisfactory oper- ardous, or when economically justified. Substitute
fluid testing is characterized by the use of fluids read-
adjustments or changes as may
ily available,safe,andeasilyhandled,andwhose

be required to place it in proper operatingcondition

shallbemade.However, no adjustmentsshallbe physical properties provide usable experimental data
made which are not practical in continuous com- acceptable to both parties. The performance of an
mercial operation. exchanger can be calculated from test data with a
substitute fluid by the use of this Code. The adjust-
ment of the test results, usingthe substitute-fluid,to
design conditions.withthe design processfluid is be-
3.8 CALIBRATIONOFINSTRUMENTS yond thescope of this Code. When a substitute fluid
is to be used for this purpose, it is suggested that a
All instruments to be used in the test shall be cal- qualified consultant be retainedto advise the parties
ibrated prior to the test. If the accuracy of any instru- to the contract, prior to purchase of the equipment,
ment is questionable during the test it shall also be on the proper method of testing and interpretation
calibrated after the test. of results.


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.of runs and the frequency of readings shall be deter-

mined by mutual agreement priorto the test.
Prior to the test, the equipment shall be operated
longenough to establishsteady-stateconditions
which are within permissible limits. No adjustments 3.14 PERMISSIBLELIMITS OF TESTPARAMETERS
should be made to the equipment, or test proce-
dures, which are not consistent with normal opera- Performance tests shall be conducted within the
tion.The test shouldnotbe run if rain,snow,or following limitations'.
severe.wind conditionsare present. (a) Testsshallbemadeduringperiods of stable
weather, not subject to rapid changes in air temper-

ature, rain, snow, or high wind conditions.

3.1 1PERMISSIBLE AND NONPERMISSIBLE Cb) Average wind speed shall not exceed 10 mph
ADJUSTMENTS TO TEST PROCEDURES wifh one minuteaveragesnot to exceed 15 mph.
Wind direction and shift shall be within contractual
No changesoradjustments to the test procedures agreement unless otherwise agreed upon by the par-
shallbemadeunless all parties tò the test agree. ties to the test.
These adjustments might include a change in test (c) Entering dry-bulb temperatureshallbenot
conditions, a change in the arrangement of compo- more than 10°F aboveor 40°F below designdry-bulb
nents of test, a change in instrumentation, a change temperature. The average change shall not exceed
in fan blade settings, a change in test schedule or 59F per hour.
number of readings required.
Once the test has started no manual changes or NOTE: It must be recognized that the pour point or viscosity of
ran governthe lower limit. Unless auxiliary equip-
the process fluid
adjustments in the process fluid flow rate or air mov- ment is provided to modify inlet air temperature, the lower enter-
ing equipment shall be made.If permissible limits of ing air temperature limit shall not be less than 10°F above the
test parametershavebeenexceeded,adjustments process fluid pour point.

0 and changes may be made by mutual agreement of

the parties to the test,and the test restartedwhen
equilibrium has been reestablished.
(o') The air flow shall be within+: 1O percent of the
design value.
(e) Procêss fluid flow rate shall be within2 15 per-
cent of the design value, and shall not vary by more
than 5 percent duringthe test.
3.12 DURATION OF TEST (19 Process fluid inlet and outlet temperatures shall
Each test run shallbeconducted in accordance be within k1O"F of the design values, and shall not
with the predetermined schedule which fixes itsdu- vary by more than 4°F during the test.
ration, taking into account the instrumentation and @ The process fluid temperature range shall be.
number of observers available andthe number of si- within +.10 percent of the design value, and shall not
multaneous readings that can be assigned without vary by more than 5 percent duringthe test.
affecting the accuracy .of the test. Inspection of the Ch) For cooling gases or condensing vapors at pres-
data from each test run should be made before ter- sures above atmospheric pressure, the process fluid

0 minatingthe run, so that any inconsistencies in the

observed data may be detected and corrected.If valid
corrections- cannot be made, the test run shallbe
inlet pressure shall be within
design value. For cooling gases
4 10 percent of the
or condensing vapors
below atmospheric pressure, the parties to the test
repeated. should agree to an acceptable pressure priorto con-
Data shall be recorded for sufficient timeto ensure ducting the test. For cooling liquids, any pressureup
a select periodof at least one hour duringwhich-the to the des.@ pressure of the ACHE is acceptable;
provisions of paras. 3.13 through 3.16 are satisfied. however, the pressure should not so below that there
is possibility of vaporization or degassing. The proc-
ess fluid inlet pressure shall not vary by more than
3.13 NUMBER OF TESTREADINGS 10 percent duringthe test.
li) Heat duty shall be within 2 2 0 percent of the
All instrument readings required by this Code shall design value.
be taken after reaching steady-state process condi-
tions. The number of readings per run will depend
0 on the method of data aquisition, expected test un-
certainty, andthe size of the equipment. The number
'If any oneof these limitations conflict
these do not apply.
with the basis of guarantee,


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ASME PTCx30 Si 0759670 0083248 7 m


3.15 DEGREE OF CONSTANCY OF TEST (d) equipment or instrumentation failures, im-

CONDITIONS proper operation, wrong adjustments, or poor cali-
Since the test of an ACHE may occur over an ex- (e) poor test operating conditions resulting in ex-
tended period, each test run shall be separately con- cessive sound or vibration, low temperature differ-
trolled to achieve steady-stateconditions using fixed entials, condensate flooding, poor flow distribution,
fan pitch, fan speed,and air flow control settings. or air leakage;
Thus, each test run may be made atdifferent steady-
(19 post-test uncertainty analysis indicating uncer-
stateoperatingconditions during theperiod of a

tainty of test results exceedingfive percent;
complete. performance test. Variations of operating
heatbalancediscrepancycalculated by Eq.
parameters throughout the entire performance test
(5.8) greater than 15 percent. If this occurs, an in-
shall be maintained as low as practicable, but must
vestigation of the equipment and instrumentation
be maintained within the limits delineated in para.
should be madeto determine the cause for this dis-
3.14. Since the actual operating conditionswill vary
crepancy, and the test repeated.
somewhat from the specific design conditions for the
equipment, the test results must be adjusted to equiv- All of the above factors shallbe evaluated prior to
alent designconditions by the methodshown in para. and/or during the test to ascertain their effects on the
5.9. system performance. The testshould be deferred un-
til satisfactory conditions existwhich will enable ac-
curate data to be obtained, or if the test cannot be
performed within these limitations it may be neces-
3.16 CAUSES FOR REJECTION OF TEST sary to establish revised limits for testing.
READINGS OR RESULTS The performance test results shall be carefully re-
viewed within the context of the test agreement per
There are manyconditions that affect the perform-
para. 3.2 and the proceduresand limitations de-
ance of an ACHE. Some adverse conditions could be
scribed herein. If the test did these criteria,
a cause for rejection of test readings or results. These
it shall be voided unless otherwise mutually agreed.
may include:
(as weather conditions of high wind, rain, snow, or
extreme temperatures;
(h) atmospheric conditions of dust,organics, or
chemicals; After the test, the uncertainty analysis shall be re-
(c) site interférence from unspecified terrain, peated based on actual variations of test data and
buildings, or other equipment; degrees of freedom of the individual parameters.


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ASME PTC*30 91 0759670 0083249 9



This Section describes choice of instruments, re- Thefanspeedshallbemeasured in accordance
quired sensitivity or precision of instruments, and cal- with the provisions of PTC 19.1 3, "Measurement of
ibration corrections to readings and measurements. Rotary Speed." The fan ring diameter shall be mea-
Included are instructions as to methods of measure- suredalong two perpendiculardiametersa-cand
ment, location of measuringsystems,andprecau- b-d (see Fig. 4.1).
tions to be taken including critical timing of The following measurements may be taken for di-
measurements to minimize errordue to changing agnostic purposes.
conditions. The Supplements on Instruments and Ap- O Fan blade minimum tip clearance should be deter-
paratus(PTC 19 Series) describe methods of mea- mined by rotating the fan 360 deg. and locating the

0 surement, insfruhent types, limits, sources of error,

to avoid repetition, this Code refers to andmakes
minimum clearance of the longest blade.
O Fan blade maximumtip clearance should be deter-
mined by rotating the fan 360 deg. and locating the
mandatory the applicatibn of the Supplements on In- maximum clearance of the shortest blade.
strumentsandApparatus(PTC 19 Series). All re- iBlade track should be determined by moving each
instrumentsthat are not covered by blade past a common vertical line on the fan ring
Supplements on Instruments and Apparatus havethe inner wall. Results should be shown as vertical de-
rules and precautions described completely in this viation from a selected horizontal datum plane.
Section. O Fan bladeangleshouldbemeasured(e.g., by
For any of the measurements necessary underthis means of a protractor equipped with a scaleand
Code, instrumentatiqn systems ormethodsother level). The measurement should be made at the po-
than those prescribed herein may be used provided sition on the blade specified by the fan manufacturer.
they are atleast as accurate as those specified herein. O Clearances and tracking of the blade tips should be
Other methods may be employed if mutually agreed. measured at the equivalent dynamic position.
Any departure from prescribed methods shall be de-
scribed in the test report.


4.4.1 This measurement requiresa traverse of air ve-
locities over a selected area: Suitable instrumentsfor
The physical data shall be obtained for usa in per- the traverse include the propeller anemometer or a
formance testingand evaluation. Most details for the rotating vane anemometer. Pitot tubes may also be
tube bundle prqcess side are'defined in the ACHE used for fan ring traverses, as described in PTC 11 -
data sheet. Othqr data may include: 1984. Instructions providedwith the instrument must
( a ) face area; be followed so as to limitthe overall test uncertainty
(b) ratio of free flow area to face area; to +.5 percent. A minimum timed interval of 30 sec
(c) the total cross-sectional area for fluid flow in for individual readings is recommended.Since the
each pass. direction of the air flow is not necessarily normal to


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ASME PTC*30 91 W 0759670 0083250 5 W :



the plane of the area surveyed, it may be necessary 4.4.3 For induced draft units, air flow should bede-
to'correct thereadings for yaw. The anemometer shall termined by traversing the streamsemitting from the
be held parallel to the traverse plane, and the actual fans. The'recommended minimum number of mea-
direction of air flow during the timed interval esti- surement points and the locationsof these points are
mated. If the angle between the observed direction given in Table 4.1. Measurements along additional
of air flow and the anemometer-axisis 5 deg. or more, diameters maybe necessary to avoid error due to the
the reading shall be correcte!.Specific corrections effects of structural members.For additional infor-
,for yaw shall be determined by calibration prior to mation on traversing methods, instrumentation, and
the test. evaluation of data, refer to PTC 18 and PTC 19.5.
To illustrate, a 20-point traverse (five measurement
points per quadrant) is made as follows.
4.4.2 The selection of the most'suitablearea for the The plane bounded by the inner periphery at the
anemometer traverse shall be guided by the general, top of the fan ring is divided into ten equal concentric
obstructions, areas numbered consecutivelyfrom 1 to I O as shown
wind conditions, and air temperatùre rise.Because in Fig. 4.1.
of the decreased effectof ambient wind, accuracy i.s The ring is also divided into four quadrants as
usually better when the traverse is made in a high shown.The air velocity is thenmeasured at each
velocity stream. In the case where these constraints point of intersecfion of the radii a,b,c, and d with
require that a velocitytraverse be done at the inlet, the inner peripheries of areas, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, at
a velocity traverse is also required at the exit in order the center. The averagevelocities in comb¡-ned areas
to allow weighting the exit temperatures. + + + +
1 2,3 4,5-+ 6, 7 8, and 9 1O are then obtained


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Recommended Number Corresponding Corresponding
Ring Fan of Concentric
Areas Measurements Total Number
Diameter, ft for Traverse Per Quadrant of Measurements
4 6 12
6 8 16
8 10 20
12 10 20
16 10 20
20 12 24
24 14 28

O Measurement Location of Measurement Points,

From Inner Wall of Ring
Points Per
Quadrant Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 Point 4 Point 5 Point 6 Point 7
... .... ...

0.2959D 0.1465D
3 0.0436D a . .

1047D 0,0323D 4 ... ... ...

5 0.02571) 0.081 7 0 0.14651) 0.3419D
0.2261 D ... ...
6 0.1181D
0.0213D 0.1 7731) 0.3557D
0.2500D ...
7 0.0182D
0.0568D 0.3664D
0.0991 D
GENERAL NOTE: D is I.D. of fan ring at planeof traverse. Figure 4.1 illustrates the locations for the case
in which five measurement points
per quadrant are used.

O by averaging the five measurements taken alongthe For forced draft units an exit traverse is normally
inner peripheries of areas 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, respec- required, in conjunction with temperature measure-
tively. These velocities are plotted against the total ments, so that the weighted exit temperature can be
areas bounded by the corresponding circlesas shown determined (see para. 4.13).
in Fig. 4.2. If the traverse measurements are madein a plane

The net area below the resulting curve, between upstream from the tube bundle face (typical for in-
the limits Soand ST, represents the actual volume of duced draft units), the plane shall be located at least
air delivered by the fan per unit oftime. five prime tube diameters from the extremit'ies of the
If mutually agreed upon by the parties to the test, fins to prevent error due to the restriction effect of
the foregoing procedurefor determining the airflow the tubes; for downstreamtraverses(typical for
rate may be simplified by averaging directly the 20 forced draft units) the requiredminimum distance is

a air velocities (the readingat the center of the fan is

not used in this method) andmultiplying the resulting
number by the total fan ring area S,.
15 prime tube diameters. To minimize error due to
wind effect a suitable shieldis necessary in most in-
stances (Ref. [I]).

4.4.4 In some instances, obstructions in the fan ring,

or inaccessibility, prevent the use
of the fan ring trav-
erse method, and a traverse of the tube bundle is
indicated. The measurement plane chosen shall be
divided into imaginary rectangularareas (at least 20 Normally a Code test will not require the deter-
or one per 12 sq ft, whichever is greater) with the mination of air-side pressure drop. This measurement
sameaspect ratio as the'plane being measured, if is usually takento diagnose a performance problem,

a practical. The summationof the productsof the small

areas and the corresponding velocities at their cen-
ters will approximate thetotal volumetric flow ofair.
or in the event thatthe parties to the test have agreed
to guarantee the total or static differential pressure


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I 1 the readings and of such size that theymay be read

4. to 5 percent of the anticipated value,

4.5.4 For the readingsa probe shall be connectedto

each leg of the manometer. The instrument shall first
be checked for zero deflection, with the probes lo-
catedatapproximately the sameverticaldistance
apart as will exist during the readings.

4.5.5 Forinduceddraft ACHE'S, the high pressure

side will be sensed by the probe located at the inlet
side of the tube bundle.This pressure shouldbe fairly
I constant and, after proving consistency of reading,
1 the low pressure probe is positioned and the static

9 Total Cross-Sectional
Area pressure differential recorded.

4.5.6 For forced draft ACHE'S the low pressure side

will be sensed by the probe located at the heat ex-
changer outlet. The low pressure area should exhibit
fairly constant pressure; once constancy is verified,
the probe should be left in position for duration of
where Va is the average velocity. sure side to be probed will be at the fan discharge,
and the. probe should be positioned at the fan dis-
charge area at a location sufficiently downstream of
FIG. 4.2TYPICALVELOCITY DISTRIBUTION fan to minimize severe turbulence,

4.5.1 The static pressure drop resulting from
the pas-
sage of air through the unitshallbemeasured by Test power isthe shaft outputof the prime mover,
means of probes designed to minimize velocity ef- For electric motors, test measurements are made at
fect, anda suitable readout device such as an inclined the input, andthe output power is computedby mul-
.tube manometer, sufficiently accurate to yield read- tiplying input powerby motor efficiency. Acceptable
ings within r t 5 percent of the true values. instruments for determining power, in preferred or-
der, are:
(a) wattmeter
4.5.2 A wall tap, comprised of a smooth 1/8 in. di- (b) voltage, current, power factor meters
ameter drilled hole ,without burrs or obtrusions is
suitable in uniform low velocity flows; however, the When readings are taken at a load center located
ùse of a;cylindrical Fechheimer probe or a two- or ' a substantial distance from the motors, corrections
three-dimensionalwedgeprobeisrecommended should be made by direct measurement of voltage
(see PTC 11-1984, Fans for further information). The drop (orby computation of loss) between loadcenter
probe shall be calibrated before each- use. and motor. To enable this correction to be made, the
If an accurate static pressure measurementis nec- length and gage of cable involved should be-mea-
essary, a traverse using the procedures described in sured. A measuredorcomputedvoltagedropbe-
para. 4.4 is required. tween the load center and one motormay be applied
to the other motors by ratioing their distances from
the load center.
4.5.3 The manometer shall be an inclined tube gage For prime movers other than electric motors, the
calibrated for direct readings in inches of water. The methodfordeterminingpowershallbemutually
scale range shall be selected to suit the magnitude of agreed upon prior to the test.


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4.7 MEASUREMENT OF SOUND LEVEL tion should be chosen for the measurement that is
unobstructedupwindand at anelevationapproxi-
This subjectistreated in PTC 36-1985. o
mately midway between the average air inlet plane
elevation and the average air exit plane elevation. If
such a location is impracticable,an alternate location
.may be agreed upon by the parties to the test.
Atmospheric pressure shall be measuredby means
of a mercury barometer.
If mutually agreed by the parties to the test, the 4.1 1 MEASUREMENT OF AIRTEMPERATURES
barometric pressure may be obtained from a nearby 4.1 1.1 PTC 19.3 shall be used to stipulate satisfac-
weather bureau station. If this method is used, it is tory instrumentation and details of construction of
necessary to establish whetherthe readings given are sensor wells,the reading of the instruments, and their
for station or sea levelpressure.Thereadings ob- calibration and corrections.
tained shall be corrected for the difference in eleva- Theuncertainty of temperaturemeasurements
tion of the barometerand the unitbeing tested. shall not exceed the larger of the following values:
Results shalt be based on atmospheric pres.sure at (a) 0.2"F, or
station level. Readings may be corrected to sea level (b) two percent of the smallest of the following
if desired. Detailsof the procedure for correction are three key temperature differences:
given in PTC 19.2. (7) the temperature range of the process fluid
(unless isothermal)
(2) the temperature range of the air
(3) the minimum approach temperature differ-
EFFECTS Satisfactoryinstrumentsincludesuitable ASTM
Prior to the test, a survey of the area surrounding mercury-in-glass thermometers, thermocouples, cal-
the unit shall be conducted jointlyby the parties to ibrated sensors with signal conditioner such as re-
the test. AI1 conditions that may contribute to varia- sistancetemperaturedevicesorthermistors,or
tions in performance, such as heat sources affecting equivalent.
inlet air temperature, and nearby buildings or struc- The sensing elements shall be exposed to the at-
tureswhichmay cause aircurrentsthatresult in mosphere, but shielded from direct sunlight or other
warm air recirculation, or .in reduced fan perform- radiation source by means of an opaque shield.
ance, shall be investigated. Measurements necessary
to map these effects during the test shall be deter- 4.1 1.2 The wet-bulb temperature measuring instru-
mined by mutual agreement, .and substantiatingtest ments should be mechanically aspirated and incor-
data shall. be obtained as necessary. Ambient tem- porate the following features:
perature measurements shall be takenin accordance (a) A calibrated temperature sensor whose uncer-
withparas. 4.11 and 4.12 of thisCode.Measure- tainty is less thanf 0.1"F in the range of the expected
ments should be made in all locations, simultane- test temperatures.
ously if possible,or in. rapidsuccession. If such (b) Sensing elements shielded from direct sunlight
locations are not accessible orthe area surrounding or other radiation source. The inner side of the shield
the ACHE contains elements (see above) which can shall be essentially at the dry-bulb temperature.
affect the ambient temperature, a suitable location (c) Wicking coveringthe sensor shall be clean and
for thesemeasurementsshallbemutuallyagreed continuously supplied froma reservoir of distilled or
upon. demineralized water. The wick shall abesnug fit and
extend at least 1 in. over the active portion of the
(d) The temperature of the water used to wet the
4.1 O MEASUREMENT OF WIND VELOCITY wick shall be at approximatelythe wet-bulb temper-
The instrument recommended is eitherthe rotating ature.
cup or rotating vane anemometer with preferably a (e) The air velocity over the wick shall be contin-
continuous readout or recording capability. A loca- uous at approximately 1000 Wmin.


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4.1 2 MEASUREMENT OF AMBIENT AND rectangular areas (at least 20 or one per 12 square
ENTERING AIR TEMPERATURES feet, whichever is greater) with the same aspect ratio
as the plane being measured, if practical. Shields shall
This survey shall consistof two ambient wet- and be provided for the temperature sensing elements to
dry-bulb temperature measurements and a suitable prevent error due to dilution by outside air, or due
number of entering dry-bulb temperature measure- to radiation from the sun or other sources. The tem-
ments. perature measurement devices shall be located a suf-
The ambient wet-. and dry-bulb temperature mea- ficient distance from the ACHE to minimize the effect
surements shall be takenat approximately 5 ft above of the tube wakes (usually 15 prime tube diameters
the ground elevation not less than 50 or more is sufficient).
100 ft upwind of theequipment. Theseshall be
spread along aline which brackets that flow. If these
locations are inaccessibleor contain,elementswhich
can affect the reading of wet-bulb temperature, al-
ternate locations shall be mutuallyagreed upon. 4.14 MEASUREMENT OF PROCESS FLUID
Entering dry-bulb temperature measuring stations TEMPERATURES
shall be selected on an- equal-area basis, and shall be 4.64.1 The uncertainty of temperaturemeasure-
located in a plane6 in. below thefan ring for forced ments shallnot exceed the larger of the two following
. A
draft, and 12 in. below the finned tubes for induced values:
draft units. The sensing elements of the thermome- (a) O.Z"F, or
ters, or thermocouples, shall be properly.locatedand (b) two percent of.the smallest of three key tem-
shielded to prevent appreciable error due to radia- perature differences;
tion. The recommended number of stations is given (7) the temperature range of the process fluid
in para. 4.4. If the maximum and minimum temper- (unless isothermal)
atures differ by 5°F or more due to warm air recir- (2).the temperature rangeaf the air, or
culation, or environmental effects, additional stations (3) the minimum approach temperature differ-
shall be selected, the number and location of. these ence. See para. 4.1 1 for satisfactory instruments.
stations shall be determinedby mutual agreement of
the parties to the test.
4.1 4.2 The measuring stations shallbe located close
enough to the unit to prevent appreciable error due
to temperature change occurring between the sta-
4.1 3 MEASUREMENT OF EXIT AIR TEMPERATURE tions and the unit. Where stratification
is a possibility,
Unless otherwise agreedby the partiesto the test, preliminary tests shall beconducted to determine the
coincident temperatures and velocities shall be mea- magnitude of possible resultant error.These shall be
sured atall selected stationsso that the weighted exit made a partof the test report.
air temperature can be calculated. The instruments
to be used shall be as specified in para. 4.11.

4.13.1 Induced Draft Units. Measurement stations 4.15 MkUREMENT OF PROCESS FLUID
shall be locatedprior to the testperiod in accordance PRESSURES
with para. 4.4.3 so th'at the measurements will best The requireduncertainty limit of fluid pressure
represent the true bulk temperature. For multiple-fan measurement devices shallbe two percent of the ab-
units, fewer stations may be used if agreed upon by solute fluid pressure. Instrument selectionand details
the parties to the test. The temperature profile of one of measurement techniques shall be made in accord-
fan shall be investigated thoroughlyprior to the test ance with PTC 19.2. Satisfactory instruments include
period to ensure sufficient accuracy; the data shall pressure. gages,. manometers, pressure transducers,
be made a partof the test report. or other equivalentdevices.
Measuring stationsshall be locatedas close to the
4,13,2 Forced Draft Units. .Measuring stations shall unit as practicable. Corrections shall be made for line
belocateddownstream of the tube bundles.The losses, fitting losses, etc., that result in pressure dif-
measurement plane shall be divided into imaginary ference between.the-measuring stations and the unit.


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4.16.1 The recommended uncertainty limit of fluid
flow measurement devices shall be two percent of
the total process flow through the test unit. Instru-
mentselectionanddetails of measurementtech-
.be in accordance with PTC 19.5.
Satisfactory instruments include venturi meters, ori-
fice meters, flow nozzles, pitot tubes, turbine meters,
or other equivalent devices.
Alternatively, flow ratesmaybedeterminedby
plant heat balance method,provided the uncertainty
does not exceed two percent.

4.16.2 Measurements shall be.made in the piping

leading to and as close as possible to the unit. If this
is not practicable, an alternate location shall be se-
lected by mutual agreement, and corrections made
as necessary to determine the actual flow into the


Sufficient samples of the process fluid shall beob-
tained to enable determination of the composition of
inlet and outlet streams.The methods of analyses
shall be mutually agreed upon by the parties to the



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GENERAL portunity for immediate discoveryof possible errors
This Section covers the reduction of the test data, in instruments,procedures,andmethods of mea-
computation of test results, adjustment of results to surement. Guidance for the review of data and test
design conditions, and interpretation of adjusted re- conditions is given in paras. 3.12 through 3.16; sig-
sults by comparing them to design. This Section as- nificant deviations shall be corrected prior tothe of-
sumes that the ACHE surface is of a typical circular ficial data collection if practicable. Any uncorrected
geometry. If not, the parties to the test must adjust or uncontrollable conditions that violate the provi-
sions of paras. 3.12 through 3.16 shall be described
the computations as appropriate. Thebasicproce-
i n the test report. At the end of the test period, but
dure for computation of performance capability is:
.(a) review the raw test dataand select the readings
prior to removal-of test instrumentation, a final re-
view of the data shall be madeto determine whether
to be used onthe basis of the requirements of paras.
or not an immediate repeat test isnecessary.This
3.12 through 3.17;
review will also assistin the establishment of the re-
(b) average the selecteddata; '

(c) compute mass and heat balances, and establish liability of the test; it shall include a post-test uncer-
whether or not the.provisions of paras. 3.14 through tainty analysis for evaluationof deviations from ideal
3.16 have been met;
of the following, and the effects of these deviations
on the test results:
(d) compute test value of effective mean temper-
(a) comparison of test and design conditions;
ature difference;
(e) compute overall heat transfer coefficientat test (b) test siteenvironment,includingatmospheric
conditions; conditions;
(c) fouling;
(f) establishindividualresistancesat test condi-
tions; (d) leakage, process-side and air-side;
(g, adjust air flow rate and air film resistance to .(e) process fluid distribution;
design fan power and design air density;
(0 air distribution;
(s, steady-state conditions;
(h) adjust test process-side pressure dropto design
conditions, and compare to specification value; (h) measurement uncertainty;
(i) location of measurement stations;
(i) compute the capability of the unit at design
0) qualifications of test personnel, and validity of
0 process temperatures, design inlet air temperature,
iterative one, since corresponding heat load, process
test data;
(k) process fluid composition.
flow rate, inside film resistance, and effective mean
temperature difference areall unknown.


The purpose of averaging the raw test data is to
give a single set of numbers which is representative
of the collected data to be used in calculations to
Theraw test data shall be carefully reviewed to determine performance. Multiple readings taken over
ensure selection of entries that will accurately rep- time and/or readingsof the same parameter by mul-
resenttrueperformance.Thisreviewshouldbe tiple instruments at given
a station shall be arithmet-
@ started at the beginning of the test, providing an op- ically averaged.

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5.3.1 Air-Side Data Reduction The density of dry air can be calculated from
(a) Air Velocity. Individualairvelocity measure-
= 1.325 (5.3)
ments shall be corrected for instrument calibration
and then averaged as discussed in para. 4.4
(b) Computation of Heat Load:
(6) Air Temperature. Air temperature data readings
shall be averaged for each set of test data. Exit air
Q, = (W) (Hiz - H,,) (Note 3, (5.4)
temperaturesshallbeaveraged bythe. mass flow
. weighted average method shown in Eq. (5.1); how-
ever, variations in inlet air temperature are normally
5.4.2 Computation of Process-Side Mass Flow Rate
small enough to allow arithmetical averaging of the
and Heat load
temperatures alone.
(a) Computation of Mass Flow Rate

t = N (5.1)
2 Pnvnsn
(b) Computation of Heat road
where n is an individual measurement
(c) Static fressureor Differentialfressure. The read- Q, = (W CH,,, - H,,) (5.6)
ings shall be arithmetically averaged.
The enthalpy of the process fluid at the entrance
5.3.2 Process Fluid Data Reduction and at the exit shall be determined by means,and
(a) Process Temperatures. Readingsof process fluid from data sources, mutually agreed upon by the par-
.temperatures ata given station shall be arithmetically ties concerned prior to the test. For process fluids
averaged. with no phase change, the above heat load equation
(b) Process Flow:Process flow measurements shall can be written
be calculated in accordance with ASME PTC 19.5,
Fluid Flow MeasurementProcedures, or its interim
supplement, ASME Fluid Meters, Part II.
(c) Processfressure.Processpressuremeasure-
5.4.3 Computation of Heat Balance Error. The per-
ments shall be calculated in accordance with ASME
cent error in heat balance is calculated by
PTC 19.2.


Error =
1 4 - Qal x 200

Both the air-side and process-side heat loads are

to be calculated. The objectivesof these calculations
are two-fold: (I) to determine the heat load of the (a, - Q1,. is the absolute value
heat exchanger under the test condition, and ( 2 ) to
If the percent error is within the acceptable limit
check the validity.of the set of test data obtained. To
of 15 percent as stated in para. 3.16, the heat load
calculate the heat loadsfor both the air and prqFess
Q to be used for data interpretation can be one of-
sides, the air and process fluid mass flow rates are
the following:
first calculated.These flow ratesarethenused to
(a) the air side heat load Q,
calculate the heat loads.
(6) the process side heat load Q,,
(c) the average heat load (Q, QJ2.+
5.4.1 Air-Side Mass Flow Rate and Heat load
(a) Computation of Mass Flow Rate of Dry Air. For
computation of air mass flow rate,

W = (pJ(VJ(SJ(60) (5.2) zThe constant1.325 applies for U.S. Customary Units of B and tw
¡,e., in. Hg and R.
'Values of H,, and Ha2are determined from enthalpy data, using
'The factor 60 applies to US. Customary unitsof p. ,V, ,Sa. the corresponding test valuesoft, and t2.

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The selection of Q shall be based upon the value EMTD = QA (.§.13)(Nof= 4,

If the percent erroris not within acceptable limits,
no further calculations are advisablethe and
test shall where n denotes the individual zone
be repeated, unless otherwise agreed. For cases where the overall heat transfer rate varies
through the unit, such as changes from turbulent to
laminar flow or units with condensing and subcool-
ing, then it is necessary to divide the unit intozones
and treat each zoneas a separate case. This involves
5.5 COMPUTATION OF EFFECTIVEMEAN obtaining aseparate heat load, EMTD andU for each
TEMPERATUREDIFFERENCE zone. This type of operation may require special tem-
EMTD is the effective mean temperature difference perature measurementswithin each zone rather than
between the hot stream and the air stream. only recording the inlet and outlet terminal temper-
atures of each stream. These intermediate tempera-
EMTD = F x LMTD . (5.9) turesmay beimpractical to obtain. In suchcases
prior agreement should be reached between the par-
where ties involved concerning the actualdata reduction
F = correction factor for deviation from true procedures.
countercurrent or cosurrent flow In the typical air cooledheat exchanger design,the
LMTD = LogarithmicMeanTemperature Differ- flow arrangement is not normally pure countercur-
rent or cocurrent. Most designs are fabricatedfor air
flow at right angles to the tubes and crossing over
For strictly countercurrent flow or cocurrent flow one or more tube rowsin series. The process fluid in
and for cases where the temperature of the process the tubes, at any one point, travels atright angles to
stream is constant, the LMTD is calculated from the air flow, and the correction factor F is usually less
Countercurrent Flow: than one.
The correction factor F for the most common ar-
rangements may be obtained from Figs. 5.1 through
5.8. Correction factors are only applicable for the
flow arrangements shown in the figures. All of these
figures are predicated on using the countercurrent
flow formula for calculating the LMTD.

For other types of flow, not covered by these fig-
Cocurrent flow: ures, the calculation of F shall be a matter of agree-
ment of the parties involved in the test. If the process
fluid temperature is constant, the EMTD is calculated
by Eq. (5.12).


Constant Process Fluid Temperature: T, = T, = T wis calculated from

v =(A,) Q"

where Q" is the test heat load, expressed in Btu/hr,

selected as best representing the thermal duty of the
Where U is essentially constant over a temperature heatexchanger.Thevalueused must always be
'range, .but release of heat versus temperature is a
curved line, the heat release curve may be divided 4This procedure is fundamentally correct only for pure counter-
into zones using a straightline release in each zone. current or cocurrent flow, but yields an approximate answer with-
out requiring detailed stepwise calculations. It may be used with
With this situation, the EMTD for the whole unit is mutual agreement of the parties to the test; otherwise, another
calculated from the following equation: agreed procedure may be used.
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clearlyidentified, e.g., air-side, process-side, arith- is equal to the air pressure rise providedby the fan.
metic average, etc. Therefore, to measure the cooling system air pressure
Thereferenceareamay be any.convenienf mu- loss, one caneither measure these component losses
tually agreed upon heat transfer surface. There are separately or in combination, or one can deducethe
four commonly used reference areas. total losses from the fan drive system power con-
sumptionandthemeasured airflow, Thefan drive
system power consumption is comprised of the air
energy losses and the drive system mechanical and
electrical energy losses. Generally, in a performance
test, it may not be necessary or desirable to measure
each of these air pressure losses separately, andusu-
ally it is. preferable and ‘easier to measure only the
cooling system power consumption for comparison
with design specifications and/or performance char-
acteristic data provided by the system supplier.

Lfn = the length of finned portion of tube 5.8 DETERMINATIONOFPROCESS FLUID
LIfno = the outside diameter Óf fin PRESSURE LOSSES
DR, = the outside diameter of root
Dpo= the outside diameter of prime tube The pressure loss betweenmeasuringstations is
L = the total length of tube simplythedifferencebetweenthemeasurements
taken at these locations. Thetest measuring stations
(Note: Other symbols as defined in para. 2.2)
should be located in such a way that they will provide
a pressure measurement at the required design sta-
5.6.2 Outside SurfaceBasedonFinRoot Outside tions. If not, consideration must be given to the .ef-
Diameter (ARo) fects of the following factors:
(a) gravity.
(This is a fictitious area) (b) fluid velocity
(c) flow obstructions
ARo = T DRo (5.16) (d) fluid properties and flow rates
Figure 5.9 is a schematicrepresentation of the
process fluid piping for an ACHE. The measuring sta-
5.6.3 Prime Surface Basedon Inside Tube Diameter tions (MS) and design stations (DS) have been delib-
Up,.) erately depictedin different vertical locationsin order
that the following discussion and calculation proce-
A,,, = rND,L (5.1 7 ) dures can encompass this possibility.
Equation (5.19) shall be used to adjustthe test
value of pressure loss across the measuring stations,
5.6.4 Prime Surface
Based on Outside Tube to a deduced value of total pressure loss across the
Diameter (Apo) design stations at the test conditions.
Apo = rNDpoL (5.18)

Thereferenceareaupon which theoverallheat

transfer coefficient is based must be clearly identified
in connection with any statement of that coefficient.
The overall heat transfer coefficient is meaningful where:
only if all of the assumptions required for the mean APmStertis theprocess fluid pressure differential as mea-
temperature difference formulationare satisfied. sured by experimental data at the selected mea-

suring stations.
APgM-D is the change in the measured process fluid pres-
5.7 DETERMINATION OF AIR-SIDE PRESSURE sure differentialcaused by differences in eleva-
LOSSES tions between the measuringstations and design
The summation of the air pressure losses of the stations and/or differences in process fluid dens-
tube bundle,flow obstructions, and airturning losses ities in the inlet piping and the outlet piping.
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APgD-D is the change in the measured process fluid pres- These losses canbe evaluated at the test conditions
sure differential between design stations caused using thefollowing equations and recommendations:
by differences in elevation Òf the design stations PipeandBundleTubeFriction (MoB-,).
and/or differences in processingfluid densities in
These losses can be calculated using Eq. (5.23).
the inlet piping, the outlet piping, and in the bun-
dles. It may not be necessaryto include this term
depending on howthe pressure dropis quoted. (5.23)

AP, is thechange in themeasuredprocess fluid pres-

sure differentialif static pressures are measured. Properties should be evaluated at the mean tem-
perature. For evaluationof friction factor, fM, refer to
APDS,=, is the deduced process fluid total pressure loss at Fig. D.1, Appendix D.
the test conditions. Obstruction losses Due to Contractions,
APoBDs is thesum of all the flow resistances due to ob- Expansions,
Bends, Fittings
and These
structions between design stations, losses can be calculated usingEq. (5.24).
APO,,, is the sum of all the flow resistances due to ob-
structions between measuring stations. (5.24)

Detailed proceduresfor solving the elements of Eq. Theevaluation of K will depend on the type of
5.1 9 are presentedin the following paragraphs. obstruction as described below.
5.8.1 Gravity C A P g ) . Differences in elevations and/or value of K as follows:
densities will have aneffecton process fluid pressure
measurements.Theseeffectscanbeevaluated by K= 0.5 x (1 - pz) incontraction (5.25)
means of Eqs. (5.20) and (5.21) with reference to Fig.
K = (1 - ßz)* in expansion (5.26)

where ß is the ratioof the smallerto the larger inside

pipe diameter.
(5.21) Pipe and Cooler Tube
Bend losses
@PoE-,). These losses yield a K coefficient which is
not explicitly defined by any correlation. Reference
5.8.2 Fluid Velocity (@J, If total pressures are mea- E21, however, presents some data for 90 deg. bends
sured! AP, is included in the total pressure. If static along with a correlation for more than one bend in

pressures are measured, APw can be evaluated using series which is not simply the sum of the number of
Eq. (5.22). 90 deg. bends. losses Caused by Various Fittings
(5.22) (APoBJ. The valuesof the loss coefficient, K, for pipe
fittings,valves,etc.,are dependent on the specific
where: geometryinvolvedandcannotbegeneralized.For
AP, = velocity pressure differential, Ibf/ft2 this reason it is best to plan the instrumentation so
that there areas few such lossesas possible between
measuringstations.Forthosecomponents which
5.8.3 Flow Obstruction @APoB). Obstruction losses must be evaluated, there are data available from man-
between measuring stations may include effects due ufacturers, such asRef. 131, and reference will have
to: to be made to these for the particular type of fitting
(a) pipe and bundle tube friction of interest.
(b) contractionsand/orexpansions in the pipes
and bundle tubes
(c) pipe and bundle tubebends Summarizing,
(d) the presence of fittings such as bends, valves,
flow meters, tees, couplings, etc.
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5,9 ADJUSTMENTS OF TEST DATA TO DESIGN Fan HorseDower+ = FanHorseDower"

Since tests are rarely run at design conditions, the
recommended procedure is to adjust the ACHE per-
formance results determined under test conditions to NOTE: The cautions presented above applicable to the pressure
design conditions and compare these adjusted values drop evaluation are also applicableto the power adjustments.
with the design values. Adjusted driverinput horsepower may be obtained '
When a procedure for'acceptance testingis to be by introducing the driver and drive train efficiencies.,
adopted, a discussion between the interested parties
is essential to establish agreement as to the method
by which data will be adjusted from test to design Fan Horsepower+
conditions, Presented below are methodswhich may Driver Input Horsepower+ = (5.31)
qdrlvw qdrlve iraln
be usedto make adjustments required in some of the
more commonly encountered situations. Before us- (c) Air Density Determinations
ing these methods, the parties involved in the testing For determining thedensities required in the pres-
should assure their applicability to the test under con- sure drop and horsepower adjustments,Eq. (5.3) may
sideration. Adjustments for some of the more com- be used.
plexcasescanbemade using the relationships in
Appendix D. NOTE: This equation is used for the more typical applicationsand
neglects humidity effects. If widely variant humidity conditions
exist with respect to design, a more precise evaluation using psy-
chrometric data may be appropriate.
5.9.1 Adjustment of Air-Side Bundle Pressure Drop
and Fan Performance. When the test is run at con-
ditions other than design air densities, velocities, or (d) Air Flow Determination
fanspeed, testmeasurementsmaybeadjusted to To adjust the test airflow to the conditionsof de-
their equivalent values at design conditions by use of sign fan horsepower and design air density, use
the following equations. The user should recognize

that accuracymaysuffer if adjustmentsaremade

from conditions which vary significantly from design (5.32)
conditions (see limitations in paras. 3.14 and 3.15).
(a) Air-Side Bundle Pressure Drop
5.9.2 Adjustments of Single PhaseProcessiSide
Fluid Pressure Drops
For multi-phase cases, the user should
refer to
Appendix D
Tocompare the measuredprocess-sidepressure
drop to the design value, adjustments may be nec-
essary to compensate for the following:
.Process fluids with properties or conditions other
than design
Because of the simplifying assumptions made in .Process flow rates other than design
the derivation,significantchanges in the Reynolds
number, V, or RPM, between design and test condi- Such adjustments may be made using
tions will adversely affect accuracy. The 1.7 power
hasbeenestablished as reasonableapproximation
empirically, but may vary givendifferent system con-

(b) FanPower Adjustments

FanHorsepower+ = FanHorsepower"
+ pz)*
+ Pz)"
x (5.29)
APp' = e(?)'''($($Y2, for turbulent flow
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Densities and viscosities shouÌd be evaluated

the at from test conditions to design conditions, andfinally
mean temperature. recombine the component coefficients to calculate
an adjusted overall heat transfer coefficient.
(1) This adjustment presumesthat inlet and outlet pressures were Agreementmustbereached prior to testing re-
measured attheir design locationswithin the system. If this is garding use of the adjustment procedure presented
not the case, adjustments must be made in accordance with below or an alternate.
para. 5.8.
(2) Throughout Section 5, Re, of 2,300 is taken as a distinct sep-
aration between laminar andturbulent flow. Of course, a dis-
tinct separation doesnot exist. If Re, is found to be in the range STEP I
of 2,000 to 10,000, the user may refer to Appendix D for a
more rigorous treatment. Determine the overall reference surface heat trans- '

(3) If the Reynolds numbersfor both the design andtest conditions

do not fall in the same regime, the simple ratios above donot fer coefficient as indicatedby the test result.
apply; in that situation, the user must refer to Appendix D.
(4) For those casesin which the fluid in thetest is in a single phase Up = Q"/(A,X EMTD") (5.1 4)
throughout the system, temperature andvelocity variations be-
hveen design and test conditions will be the only parameters
affecting the pressure drop measuremenfs. If the fluid is a liq- See para. 5.4 for development of Q" and para. 5.5
uid, the variations in temperature will usually cause only slight for development ofEMTD".
variations in density and, in general; density may be neglected
in the above equations. The viscosity may or may not change
significantly, depending on the fluid and temperature ranges
involved, If the viscosi@or frictionfactor varies by a factor of STEP 2
two or more from inlet to outlet, pressure drop must be eval-
uated on an incremental basis. The formulas presented above The test overallreferencesurfaceheattransfer
presume pressure drop variations through the tubes are rep-
resentative of pressure drop variations through all components coefficient must be broken down into its component
between pressure measuring stations.If this is not believed to parts. The following equation represents the normal
be the case, a more detailed evaluation of variations in pressure heat transfer resistances which may be encountered.
drop through individualcomponents of the heat exchangermay
be desirable.

5.9,3 Adjustment of Overall Heat Transfer Coeffi-

cient. To adjust measured overall heat transfer coef-
ficients tothe design conditions, adjustments may be fluid) Film
necessary to compensate for the following:
(a) processfluidswithpropertiesorconditions
other than design
(b) process flow rates other than design
(c) air flow rates other than design
(d) air at conditions other than design
Adjustments for commonly encountered applica--
tions without phase change or change in flow regime
may be made using the procedure outlined below.
Adjustmentsfor otherless-frequentlyencountered
situations can be made using the relationships in Ap-
pendix D. Particular care should be taken to assure
results obtained with the equipment and test under
)) + (2)( --``-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

considerationareappropriateforanalysis by the
equations proposed. The user must recognize that Fin Root Wall
accuracywillsuffer if adjustments are made from
conditions which vary significantly from design. See
paras. 3.14 and 3.15 for limitations.

In general, the approach presented is to calculate
the overall heat transfer coefficient from the test re-
sults, break this coefficient into its component parts,
adjust those component coefficients which change Outside Fouling (5.35)


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The values of allthe individual components which determine fouling resistance during equipment test-
comprise the right side of this equation must be de- ing. Fouling resistances shall be agreed on as stated
termined. Some may be calculated directly by avail- in para. 3.2,
able correlations, some must be assumed and agreed Refer to Appendix E for additional discussion of
uponby the.parties to the test as discussed below, fouling.
and the final factor (eitherthe air-side or process-side
film coefficient) will be determinedin Step 3 by solv-
Prime Wall:
ing the above equation. This resistance-is calculated directly usingthe ap-
The decision as to whetherthe air- or process-side
film coefficient is calculated directly should be made plicable part ofEq. (5.35).
on the basis of which can be determined more ac-
curately. In cases where it is uncertain which coeffi- Bond:
cient may be determined with greater confidence, it The value of the bond resistancé, //hb, will depend
may be agreed to calculate both and use the coeffi- upon the type of extended surface being used, the
cient showing the lower thermal resistance to solve tube and fin materials, the temperature levelof ap-
for the other'in Step 3. plication,and the manufacturing practice. In many
A discussion of how each component may be de- cases, the value of this component willbelow in
termined follows. comparison with other terms, making it insignificant.
If this is thought not to be the case, it is suggested
that the manufacturer's design value for this term be
Inside (Process Fluid) Film: used in the calculation. However, mutual agreement
If the process fluid is a liquid in turbulent flow in on this matter must be reachedby the parties to the
a plain tube (no internal enhancement), the valueof test.
h; may be evaluated using the Sieder-Tate equation
(Ref. [41):
Fin Root Wall:
The value of this componentwill be small in com-
parison with other terms, making it insignificant in
most cases. This resistance is calculated by the basic

( . (5.36)
relationship shown in Eq. (5.35). Depending on the
details of fin construction, assessmentof the outside
radius of the fin root wall (r,,) ,may require consid-
erable judgment.
In cases of gaseous process fluids:

Fin and Air Film:
This term must be evaluated by first determining
the air-side film coefficient. An exact evaluation of
this coefficient is difficult
to develop dueto the com-
plex shape of the heat transfer .surface involved. It
The physical propertiesin the above equations are may be agreed by the parties to use the manufactur-
evaluated at .the average fluid temperature .except er's proprietarydata.todevelop thisxoefficient.If not,
p,;w which is evaluated at the surface temperature.If
it is suggested that the following equation (Ref, [5])
the process fluid iswater,Figs.D.2aandD.2bof for finned banks of tubes be used as a reasonable
Appendix D may be used to evaluate h;. approximation:

NOTE: The above formulas are applicable for non-condensing sit-

uations with the process fluid in turbulent flow (Re, > 10,000).
For cases in which Re, is below 10,000, refer to Appendix D.

Inside Fouling:
Of the component resistances, fouling is the most (5.38)
difficult to determine. There is no practical way to

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ASME P T C * 3 O ell M ' d 7 5 7 b 7 0 0083264 5 =


(1) Go., is the mass flow rate evaluatedwith respect to the free VALUES OF Fe FOR EQ. (5.38)
flow area. .
(2) Equation (5.38) is applicable for Re from 1000 to 20,000, where No. ofTube
Tube Row
Deep Factor, F,
1 0.78
2 0.88
. . 3 0.93
4 0.97
(3) F& is tube row arrangement factor; values are given in 5 0.98
Table 5.1, 6 1.o0
8 1.o2
10 1.O25
Once thefilm coefficient is eualuated, it may then GENERAL NOTES:
be used in the determinationof the fin efficiency +Of,,. (a)These factorsareapplicable for the normalstaggeredtube

Figures 5.10 thfough 5.13 may be used in this eval- arrangement.
(b) Values in this table are calculated from Fig. 11 of Ref. 161,
uation, Symbols in these figures are defined below: using V,, = 1000 feet per minute and using the value for 6
rows as a base, since Eq. (5.38) is based on 6 rows.
h = heat transfer cuefficient
I = mödified Bessel function of the first kind
K = modified Bessel function of the second
k= thermal conductivity of fin material
n = a constant, order of Bessel function
U = function of x defined by
Solve for the component resistance not determined
by the correlations by subtracting the
sum of the eval-
uated component resistances from the overall heat
transfer resistance.
where i = G; c = a-constant; p = a constant; a =
cross-sectional area of fin normal to x axis, and A = fin STEP 4
surface between origin and pointx. The components on theright-hand side of Eq.
W = fin height (5.35) must be adjusted to design conditions. The
x = distance along axis normal to basicsur- only Components which will be affectedby these ad-
face justments are the inside film resistance and equiva-
= half thickness of fin at point x lent conveciion and conduction resistance of the fins.
4 ß = constants The adjustments may be madeas follows:
b, e = conditions at base and edge, respectively
Inside.(Process Fluid) Film:
For additional discussion of finefficiencies andnu- The Sieder-Tate relationship may be used to ratio
merical relationships for calculation of the efficien- turbulent test and adjusted design coefficients
cies, the parties may refer to Ref.171.
With the values of and h: established, the
equivalent convective and conductive resistance of
the fin may be calculated using the relationship given
in Eq. (5.35). The user must be cautioned that the
method presented aboveis approximate and does not
address all types of fin configuratiöns and tube ar-

The physical propertiesin the above equation are

Outside Fouling: evaluated at the average fluid temperatureexcept
Thisresistance, like h i d e Fouling, is difficult to ppd which is evaluated at the surface temperature.
determine. The provisions of para. 3.7(bj shallbefol-
lowed, and a value agreed on prior to the test,as NOTE: The above equation is applicable for non-condensing sit-
stated in para. 3.2. uations with the process fluid in turbulent flow (Re > 10,000).

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ASME P T C * 3 O 9 1 - = 0759670 0083265 7


Fin and Air Film: heat load, process flow rate, inside film resistance,
Equation (5.40)may be used to yield an approxi- and EMTD are all unknown.
materatio of test and adjusted design film coeffi- The recommended procedure for determinationof
cients capability is:
(7) Assume a value of process fluid flow rate, W+.
(2) Computecorresponding heat. load from Eq.
(5.6)or (5.7),as appropriate.
(3) Adjust the test air flow rateto design fan power
and air density:
NOTE:Theabove equation is applicable for Re from 1000 to

If the film coefficient is not greatly changedin the

(4) Compute t: at design fan’ power from e
above adjustment, accuracy will not be substantially
reduced if it is assumed that the entire equivalent
convection and conduction resistance of the fin varies
as the film coefficient. If greater accuracy is desired, (5) Compute corresponding value of EMTD+ Isee
the fin efficiency may be determined for both test para. 5.5).
and design conditions using Figs. 5.10 through 5.13 (6) Adjust all test resistances,as necessary, to cor-
as ‘ápplicable. respond to the assumed W+, and compute U>
STEP 5 TOTAL RESIflANCE R&, = R: + R: + R,’ . . .
The adjusted inside film resistance and equivalent
convection and conduction resistanceof the fin must
be substituted into Eq. (5.35)to determine the ad-
justedoverallheattransfercoefficient U: for the
. .

(7) Compute corresponding heat load from
5.9.4 Computation of Capability. Thermal perform-
ance capability, as defined in this Code, is the ratio Q+ = (U:) (A,) (EMTD+)
of test capacity to design capacity, where test capacity
is the actual flow rateof process fluid the ACHE will (8) Repeat steps (I) through (7)until values of Q+
handle conditions of the following: from steps (2) ’and (7) are equal. Graphical or com-
(a) process fluid composition puter assistance may be helpful in this iterative so-
(h) process fluid inlet and outlet temperatures lution of W+.
(9) Compute thermalperformancecapability:
(c) process fluid inlet pressure
(d) air inlet temperature and density
(e) fan power
The determination of this flow rate, as stated in
PERCENT W A B I L I N = X 100 (E)
para. 5.1, is an iterative one, since the corresponding


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T and t are not interchangeable








o.o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 ’ O. 5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 .o
‘2 - ‘1
P - Thermal Effectiveness = -
T1 - ‘1


Crossflow Unit -
1 Tube Row, Unmixed
(Reproduced by permission of Heat Transfer Research, Inc.)


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A S I E PTC*3O 7 1 E O7576700083267 U


T and tare nor interchangeable

0.0 o. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.o

r? - t l
P - Thermal Effectiveness = -
T1 - t l


Crossflow Unit - 2 Tube Rows, 1 Pass, Unmixed
(Reproduced by permission of Heat Transfer Research, Inc.)


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T and t are nor interchangeable


0.9 -




0.0 o. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 .o

'2 - tl
P --Thermal Effectiveness = -
T1 - r1


Crossflow Unit - 3 TubeRows, 1 Pass, Unmixed
(Reproduced by permission of Heat Transfer Research, Inc.)


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PTC*3O 7 1 E 0759b78 0883267 4


T, - T2
Tand tare not interchangeable



. f

0.5 -


O. 3
0.0 o. 1 0.2 O.3 0.4 O.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 .o

'2 - '1
P - ThermalEffectiveness = -
T1 - 'I


Crossflow Unit - 4 Tube Rows, 1 Pass, Unmixed
(Reproduced by permission of Heat Transfer Research, Inc.)


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‘ASME PTC*30 91 0 7 5 9 6 7000 8 3 2 7 0 O


T, - T2
m T1

fand tare not interchangeable



o 0.5


O. 3
0.0 o. 1 0.2 .0.3 0.4 O. 5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 .o

‘2 - ‘1
P - Thermal Effectiveness = -
T1 - fl


Crossflow Unit 7 2 Tube Rows, 2 Passes, Unmixed Between Passes
(Reproduced by permission of Heat Transfer Research, Inc.)


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ASME PTC*K3Q 91 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0083273 2 m I


T1 - T2
R= -
t2 - '1

T and t are not interchangeable



0.0 o. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 ' 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 (2.9 1 .o
r2 - r1

P - ThermalEffectiveness = -
T1 - '1


Crossflow.Unit - 3 Tube Rows, 3 Passes, Unmixed Between Passes
(Reproduced-by permission of Heat Transfer Research, Inc.)


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ASME PTC*38 71 O757670 0083272 4 I


Tand tare ndt iriterchangeable






8. ,



0.0 o. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 .o

P - Thermal Effectiveness = -


Crossflow Unit -
4 Tube Rows, 4 Passes, Unmixed Between Passes
(Reproduced by permission of Heat Transfer Research, Inc.)


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A S I E P T C x 3 0 71 H O757670 0 0 8 3 2 9 3 b H


T1 - T2
t2 - tl

T and t are not interchangeable






O. 5


o.o o. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 O.6 O. 7 0.8 0.9 1 .o

‘2 - ‘1
P - Thermal Effectiveness =
Tl - f l


Crossflow Unit 4 TubeRows in 2 Passes, 2 Tube Rows Per Pass, Mixed at the Header
(Reproduced by permission of Heat Transfer Research, Inc.)


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ASME P T C * 3 O 91 = 0757670 8083274 8



c3 = design station

Fl = measuring station



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,ASME P T C * 3 O 71 E O757670 0083275 T W


i? I.


””- I A


2 t


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ASME P T C 8 3 0 91 0757670 0083276 L



/f M


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ASME PTC830 71 O757670 0083277 3 E


3 -


O 2 I
x a 2 r


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'ASME P T C U 3 0 91 O759670 0083278 5 m




9 õ

1 D


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6.1 COMPOSITION OF REPORT It shall include a statement that the test was con-
ducted in accordance with ASME PTC 30, including
The test report for a performancetest shall include a list of exceptions, if any.
the following.

6.1.5 Test Data and Resultsat Operating Condi-

6.1.1 General Information tions. This shall include a listing of the reduced data
(a) Identification of the equipment to be tested for each run after all corrections are applied. It shall
(b) Identification of the plant where the equipment also list a summary of the results at operating con-
is located ditions.
(c) The name-ofthe owner of the equipment and
his representative atthe test 6.1.6 l e s t Result Adjusted to Design Condi-

a¡ (r$ The name of the manufacturer and his repre-

sentativeat the test
(e) A statement of who conducted the test
4ions. This shall list the adjusted test results (adjusted
to design conditions) and compare those results to
the specified performance at design conditions.
(0 Date of the test
(s, Date of first commercial operationof the equip-
ment 6.1.7 Conclusions. This shall be a statement of the
(h) The design rating and specified operating con- conclusions derivedfrom the test, including whether
ditions for the equipment or notthe equipment met its design performance and
(i) A statement of the guarantee
the extent to which it exceeded it or fell short.

6.1.8 Uncertainty Analysis. The report shall include

6.1.2 Object of theTest: This shall tell why the test
the uncertainty analyses (in accordance with paras.
is being run and what the parties
to the test are trying 3.4 and 3.17) for each run.
to accomplish.
O ~.
6.1.3 Discussion. This shall include a brief history of
6.1.9 Appendices. As a minimum the following Ap-
pendices shall be included.
the operation of the equipment and any pertinent (a) Sample Calculation - Thisshallbe included
background information; It shall list all prior agree- using the.datafrom one run. It shall illustrate all the
ments made with regard to the test. calculations and adjustments that are made to, that
It shall also discuss any inspection prior to orfol- run so that.a reader could start with the data from
lowing the test and state what was inspected and
any run and makeall necessary calculationsto verify
what was found. It shall describe when andhow the
the resultsof any of the other runs.
unitwis last cleaned andits condition during the test.
This shall include a description of any fouling;
(b) LayoutSketches Thisshall- include ade-
quately dimensioned sketches, both plan and eleva-
tion views, showing the location of the equipment
6.1.4 Test Methods and Procedures. This shall de- and its relationship to any other equipment orbuild-
@ scribe how the test was actually conducted including
any unusual occurrences during the test.
ings in the vicinity that would affect air flow. It should
also show wind speed and direction for each run.


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A S I E P T C * 3 O 71 IO757670 U 0 8 3 2 8 0 3 I


.(c) List of Instrumentation This shall list all the 6.2.3 Air Densities
instrumentationused on the test, including manufac-
turer and model number. (a) Ambient air density - Ibm/ft3
(d) List of all participatingpersonnel. (b) Inlet air density - Ibm/ft3
(e) Uncertainty AnalysisSample Calculation A - (c) Outlet air density - Ibm/ft3
sample calculation for onerun should be included.It
should usethe same run that was used for the results
sample calculation, per (a) above. 6.2.4 Air Flow

(i0 Total inlet air flow - ACFM - ft3/min

6.1.10 Raw Data Distribution, At least one complete - ACFM - ft3/min
(b) Total outlet air flow '

set of copies of the signed original log sheets shall (c) Total air flow - SCFM - ft3/min
be distributed to each party in the test. (d) Total air flow - Ibm/hr

6.2.5 Process-Side Conditions

As stated in para. 6.1.5 the reduced test data for
(a) Inlet process temperature "F -
each run withall corrections appliedshould be listed
(b) Outlet process temperature "F -
in the report.A list of typical data follows. Since there
(c) Inlet process pressure Ibf/ftz
are many types of air cooled heat exchangers, this
(d) Process pressure drop -across ACHE - Ibf/ft*
list is not necessarily comprehensivebut can be used
(e) Process flow Ibmhr
as a guide. Any other data that is pertinent to the test
should also be included.
6.2.6 Miscellaneous

6.2.1 General Information (d Heat load - air-side - Btu/hr

(b) Heat load - process-side - Btu/hr
(a) Run number (c) Fan driver power input per fan - hp
(b) Date (d) Total fan driver power input - hp
(c) Barometric pressure - in. Hg (e) Uncorrected mean temperature difference- "F
(d) Ambient dry-bulb temperature- "F (0 Mean temperature difference correction factor
(e) Ambient wet-bulb temperature- "F - "F
(t) Wind speed - mph @ Effective mean temperature difference - OF
@f Wind direction (h) Adjustedoverallheattransfercoefficient -
6.2.2 Air-Side Temperatures (i) Adjusted process fluid flow rate - Ibm/hr
ci, Adjusted heat load Btuhr-
(a) Inlet dry-bulb temperature- "F (k) Capability -%
(b) inlet wet-bulb temperature - "F
(c) Outlet dry-bulb temperature - "F


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A.1 Theactualtestingenvironmentalconditions, the A.6 Thephysicalinspectionof
the tubebundle
physical condition of the air cooled heat exchanger, should include checking for loose fins, intermeshed
and tbe process fluid operating conditions will decide tubes, bowed tubes, and fouled or dirty air-side sur-
whether or not a test will beconsideredvalid. In face. Some of these may have resulted from cyclic
lordet to enhance the probability of a successful test, operation,process overheating,rainstorm thermal
a careful review and inspection should be conducted shock, water spray cooling, or improper design for
before starting a full-fledged test. thermal growth or internal steamout. Defects such as
these will affect performance and should be noted in
the test report.
A.2 All parties to the test must have a clear under-
standing and agreementof the proposed procedure,
A.7 Check all fan assembliesfor uniform blade pitch,
instrumentation,andmeaningfulresults to beob-
tained. By prior agreement or through discussion at
.@ the site, one person, or a team consisting of one per- roded airfoil surfaces. A change in air foil shape will
likely decrease fan efficiency. Prevent automatically
son from each of the various interests, must be put
variable pitch blades from modulating during the test.
in responsible chargeof the test and subsequent cal-
culations and results.As a first action, it is suggested
that Section 3, GuidingPrinciples,bereviewed so A.8 Insure that airseals,baffles,tipseals,etc.,as
that disagreements, if any,can be resolvedbefore originally designed are in place to avoid unexpected
testing. air leakage.

A.3 Plant operating personnel involved with the air A.9 Observe the exchanger in operation,keeping
cooled heat exchanger should be requested to report alert to hot air currents from outside sources or dis-
on.performance daily. Ask about maintenance pro- chargeairrecirculation. By agreement,eliminate
performancecharacteristics, these to the maximum extent possible.

0 process upsets, mechanical problems, and any clues

A.l O All test personnel should observethe maximum
safetyprecautionswhiletakingdata. Eachperson
A.4 A brief preliminary check of the operating proc- must stay within his assigned station to avoid inter-
ess flowand temperatureconditionsandair-side ference or possibly dangerous disruption to other test
temperatures will help determine if the heat transfer personnel. Become acquainted with safety facilities,
and pressure drop are reasonably close to expecta- escape routes, and alarm systems before undertaking
tions. Also, this may point to areas requiring special the test. Be alert to possible physical harm from hot
attention duringthe equipment inspection before for- process streams and discharge air. Insure that all re-
mal testing. quired safety and protective devices, such as fan and
belt guards, are properly installed.
A.5 The process fluid should be sampled and tested
to ensure that allof its physical and transport prop- A.ll Steady-stateconditionsaredesirableforthe
erties are within acceptable limits. mostmeaningful test results. If test personnel ob-

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ASME P T C M 3 0 91


serve transient test data, they should alert the test should be kept running in order to maintain the full
leader who should decideif testing shouldcontinue, unit air flow patterns, Potential uneven distribution
be stopped, or extended past the agreed-upon time. of flow of the process fluids mustbe considered, par-
ticularly if the process is a two-phase system. This
technique must also result in the inside-tube flow
A.12 Interchange of agreed-upon instrumentation regime being similar to the original design, ¡.e., lam-
during the test is a good technique to account for inar or turbulent, the same predicted mechanism of
individual instrument error, or to flag significant er- condensation, etc. Testing in the transition zone be-
rors. This is particularly applicable to the measure- tween laminar andturbulent flow will not be reliable.
ment of process fluid temperature and pressure at
the exchanger inlet and outlet.
A.14 Normally a performance test is run as soon as
possibleaftercleaning.However, if there is doubt
A.13 If process flow and heat load are inadequateto about the internal fouling resistance, it may be pos-
properly load all of the exchangerbays, it maybe sible to "shock"clean certain processes, while on
possible to divert theflòw by valves to a fewer num- stream, using water, steam, or solvent injection.,This
ber of bays so that the flow rate and the heat load should be arrangedin advance of the test's0 that the
per bay are closer to the design point. If this tech- proper operations personnel are available if it.appears
nique is agreedupon, the fans on inactive bays necessary to investigate the effect of such cleaning.



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ASME P T C 8 3 0 71 U O757670 0083283 9



This example is- presented to illustrate a thermal B.2.2 Tube Bundle

performancetest of an Air-CooledHeat Exchanger (a) Number per unit - 1
(ACHE), Due to the large variety of designs and ap- (b) Nominal dimensions, width X tube- length,
plications covered by the Code, this example is by no ft- 10 X 24
meanscomprehensive.Thesamplespecifications, (c) Design pressure, psig - 100
contract provisions, data sheets, data,and calcula- (d) Number of tube rows - 4
tions are not for general application,but may behelp- (e) Total number of tubes - 192
ful in formulating similar test procedures for other (0 Number of tube passes - 4
ACHE designs and applications. @ I
Number -
of tubes per pass 48
(h) Tube pitch, inches - 2.50 A
(i) Total effective heat-exchangesurface, ftz:
B.l INQUIRY (7) External surface of prime tubes - 1,206
(2) External surface of fins - 23,500
'0- An inquiry was issued to manufacturers to quote
anACHE for enginejacket-watercooling: ci, Tube description:
(7) Prime tube
Fluid to be cooled - clean water - -
(a) Material Admiralty
Circulation rate, lbm/hr 285,000 - (b) Shape - cylindrical
Inlet temperature, "F - 168.0 (c) OD,in. - 1.000
Outlet temperature, O F - 149.0 (d) ID, in. - 0.902
:Heat load, Btuhr 5,415,000 - (e) BWC wall thickness - 18 AW
Inlet pressure, psig 60 - (2) Fins
Maximum allowable pressure drop, psi - 8.0 (a) Material - Aluminum
Ambient air temperature, "F 94.0 - (b) Type - Spiral, extruded
Fouling resistance, hrfP0F/Btu: (c) Number per in. - 9
. Internal (based on prime insidesurface) - (d) Dimension - 2.40in. OD
0 External(based on prime outsidesurface) - O
(e) Root wall ID, in. - 1.000

(0 Root wall OD,in. - 1.160
Site elevation - sea level
Barometric pressure, in. Hg 29.92 -
8.2.3 Mechanical Equipment
(a) Fans
B.2SPECIFICATIONS (7) Number per unit - 2
The following specifications submittedby the suc- (2) Diameter, ft - 8
cessful vendor were accepted and made part of the (b) Gears
contract: (7) Number per unit - 2
(2) Type - right angle spiral bevel
B.2.1 General
(c) Drivers
- ACHE (7) Number per unit - 2
0 (a) Type of unit
(b) Service
- water cooling
Air flow mode - induced draft
(2) Type - electric motor
(3) Nominal size,HP - 15


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ASME P T C * 3 O '7% 0759b70 O083284 O M



Pertinent design and test data are:
Pertinentprovisions of the contractconcerning
thermal testing were:
(a) The test shall be conducted within six months Design Test
after the unit is first placed in .service. Water circulation rate, Ibm/hr 285,000 =,O00
(b) Internaland external heat transfer surfaces shall inlet water temperature, "F 168.0 160.0
be cleaned.prior to the test, Outlet water temperature, 'F 149.0 141.2
Heat load, Btu/hr 5,415,000 5,207,600
(c) A tube-side fouling resistance of 0.001 hr4tz*"F/ i . .
inlet water pressure, psig 60 57.2
Btu (based on external surface of prime tubes) shall Water pressure drop, psi 8.0 6.8
be used, Fouling on the external surface of the fins
Air flow: total Ibm/hr 578,526 540,692 Note
shall be considered zero. total SCFM 128,561 120,154
(d) Heatload from measuredprocess-sidedata total inlet ACFM 135,957 127,390
(Qi) shall be used for the test heat load, Heat load exit ACFM per fan 72,755 68,459
from measured air-side data (Qs))shall be compared Barometric pressure, in. Hg 29.92 29.73
to Q .; If the difference between Q; and Qs) is less .Air temp., 'F: Ambient DBT 94.0 91.2
Ambient WBT 75.0 76.7
than 10% of Q;, the test shall be considered valid. Inlet DBT 95.0 92.2
For determination of EMTD, the process-sidedata Inlet WBT 76.0 ?7.3
and the measured inlet air temperature shallbe used. Exit DBT 134.0 133.5
The test values of air flow rate and/or exit air tem- Air density, Ibrn/ft3: Ambient 0.07105 0.07087
perature shall be adjusted so that Q: = Qp;this ad- Inlet 0.07092 0.07074
justment shall be based on the expected accuracies Exit 0.06622 0.06578
of these two measurements. Uncorrected MTD, "F 43.23 36.60
(e) Testing and evaluation procedures shall be in MTD correction factor"F 0.99 0.99
accordance with the provisions of this Code. Corrected (effective) MTD, "F 42.80 36.24
(0 The test overall heat transfer rate shallbe com- Overall heat transfer coefficient:

puted from the test data, using Eq. (5.14).
Service 104.91 119.1 SN"" '
Drive-output power perfan, HP 10.20 11.40
@ For adjustment of the test data to design con-
ditions, Eq. (5.35) shall be used. (I) calculated
(h) For this example the air film is expected to be (2) based on external surface of prime tubes
the major resistance; therefore, the test value of //h,
shall be established by deducting the summationof
the remaining resistances from the overall resistance. loads are equal. The
capability will then be computed
(i) The process-side pressuredrop predicted atde- from
sign water circulation rate AP+ shall be computed
from Test Capacity
Percent Capability = x 100
Ap+ = (P) (E?)""" (B.1)
Design Capacity


Thermal performance capabilitywill be expressed The following stepwise procedure is presented to
in terms of test capacity; that is, the actual quantity clarify the order of the performance calculations:
of process fluid the ACHE will handle at design con- (a) From the test data calculate heat loads from
ditions of fluid inlet and outlet temperatures, fluid both process-side and air-side measurements. Com-
inlet pressure, fluid composition, air inlet tempera- pare the two values to determine whetheror not the
ture, and fan power. test is valid [See para. B.3(dj of this Example]. Adjust
This will require an iterative or graphical solution, W" to W + so that Q: = Q,.
since test capacity, inside film resistance, and effec- (b) Compute test value of EMTD.
tive mean temperature difference are all unknown. (c) Calculate test value of v,
The test capacity flow rate, W + / will be assumed, and (d) Calculate test values of all resistances, deter-
the heatloadcalculatedindependently from Eqs. mining air film resistance by difference.
(5.7)and(5.14).Values of W+ will be re-assumed (e) Adjust test air flow rate and test airfilm resist-
and thecomputationsrepeated until the two heat ance to designfanpoweranddesign air density.

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(0 Assume a value of W+, and compute Q from Heat balançe check:

Eq. (5.7).
- O0P x 100 = 5,406,456 - 5,207,600 x ,oo
= (W') (C.,' (Tt - Tz) (8.2) Q", 5,207,600

(g, Computetrialvalue of EMTD, basedon as- = 3.82%

sumed value of W+, (process side) adjustedW + (air
side), and calculated t:. Therefore, test heat balance is within permissible
(h) Calculate adjusted value of inside film resist- limits. At this point responsible parties to the test
ance. Unless test data differs markedly from design, agreed that exit air temperature measurement was
Eq. (5.39) may be reduced to more accurate than air flow rate measurement; there-
fore, air temperatures EMTD"
for calculation were not
adjusted. Process-side heat loadQ i was used forthe
analysis, and measured airflow rate adjusted for heat
(i) Compute trial value of U: from Eq. (5.35).
ci, Calculate Q+ from Eq. (5.14): Q: = UTA, adjusted W" = 540,692 X
= 520,805 Ibmhr
(EMTD), 5,406,456
(U Repeat steps ( f ) through (j) until the values of
Q+ from steps ( f ) and (j) are equal, Graphical or in- Test EMTD:
terpolation procedure may be used to expedite this
trial-and-error solutionof W+.
'(0 Calculate the capability of the ACHE, using the x = 16O.O"F

c = 141.2"F
percent capability = - x 100 (B.4j

(m) Calculate the predicted process-side pressure

c= 92.2"F
drop from the equation

..(a) 1.80
ti = 133.5"F
APp' = (8.5)

(141.2 - 92.2) - (160.0 - 133.5)
In -

= 36.605"F
Test heat load: Correction factor:

- t2 - ti = 133.5 - 92.2 -- 0.6091

Tl - tl 160.0 - 92.2
= (277,000) (127.89 - 109.09) = 5,207,600 Btu/hr - T, -- 160.0 - 141.2 = 0.4552
R = - Tl
t2 - tl 133.5 - 92.2

Q," = wOcPaAto (B. 7) F = 0.99

= (540,692) (0.2421) (1 33.5 - 92.2) = 5,406,456 Btu/hr EMTD" = 36.605 X 0.99 = 36.24"F

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ASME P T C * 3 O 91 W 0 7 5 9 6 7 0 ODt1328b 4 m


Unadjusted test U:
Inside film resistance = -
c =(A,)(EMTD")
-QZ. - (1206)(36.24) = 119.15 Btu/hr.ft2"F
-. = 0.0007361 hrft2."F/Btu

Test process fluid film resistance:

Inside fouling resistance = (Rp,)
= 0.001 O000 hr.ft2*OF/Btu
[see para. B.3(c)]

(E$$) ( Outside fouling resistance = (Rto)(:) =O

' Btu [see para. B.3(c)l

ki = 0.386

Dq = 0.902/12 = 0.0751 7 ft
Prime. wall conduction resistance= A r In (rPJp,)
2 T L N kpw

v,. =
.I 8)
= 21,256 Whr
For the configuration used in this Example the pre-
ceding equation reduces to:

p i = 61 .I8 Ibm/ft3 '

Prime wall conduction resistance =

rpo In (rp,lJp,)

p; = 0.455 X 2.42 = 1,1011 -
hrft 0.50
-In -
- 12 0.451 =. 0.0000672 hrft2."F/Btu
cip= 1.O0 Btu/lbm OF

Bond conduction resistance

Ibm = 0.0000100 hrft2*"F/Btu (from manufacturers' data)
piw = 0.480 X 2.42 = 1.I61 6 -


Fin root wall conduction resistance = Ar In (rR,lrRlj

21,256 X 0.0751 7 X 61.18 2.rrLNkR
h; =
1 ( 1.101

Simplifying, = rRIIn (rRJrR)

I .I 01 I X I kR
0.386 (I1.1616
,101 I)'.'~

- In -
= (0.11811) (9091.7) (1;4133) (0.9925) - l2
= 0.0000529 hrftZe0F/Btu
= 1506.2 Btu/hr.ft2eoF 117



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Equivalentconvectionandconductionresistance Trial-and-error solutionfor W + :

of the fin =
Trial No. 1: assume W + = 288,000 Ibm/hr
" 0.0007361 - 0.0010000 - 0.0000000 Q' (288,000) (1.00) (168.0- 149.0)
- 0.0000672 - 0.0000100 - 0.0000529
= 5,472,000 Btuthr

= 0.0065266 hr&."FIBtu Ata = 5,472,000/(502,012 X 0.240) = 45.02"F

t2 = rl + At, = 95.0 + 45.02 = 140.02"F

Summary of unadjusted test resistances:
... .. .. . ...,,..,...,...,,..0.0007361 - (168.0 - 140.02)
(149.0 - 95.0)
inside film , , ., . Trial EMTD =
inside fouling ..,. .....,..,........ .......0.001 O000 54.0
.. .....,........ .......O.OOOOOOO
outside fouling.. ,,
prime wall .... ... .... .....,.............0.0000672-
bond , ........ ... . .......,,...,....... 0.00001 O0
,,, ,
fin root wall.. , . .. . .........................0.0000529 X 0.99 = 39.18"F
air film ,....... ......................... ...0.0065266
Z R = 0.0083928
Adjusted inside film resistance:

y = IER = 1/0.0083928 = 119.15 Btu/hrftz*"F R

: = 0.0007361 (-)"" = 0.0007135

Summary of adjusted test resistances:

inside film .................... .
Adjusted test airflow rate: .. . . .
inside fouling ..., ..,........ ........ ..0.0010000
.... .. ... .. .. ..
outside fouling.. . ... . ... .. ..O.OOOOOOO

W+ = W" (z) ($ 10.7 U3

. .. . .. ... .
prime wall ... .., .., .. ....... .....0.0000672
... ... . .. .. . . . ... .. ...
bond . ... ... .. . . . . . ,. 0.00001 O0
fin root wall. ... ... ... ....... .. . . ...
.. .. . .. .0.0000529
. . . ... . .. . .. .
air film ,... .. .... . .... .. .... .. .0.0066917
SR = 0.0085353

=520,805(Er(-) = 502,012 Ibm/hr

U,? = IER = 117.16


NOTE: The value Qf W" in this calculation is the test airflowrate

adjusted for heat balance.
Q+ = (11 7.16) (1206) (39.18) = 5,535,960 Btu/hr

Adjusted test airfilm resistance: Trial No. 2: assume W+ = 290,000 Ibm/hr

Q' = (290,000) (1.00)(168.0 - 149.0)

= 0.006691 h~fP"WBtu = 5,510,000 Btu/hr


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ASME PTC830 91 = 0759670 0083288 8

Afa = 5,510,000/(502,012 x 0.2421) = 45.33"F EMTD = 38.98"F

t2 = 95.0 + 45.33 = 140.33"F

Adjusted R,+ = 0.0007361
- = 0.0007095

Trial EMTD =
1 In
27.67 1 Adjusted ZR = 0.0085313

X 0.99 = 38.98"F Adjusted :

U = 11 7.22

Adjusted R;' = 0.0007361

(- = 0.0007096
Q+ = (117.22) (1206) (38.98) = 5,510,498 Btu/hr

Adjusted ZR = 0.0085314 By interpolation, W+ = 290,022 Ibm/hr

Percent Capability =- X 100
Adjusted U: = 117.21 W*
=-290'022 x 100 = 101.76 %
Q+ = (117.21) (1206) (38.98) = 5,510,231 Btuhr
Process-side pressure drop:
Trial No. 3: assume W + = 290,022 Ibm/hr
A!$($y" e) 1.a

Q+ = (290,022) (1.00) (19.0) = 5,510,513 Btu/hr

Af'l'= = 6.8( 285 O00 = 7.1 6 psi

Ata = 5,510,513/(502,012 X 0.2421) = 45.34"F

Since the allowable pressure drop (as stated in the
inquiry) is 8.0 psi, the unit passed the pressure drop
t2 = 95.0 + 45.33 = 140.34"F criterion.


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ASME P T C * I O 91 0759670 8083289 T


ThisAppendixprovidesanexampleuncertainty C.2 DEFINITION OF LETTER SYMBOLS
analysis for an Air Cooled Heat Exchanger (ACHE),
Special letter symbolsareused in this Appendix
using the methodology describedin ASME PTC 19.1-
which do not appear elsewhere ip the Code. The def-
1985. Theexample is for apost-testuncertainty
initions for these symbols are:
analysis, using the designandtestvalues forthe
Bij = the upper limit of the bias error for param-
enginejacket-watercoolerexampledescribed in
Appendix B. eter ]
Sij = the precision index for parameter j
t,,,, = the Student4 statistic,determinedfrom
C.1 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS APPROACH tabular data for a degrees of freedom, v,
and a 95 percent coverage
The exampleuses the following step-wiseap- = the overall uncertainty of result, r, for a 95
proach, as prescribed in para. 4.2 of PTC 19.1: percent coverage
(a) Define MeasurementProcess. The equations = the degree of freedom for parameter i,.
used in computingsthe test results àre listed. From used in.evaluating the precision error
these equations, the independent measurement pa- 3 = sensitivityfactor which functionallyre-
rameters are identified. These equations also provide lates a change in an independent param-
the basis for developing the sensitivity factors for eter ] to the change in the result
each parameter. The sensitivity factorsare the func-
tional relationships betweeneach independent mea-
@ surementparameterand the testresult.
. (b) Calculate Bias and PrecisionError Estimates. The C.3 DEFINEMEASUREMENTPROCESS
bias and precision error estimates are determined for Thereare two results calculated for the test ex-
each independent parameter. Typical values for each ample in Appendix B - Capability and Process-Side
bias and precision error estimate are providedin this Pressure Drop. The development of sensitivity factors
example, The analysis procedurefor developing these for each of these results will be illustrated.
values is not demonstrated in this example, but is
addressed in great detail in PTC 19.1,
(c) Propagate the Bias andPrecisionErrors. Using C.3.1 Capability. Theequationsused to compute
the sensitivity factors and thebias and precision val- capability in Appendix B are repeated herein.
ues for each independentparameter, the biasand Recalling that the process-side heat load, Q; , was
precision errors are propagated separately. used for the analysis, the following are the calcula-
(d) CalculateUncertainty. The bias andprecision tions for capability:
errorsandcombined into an overalluncertainty

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ASME P T C * 3 0 91 m 0757670 U 0 8 3 2 9 0 b m


EMTD" = 0.99 X
(C - t3 - (C -
R, = Inside Film + inside Fouling + Outside Fouling
+ Prime Wall + Bond + Fin Root Wall + Air Film
From Appendix B
NOTE: A constant value of 0.99 is used for the Temperature Cor-
rection Factor, F. Referringto Fig. 5.7 for the test conditionsof the RT = R', + 0.0010 + 0.0000 + 0.0000672
Temperature Difference Ratio,R, and the Thermal Effectiveness,P,
the value of F is nearly constant at 0.99 over a wide range of P
+ 0.00001 + 0.0000529 + R:
and R values.

n o
RT + R: + R: + 0,0011301

U; =. (C.12)
$'= - - 0.0007361 - 0.0010000 - O R,' + Rp+ + 0.001 1301
- 0.0000672 - 0.0000100 - 0.0000529

R,"=-- '
0.001 8662 (C.4)

CAPABILITY (%) = ($) 1O0

X (C.14)
NOTE: The other calculated resistancevalues, (0.0018662 = the
sum of the resistancesof the inside film, inside fouling. prime wall,
etc,) are taken as constants because of the negligible changes in
thesevalues for theexpectedmagnitudes of themeasure-
ment errors.
The next step is to identify the independent param-
eters which appear in the preceding equations, and
then to develop a setof equations which functionally
relate the independent parameters to the Capabiiity
(Le., determine the sensitivity factors). Thefirst part
of this task is accomplished by simply listing all the
R: = R'(5) 0.681
parameters which appear in the equations, and elim-
inating all constants and all calculated parameters. All
design values are considered constants for the pur-
pose of the uncertainty analysis.
In reviewing the remaining parameters, it
essary to ascertain if all of these parameters are, in
fact, independent. To do this, it is necessary to review
the calculationsandcorrections, if any, thatwere
used in determining these values. In this case, the air
flow rate, wo, is found not to be an independent pa-
rameter. The air flow rate was determined by a ve-
locity traverse at the discharge of each of the fans;
however, by agreement, the mass flow rate of the air
wasbased on a heat balance calculation for use in
computing the test results. The equation for this com-
putation was


R', = R'(")W+ (Cl 1) (C.15)


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. - ~.

~~ ~

ASME PTCs30 93 rn 0759b70 0083293 8



e The final list of independentvariablesthenbe-


TG T;, W, WBT;, t,' g, hp",and B".

As described in para. 2.7 of PTC 19.1, the sensitiv-
ity factorcanbedeveloped in either of two ways: Likewise, therelative(dimensionless)sensitivity
(a) When there are known mathematical relation- factors, etApmand are
determined by
ships betweenthe result and the independent param-
the 6AP,'/AP,'
analytically by partial
differentiation of the
equations. efmp'p= 6A P J A c = 1
(b) When no mathematical relationshipis available
O or when differentiation is.difficult, the sensitivity fac-
tors by taking finite SAP;JAP,'
increments of each of the parameters and determin- e;, = 6W/W = - 1 . 8
ing the effectof the incremental changeon the result
by using the data reduction calculation procedure.
For the Capability calculations, mathematical re-
lationships are established, as demonstrated by the
listed equations; however, thereisno closed solution
for these equations. The result must be determined Tables C.2 and C.3 provide listings of the bias er-
by an iterationschemebetween Eqs.
(C.7) and rors, the precision error estimates, and the degrees
(C.? 3). As a result, it is more practical and convenient of freedom associatedwith each independent param-
to use anumericalsolutionapproach in this case eter used in computing the capability and the proc-

a (assuming thereis access to a co-mputer).

The numerical development of the sensitivity fac-
tors for each of the independent parameters are pro-
ess-side pressure drop. As described previously, PTC
19.1 provides detailed instructions on the determi-
nation of the error terms. The values providedin Ta-
vided in Tables C.1a and C.l b. For each independent bles C.2 and C.3 are values which could typically be
parameter, positiveandnegativeincrementsare achieved usingtheproceduresandmethods de-
added to the testvalues, with the incremental values scribed in this Code. The uncertainty values and the
being approximately equalto the expected precision degrees of freedom associated with the precision in-
and bias error values, Capability is determined step- dices are based on the assumption that a computer-
wise foreach incremental change. The sensitivity fac- based data acquisition system, with system accura-
tor for each parameter is calculated as the change in cies in accordance with Section 4, was used to ac-
Capability divided by the positive or negative incre- quire the temperature data andthe measurement of
mental value. Positive and negative incremental val- process flow rate,Theotherdata - air flow rate,
ues are usedto determine the degreeof non-linearity barometric pressure,fanhorsepower,andprocess-

o in thesensitivityfactoraroundthetestvalue.
The Table results show the
final solution for each
side pressure drop - were acquired manually using
instrumentation of the accuracies specifiedin Section
4. Thedegrees of freedom, which aredetermined
from the numberof readings and the number of mea-
surement points, are based on a typical one-hour test.
C.3.2 Process-Side Pressure Drop, The equation for It should be emphasized that the values for preci-
the calculation of the process-side pressure dropis
sion and bias error for each of the independent pa;
rameters listed in TablesC.2 and C.3 are the result
(C.? 6) ofpropagating all the identifiableelementalerror
sources. These values are provide$ for example pur-
poses only. The actual bias and precision error values
In this case, there is a convenient mathematical aredependent on theparticular ACHE tested, the
relationship between the result, AP.,, and the inde- number and typeof instruments, the calibration pro-
O pendent parameters, AP' and W4 The absolute (di-
mensional)sensitivity factors, ,aredetermined by
cedures used, the length of thetest, the constancyof
the test conditions, and the ambient conditions at the
partial differentiation of Eq. (C.16) by time of the test.
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ASME P T C * 3 O 71 W 0757670 0083274 3 ’


Bias limit Precision
Degrees of Freedom
Sensitivity Factors
Parameter (Bi 1 (Si 1 (v) (0) [Note (111

T 0.05 0.006 59 4.61 14

c 0.1o 0.013 58 6.3521
W 2.5 0.25 59 1 .O229
t; ’ 0.25 0.63 58 1.7590
WBT 0.25 0.50 58 0.0392
e 0.3 0.47 56 0.0523
W 0.2 0.08 7 2.5141
Bo 0.01 0.012 ’ 3 1.7629
(1) Reported from Tables and C.l b.

C.5 PROPAGATETHEPRECISION AND BIAS Evaluating Èq. (C.18) with the values in Table C.2,
Si, : (4.61 x 0.006)2= 0,000766
C.5.1 Capability. The bias limit of the result, Bicap,
is computed using the equation Si, : (6.3521 x 0.013)’ = 0.006819
siw : (i.0299 X 0.25)~= 0.066293
Sip, : (1.7590X 0.63)2= 1.228041
SiwBq : (0.0392 x 0.50)2= 0.000384
Si., : (0.0523 X 0.47)’= 0.0006ó4
Sihp.: (2.5141 X 0.08)2 = 0.040452
Si, : (1.7629 X 0.012)’ = 0.000448
Evaluating Eq. (C.1 7)with the values in Table C.2,
XSi’ = 1.343807
Bi, : (4.61 14 X 0.05)2 = 0.053163 Si-,, = ‘1.I 592
Bi, : (6.3521 X 0.10)2 = 0.403492
Bi, : (1.0299 x 2.5)’ = 6.629338 Since not all the degrees of freedom given in Table
Biti : (1.7590 x 0.2512= 0.193380 C.2 are greater than 30, the degrees of freedom for
BiwBq : (0.0392 x 0.25)’ = 0.000096 the result,ucap,are computed accordingto the Welch-
Bici : (0.0523 X 0.312= 0.000246 Satterthwaite formulas, as
Bihp. : (2.5141 x 0.21’ = 0.252828
Bi, : (1,7629x 0.01)2 = 0.000311
XBi2 F: 7.532854

Bicep = 2.745 (C.19)

The precisionindex of theresult, Sicap, is com-

puted using the equation Applying the values of Table C.2 to Eq. (C19 )

rN 1


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Bias Umit Precision Index Degrees of Freedom
Parameter (Bi 1 (Si 1 (4 (e)
W 2,s 1.7 59 1
Ae 0.05 0.063 11 1.a

!! = 0.02631
1-1 v/

1.8058 - 69
v*= 0.02631 -
Evaluating Eq. (C.21) with the values in Table C.3,

C.5.2 Process-Side Pressure Drop. The relative bias

limit of the result, Biu; is computed using theequa-
SÍD; = [ (1 X 0.017)' + (1.8 X F)]

SÍ,+ = 0.0238

Si,+ = 7.16 X 0.0238 = 0,170 psi

B( = -
i The degrees of freedom of the result, uAP+,,is de-
termined usingEq. (C.19)and the valuesin Table C.3
Evaluating Eq. '(C.20) with the values in Table C.3, as,

BÍ,: = [ (1 X 0,025)2+ (1.8 X a)] 1fl

= 0.0283
v + =
= 38

(1xo.o17)4 I
59 ' 11

From Appendix B,

AP; = 6.8 psi

The overall uncertainty in the result for a 95 per-
Up= 7.16 psi cent coverage, is defined by,

BÍ,+ = 0,0283.
Un,,,, = [Bi2, + (tSi,)2]1n (C.22)

The overall uncertainties

are evaluated accordingly,
or, Bi&; = BÍ&,+ x AP; = 0.0283 x 7.16 = 0.202 psi
The relative precision index of the result, Si,,; is
[2.745a + (2
ucap,Rss= X 1.1592)2]1'2= 3.59 percent

computed using U,P+,,~ = [0.202'+ (2 X 0.1 70)']ln = 0.395 psi


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Degrees of Degrees of
Freedom t Freedom t
1 12.706 16 2.120
2 4.303 17 2.110
3 3.182 18 '2.101
4 2.776 19 2.093
5 2.571 20 2.086
6 2.447 21 2.080
7 2.365 22 2.074
8 2,306 23 2,069
9 2.262 24 2.064
10 2.228 25 2.060
11' 2.201 26 2,056
12 2.1 79 27 2.052
13 2.1 60 28 2.048
14 2.145 29 2,045
15 2.131 30 or more use 2.0
GENERAL NOTE: Table gives values o f t such that from - t to + t the area included is 95%.

where the value of the Student-f statistic, t, is deter-

mined from tabular data for the degrees of freedom
(70 for capability and
38 for AF';), and fora coverage
of 95 percent (see Table C.41,t'is equal to 2.
The results ofAppendix B example are stated as

E S T CAPABILI'IY = 101.8 percent k3.6 percent


APp' = 7.16 psi k0.41 psi

As discussed previously, the Appendix B example

indicates a contractual specification that the air flow
rate, used in the calculations of the test capability,
would be determined using a heat balance calculation
as defined in Eq. (C.15).Presumably, such an agree-
ment would be based on a preliminary uncertainty
analysis. As a check of this approach, an uncertainty
analysis was also conducted based on using the mea-
sured air flow rate (Le., the air flow rate calculated
from the exit air velocity traverses)in the calculation
of thetest capability.Theresults of thisanalysis

TEST CllPABILlN = 103.4 percent -k4.0 percent


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ASME P T C * 3 O 91 O759670 0083297 9





D.1 INTRODUCTORY COMMENT highly unpredictable and is very strongly influenced

The adiustmentoftube-side heat transferandpres-
by entrance disturbances and flow maldistribution.
In turbulent flow, it is necessary to take wall rough-
sure drob data taken during a test compared to the
ness into account. New tubesmay be considered
design conditions is complicated by the many differ-
smooth, and a good representation of that curve over
ent combinationsof flow regime, heat transfer proc-
the Reynolds number range from 10,000 to 100,000
ess and streamcomposition that canexist on the tube
is credited to Blasius (Ref. 191) and given here as Eq.
side. The common case of single phaseturbulent flow
is dealt with in paras. 5.9.2 and 5.9.3. But laminar
flows and iondensing applications require different
correlations and particularly greater attention to the
details of the problem, an_dthis Appendix offers some
guides for analyzing these problems. For some of

cases encountered, particularly in the process indus-
@ tries, more complex, usually
computer-based, pro- Older tubesmay be considerablyroughenedby
Some of these casesare corrosion or depositsand relative roughness up
identified below and references to the pertinent lit- to €/Dj= 0.003 may be encountered in practice.
' erature are given. For flows that would normally be laminar, various
types of twisted tapes, springs and solid cores may
be inserted into the tube in order to disturb theflow
and increase the heat transfer rate. The devices are
D.2 FLUIDWITH NO PHASE CHANGE variously termed turbulators, retarders, or accelera-
tors, and they inevitably increase the pressure drop
D.2.1 Pressure Drop. Pressure drop due to friction
for single phase flow inside tubes may be estimated also. There are no general correlations applicableto
from the Moody-Darcy friction factor chart(Ref. 1811, all geometries, and the manufacturer of a particular
devicemustusuallybereliedupon to supplythe
.given hereas Fig. D.l The pressure drop due to fric-
pressure drop and heat transfer correlations.
tion, APf, is related to the friction, factor, fM, by
An additional pressure drop is encountered at the
entrance to the tube due to the increase in kinetic
energy of the fluid and the frictional losses associated
with the expansion from the vena contracta and the
formation of the fully-developed velocity profile. A
The abscissa of Fig. D.l is the Reynolds number of reasonable estimate of this loss is 1-1/2 to 2 velocity
the tube-sidefluid: heads for eachpass,based on the velocity in the

APent=. n 03.4)

The region of discontinuity (Re; from 21O0 to about

7000) betweenthelaminarand turbulent regimes is where n = 1.5 to 2 and APentis entrance pressure drop.


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N er


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The total tube-side pressure drop is the sum of APf For fully developed turbulent flow (Rei > approx-
and APent. Nozzleandheaderlossesmayneed to be imately 7,000), there areseveralgoodcorrelations
separately considered. available. For general use, the Petukhov-Popov equa-
.The properties used in these equations and those tion,Eq.(D.61,(Ref. [I 311, is regarded as .the most
in the following paragraphs are usually evaluated at accurate but it is not in convenient form for ratioing
the arithmetic mean bulk temperature on the tube changes in velocity, for example,
side, except for pp,,, which is evaluated atthe inside
wall temperature at the point where thefluid reaches

its arithmetic mean bulk temperature.

D.2.2 Heat Transfer. The appropriate heat transfer

0 correlation to use depends upon whether theflow is

turbulentorlaminar. For laminar flow (Rei c 2100),
many different 'correlations and analytical treatments
have been given in the literature. Reference [ I O ] is
the most comprehensive.and up-to-datesource. The
Hausen equation (Ref. [Ill, [I211 is widely recom- where the subscript t indicates turbulent.
mended in the literature to represent the major ef- Theviscosityratioterm hasbeenadded to the
fects in laminar flow: above equation here. The Moody-Darcy friction fac-
tor, fM,in Eq. (D.6) can be calculated from Eq. (D.3).
TheSieder-Tateequation, Eq. (D.7),Ref.[4], is
usuallyadequate for air cooler applications and is
more convenient for adjustments of tube side con-

0.0668( y)(
F) ditions:

3.65 +
,+o.o4[ (?)(y)(?)]
Forwater, Figs. D.2aandD.2btaken from Kern
(Ref.[141),are very easy to use.FiguresD.2aand
.(E)"' (D.5)
sional equation:
by the following dimen-

a where fi,,Lis the mean inside heat transfer coeffi-

cientforlaminar flow in atube of length L.
Examination of Eq. (D.5)reveals thatforsmall where (h,),. = I .70 (loo + T ) V;, (D.8b)
L, 6 is proportional to L"/3, where L is the length of
the tube. This is due to the development of an ad-
verse temperature gradientas a resultof the conduc- . ,
and C = 0.911 - 0.429 log,,D, (D&)
tive heat transfer in the fluid. As mentioned above,
various devices may be inserted into the tube in order
to break up this gradient by disturbing the boundary where T is the mean water temperature in "F, V,, the
layer or by fdrcing theflow tobecome turbulent. No tube inside water velocity in feetpersecond,and
general correlations are available for all such devices, Dlthe inside tube diameter in inches.
and specific correlations for eachtype should be ob-

0 tained from thevendorandtheirinterpretation

agreedupon prior to thetest.
The dimensions of hi are then Btu/hr.ft*."F, and h;
is based upon the inside area of the tube.


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For transition flow (2100 < Re, 7,000), no ac- vapor with no liquid present has a quality of 1.00,
curate predictions are possible because of the slow- and a totally condensed stream at its boiling point or
ness with which fully-developed velocity and thermal bubble point has a quality of zero.
profiles are achieved and becauseof the strong effect Estimates can be made of the frictional loss using
of the entrance flow geometry. An estimate can be the work of Martinelli andNelson (Ref. [151). The
made by linearly interpolating between the laminar frictional pressure dropthrough the tube for the con-
flow heat transfercoefficient, ,obtainedfrom Eq. densing flow entering as a saturated vapor(x, = 1.O),
(D.5) and the turbulent flow result, h,, , obtained and exiting at a qualityof x, is found from
from Eq. (D.6) or (D.7)) using the equation: -
i APP,TPF = 43P,,Y (D,10)
h, = KL t (h,,, - 7j;.L I( Re' - 2100
4900 ) where TPF indicates two-phase flow and APp,v is the
pressure dropcalculatedfrom Eq. (D.?) assuming
that theflow is all vapor and no,condensation occurs.
for 2100 c Re,< 7000 0.9) The mean two-phasemultipying factor, P,,,is read
from Fig. D.3 as a function of the exit qualityand the
reduced pressure of the vapor,
Any calculation in this range must be regarded as J

highly uncertain.

P, = - (D.11)

where P is the absolute pressure of the condensing

D.3 SINGLE COMPONENT CONDENSATION vapor and PCr is the absolute critical pressure of the
D.3.1 GeneralComment. The condensation of a vapor being condensed. P and P,, must be in con-
single (pure) component can usually be considered sistent units, usually psia.
to be carried out at nearlyconstantpressureand The other two pressure effectsthat need to be con-
therefore at nearly constant temperature. However,' sidered in condensation are the momentum and hy-
the details of the condensation process are not fully drostatic contributions. Momentum effects arisefrom
understood, and the correlations correspondinglyare the deceleration of the vapor as it condenses; in prin-
not very precise, Coefficients for condensing steam ciple, this results in a pressure 'recovery. However,
or ammonia are so high (in the absence of non-con- this recovery is usually at least partially offsetby in-
densablegas) that this uncertainty hardly matters.' creased friction losses in the liquid film. ln design, it
-, Howbver,coefficients for other substances(such as is usually conservativeto neglect any pressure recov-
propane or other light and medium hydrocarbons), ery that may occur. However, in analyzing the per-
while generally quite good, may be, comparable to formance of aunit, this pressurerecoverymay
the air side when the area ratio is taken into account. explain, at least partly, why the pressure drop is less
The heat transfer correlations givenbelow are accu- than that expected.
rate enough for most purposes. Prediction of pres-, The hydrostatic pressure effect arises only for ver-
sure drop in two-phase flow is very uncertain; errors tical or inclined tubes. The hydrostatic pressure effect
up to a factor of five are possible. results in an increase in the pressure atthe lowerend
of the tube.compared to a similar horizontal tube.
D.3.2 Pressure Drop. Pressure drop calculations in Accounting for this effect requires detailed calcula-
two phase flows in principle require thestep by step tions of the local density of the two-phase mixture
integration of local conditions, coupledwith the heat and is often(conservatively) omitted in condenser
transfer rate to estimate the rate at which the vapor design.
is being condensed. The total pressure effect is the
algebraic sum of the frictional, momentum, ,and hy- D.3.3 Heat Transfer Coefficients

drostatic effects, of which the first is usually of the

greatest concern. Animportant parameter is the qual- D.3.3.1 Horizontal Tubes. At low condensing rates
ity ofthe flow, which is defined as the mass flow rate inside horizontal tubes, the condensate flows down
of the vapor phase only, divided by the total mass the wallsof the tubeinto a pool at the bottom of the
flow rate of both vapor andliquid phases. A saturated tube, which then drains by gravity out of the end of


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1 .o 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
Velocity Through Tubes, ft/sec

GENERAL NOTE: This chart applies only to a tube 0.62 inside diameter kg., 3/4 in. X 16 BWG).
For other diameters, refer to Fig. D.2b.




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'i *I

5 1.0
U ,


E0 0.9

0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Inside Diameter of Tube, in.
1.5 2.0

GENERAL NOTE: Multiply the value obtained from Fig. D.2a by the above factor.
. .


the tube. Kern's modification (Ref. [I411of Nusselt's and ß is found as a function of I$? in Fig. D.4. The
equation (Ref. 1161) may be used to calculate the Chaddock correlationcorrectsthehorizontaltube
coefficient in this case: Nusselt equation for the relative amount of surface
blanketed by thestratified pool of liquid (through
r i113
which no heat transfer is assumed to occur).
At higher condensing rates, all or a portion of the
L -I
tube may be in annular two-phase flow, in which a
turbulent liquid film covers the entire inner surface
of the tube. A convenient correlation forthis regime
is due to Boyko and Kruzhilin (Ref. [18J).
In this equation, L is the length of the tube and W ,
is the pounds of vapor condensed pertube per hour.
If a U-bend tubeis used, L is the combined lengthof
both straight sections and the U bend.
A more rigorous equation used for low condensing
rates is the Chaddock correlation (Ref. [I 71):

where, In this equation, G, is the mass velocity of the con-

densing stream


- 5.06 X 10-4
)LrT,,, -7-J"'


L -I

r 1114

where W,, is the pounds of vapor entering each tube.

L J per hour.



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Also, Asthe condensing load increases above the point

at which thecondensate film becomes turbulent
(which occurs when Re, = 4W, l p L P ~ D>2000),
i the
Colburncorrelation (Ref. [20]) becomesvalid.The
Colburn correlation may be represented graphically
as in Fig. D.5 or analytically by Eq. (D.16):

where x, and x, are the inlet and exil qualities of the where Pr,,p = cp81,pp1*p
stream,. 'respectively, For the special and important
case of totalcondensation of asaturatedvapor
stream, the term in brackets in Eq. (D.14a) reduces Again, research is showing that the transitionfrom
to: laminar to turbulent flow is not as abrupt as,sug-
gested by Fig. D.5 and the actual coefficients in the
transition regime are higher than shown for Rei from
(D.14e) perhaps 800 to 3000.
If the condensing load (or moreexactly, the vapor
flow) is sufficientlyhigh, vapor shear effects cause an
The correlationsof Kern and Chaddock are valid at early transition to turbulence in the condensate film
and a sharp increase in the heat transfer coefficient.
0 low vapor flow rates, where gravity dominates the
flow pattern,andareinvalidat high vapor flow rates,
. wherevaporsheardominates.TheBoyko-Kruzhilin
tion given above, Eq. (D.14a) et seq., becomes valid.
correlation operates in exactly the opposite fashion. Again, a conservative and simple procedure for esti-
Comparisonof the fundamentalbases for each equa- mating a condensing coefficient for vertical tubes is
tion indicates that the correlationwhich is valid under to calculate the. coefficient by all threeequations,
a given set of conditions gives a higher heat transfer (D.14), (D.15), and (D.161,andselectthe highest
coefficient than the invalid correlation. Therefore, to coefficient.
determine which type of correlation is applicable in D.3.3.3 Inclined Tubes.Very fewdatahavebeen
a given situation, one may calculate the coefficient published on condensation in downward flow inside
by each method and select the higher.value. In the inclined tubes, though proprietary data and correla-
transition region where the correlations cross, the ac-
tions exist. It is reported that the condensing coeffi-
tual coefficients are found to be greater than those
cient increases significantly (compared to a vertical
predicted by either type of correlation. The values of
tube) in a tube which is inclined from 1 deg. to 20
6, calculated by theseequationsaremeanvaluesfor deg. from the vertical. As the inclination moves to-
the entire tube. Calculation of the local values is be-
ward the horizontal, the coefficient changes toward
yond the scope of this standard;Ref. I191 may be
that for a horizontal tube.
consulted as a typical example.
Nilsson (Ref. [21]) has shown that a very slight (1
to 2 deg.) upward inclination in a horizontal tube can
D.3.3.2 Vertical Tubes. Nusselt (Ref. [I611 also ob- cause substantial reduction in the condensation heat
tained an equation for Condensation under laminar transfer coefficient, presumably because of excessive
condensate film conditions in vertical tubes (corre- pooling of the liquid in the lower end of the tube.
spondinggenerally to low condensingrates).This
equation is
D.3,4 Mean Temperature Difference for Saturated
I- 1113
PureComponentCondensation. Themean tem-
perature difference for condensation of a saturated
pure vapor, assuming a constant overall heat transfer


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-ASME P T C * 3 0 91 O759670 0083304 2 '




t- 8 9:


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A S I E PTC*30 71 O757670 0083305 4


O 1 .o0







O. 65

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
*", radians


coefficient, and constant saturation temperature, is sure existing in the vapor space. In this case, it has
given by: been shown that the above-referenced equationsfor
condensing a saturated vapor adequately predict the
EMTD = LMTD = ,t -G \ (D.17) heat transfer rate on the vapor side, if the saturation
temperature of the vapor is used as the process fluid
temperature in Eq. (D.17). It is necessary to include

c where TSatis thesaturationtemperature of thecon-

densing vapor.
in the heat load the sensible heat of cooling the va-
por,even though its temperature is ignored in cal-
culating the EMTD.
If the sutface is above the saturation temperature,
The EMTD under these conditions is independent
the vapor will cool sensibly by the usual single phase
of flow arrangement. It should be noted that in fact
convectiveprocess until it reaches a temperature
the local condensing coefficients do vary with local
such that the wall does become wet. In principle, it
quality, but the effect on the overall coefficient is
is only necessary to follow the cooling of the vapor
. ordinarily small. Consideration of these effects is in and the wall temperature until the wall reaches sat-
any case beyond the scope of this-document.
uration - temperature and then follow the procedure
given in the previous paragraph.
D.3.5 SuperheatedVapors. A superheatedvapor However, such local vaporcooling calculations are
will condense directly from the superheated stateon tedious because the vaportemperaturechanges
a surface that is even slightly (perhaps 0.01"F)below alongeachtubeand theairtemperature changes
the saturation temperature of the vapor at the pres- across each row of tubes as well as along each tube.


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ASME PTC*130 I0 7 5 9 6 7 0 008330b b E !
91 .

ASME PTC 30-1991



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ASME PTC*30 71.W 0757670 0083307 8


Reference i221 shows that the heat transfefflux for These calculationsrequirevapor-liquid equilibrium
cooling a superheated vapor must be higher than the and enthalpy calculations that are usually computer-
condensing flux if the wall is to remain dry. Therefore, based and supplied by the customer. Before any con-
if it is assumed that the vapor is desuperheating in clusions can be drawn about the performanceof the
the wet wall regime from the start (using the simple condenser, mutual agreement must be reached be-
procedure given in the first paragraph), the area cal- tween customer and vendor on the validity of these
culated to be required will either be correct (if the calculations.
wall is wet even at the vapor entrance)or conservative (b) Sensibleheattransfereffects(¡.e./ cooling of
(if some portion of the wall is in fact dry). The term the vapor-gas mixture) are always present in multi-
correct means that the calculated area is as close to component condensation in both the vapor-gas and
that actually required as the validity of the correla- liquid phases. The cooling of the vapor-gas mixture
tions permits; conservative means that the calculated tends to be an important and often controlling part
area is larger than would be obtained by a detailed of the heat transfer process.
calculation. (c) Mass transfer effects are always presentin mul-
ticomponent condensation. These processes areonly
poorlyunderstoodandmust be treated in a fairly
D.3.6 Subcooling of Condensate, When subcooled arbitrary manner.The specific problem of a single
condensate is required, it is customary to design the condensable vapor with a noncondensable gas can
condenser so that the bottom row or rows of tubes, be handled with some rigor as shown in Ref. [231.
disposed in one or more passes, run full of conden- (d) Physical properties changein both phases, both
sate. The liquid phase heat transfercoefficient canbe as a result of changing compositions and changing

calculated using the correlations given in para.D.2
and the heat transfer rateby using a corrected LMTD, Usually, careful analysis of multicomponent con-
the correction factors being given in para. 5.5 for the densationproblems (which may includenoncon-
appropriate pass arrangement. densable gases) requires zone-by-zone analysis on a
The averageair temperature leaving the subcooling computer. However, if the condensing temperature
section can be calculated by a heat balance. Without range is relatively small compared to the mean tem-
going to a zone-by-zone analysis (which requires a perature difference, orif only a small amount of con-
computer program for all practical purposes), it is densate is formed,approximatecalculations . of
necessary to assume that the average air temperature sufficient accuracy may be possible (Ref. [24]).
off of the subcooling rowsis equivalent to a uniform In thesecases, the heattransferprocesson the
tube side may be considered to consist of tw6 re-
inlet air temperature to the condensing rows. This is
sistances in series:
of course not the case,and it is usually somewhat
( I ) Sensible heat transfer from the vapor-gas mix-
nonconservative to assume so. In analyzing the per-
ture to the condensate interface,with a typicalvapor-
formance of an existing unit, this factor can be taken
phase heat transfercoefficient h,, calculated from the
.into account qualitatively without a great deal of
correlations in para. D.2, and,
(2) Convection of the sensible heat from (1) above

e and the latent heat released by condensation at the

interface through the condensate layer, with a con-
densing heat transfer coefficienthi,=.
A combined coefficient forthese two processes on
INCLUDING NONCONDENSABLE GASES the condensing side, h, maybecalculatedby Eq.
There are several special problems associated with
the condensation of a multicomponent mixturenora 1
vapor containing anoncondensable gas. Amongthem h, = (D.18a)
z 1
are the following: -+-
(a) It is necessary for accuratedesign to have a
condensingcurve for the mixture; acondensing where
curve gives the temperature of the condensing mix-
@ ture and the fraction of the flow that has been con- Z= QS"
densed as a function of the amount of heat removed. Q, + QL+ Qd


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Q, is the heat duty required to cool the vapor-gas (c) Reduction in number of tubes in successive
mixture: passes in condensing(andsometimessubcooling)
service in order to maintain high vapor velocity and
condensing coefficients. Note however that uniform
distribution of the two phases among the tubes in
later passescan not be expected, and this can lead
to excessive subcooling in sometubesand incom-
QLis the heat duty required for condensation: plete condensation in others.
(d) Multiple servicesmay be handled in a.single
Q, = X W p , c o n d (D.
18d) unit, usually with the sections in parallel on the air
flow (side-by-side in the frame). Different tube sizes
and number of rows may be used in each section.
(e) A single row of tubes may be split between two
Q,, is the heat duty required for cooling the con- passes in order to obtain the same number of tubes
densate: in eachpass,e.g., two passes in five rows of tubes.
(0 A row oftubes may contain asingle tube (or at
most a few tubes) servingas a vent condenseroff of
an air removal point and having a differentinlet and
outlet header connection.
Thermal analysis of types a, b, and c can be carried
- out by a procedure similar to that suggested for sub-
wp," an'cl Wp,,are the average weight flow rates of
vapor and condensate in the condensingprocess, and cooling sections above, and with the same caution
Wp,condis the amount of vapor actually condensed. upon assuming the air inlet temperature to the upper
rows of tubes to be uniform.
Type d can be analyzed straightforwardly foreach
section if the air flow and exit air temperature for
D.5 UNUSUAL PASSARRANGEMENTS each section are measured.
Type e can .be analyzedreasonablycloselyby
For. avariety of reasons,unusualpassarrange- straightforward methods, using the actual numberof
ments of various kinds are often used in air cooled
tubes in each pass for tube-side calculations and ig-
exchangers, The following examples may be cited:
noring the usually slight imbalance in the air tem-
(a) Reduction in number of tubes in successive
perature profile caused by the split pass or passes.
passes,used in cooling viscous liquids in order to
Type f poses no serious problems on the air side
increase thevelocity and maintainturbulent flow
since only a few tubes are involved.The analysis-in-
conditions. side the tube can be carried out by the methods of
(b) Using enhancement devices in one or more of para, D.4 or Ref. [231.
the last passes for the same purpose.


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E,1 Theexchangerdesignerincorporates a heat should preferablybe performed in the clean condition
transfer fouling resistance to account for the accu- on bóth air-side and tube-sideto minimize the effects
mulations of layers of resistive material on the heat of fouling since fouling cánnot be reliably predicted.
transfer surfacesas the exchanger operates. Thefoul- The fouling resistances used to interpret the test re-
ing resistance is also known as fouling factor, dirt fac- sults shall be agreed upon by the parties to the test
tor, and dirt film. The fouling resistance occurs on prior to the start of the test, see para. 3.2(j).
both the air-side and the process-side heat transfer
surfaces. Unfortunately,. the existing technologydoes
not provide a dependable analytical method for ac- E.3 the influence of foulingon the overall heat trans-
curate prediction of fouling. The purchaser normally fer coefficientwill vary accordingto the relative-mag-
depends on experience in similar services to select nitudes of the fouling resistances and the clean heat
and specify the design fouling resistances. transferresistances. For example, a closed-circuit
treated'water coolermight have a low tube-side foul-
ing resistance of 0.0005 hr.ft*-"F/Btu referencedto the
E,2 Fouling presentduringthe test affects the air-side inside surface. Thismight be approximately5 percent
and process-side heat transfer coefficients and flow of the total heat transfer resistance. In comparison,
pressure drops. Fouling of the air-side surface may this resistancefor aheavy oil cooler might be 0.003
occur from the depositionof air-borne materials such hr.ft2-"F/Btuwhich might be over 20 percent of the
as dust, organic material, seeds, and insects, or from total heat transfer resistance, making a clean condi-
corrosion. It is impossible to accurately predict the tion for testing relatively more important.
effect of such deposits and they must be removed
prior to testing. Fouling of the inside surface of the
tubes is dependent upon the fouling and corrosion E.4 For additionai information on fouling the reader
characteristics of the fluidin the tubes.Testing may refer to Ref. [25].


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F.1 Advkse wind conditions, faulty design, or poor be basically the same as for a test conducted when
orientation of the ACHE with respect to adjacent there is no air recirculation or contamination. How-
structures may cause hot air to recirculate into the ever, entering air temperatures may be far from uni-
O unit. The resultantelevation of enteringairtemper- form. Temperature variations at a given measurement

0 ature above ambient will reduce the capacity of the

ACHE. Simitayly, contämination of the entering air by
hot air from extraneous heat sources, such as heaters,
station and/or variationsfrom station to station, cou-
pled with variations in air velocity, may require an
abnormaliy large number of measurement stations,
boilers, or heat exchangers, will have a detrimental and may necessitate coincident measurement of tem-
effect on capacity. perature and air flow at each station.

F.2 Since the performance evaluation procedures de- F.3 A detailed survey should be made just prior to
scribed by this Code are based on entering rather than the test, and agreement reachedby theparties to the
ambient air, the-recirculation and/or contamination test on the number andlocation of measurements to
described abovewill not necessarily havea significant be taken to ensure the desired level of accuracy.
effect op the performance capabirity of the ACHE. The
results of a test conducted while the entering air tem- F.4 For more information on this subject the reader
perature is well above ambient, but uniform, should is referred to Refs. [27] through 1361.



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ASME P T C * 3 Ö 91 0759670 008331L T



[I 1 FieldTesting of Air-CooledHeatExchangers, [I41Kern, D. Q., Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill

Chemical Engineering Progress, July 1960. Book Company, New York (1950).
[2]Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittìngs, and Pipe [I 51 Martinelli, R. C., and Nelson, D. B., Trans. ASME
- Crane Co., Technical Paper No. 410, 1978. 70,695, (1948).
[3]Fundamentals of Pipe Flow, R. P. Benedict, Wiley, [I61 Nusselt,W.,Zeits. VDI 60, 541, 569(I916).
-1980. Also cited in Refs. 161 and [91.

[4]Sieder, E. N., andTate,G. E., Ind. Eng.Chem., [I 71 Chaddock, J. B., Refrig.Eng.65,No. 4, 36

28, 1429 (1936). (1957).
[5]Briggs, D. E., and Young, E. H., Convection Heat [I81 Boyko, L. D.,andKruzhilin,G. N., Int. J. Heat
Transfer and Pressure Drop of Air Flowing Across Tri- Mass Trfr. 70, 361 (1967).
angular Pitch Banks of Finned Tubes, AIChE, August [I91 Travis, D. P., Baron, A. B., andRohsenow,W.
1962. M., MIT Rept. No. DSR 72591 -74 (1971 1.
[61Ward, D.J., and Young, E. H., Heat Transfer and r201 Colburn, A. P., Trans. AlChE 30, 170 (1934).
Pressure Drop of Air in Forced Convection Across Tri-
angular Pitch Banks of Finned Tubes, Chemical Engi- [21]Nilsson, S . N.,Paper 2.32, Proc. Xlll Int. Cong.
neering Symposium Series No. 29, Vol. 55, 1959. Refrig., Washington, DC (1971),
[7]Gardner, K. A., Efficiency of ExtendedSurface, 1221Bell, K. J., Chem. Eng. Prog. 68, No. 7,81 (1972).
ASME Transactions Paper 1945,Vol. 67. [231 Colburn, A. P., andHougen, O. A., Ind. Eng.
[8]Moody, L. F., Trans. ASME 66, 671 (1944). Chem. 26, 1186, (1934).

[9]Blasius, H., Forschg. Arb. h g -Wes. No. 131,Ber- r241 Bell, K.J., and Chaly, M.A., AlChE Symp. Series
lin (1913).Cited in Schlicting, H., BoundaryLayer 69, NO. 131, 72-79 (1972).
Theory, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York [25]Kakac, S., Bergles, A.E., and Mayinger, G., Heat
(I979). Exchangers: Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and De-
[I O] Shah, R. K., and London, A. L., Advances in Heat sign, McGraw-Hill, and Hemisphere Publishing Corp.
Transfer, Supplement1: Laminar Flow Forced Convec- (I 9811.
tion in Ducts, Academic Press, New York (1978). i261 TubularExchangerManufacturersAssociation,
[Il]Hausen,H., VDlZ Beih. Verfahrenstech. 4. 91 Standards of TEMA, latest edition.
(1943).Cited in Ref. [12]. L271 Gunter, A. Y., and Shipes, K. V., “Hot Air Recir-
1121 Jakob, M., Heat Transfer, J. W: Wiley and Sons, culation .by Air Coolers,”AlChE TwelfthNational
New York, Vol. 1 (1949). Heat Transfer Conference, AIChE-ASME, Tulsa,Okla-
homa, August 15-1 8, 1971.
[I31 Petukhov, B. S., and Popov, V. N., Teplofiz. Vy-
sok. Temperature 7, No. 1 (1963).Also discussed by 1281 Collins, G. F., andMathews, R. T., “Climatic
B. S, Petukhov in Advances In Heat Transfer, Vol. 6, Considerations in Design of Air Cooled HeatExchan-
O Hartnett, J. P., and Irvine, T. F., Jr. Eds., Academic
Press, New York (1970).
gers,“Paper 59-A-255,December 4, 1959,
Meeting ASME.


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ASME P T C U 3 0 7.1 m O757670 8083332 I m i


1291CoolingTower InstituteTechnical Subcommittee [34] Haldridge, E. S., and Reed, B. H., ”Pressure Dis-
No, 2: “Recirculation,” C T I Bulletin PFM-110, 1958. tribution on Buildings,” Department of Army, Con-
Also PFM-11OA, Appendix to PFM-11O. tract No. DA-18-064 CML77,August1956,Texas
Engineering Experiment Station, Texas A & M.
[30] Schmidt, W., “Calculations of Distribution of
Gases in the Atmosphere,” 1351 Haldridge, E. S., and Reed, B. H., “Pressure Dis-
Gesundheits Ing. Vol 49, 1926, pp. 425-426. tribution on Buildings-ReportNo. 2,” Department of
Army, Contract No. DA-18-064 CML77, August
[31] Sutton, O. G., “A Theory of Eddy Diffusion in 1956,
the Atmosphere,“ Proc. Roy. Society (London) Ser. A Texas A & M.
Vol. 135, 1932, PP. 143-1 65.
[36] Kosten, C. J., Morgan, J. I., Burns, J. M., and
1321 Bailey,A., and Vincent,N.D. G., “Wind Pressure Curlett, P. L., “OperatingExperienceandPerform-
on Building Including Effects on Adjacent Building,” anceTesting of theWorlds Largest Air Cooled
Journal Institution of Civil Engineer, March 1943, Condenser,” April 27-29,1981,AmericanPower
PP. 243-275. Conference, Chicago, Illinois.
[33] Dryden, H. L., and Hill, C. C., “Wind Pressures
on Structures,” Scientific Papers of Bureau of Stan-
dards, Vol. 20, 1926, p. 697.



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PTC 1 - General Instructions ....................,...............................I986

PTC 2 - Definitions and Values ..........,......................................1980
PTC 3.1 - Diesel and Burner Fuels ......,.,......,...............................I958
PTC 3.2 - Solid Fuels ,.......,..,...........,..,......,...,........,...............I954
(R1 984)
- Gaseous Fuels ..,.. ..,......,.,......,.,...,,.........,...,...........,1969

PTC 3,3
(R1 985)
PTC 4.1 - Steam-Generating Units (With 1968 and
1969 Addenda) .. .............. .....,................................I964
(R1 985)
Diagram for Testing of a Steam Generator,
Fig. 1 (Pad of 100)
Heat Balance of a Steam Generator,
Fig. 2 (Pad of 100)
PTC - ASME Test Form for Abbreviated EfficiencyTest -
Summary Sheet (Pad of 100) ......... .... . ......,........,.......I964
, , ,
PTC 4.1b - ASME Test for Abbreviated EfficiencyTest -
Calculation Sheet (Pad of 100) ........................ ..............1964
PTC 4.2 - . . ........ . ....... ...... .......,......,......,...I969
Coal Pulverizers , , , , ,, ,
(R1 985)
PTC 4.3 - Air Heaters ...... ... ............... ......... ..........................I968
(RI 985)
PTC 4.4 - Gas Turbine HeatRecovery Steam Generators........................I981
(RI 987)
PTC 5 - ReciprocatingSteam Engines ..................,.......................I949
PTC 6 - Steam Turbines .... ....................,......,............,............1976
(R1 982)
PTC 6A - Appendix Ato Test Code for Steam Turbines
(With 1958 Addenda) ...............,,......,.......................1982
PTC 6 - Guidance for Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty
Report in Performance Tests of Steam Turbines .........................,..I985
PTC 6 s - Procedures for Routine Performance Tests
Report of Steam Turbines ...............,....................,..............I988
PTC 6.1 - Interim Test Code for an Alternative Procedure
for Testing Steam Turbines ...........,......... ...,.............,...I984
PTC 6 on Steam Turbines- Interpretations 1977-1983
PTC 7 - Reciprocating Steam-Driven Displacement Pumps...............,....1949
(R1 969)
PTC 7.1 - Displacement Pumps ............................,...............,......I962
PTC 8.2 - Centrifugal Pumps .. ..........,......,.......,.................,......,1990

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ASME P T C * 3 0 71 W 0757670 QQB3314 5

PTC 9 .Displacement Compressors. Vacuum Pumps and

Blowers(With 1972 Errata) ......................................... 1970
(R1 985)
PTC IO - CompressorsandExhausters .......................................... 1965
(RI 986)
PTC 11 - Fans ..................................................................... 1984
PTC 12.1 - Closed Feedwater Heaters .............................................. 1978
(RI 987)
PTC 12.2 - Steam-Condensing Apparatus .......................................... 1983
PTC 12.3 - Deaerators .............................................................. 1977
PTC 14 - EvaporatingApparatus ................................................. 1970
PTC 16 - Gas Producers and Continuous Gas Generators ...................... 1958
(RI 985)
PTC 17 - Reciprocating Internal-combustion Engines ........................... 1973
PTC 18 - HydraulicPrimeMovers ................................................ 1949
PTC 18.1 - Pumping Mode of Pump/Turbines ..................................... 1978
(R1 984)
PTC 19.1 - MeasurementUncertainty ............................................. 1985
PTC 19.2 - Pressure Measurement ................................................. 1987
PTC 19.3 - TemperatureMeasurement ............................................. 1974
(R1 986)
PTC 19.5 - Application, Part II of Fluid Meters: Interim Supplement
on Instruments and Apparatus ...................................... 1972
PTC 19.5.1 - WeighingScales ........................................................ 1964
PTC 19.6 - Electrical Measurements in Power Circuits ............................ 1955
PTC 19.7 - Measurement of Shaft Power ........................................... 1980
PT% 19 8 - Measurement of Indicated Horsepower ............................... 1970
(R1 985)
PTC 19.1O - Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses ........................................ 1981
PTC 19.11 - Water and Steam in the Power Cycle (Purity and Quality,
Lead Detection and Measurement) ................................. 1970
PTC 19.12 - Measurement of Time .................................................. 1958
PTC 19.1 3 - Measurement of Rotary Speed ......................................... 1961
PTC 19.14 - LinearMeasurements .................................................. 1958
PTC 19.16 - Density Determinations of Solids and Liquids ........................ 1965
PTC 19.1 7 - Determination of the Viscosity of Liquids ............................. 1965
PTC 19.22 - Digital Systems Techniques ............................................ 1986
PTC 19.23 - Guidance Manual for Model Testing .................................. 1980
(RI 985)
PTC 20.1 - Speed and Load Governing Systems for Steam
Turbine-Generator Units .............................................. 1977
' (R1988)
PTC 20.2 - Overspeed Trip Systems for Steam TurbineGenerator
Units ................................................................. 1965
(RI 986)
PTC 20.3 - Pressure Control Systems Used on Steam
Turbine-Generator Units ............................................. 1970


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PTC 21 .Dust Separating Apparatus ............................................. 1941
PTC 22 - Gas Turbine Powér Plants .............................................. 1985
PTC 23 - Atmospheric Water Cooling Equipment ............................... 1986
PTC 23.1 - Spray Cooling Systems ................................................. 1983
. PTC24 - .Ejectors ................................................................. 1976
PTC 25.3 - Safety and Relief Valves ................................................ 1988
PTC 26 - Speed-Governing Systems for Internal Combustion
€ngine-Generator Units .............................................. 1962
PTC 28 - Determining the Properties of Fine Particulate Matter ................1965
PTC 29 - Speed Governing Systems for Hydraulic
Turbine-Generator Units 1965
(RI 985)
PTC 30 - Air Cooled Heat. Exchangers ........................................... 1991
PTC 31 - Ion Exchange Equipment ............................................... 1973
(R1 985)
PTC 32.1 - Nuclear Steam Supply Systems ........................................ 1969
PTC 32.2 - Methods of Measuring the Performance of Nuclear
Reactor Fuel in Light Water Reactors ............................... 1979
PTC 33 - Large Incinerators ...................................................... 1978
(R1 985)
PTC 33a - Appendix to PTC 33-1978 - ASME Form for
Abbreviated Incinerator Efficiency Test
(Form PTC 33a-1980) ............................................... 1980
(R1 987)
PTC 36 - Measurement of Industrial Sound ..................................... 1985
PTC 38 - Determiningthe Concentration of Particulate
Matter in a Gas Stream .........1.................................... 1980
PTC 39.1 - Condensate Removal Devices for Steam Systems .................... 1980
(RI 985)
PTC 42 - Wind Turbines .......................................................... 1988
The Philosophy of Power Test Codes and Their Development


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¡ASME P T C r 3 0 9L E 0759b70 0 0 8 3 3 L b 9

A complete list of all Performance Test Codes appsars

at the end of this book.

While providing for exhaustive

tests, these Codes are so d r a w n
thatselectedpartsmay be used
for tests of limited scope,

This document is printed

o n 50% recycled paper.


means paper waste generated after the
completion of the papermaking
process, such as postconsumer
materials, text books, envelopes,

bindery waste, printing waste, cutting

and converting waste, butt rolls,
obsolete inventories, and rejected
unused stock.

ISBN #O-7918-2073-4 C00057

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