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i
Observation and Reduction of Occultations of
Stars by the
Moon
WITH A DETERMINATION OF THE RESULTING LONGITUDE OF THE FLOWER OBSERVATORY, AND CORRECTIONS TO THE RIGHT ASCENSION, DECLINATION AND SEMIDIAMETER OF THE MOON
BY
KRIKORIS GARABED BOHJELIAN
A THESIS
PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UN!\
PRESS OF THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY
LANCASTER, PA.
1915
Observation and Reduction of Occupations of
Stars by the
Moon
WITH A DETERMINATION OF THE RESULTING LONGITUDE OF THE FLOWER OBSERVATORY, AND CORRECTIONS TO THE RIGHT ASCENSION, DECLINATION AND SEMIDIAMETER OF THE MOON
BY
KRIKORIS GARABED BOHJELIAN
A THESIS
PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
PRESS OF THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY
LANCASTER, PA.
1915
INTRODUCTION.
It is well
known
and
If
size of the
Moon
that corrections to the coordinates, distance, can be determined from the observations
of occultations
more accurately than from any other method. simultaneous observations of this kind are secured from two stations on the Earth, which differ widely in latitude, the oblateness of the Earth can also be found and whatever the situation of the stations, their difference in longitude can be thus determined with a higher accuracy than by any other method, except that of the Telegraph and Wireless. As the Longitude of the Flower Observatory was accurately
;
determined, both by Telegraph and Wireless method, a comparison of these results with a value found from occultations becomes of interest, and as the later observations have a special value for improving our knowledge of the Moon's motion, the
following piece of
work was undertaken with these
objects.
The work was begun in vations being made with
the early summer of 1914, the obserthe 1 8inch equatorial of the Flower
Observatory of the University of Pennsylvania. Among the occultations observed it. was learned that 13 had been simultaneously observed by Prof. Asaph Hall, with the 26inch equatorial of the U. S. Naval Observatory. Through the courtesy of the Director, Captain J. A. Hoogewerff, these observations were forwarded to Prof. Eric Doolittle. It is the results from these stars, which form the principal
basis of the following investigation.
OBSERVED TIMES OF OCCULTATIONS.
Date, 1914
OBSERVATION AND REDUCTION OF
PRELIMINARY COMPUTATION.
right ascension and declination of the above stars, reduced to apparent place for the observed times are as follows:
Date, 1914
The
OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE MOON
Date
6
OBSERVATION AND REDUCTION OF
for Phila.
r
where
<p
=
39
long.
46' 32". 9
and log
6 s .5i
p
=
9.999400
=
5
h im
and
long.
for
=
5
Wash. h 8m
<?'
S
=
38
55' I4".o
and log p
=
9.999431 and
I5 78.
OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE MOON
and ^ we next compute
12
12,
T, x,
v,
from the formulae:
=
__
h [cos
In
4,
 cos (M  N) 1 n
J
(/'

t)
h
=
3600
J.
fp
J^
n
#o cos
sin
N
yo cos
yo sin
N
N
8
OBSERVATION AND REDUCTION OF
FORMATION OF THE FINAL EQUATIONS OF
CONDITIONS.
Writing the results thus far obtained, we may now set up the following equations, which we divide into four groups
:
July 17.
W=5 W= W= W= W= W=
h
W= W= W= W= W=
5
5
OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE MOON
9
It is evident, however, that for various reasons a direct solution of these equations in each group will not be expedient.
In the
first place,
the large terms involved would render the
operation very laborious, and furthermore, it will not be possible to separate ATT from the remaining quantities, without assuming
both
w and w
r
to be
known.
Assuming the equations of weight, we subtract the first from the third, the third from equal the fifth, etc.; and the fourth from the second, the sixth from the
therefore proceed as follows:
fourth, etc.; continuing thus
We
we
obtain the following groups of
I'
equations
:
Group
4
2
IO
OBSERVATION AND REDUCTION OF
priori that such
known a
was the
case,
it
would be shown from
the normal equations, which would be practically indeterminate for this quantity.
We
We
in order to see
should, therefore, determine & and nAk in terms of ATT, what effect an error in TT will have upon the
I '2
longitude. derive from the above equations, for groups
and
1 1 '2,
only, the following two sets of normal equations; the last two groups are solved as they stand, since there are two equations
in
each group.
Normal to Group
I'
2 (or
I'
3)
+
II.Slz?
2I.237TA/C
21.231?
+
i33.057rA/c
= =
+
10.07 ATT
62.5IA7T
+
I45O
14.89
Normal to Group IT
2 (or 11' 3)
7.27A?r
+
From
I '3
6.54$
12.40??
12.47^
+
I28.6TA/C
= =
+
+
48.3OA7T
51.9 186.6
we obtain
& =
?rA&
+ 1.428 + = + o.i 12
.ooSATT
470A7T
To
and
find
7 we now
(9),
and
substitute these values in (i), (3), (5), (7), f h m s observing that w 5 8 i5 78, we find the mean
value of 7 to be
7
= +
6".52

.639A7T
substitute these values of #, 7rA&, 7 in (2), (4), (6), (8), (10), (30), (40), when we find the following values for the difference of longitude between Greenwich and the Flower
We now
Astronomical Observatory of the University of Pennsylvania:
W = w = w = w =
5*1
jm 78^7
i
_j_
.07A7T
5
6 .99 6 .49
6.
.40
5 5 5 5
5 5
h
i

.07
i
53
w = w =
=
Mean
i
6 .51 6 .89
7 54
+ +
~
.39
.29
.48
i
i
27 .o6A7r
w =
m 6S i .96
OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE MOON
II
And
the resulting longitude from Washington
is
\
=
7
m 8 S .82

.06A7T
With the above values
tions to the
of y and & we may now determine correcassumed right ascension and declination of the Moon.
We have
the formulae
sin
:
N cos D cos N cos D
and from these
Aa
+
cos N.
sin
A5 A5
Aa
N.
= 7 = #
Aa =
+
6".58
A5
=
+ 2".Q6
Assuming the errors of the star places to be inappreciable, these will represent the errors in the computed right ascension and declination of the Moon at a time corresponding to the mean of
times of the observations.
These corrections,
assuming
In the
ATT
it will
outstanding error in the parallax, as they
be seen, are affected by any small have been derived by
of the
=
o.
same way, assuming Ax = o and taking the mean
329 1"
values given above, viz: f ."ii 2
we
find
from the above value of
A&
= =
f
.000034
we have assumed
k
therefore,
k
as
+ = +
.272506 .272540
In the
shown from these observations. same way by solving the other groups
of equations,
we
obtain the following results:
Group
12
OBSERVATION AND REDUCTION OF OCCULTATIONS OF STARS
CONCLUSION.
The
errors
Aa and A5
was
smaller than
following its recent years.
Moon's position are somewhat and indicate that this body is somewhat more closely than in computed path
in the
to be expected,
The
corrections
A&
to the apparent semidiameter
is
markedly
negative, but it is possible that values of this quantity secured from occultations may be influenced by the aperture of the
instrument employed. The final mean value of longitude of Flower Observatory from U. S. Naval Observatory, as shown above, from this work is
X
= = = 
8 7* 8 .87
The
results previously obtained for the
same quantity
are:
By By
Telegraph
Wireless
X X
m s y 8 .9i
7
m
8*74
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