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# WIND ENERGY HARNESSING - THEORY AND THE ETHIOPIAN EXPERIENCE

Teferi Taye Senior Mechanical Engineer Energy Division, Equatorial Business Group (EBG) Plc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Published in the Journal of the ESME, Vol. II, No. 2, October 1999 Reprinted with ESME permission by the African Technology Forum
ABSTRACT The paper briefly discusses the underlying theory in wind harnessing by deriving some of the important equations, like the maximum attainable power factor, the various forces, moments, and their resulting stresses. The experience of the author over the last two decades in research and development endeavor in wind energy harnessing is summarized. Finally, the initiatives being taken by EBG to put this water lifting system to the benefit of the society, where the author is now in charge of this undertaking is introduced. Energy From The Wind Maximum Power Factor (Cp) Rotor Blade Forces Pump Load Forces Stresses in the Rotor Spoke at the Hub Calculation of the Combined Stresses Sizing of a Windpump Assessment of Water Requirement Calculating the Hydraulic Power Requirement Determining the Available Wind Power Resource The Ethiopian Experience Wind Resource Ethiopian Water Resources Authority (EWRA) American Presbyterian Mission at Omo Addis Ababa University (AAU) Lay Volunteers International Association (LVIA) The Experience of the Research and Development Services (RADS) of the Ethiopian Water Works Construction Authority (EWWCA) Equatorial Business Group's (EGB) Initiatives Conclusion

1.

ENERGY FROM THE WIND

Wind is simply air in motion. It is the movement of the air mass, caused by uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun. That is the source of wind energy. The wind contains energy by the virtue of .its motion, and this is called kinetic energy. [1] 1.1 Maximum Power Factor (Cp)

Fig. 1: Axial Momentum Theory Illustration

F = r * A * Vax * (V1 . conservation of mass dictates that: r * A1 * V1 = r * A * Vax = r * A2 * V2 (1) Where r is the density of air [kg/m3] A1 is the area of the air stream far before the rotor [m2] V1 is the wind velocity of the air stream far before the rotor [m/s] A is the rotor swept area [m2] Vax is the wind velocity at the plane of the rotor [m/s] A2 is the area of the air stream far behind the rotor [m2] V2 is the wind velocity of the air stream far behind the rotor [m/s] The thrust force (F) on the rotor is given by the change in momentum: F = (r * A1 * V1 ) * V1 . differentiate equation 6 with respect to V2 and equate it to zero. and again no power is produced. the average of the upstream and low stream wind speed.V23 . Substituting the value of Vax from equation 5 into equation 4.V22) = 1/4 * r * A * (V13 . the rotor obviously produces no power. therefore. and at very high rotational speeds the air is more or less blocked by the rotor.V2) * Vax Where Pkin is the kinetic power extracted by the rotor [W] Solving for Vax: Vax = 1/2 * (V1 + V2) (5) (4) Velocity of the wind in the rotor plane is. 1. At stand still.V2) (3) The difference in power before and after the rotor is the power extracted by the windmill which equals the product of the thrust force (F) and the velocity (Vax) given by equation 4. . Pkin = 1/2 * (r * A1 * V1 ) * (V1)2 . the thrust force reduces to equation 3. From the air stream tube of Fig.1.(r * A2 * V2 ) * V2 Where F is the thrust on the rotor [N] (2) With equation 1.1 The Axial Momentum Theory A windmill extracts power from the wind by slowing down the wind. the power becomes: Pkin = 1/2 * r * A * Vax * (V12 .1/2 * (r * A2 * V2 ) * (V2)2 = r * A * Vax * ( V1 .1.V1* V22 + V12 * V2) (6) To find the maximum power extracted by the rotor.

therefore 16 / 27 = 59. Hence.2 * V1* V2 + V12) = 0 (7) Since the area of the rotor (A) and the density of the air (r) cannot be zero. Fmax = 4/9 * r * A* V1 1. the maximum axial wind thrust is obtained as shown by equation 11. . The shaft power of a wind rotor is given by equation 10: P = Cp * 1/2 * r * A V3 (10) Where P is the shaft power [W] Cp is the rotor coefficient (ratio of shaft power of the windmill to the power in the wind in the crosssectional area of the rotor) V is the velocity of the wind [m/s] Equation 10 clearly shows that: • • • The power is proportional to the density (r) of the air which varies slightly with altitude and temperature The power is proportional to the area (A) swept by the blades and thus to the square of the radius (R) of the rotor. By substituting this value into equation 3.1. the expression in the bracket of equation 7 has to be zero. i. Because of aerodynamic imperfections in any practical machine and of mechanical loses. one has to pay particular attention in site selection. the power extracted is less than that calculated above. equation 7 yields: V2 = 1/3 * V1 (8) Substitution of equation 8 into equation 6 results in equation 9: Pkin = 16/27 * 1/2 * r * A* V1 3 (9) The theoretical maximum fraction of the power in the wind which could be extracted by an ideal windmill is. weight and forces imposed by the load.e. 1.2 2 (11) Rotor Blade Forces Loads on a rotor blade arise from torque. when the low stream wind speed is 1/3 of the upstream wind speed.dPkin / dV2 = 1/4 * r * A * (-3 * V22 . Hence. this fraction is called the Betz Coefficient. This means that the power increases eightfold if the wind speed is doubled. and the power varies with the cube of the wind speed (V3).3%.2 Axial Wind Thrust The maximum axial force acting in the plane of rotation occurs when the rotor extracts the maximum power from the wind. thrust. using the formula for the solution of a quadratic equation.

Q = I * d2q /dt2 (15) The shearing force (Fb) on a blade (near the hub) being the resultant force of all acceleration forces (dF) is given by equation 16. .2. therefore. I= r2 * dm (14) The torque. reduces to equation 15. 2: Acceleration Forces on a Blade Element The equation of motion for a blade element (dm) is described by the Second Law of Newton (equation 12) dF = at* dm = r * d q /dt * dm (12) Where dF is the differential force on the differential mass [N] dm is the differential mass at radius r [kg] at is the tangential acceleration.1. which is equal to the radius (r) times the second derivative of 2 the position angle q [m/s ] q is the position of the blade. Q= r * dF = r2 * d2q /dt2 * dm (13) 2 2 The moment of inertia (I) [kg-m2] is given by equation 14. Fig. positive when measured from the negative z-axis [rad] r is the radius of the mass element dm [m] t is time [s] The torque (Q) [N-m] is. given by equation 13. therefore.1 Torque The torque on the rotor is the resulting moment of the rotor axis of the aerodynamic forces on the blades.

and differentiating twice the resulting equations. Fig 4: Gyroscopic Effect . Wz.Fig 3: Weight of a Blade Mbg = .m * g * L * sin (q) Fgt = . tangential and radial forces and moments about the axial and tangential axis are given by equations 26 to 30 respectively. f.4 Inertia (Gyroscopic Effect) Simultaneous yawing of the head around the z-axis and turning of the rotor around the x-axis imposes inertia forces and moments on the rotor blades and the shaft. so as to get the respective acceleration in the x. The products of these acceleration sand the differential mass (dm) result in forces.m * g * sin (q) Fg = . and z directions.m * g * cos (q) (23) (24) (25) 1. q . The axial. 4) in terms of r.2. y. Wx. The derivation of these forces and moments due to inertia is done by writing equations for the position of a mass element dm (Fig. only the final results are listed hereunder for the sake of brevity. qy.

4.4.4. t = ( (S Fa) + (S Fr) ) / As (34) where 2 As is the area of the spoke [m ] 1. scomb = ( (sb + st) + 3t ) 2 2 1/2 (38) . st = S Fr / As 1.1 Shearing Stress Since axial and tangential forces are perpendicular.4 (33) Stresses in the Rotor Spoke at the Hub 1. tensile stress (st) and bending stress (sb) is given by equation 38.The bending moment (Mbp) on a rotor blade at the hub due to the pump rod force (Fp) is given by equation 32. st = Mtot * C / Is (37) where C is the distance from the neutral axis of the rotor spoke to the outer fibre in the direction of Mtot [m] 1. Mbp = . Mtot = ( (S Ma) + (S Mt) ) 2 2 1/2 2 2 2 1/2 2 (35) (36) 2 The resulting bending moment (Mtot) causes a bending stress (sb) [N/m ]which is given by equation 37. b is positive when measured from the blade to crank in clockwise direction.2 Tensile Stress Radial forces on a rotor blade cause a tensile stress stress (st) [N/m ] given by equation 35. [rad/s] The shearing force on the blade at the hub due to the pump rod force is given by equation 33.5 Calculation of the Combined Stresses 2 The combined stress (scomb) [N/m ] of shearing stress (t).(Fp / i) * sin (q + qb) (32) where qb is the angle between the crank and the blade in question. Fbp = Mbp * (Jb / Ib) 1. the resulting shearing stress (t) [N/m ] can be calculated using equation 34.3 Bending Stress The combined moment (Mtot) of the axial moment (Ma) and tangential moment (Mt) is given by equation 36.

dry climates. Climatic conditions. Determination of the hydraulic power requirement. Determination of the available wind power resource. Conveyance efficiency.2 Water Requirement for Rural Water Supply A water consumption of about 20 litres per capita per day is considered reasonable for the rural population of Ethiopia. Field application efficiency. crop growth cycle. As a rule of thumb. The most important of these are: • • • • • • • Nature of crop. 2. and Water quality The pumped volume required per day for irrigation is calculated using equation 40. Identification of the design month. Type and condition of soil. Thus. Vol = Plot * Canopy * Demand / Eff where 3 Vol is the pumped volume [m /day] Plot is the plot size [ha] Canopy is the canopy fraction ( the fraction of the plot covered with plant branches and leaves) [-] 2 Demand is the crop water demand.Substituting the respective values of the stresses from the preceding equations.1 Assessment of the water requirement.1. and 7-8 l/day/m in hot. This figure can be converted 3 to its equivalent in m /day/ha of crop canopy by simply multiplying is by a factor of 10. 2. take 5-6 l/day/m of crop canopy in cooler 2 or more humid climates. water supplies will have to be . scomb reduces to equation 39. for a typical village population of 500. SIZING OF A WINDPUMP The steps to be followed in selecting the optimum size of a windpump for a site are: • • • • • 2. scomb = [ [ [ (S Ma) + (S Mt) ] 2 2 1/2 * (C / Is) + (S Fr / As ) ] + 3 * [ (S Fa) + (S Fr) ] / As ] 2 2 2 2 1/2 (39) This combined stress should be equal to or less than the admissible tensile stress of the material. Topography of the terrain. and Sizing of the windpump Assessment of Water Requirement The amount of water needed to irrigate a given area depends on a number of factors. 3 [m /day/ha] Eff is the field application efficiency [-].

3. Source Ref. using equation 41. Ph = 9.sized to provide about 10 m per day. If the wind speed V(Zr) is known at some reference height Zr. and weaker near the ground. Species Camel Horse Cattle Milk cow in production Sheep and goats Poultry 2. The maximum expected draw-down. Ph =rw * g * q * H = 9.113 q * H if q is expressed in m /day 2.3 2.1 Determining the Available Wind Power Resource Wind Speed Profile at One Location The depth of the static water level below the surface. the wind speed V(Z) at any other height Z up to 60 m at he same location can be estimated by equation 42. and Additional dynamic head due to frictional losses. The height of the tank (if any) above the surface.81 q * H if q is expressed in l/s 3 Ph = 0. Table 1: Water Requirements for Livestock.3 3 Once the water requirement is known.81 m/s H is the total head [m] The head (H) that is "felt" at the pump is the sum of: • • • • So.3. The type of surface affects the way the wind is slowed down. The wind is stronger higher up. the lowering of the water level due to pumping.2-0. i.81 * 1000 * q * H (41) where Ph is the hydraulic power [W] 3 q is the pumping rate [m /s] 3 rw is the density of water = 1000 kg/m 2 g is the acceleration due to gravity = 9. .2 Calculating the Hydraulic Power Requirement l/Head/Day 40-90 30-40 20-40 70-100 1-5 0. and typical daily water requirements for a range of livestock is shown in Table 1. the hydraulic power requirement (the potential power needed to raise a certain quantity of water through a certain head) can be determined.e. This is due to the friction between the wind and the ground.

146 1.894 0.686 0.217 1.005 0. landscape.945 0.2 Determination of the Wind Month 3 .250 0.030 0. Pwind = 1/2 * r * Vav where 2 Pwind is the specific wind power [W/m ] Vav is the average wind speed [m/s] 2. orchards villages. empty crop land high grass. the air density (r) is determined from Table 3.3.887 0. airports. Ref. Source.100 0. where the wind speed is known [m] Zo is the roughness height related to the type of the terrain according to Table 2 [m] ln is the natural logarithm Table 2: Roughness Height (Zo) in Meters. snow.292 1.000 After the average wind speed at the hub height is calculated.005 0.736 0.078 1. the specific wind power is then calculated using equation 43. Terrain Flat Open Rough Very rough Closed Towns Surface Type beach. open spaces in forests Zo (m) 0. 2. Source: Ref.952 0. ocean low grass. Table 3: Dry Air Density in kg/m at Different Heights (h) Above Sea Level.839 0.642 1. suburbs town centers.833 0.786 0.689 3 Having determined the air density and the wind speed.V(Z) / V(Zr) =[ ln (Z/Zo) ] / [ ln (Zr/Zo) ] (42) where Z is the height where the wind speed is required. low woods forests.134 1.732 0. In our case. low crops tall row crops.068 1.500 > 1.000 > 2.781 0. h (m) at 20 °C at 0 °C 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 1.014 0. ice. [m] Zr is the reference height. it is the height from the ground level to the rotor axis.204 1. 3.

" Wolde-Ghiorgis [6] has mad a wind energy survey using wind data collected by the National Meteorological Services Agency (NAMSA) and showed that mean winds speeds grater than 2. h. "the Rift Valley and the Eastern lowlands have a moderate wind regime well suited for medium machines. 0. .The sizing methodology is based on the concept of the critical month or design month.3. At 2000 m altitude and 20 °C. the area of the rotor (A) [m ] is. and r respectively.3 [-] 3 r is the air density. h * Cp * 1/2 * r * A * Vav = 0. A = [ 0.e. and equating the mechanical power of the windpump system with the required hydraulic power as shown in equation 44.1 THE ETHIOPIAN EXPERIENCE Wind Resource The total wind resource of Ethiopia is estimated at 20. Wind energy is one of the resources which is virtually unexploited in Ethiopia. the month is which this ratio is a maximum is the design month.5 * 0.113 * q * H ] / [0. Only sporadic attempts were made by a few organizations to harness this free and inexhaustible source of energy. According to Adams [5]. i.133 * q * H (44) where h is the combined efficiency of the transmission and the pump ~ 0. 3. the month when the system will be most heavily loaded. the combined efficiency of the transmission and pump (h) and the density of air (r). This is the month in which water demand is highest in relation to he wind power resource.7 and 0. especially if careful site selection is used. given by equation 45.2 Rotor Diameter The rotor diameter is the most important characteristic of a windpump.7 [-] Cp is the power factor ~ 0. D = (4 * A / p) (46) where D is the diameter of the rotor [m] p is equal to 3.064 million TJ/year [4]. therefore.14 1/2 3.3 * 0.945 for Cp. However a fairly accurate size of a windpump can be found by taking representative values of 0.. = 0. The rest of the country (mainly the Central highlands) are suitable for low or medium running machines.3.945 [kg/m ] 2 A is the swept area of the rotor [m ] Substituting these known parameters into equation 44. determining both its output and cost. The exact determination of a rotor size depends on the power factor (Cp) of the wind rotor.945 * Vav ] = 1.14 * q * H / Vav 3 3 2 3 (45) Since a windpump is usually specified in terms of its rotor diameter (D) its size is given by equation 46.7 * 0. [3] 2.8 m/s are found extensively in Ethiopia. the Western province 9all around the Sudanese border) are generally poor in wind energy. The design month is found by calculating he ratio of the hydraulic power requirement to the wind power resource for each month..