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2.

6 billion people do not use
improved sanitation
• Although1.3billionpeoplehavegainedaccess
toimprovedsanitationsince1990,theworld
islikelytomisstheMDGsanitationtargetby
abillionpeople.
• Open defecation rates have decreased from
25%in1990to17%in2008.Worldwide,1.1
billion people practise open defecation, a
declineof167millionsince1990.
• With only 45% of the rural population using
improvedsanitation,ruralareaslagfarbehind
urbanareas,wheretherateis76%.
• Seven out of ten people without improved
sanitationliveinruralareas,butthenumber
of people in urban areas without improved
sanitation is increasing because of rapid
growthinurbanpopulations.
With only five years to Go
until the MDG tarGet Date
884 million people do not use an
improved source of drinking-water
• The world is on track to meet the MDG
drinking-water target. In developing regions,
84% of the population uses an improved
sourceofdrinking-water.
• In urban areas the use of improved sources
of drinking-water has been maintained at
96% since 2000, with over 1 billion more
peoplenowusingsuchasourcethanin1990.
However, this increase is barely keeping up
withurbanpopulationgrowth.
• Thenumberofpeoplelivinginruralareaswho
do not use an improved source of drinking-
water is over five times the number living in
urbanareas.
• Worldwide, 37% of people not using an
improved source of drinking-water live in
Sub-SaharanAfrica.
WorldHealthOrganization
AvenueAppia20
1211Geneva27,Switzerland
UnitedNationChildren’sFund
3UNPlaza
NewYork,NY10017USA
5 5
Annex C
GlobAl And reGionAl drinkinG-wAter
lAdders: urbAn And rurAl
© World Health Organization and UNICEF 2010
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WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-water: 2010 Update.
1. Drinking-water supply. 2. Sanitation. 3. Millennium Development Goals. 4. MDG monitoring. 5. Open defecation.
I. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation.
ISBN 978 92 4 156395 6 (NLM classification: WA 670)
FigureC Urban and rural proportion of the population using a piped water connection, other improved
drinking-water sources or an unimproved source, by MDG region, in 1990 and 2008
43
35
40
48
17 17
4 5
32
42
64
53
71
73
22
21
7
21
31
39
45
40
24
80 79
15 17
5
4
27
34
37
44
36
22
55
51
36
44
9
11
60
72
31
17
9
5
6
10
2
87
96
44
18
14
9
42
73
8 8
51
40
41
52
37
19
57
65
6
16
4 4
3 3
93 93
30
22
15
17
55
61
6 5
8
4
86
91
22
13
45
19
33
68
3
2
43
35
40
48
17 17
4 5
32
42
64
53
71
73
22
21
7
21
31
39
45
40
24
80 79
15 17
5
4
27
34
37
44
36
22
55
51
36
44
9
11
60
72
31
17
9
5
6
10
2
87
96
44
18
14
9
42
73
8 8
51
40
41
52
37
19
57
65
6
16
4 4
3 3
93 93
30
22
15
17
55
61
6 5
8
4
86
91
22
13
45
19
33
68
3
2
Unimproved Otherimproved Pipedonpremises
contents
contents
IntroductIon........................................................................................................................................2
StatuS and progreSS towardS the mdg target
Billions.without.improved.sanitation.............................................................................................................6
Millions.without.improved.sources.of .drinking-water.....................................................................................7
Sanitation:.world.off .track.for.MDG.target....................................................................................................8
Drinking-water:.world.on.track.for.MDG.target..............................................................................................9
Sanitation.ladder:.global.and.regional.trends..............................................................................................12
Drinking-water.ladder:.global.and.regional.trends........................................................................................13
urban-rural dISparItIeS
Sanitation:.urban-rural.disparities................................................................................................................16
Drinking-water:.urban-rural.disparities.........................................................................................................18
a cloSer look at the ladderS
Open.defecation............................................................................................................................................22
Shared.and.unimproved.sanitation.facilities...................................................................................................23
Piped.water.on.premises.and.other.improved.sources.of .drinking-water.........................................................25
addItIonal perSpectIveS
Time.to.collect.drinking-water.........................................................................................................................28
Collection.of .drinking-water:.gender.disparities...............................................................................................29
Socioeconomic.disparities:.Sub-Saharan.Africa................................................................................................30
Jmp method
JMP.method.explained.....................................................................................................................................34
StatIStIcal table
Progress.on.sanitation.and.drinking-water:.country.estimates.for.1990,.2000.and.2008....................................38
Progress.on.sanitation.and.drinking-water:.regional.and.global.estimates.for.1990,.2000.and.2008...................52
annexeS
Annex.A..Millennium.Development.Goals:.regional.groupings...............................................................................53
Annex.B..Global.and.regional.sanitation.ladders:.urban.and.rural.........................................................................54
Annex.C..Global.and.regional.drinking-water.ladders:.urban.and.rural..................................................................55
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 2
a new Strategy for Jmp
A.new.JMP.strategy.was.formulated.by.WHO.
and.UNICEF,.with.support.from.a.newly.created.
Strategic.Advisory.Group.to.better.position.JMP.to.
address.the.monitoring.challenges.in.the.run.up.
to.the.MDG.target.year.of .2015.and.beyond..
The.JMP.vision.contained.in.this.strategy.is.to.
accelerate.progress.towards.universal.sustainable.
access.to.safe.water.and.basic.sanitation.by.
2025,.including.the.achievement.of .the.MDG.
target.by.2015.as.a.key.milestone.
The.four.strategic.priority.areas.of .activity.
proposed.for.the.2010-2015.period.are:
•.. maintaining.the.integrity.of .the.JMP.database.
and.ensuring.accurate.global.estimates;
•.. disseminating.data.to.stakeholders;
•.. fulfilling.JMP’s.normative.role.in.developing.and.
validating.target.indicators;
•.. enhancing. interaction. between. countries. and.
JMP.
With.this.strategy,.JMP.is.well.placed.to.provide.
a.platform.for.developing.post-2015.targets.and.
associated.meaningful.and.measurable.indicators.
future challengeS
We.all.recognize.the.vital.importance.of .sanitation.
and.water.to.human.health.and.well-being,.and.
their.role.as.an.engine.of .development..The.
question.is.how.to.accelerate.progress.towards.
achieving.the.MDG.target,.and.how.to.go.beyond.
it.in.order.to.ultimately.achieve.the.vision.of .
universal.access.
The.estimates.that.JMP.publishes.every.two.years.
help.policy-makers,.donors,.governmental.and.
nongovernmental.agencies.decide.what.needs.
to.be.done.and.where.to.focus.their.efforts..
With.each.successive.report,.a.clearer.picture.
emerges.of .the.current.use.of .improved.sanitation.
facilities.and.improved.sources.of .drinking-water.
throughout.the.world..
Data.collection.and.analysis.are,.however,.not.
ends.in.themselves..The.estimates.and.trends.
must.be.an.impetus.for.action..With.this.in.mind,.
JMP.constantly.seeks.to.provide.more.accurate.
and.detailed.information,.to.see.where.there.is.
most.catching-up.to.be.done,.where.there.are.
vulnerabilities,.or.where.progress.is.starting.to.
falter.
This.report.by.the.WHO/UNICEF.Joint.
Monitoring.Programme.for.Water.Supply.
and.Sanitation.(JMP).confirms.that.
advances.continue.to.be.made.towards.
greater.access.to.safe.drinking-water..
Progress.in.relation.to.access.to.basic.
sanitation.is.however.insufficient.to.achieve.
the.Millennium.Development.Goal.(MDG).
target.to.halve,.by.2015,.the.proportion.of .
people.without.sustainable.access.to.safe.
drinking-water.and.basic.sanitation.
purpoSe and Scope of thIS report
This.report.describes.the.status.and.trends.with.respect.
to.the.use.of .safe.drinking-water.and.basic.sanitation,.
and.progress.made.towards.the.MDG.drinking-water.and.
sanitation.target.
As.the.world.approaches.2015,.it.becomes.increasingly.
important.to.identify.who.are.being.left.behind.
and.to.focus.on.the.challenges.of .addressing.their.
needs..This.report.presents.some.striking.disparities:.
the.gap.between.progress.in.providing.access.to.
drinking-water.versus.sanitation;.the.divide.between.
urban.and.rural.populations.in.terms.of .the.services.
provided;.differences.in.the.way.different.regions.are.
performing,.bearing.in.mind.that.they.started.from.
different.baselines;.and.disparities.between.different.
socioeconomic.strata.in.society..
Each.JMP.report.assesses.the.situation.and.trends.anew.
and.so.this.JMP.report.supersedes.previous.reports..The.
information.presented.in.this.report.includes.data.from.
household.surveys.and.censuses.completed.during.the.
period.2007-2008..It.also.incorporates.datasets.from.
earlier.surveys.and.censuses.that.have.become.available.
to.JMP.since.the.publication.of .the.previous.JMP.report.
in.2008..In.total,.data.from.around.300.surveys.and.
censuses.covering.the.period.1985.-.2008,.has.been.
added.to.the.JMP.database.
The.updated.estimates.for.2008,.2000.and.1990.are.
given.in.the.statistical.table.starting.on.page.38..This.
table.for.the.first.time.shows.the.number.of .people.who.
gained.access.to.improved.sanitation.and.drinking-water.
sources.in.the.period.1990-2008.
It.is.important.to.note.that.the.data.in.this.report.do.
not.yet.reflect.the.efforts.of .the.International.Year.of .
Sanitation.2008,.which.mobilized.renewed.support.
around.the.world.to.stop.the.practice.of .open
defecation.and.to.promote.the.use.of .latrines.and.
toilets.
introduction
3
The.present.report.documents.how.much.the.world.has.
changed.in.terms.of .the.use.of .improved.sanitation.
facilities.and.improved.sources.of .drinking-water..
The.practice.of .open.defecation.is.declining,.but.
still.too.many.people.have.no.access.to.any.kind.of .
sanitation.facilities..Piped.water.is.reaching.ever.more.
households,.but.not.yet.all.and.often.not.reliably.so..
The.challenge.of .assessing.the.safety.of .drinking-water.
from.improved.sources.also.needs.to.be.addressed..
Better.decision-making.to.speed.progress.
requires.a.greater.disaggregation.and.a.
higher.resolution.in.the.datasets..JMP.faces.
methodological.challenges.of .analysing.data.from.
over.200.different.countries.and.territories,.of .
adhering.to.common.indicators.so.that.estimates.
are.comparable.globally,.and.of .accommodating.
new.or.previously.unavailable.data.
introduction
introduction
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 6
MiLLionS WitHout iMProVEd
SourcES oF drinking-WatEr
BiLLionS WitHout
iMProVEd Sanitation
2.6 bIllIon people do not uSe Improved SanItatIon
Improved.sanitation.facilities.are.used.by.less.than.two.thirds.of .the.world.population..The.global.picture.masks.
great.disparities.between.regions..Virtually.the.entire.population.of .the.developed.regions.uses.improved.facilities,.
but.in.developing.regions.only.around.half .the.population.uses.improved.sanitation..There.are.also.disparities.in.
progress.since.1990..Notable.increases.in.the.use.of .improved.sanitation.have.been.made.in.Northern.Africa,.
South-eastern.Asia.and.Eastern.Asia,.whereas.there.has.been.no.progress.in.the.Commonwealth.of .Independent.
States.and.a.decline.in.Oceania..Among.the.2.6.billion.people.in.the.world.who.do.not.use.improved.sanitation.
facilities,.by.far.the.greatest.number.are.in.Southern.Asia,.but.there.are.also.large.numbers.in.Eastern.Asia.and.
Sub-Saharan.Africa.
Use of improved sanitation
91-100%
76-90%
50-75%
<50%
No or insufficient data
Figure 1. . Worldwide.use.of .improved.sanitation.facilities.in.2008.
61% of global population uses
improved sanitation facilities
2.6 billion people – 72% of
whom live in Asia – do not use
improved sanitation facilities
Figure 2. .Regional.use.of .improved.sanitation.
facilities.in.2008.and.percentage.
point.change.1990-2008
Figure 3. .Regional.distribution.of .the.2.6.billion.
people.not.using.improved.sanitation.
facilities.in.2008,.population.(million)
Use of improved sanitation facilities is low in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia
7
MiLLionS WitHout iMProVEd
SourcES oF drinking-WatEr
884 mIllIon people do not uSe Improved SourceS
of drInkIng-water
The.use.of .improved.sources.of .drinking-water.is.high.globally,.with.87%.of .the.world.population.and.84%.of .the.peo-
ple.in.developing.regions.getting.their.drinking-water.from.such.sources..Even.so,.884.million.people.in.the.world.still.
do.not.get.their.drinking-water.from.improved.sources,.almost.all.of .them.in.developing.regions..Sub-Saharan.Africa.
accounts.for.over.a.third.of .that.number,.and.is.lagging.behind.in.progress.towards.the.MDG.target,.with.only.60%.of .
the.population.using.improved.sources.of .drinking-water.despite.an.increase.of .11.percentage.points.since.1990.
BiLLionS WitHout
iMProVEd Sanitation
87% of global population uses
improved drinking-water sources,
an increase of 10% point in 18 years
Figure 5. .Regional.use.of .improved.drinking-
water.in.2008.and.percentage.point.
change.1990-2008
Sub-Saharan Africa faces the greatest challenge in increasing
the use of improved drinking-water
Figure 4 .Worldwide.use.of .improved.drinking-water.sources.in.2008.
884 million people – 37% of whom live in
Sub–Saharan Africa – still use unimproved
sources for drinking-water
Figure 6. .Regional.distribution.of .the.884.million.
people.not.using.improved.drinking-water.
sources.in.2008,.population.(million)
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 8
Sanitation: most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia are
not on track to meet the MDG target
Sanitation: world is projected to miss the MDG target
Sanitation:
WorLd oFF track For Mdg targEt
drinking-WatEr:
WorLd on track For Mdg targEt
At.the.current.rate.of .progress,.the.world.will.miss.the.MDG.target.by.13.percentage.points..Unless.huge.efforts.are.
made,.the.proportion.of .people.without.access.to.basic.sanitation.will.not.be.halved.by.2015..Even.if .we.meet.the.
MDG.target,.there.will.still.be.1.7.billion.people.without.access.to.basic.sanitation..If .the.trend.remains.as.currently.
projected,.an.additional.billion.people.who.should.have.benefited.from.MDG.progress.will.miss.out,.and.by.2015.
there.will.be.2.7.billion.people.without.access.to.basic.sanitation.
Figure 7. .Global.progress.towards.the.MDG.target:.trend.in.use.of .improved.sanitation.1990-2008,.
projected.to.2015
Figure 8. .Sanitation:.Progress.towards.the.MDG.target,.2008
on track:.>95%.or.2008.figure.was.within.5%.of .
required.rate.to.meet.the.target;
Progress but insufficient:.2008.figure.was.between.
5%.and.10%.of .the.required.rate.to.meet.the.target;
not on track:.flat.or.decreasing.trend.between.1990-2008.or.2008.
figure.was.not.within.10%.of .the.required.rate.to.meet.the.target;
no or insufficient data: includes.countries.or.territories.where.data.
were.either.not.available.or.were.not.sufficient.to.estimate.trends
9
Drinking-water: except for Sub-Saharan Africa,
most countries are on track to meet the MDG target
Drinking-water: world is projected to reach the MDG target
Sanitation:
WorLd oFF track For Mdg targEt
drinking-WatEr:
WorLd on track For Mdg targEt
At.the.current.rate.of .progress,.the.world.is.expected.to.exceed.the.MDG.target.of .halving.the.proportion.of .the.
population.without.sustainable.access.to.safe.drinking-water..Even.so,.672.million.people.will.still.lack.access.to.
improved.drinking-water.sources.in.2015..For.monitoring.purposes,.the.use.of .improved.drinking-water.sources.
has.been.equated.to.access.to.safe.drinking-water,.but.not.all.improved.sources.in.actual.fact.provide.drinking-
water.that.is.safe..The.challenge.of .measuring.water.quality.is.addressed.on.page.31.
Figure 9. .Global.progress.towards.the.MDG.target:.trend.in.use.of .improved.drinking-water.
sources.1990-2008,.projected.to.2015
Figure 10. Drinking-water:.progress.towards.the.MDG.target,.2008
on track:.>95%.or.2008.figure.was.within.5%.of .
required.rate.to.meet.the.target;
Progress but insufficient:.2008.figure.was.between.
5%.and.10%.of .the.required.rate.to.meet.the.target;
not on track:.flat.or.decreasing.trend.between.1990-2008.or.2008.
figure.was.not.within.10%.of .the.required.rate.to.meet.the.target;
no or insufficient data: includes.countries.or.territories.where.data.
were.either.not.available.or.were.not.sufficient.to.estimate.trends
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 1 0
cHaLLEngE: gLoBaL trEnd HEaViLY inFLuEncEd
BY ProgrESS in LargE PoPuLouS countriES
Global.estimates.of .access.and.use.hinge.significantly.on.progress.made.in.large,.
populous.countries.
China.and.India.are.home.to.more.than.a.third.of .the.world.population..Both.countries.have.made
considerable.progress..In.China,.89%.of .the.population.of .1.3.billion.use.drinking-water.from.improved.
sources,.up.from.67%.in.1990..In.India,.88%.of .the.population.of .1.2.billion.use.drinking-water.from.such.
sources,.as.compared.to.72%.in.1990..China.and.India.together.account.for.a.47%.share,.of .the.1.8.billion.
people.that.gained.access.to.improved.drinking-water.sources.between.1990.and.2008..This.share.is.almost.
equally.distributed.between.the.two.countries..Obviously,.these.two.countries.heavily.influence.the.global.
trend..Therefore,.the.ability.to.reach.the.MDG.target.is.highly.dependent.on.the.performance.of .these.two.
countries..
For.sanitation,.even.with.the.increase.between.1990.and.2008.in.the.proportion.of .the.population.using.
improved.sanitation.facilities.in.China.(from.41%.to.55%).and.India.(from.18%.to.31%),.the.world.is.not.on.
track.to.meet.the.sanitation.target..This.is.despite.the.fact.that.475.million.people.gained.access.to.improved.
sanitation.in.these.two.countries.alone,.a.38%.share.of .the.1.3.billion.people.that.gained.access.globally...
Four out of 10 people gaining
access in 1990-2008 to improved
sanitation live in China and India
Nearly half of world population
gaining access to improved sources
of drinking-water in 1990-2008 live
in China and India
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 1 2
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Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 1 6
Seven out of 10 people
without improved
sanitation live in rural areas
Figure 14. .Urban.and.rural.
population.without.
improved.sanitation,.
worldwide.2008
Sanitation:
urBan-ruraL diSParitiES
The.use.of .improved.sanitation.facilities.is.particularly.low.in.Sub-Saharan.Africa.at.31%.overall.–.even.so,.the.
disparity.between.urban.and.rural.areas.is.striking..Disparities.are.also.particularly.apparent.in.Latin.America.&.
Caribbean,.Southern.Asia.and.Oceania..Seven.out.of .ten.people.without.improved.sanitation.live.in.rural.areas..
Use of improved sanitation in urban areas is higher
than in rural areas
Figure 13. .Urban-rural.use.of .improved.sanitation,.
in.MDG.Regions,.2008
Major progress in the use of improved sanitation
is undermined by population growth
Figure 15. .Population.gaining.access.to.improved.sanitation.
compared.to.population.growth,.urban.and.rural,.
worldwide,.1990-2008
1 7
Sanitation: urBan-ruraL diSParitiES
There.are.significant.disparities.between.rural.and.urban.areas.in.regard.to.sanitation..Rural.areas.continue.
to.have.a.lower.percentage.of .population.using.improved.sanitation.and.a.higher.number.of .people.without.
improved.facilities..Of .the.approximately.1.3.billion.people.who.gained.access.to.improved.sanitation.during.the.
period.1990-2008,.64%.live.in.urban.areas..However.urban.areas,.though.better.served.than.rural.areas,.are.
struggling.to.keep.up.with.the.growth.of .the.urban.population..
Sanitation:
urBan-ruraL diSParitiES
Figure 17........Use.of .improved.sanitation.in.rural.areas,.2008
Figure 16........Use.of .improved.sanitation.in.urban.areas,.2008
Urban-rural disparities in the use of improved sanitation
are signifcant in most developing countries
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 1 8
84% of the world
population without an
improved drinking-water
source lives in rural areas
Figure 19. .Urban.and.rural.
population.without.
improved.sources.
of .drinking-water,.
worldwide,.2008
Use of improved drinking-water sources in urban areas
is almost double the use in rural areas of
Sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania
Figure 18. .Urban-Rural.uses.of .improved.sources.of .
drinking-water,.in.MDG.regions,.2008
Increase in the use of improved drinking-water sources
is barely keeping up with the urban population growth
Figure 20. .Population.gaining.access.to.improved.drinking-water.
compared.to.population.growth,.urban.and.rural,.
worldwide,.1990-2008
drinking-WatEr:
urBan-ruraL diSParitiES
Worldwide,.87%.of .the.population.gets.their.drinking-water.from.improved.sources,.and.the.corresponding.figure.
for.developing.regions.is.also.high.at.84%..While.94%.of .the.urban.population.of .developing.regions.uses.improved.
sources,.it.is.only.76%.of .rural.populations..
1 9
Urban-rural disparities are striking in Africa
Figure 21 .Use.of .improved.sources.of .drinking-water.in.urban.areas,.2008
Figure 22. . Use.of .improved.sources.of .drinking-water.in.rural.areas,.2008
drinking-WatEr: urBan-ruraL diSParitiES
drinking-WatEr:
urBan-ruraL diSParitiES
The.rural.population.without.access.to.an.improved.drinking-water.source.is.over.five.times.greater.than.that.in.
urban.areas..Of .almost.1.8.billion.people.gaining.access.to.improved.drinking-water.in.the.period.1990-2008,.
59%.live.in.urban.areas..The.urban-rural.disparities.are.particularly.striking.in.Sub-Saharan.Africa,.but.are.also.
visible.in.Asia.and.Latin.America..In.urban.areas,.however,.the.increase.in.coverage.is.barely.keeping.pace.with.
population.growth.
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 2 2
SHarEd and
uniMProVEd Sanitation FaciLitiES
oPEn dEFEcation
1.1 bIllIon people StIll defecate In the open
By.far.the.great.majority.of .people.practising.open.defecation.live.in.rural.areas,.but.this.number.is.declining..
However,.partly.because.of .rapid.increases.in.the.urban.population,.a.growing.number.of .people.in.urban.areas.
defecate.in.the.open..
.
The.proportion.of .the.world.population.that.practises.open.defecation.declined.by.almost.one.third.from.25%.in.
1990.to.17%.in.2008..A.decline.in.open.defecation.rates.was.recorded.in.all.regions..In.Sub-Saharan.Africa,.open.
defecation.rates.fell.by.25.per.cent..In.absolute.numbers,.the.population.practising.open.defecation.increased,.
however,.from.188.million.in.1990.to.224.million.in.2008..In.Southern.Asia,.home.to.64%.of .the.world.population.
that.defecate.in.the.open,.the.practice.decreased.the.most.–.from.66%.in.1990.to.44%.in.2008.
81% of 1.1 billion people that defecate in the
open worldwide live in 10 countries
Figure 23 Distribution.of .1.1.billion.people.who.practise.open.
defecation,.2008,.population.(million)
Open defecation declined considerably
in all developing regions
Figure 25. .Regional.changes.in.open.defecation.rates,.
1990-2008
The number of people
practising open defecation
increased in urban areas
Figure 24. .Number.of .people.
practising.open.
defecation,.urban.and.
rural.areas,.worldwide,.
1990-2008
2 3
SHarEd and
uniMProVEd Sanitation FaciLitiES
oPEn dEFEcation
751 mIllIon people Share theIr
SanItatIon facIlItIeS
Shared.sanitation.facilities.as.defined.for.MDG.monitoring.purposes.are.
facilities.of .an.otherwise.improved.type.that.are.either.public.or.shared.
between.two.or.more.households..Sharing.of .improved.sanitation.
facilities.is.most.prevalent.in.urban.areas..Often.densely.populated.
urban.areas.do.not.have.sufficient.space.to.construct.private.sanitation.
facilities.and.people.rely.on.public.or.shared.facilities..Among.the.
different.regions,.using.a.shared.facility.is.most.common.in.urban.
Sub-Saharan.Africa.(31%),.and.particularly.in.Ghana..In.1990,.249.
million.people.in.urban.areas.used.shared.facilities.as.compared.with.
145.million.in.rural.areas..Those.numbers.have.now.almost.doubled.
to.497.million.in.urban.areas.and.risen.to.254.million.in.rural.areas,.
representing.a.worldwide.increase.of .4%..
a tenth of the
world populatIon
uSeS unImproved
SanItatIon facIlItIeS
Unimproved.sanitation.facilities.are.
unsatisfactory.in.terms.of .public.health,.
although.existing.facilities.may.be.
upgraded.in.various.ways.to.prevent.
human.contact.with.excreta.
Globally.the.proportion.of .the.rural.
population.using.unimproved.sanitation.
facilities.is.more.than.fourfold.that.in.urban.
areas..This.is.despite.the.decrease.in.the.
use.of .unimproved.sanitation.facilities.in.
rural.areas.of .the.developing.regions.from.
23%.in.1990.to.20%.in.2008..
Use of unimproved sanitation facilities is much
higher in rural areas than in the urban areas.
Figure 27 Urban-rural.disparities.in.the.use.of .unimproved.
sanitation.facilities,.MDG.regions,.2008
Shared sanitation increased
almost two fold but
remains considerably
higher among urban users
Figure 26. .Number.of .people.
sharing.sanitation.
facilities,.urban.and.
rural.areas,.1990-2008
uSe of Shared SanItatIon, 2008 (%)
country urban rural total
Ghana . 70 . 38 54
Uganda . 56 . 22 26
kenya . 51 . 18 25
Sierra.Leone . 47 . 18 29
Bolivia . 44 . . 16 34
Togo . 44 . 6 22
Malawi . 42 . 24 27
Guinea . 42 . 6 18
Zimbabwe . 40 . 15 24
Nigeria . 38 . 14 26
Gabon . 36 . 25 34
Lesotho . 35 . 3 11
table 1. .Urban,.rural.and.total.use.of .shared.sanitation.for.the.
countries.where.shared.sanitation.rate.in.urban.areas.
in.2008.is.35%.or.more.
PiPEd WatEr on PrEMiSES
and otHEr iMProVEd SourcES
oF drinking-WatEr
2 4
challenge: are Shallow-pItS and dry-latrIneS Improved or not?
Classifying.the.different.types.of .sanitation.facilities,.covered.by.household.surveys.and.censuses,.as.“improved”.or.
“unimproved”.has.been.an.ongoing.challenge.for.JMP..The.impact.on.national.rates.of .access.to.improved.sanitation.
could.be.substantial,.especially.when.the.facility.type.is.used.by.a.large.proportion.of .the.population..When.this.
concerns.a.large.country.such.as.China,.the.impact.on.the.global.estimates.could.be.considerable..
Chinese.authorities.distinguish.harmless.sanitary.latrines.and.sanitary.latrines.and.they.both.meet.the.MDG.criteria.
for.an.improved.sanitation.facility.that.hygienically.separates.human.waste.from.human.contact..Sanitary.latrines.
are.defined.by.the.Chinese.Sanitation.Authority.as.those structures which have walls, roofs, seepage-free and leakage
free storage tanks, furnished with airtight covers, with a clean latrine room, free from flies and maggots, odourless, and in
which faeces are collected in a timely manner and are treated so as to be harmless.
According.to.survey.and.census.data,.in.rural.areas.of .China.the.use.of .sanitary.latrines.has.gradually.increased.
to.25%.in.2008,.while.the.proportion.of .the.rural.population.that.uses.another.type.of .sanitation.facility,.labelled.
by.different.surveys.as.a.dry.latrine,.dry.toilet,.shallow.pit,.covered.pit.or.non-covered.pit.has.gradually.decreased.
from.84%.in.1991.to.68%.in.2008..Though.these.facilities.do.not.meet.the.national.criteria.for.a.sanitary.latrine,.it.
is.likely.that.some.meet.the.MDG.criteria.for.an.improved.sanitation.facility..However.without.specific.information.
about.these.facilities,.it.is.a.challenge.to.classify.them.as.either.improved.or.unimproved..The.fact.that.a.large.
proportion.of .the.Chinese.population.uses.these.types.of .facilities.has.a.significant.impact.on.the.number.of .
people.with.or.without.access.to.an.improved.sanitation.facility.
2 5
PiPEd WatEr on PrEMiSES
and otHEr iMProVEd SourcES
oF drinking-WatEr
InveStmentS In pIped connectIonS on premISeS drIve
progreSS In moSt regIonS
Between.1990.and.2008,.more.than.1.2.billion.people.worldwide.gained.access.to.a.piped.connection.on.
premises..This.is.more.than.twice.the.population.that.gained.access.to.other.improved.drinking-water.sources..
In.Eastern.Asia,.Latin.America.&.Caribbean.and.Northern.Africa.progress.was.exclusively.the.result.of .increases.
in.piped.connections.on.premises..Since.1990,.510.million.in.Eastern.Asia,.167.million.in.Latin.America.&.
Caribbean.and.61.million.in.Northern.Africa.gained.access.to.a.piped.connection.on.premises..The.number.of .
people.relying.on.other.improved.sources.in.those.regions.actually.declined,.respectively,.by.73.million,.6.million.
and.14.million.
In.Sub-Saharan.Africa,.growth.in.the.population.gaining.access.to.other.improved.sources.was.3.5.times.
higher.than.the.growth.in.the.population.with.piped.connections.on.premises..In.South.Asia.it.was.three.times.
higher.
In.developing.regions,.while.73%.of .the.urban.population.uses.piped.water.from.a.household.connection,.only.
31%.of .rural.inhabitants.have.access.to.household.piped.water.supplies..In.Sub-Saharan.Africa,.only.5%.of .
the.rural.population.gets.water.piped.to.premises..In.contrast,.in.urban.areas.of .Sub-Saharan.Africa,.35%.of .
urban.dwellers.use.water.piped.to.the.household.
Growth in piped connections on premises
is twice as high as the growth in other
improved drinking-water sources
Figure 28. .Change.of .population.getting.their.drinking-water.
piped.on.premises.or.from.other.improved.sources,.
by.MDG.region,.1990-2008
Urban use of piped water
on premises is more than
double rural use
Figure 29. .Urban.and.rural.
population.using.piped.
water.on.premises,.
worldwide,.2008
oPEn dEFEcation
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 2 8
Research.has.shown.that.those.spending.more.than.half .an.hour.per.round.trip.
progressively.collect.less.water,.and.eventually.fail.to.meet.their.families’.minimum.daily.
drinking-water.needs.
2
.Additionally,.the.economic.costs.of .having.to.make.multiple.trips.
per.day.to.collect.drinking-water.are.enormous.
3
2. .Howard.G.and.Bartram.J,.Domestic.Water.Quantity,.Service.Level.and.Health,.Geneva,..World.Health.Organization,.2003
3. .Hutton.G,.Haller.L,.Evaluations.of .the.costs.and.benefits.of .water.and.sanitation.improvements.at.the.global.level,.Geneva,.World.Health.
Organization,.2004
tiME to coLLEct
drinking-WatEr
An.analysis.of .MICS.and.DHS.surveys.conducted.
over.the.past.four.years.shows.that.water.
collection.trips.of .over.30.minutes.are.most.
prevalent.in.Africa
4
.as.well.as.in.arid.countries.
outside.of .Africa,.such.as.Mongolia.and.Yemen..
In.various.countries,.most.notably.in.Eastern.
Africa,.more.than.a.quarter.of .the.population.
spends.more.than.half .an.hour.per.round.trip.to.
collect.water.
2. .Hutton.G,.Haller.L,.Evaluations of the costs and benefits of water and
sanitation improvements at the global level..Geneva,.World.Health.
Organization,.2004.
3. .Howard.G.and.Bartram.J,.Domestic water quantity, service level and
health. Geneva,.World.Health.Organization,.2003.
4. .MICS.and.DHS.surveys.from.24.countries.in.Sub-Saharan.Africa,.
2005-2008.
More than a quarter of the population
in several countries of Sub-Saharan
Africa takes longer than 30 minutes to
make one water collection round trip
Figure 30 .Percentage.of .population.that.spends.
more.than.30.minutes.on.a.water.
collection.round.trip.
In many African countries, one
third of the improved drinking-
water sources that are not piped
on premises need a collection
time of more than 30 minutes.
Figure 31. .Proportion.of .the.population.
spending.half .an.hour.or.less,.or.
more.than.half .an.hour,.to.collect.
water.from.an.improved.source,.or.
using.water.from.an.unimproved.
source,.Sub-Saharan.Africa
coLLEction oF drinking-WatEr:
gEndEr diSParitiES
oPEn dEFEcation tiME to coLLEct
drinking-WatEr
2 9
For.families.without.a.drinking-water.source.
on.the.premises,.it.is.usually.women.who.go.
to.the.source.to.collect.drinking-water..Surveys.
from.45.developing.countries
5
.show.that.this.
is.the.case.in.almost.two.thirds.of .households,.
while.in.almost.a.quarter.of .households.it.is.
men.who.usually.collect.the.water..In.12%.
of .households,.however,.children.carry.the.
main.responsibility.for.collecting.water,.with.
girls.under.15.years.of .age.being.twice.as.
likely.to.carry.this.responsibility.as.boys.
under.the.age.of .15.years..The.real.burden.
on.children.is.likely.to.be.higher.because,.in.
many.households.the.water.collection.burden.
is.shared,.and.children.–.though.not.the.main.
person.responsible.–.often.make.several.
roundtrips.carrying.water..
4
5. .MICS.and.DHS.surveys.from.45.developing.countries,.2005-2008.
Women shoulder the largest burden
in collecting drinking-water
Figure 32. .Distribution.of .those.who.usually.collect.
drinking-water
coLLEction oF drinking-WatEr:
gEndEr diSParitiES
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 3 0
The.richest.20.%.of .the.population.
in.Sub-Saharan.Africa.is.almost.five.
times.as.likely.to.use.an.improved.
sanitation.facility.than.the.poorest.
quintile.
6
.The.poorest.20%.is.
around.16.times.more.likely.to.
practise.open.defecation.than.the.
richest.quintile..Still,.even.among.
the.richest.quintile,.4%.practises.
open.defecation.
The.richest.quintile.of .the.
population.in.Sub-Saharan.Africa.
is.more.than.twice.as.likely.as.the.
poorest.quintile.to.use.an.improved.
drinking-water.source..The.benefits.
of .piped.water.on.premises.are.
enjoyed.only.by.the.wealthiest.
6. .MICS.and.DHS.surveys.from.33.countries.in.Sub-Saharan.Africa,.2004-2009.
SocioEconoMic diSParitiES:
SuB-SaHaran aFrica
The poorest quintile is 16 times more likely
than the richest quintile to practise
open defecation
Figure 33. .Proportion.of .the.population.using.an.improved,.
shared.or.unimproved.sanitation.facility.or.practicing.
open.defecation,.by.wealth.quintile,.Sub-Saharan.
Africa
The richest quintile is more than twice
as likely than the poorest quintile to use
improved drinking-water
Figure 34. .Proportion.of .the.population.using.drinking-water.
piped.on.premises,.other.improved.drinking-water.
source.or.an.unimproved.source,.by.wealth.quintile,.
Sub-Saharan.Africa
SocioEconoMic diSParitiES:
SuB-SaHaran aFrica
3 1
cHaLLEngE: MEaSuring
WatEr quaLitY
The.measurement.of .water.safety.indicators.
at.the.household.level.has.to.date.been.
beset.by.technical.and.logistical.difficulties.
and.by.high.cost.
How.can.the.safety.of .drinking-water.be.
monitored.globally?.What.definitions.would.
be.meaningful.and.assist.decision-makers.
in.the.process.of .improving.the.drinking-
water.situation.in.the.world?.How.do.new.
concepts.in.assessing.and.managing.risks.
to.water.safety.apply.in.the.JMP.context?.
What.research.and.development.efforts.are.
needed.to.come.up.with.a.rapid,.reliable.
and.cost-effective.way.of .measuring.water.
quality.indicators.locally.and.reporting.on.
them.at.the.global.level?.These.are.some.
of .the.questions.to.be.addressed.by.a.JMP.
task.force.
The.MDG.target.refers.to.sustainable.access.to.
safe.drinking-water.and.basic.sanitation..But.what.
does.“safe”.mean?.The.WHO.Drinking-water quality
guidelines provides.specific.values.for.indicators.of .
microbial.contamination.and.chemical.hazards,.but.
allows.countries.to.adapt.guideline.values.to.their.
own.socioeconomic.contexts..The.third.edition.of .the.
guidelines.shifts.the.emphasis.away.from.single-point.
water.quality.testing.to.a.system.of .integrated.risk.
assessment.and.incremental.risk.management..
In.the.past.decade,.WHO.and.UNICEF.have.tested.
the.option.of .directly.measuring.water.quality.in.
a.number.of .pilot.countries,.using.a.method.for.
the.rapid.assessment.of .drinking-water.quality.
(RADWQ)..
This.RADWQ.project.(see.below).demonstrated.
the.technical.feasibility.of .such.measurements,.
notwithstanding.the.established.weaknesses.
of .using.E.coli.or.thermotolerant.coliforms.as.
indicators.of .microbial.safety..It.also.showed.
that.such.a.periodic.water.quality.survey.at.a.
global.level.was.economically.not.viable..Apart.
from.affordability,.there.is.also.the.question.of .
opportunity.cost:.how.many.people.could.be.
provided.with.access.to.water.and.sanitation.
using.the.resources.that.would.be.needed.to.
carry.out.water.quality.surveys?..
Any.new.target.set.beyond.2015.will.have.to.
address.water.quality,.which.will.have.to.be.
measured.or.estimated.in.a.meaningful.and.
cost-effective.manner..Technological.advances.
and.innovative.survey.methods.will.be.needed.
to.provide.the.tools.for.rapid,.reliable.and.
cheap.measurement,.to.be.carried.out.on.
a.large.scale..Within.countries,.regulatory.
frameworks.will.need.to.be.developed,.
along.with.the.capacity.to.implement.
and.independently.appraise.Water.Safety.
Plans.as.a.standard.feature.of .ensuring.
sustainable.access.to.safe.drinking-water.
Pilot survey: rapid assessment of drinking-water quality (RADWQ)
Drinking-water.is.considered.safe.if .it.meets.certain.microbiological.and.chemical.standards...
To.evaluate.the.quality.of .drinking-water.from.improved.sources,.WHO.and.UNICEF.have.developed.
a.rapid.assessment.method,.which.has.already.been.used.for.a.pilot.study.in.eight.countries.
(Bangladesh,.China,.Ethiopia,.India,.Jordan,.Nicaragua,.Nigeria.and.Tajikistan).
The.rapid.assessment.of .drinking-water.quality.(RADWQ).survey.method.for.the.pilot.study.was.based,.
for.each.country,.on.a.randomly.selected.sample.of .1600.water.supplies.and.160.households..Field.
test.kits.were.used.for.microbiological.and.chemical.testing.of .water.quality.and.to.assess.sanitary.
risks.in.households.
Microbiological.compliance.with.WHO.guidelines.varied.between.countries..On.average,.compliance..
was.close.to.90%.for.piped.water.sources,.and.between.40%.and.70%.for.other.improved.sources.
Source:.RADWQ.final.country.reports.(Geneva,.World.Health.Organization.and.UNICEF,.forthcoming).
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 3 4
use of the following facilities:
• Flush or pour-flush to:
• piped sewer system
• septic tank
• pit latrine
• Ventilated improved pit (ViP) latrine
• Pit latrine with slab
• Composting toilet
use of the following facilities:
• Flush or pour-flush to elsewhere (that is, not to piped
sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine)
• Pit latrine without slab/open pit
• Bucket
• Hanging toilet or hanging latrine
shared facilities of any type
no facilities, bush or field
use of the following sources:
• unprotected dug well
• unprotected spring
• Cart with small tank or drum
• tanker truck
• surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal,
irrigation channel)
• Bottled water
7
use of the following sources:
• Piped water into dwelling, yard or plot
• Public tap or standpipe
• tubewell or borehole
• Protected dug well
• Protected spring
• rainwater collection
JMP MEtHod ExPLainEd
These.categories.and.the.population.estimates.(including.the.proportion.of .the.population.living.in.urban.and.
rural.areas).used.in.this.report.are.those.estimated.by.the.United.Nations.Population.Division,.2008.revision..The.
estimates.used.by.JMP.may.differ.from.those.used.by.national.governments...Estimates.in.this.report.may.therefore.
differ.from.national.estimates.
data collectIon: gatherIng momentum
The. first. JMP. report. provided. a. global. picture. of . access. to. safe. drinking-water. and. basic. sanitation.. Also,. as. the.
database.has.grown,.JMP.has.been.able.to.offer.more.reliable.estimates..Because.all.the.estimates.are.revised.for.
each.report,.the.reports.are.not.comparable..
Since.the.2008.report,.more.than.300.datasets,.a.record.number,.has.been.added.to.the.JMP.database..Of .these,.to.
complement.data.directly.from.countries,.for.the.first.time.International.Household.Survey.Network.(IHSN).supplied.
JMP.with.data.from.100.household.surveys..
Currently.the.JMP.database.includes.729.nationally.representative.household.surveys.and.152.Censuses..Almost.
all.of .these.come.from.developing.regions.and.to.a.lesser.extent.from.the.Commonwealth.of .Independent.States..
Since.a.census.in.many.developed.countries.is.no.longer.used.to.collect.information.on.water.and.sanitation,.the.
JMP.largely.relies.on.administratively.reported.data.for.the.developed.countries..The.JMP.database.currently
includes.318.administratively.reported.data.for.developed.countries.
7. .Bottled.water.is.considered.to.be.improved.only.when.the.household.uses.drinking-water.from.an.improved.source.for.cooking.and.personal.
hygiene;.where.this.information.is.not.available,.bottled.water.is.classified.on.a.case-by-.case.basis.
defInIng acceSS to SanItatIon and drInkIng-water
MDG.Target.7c.calls.on.countries.to.halve,.by.2015,.the.proportion.of .people.without.sustainable.access.to.safe.
drinking-water.and.basic.sanitation..In.order.to.estimate.access.to.basic.sanitation.and.to.safe.water.JMP.is.
required.to.use.two.MDG.indicators:.
•. proportion.of .population.using.an.improved.sanitation.facility,.urban.and.rural;.
•. proportion.of .population.using.an.improved.drinking-water.source,.urban.and.rural.
Because.definitions.of .improved.sanitation.facilities.and.drinking-water.sources.can.vary.widely.within.and.among.
countries.and.regions,.and.because.JMP.is.mandated.to.report.at.global.level.and.across.time,.JMP.has.defined.a.
set.of .categories.for.“improved”.and.“unimproved”.sanitation.facilities.and.drinking-water.sources.that.are.used.to.
analyse.the.national.data.on.which.the.MDG.trends.and.estimates.are.based..
An.improved.sanitation.facility.is.one.that.hygienically.separates.human.excreta.from.human.contact..An.improved.
drinking-water.source.is.one.that.by.the.nature.of .its.construction.adequately.protects.the.source.from.outside.
contamination,.in.particular.with.faecal.matter..
I
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3 5
JMP MEtHod ExPLainEd
JMP MEtHod ExPLainEd
derIvIng mdg
progreSS eStImateS
For.each.country,.survey.and.census.data.
are.plotted.on.a.timescale.from.1980.to.
the.present..A.linear.trend.line,.based.on.
the.least-squares.method,.is.drawn.through.
these.data.points.to.provide.estimates.for.
1990,.1995,.2000,.2005.and.2008.(wherever.
possible)..The.total.estimates.are.population.
weighted.average.of .the.urban.and.rural.
numbers...
Sanitation.trend.analyses.at.country.level.are.
made.for.improved.sanitation.facilities.and.
open.defecation..The.estimates.for.improved.
sanitation.facilities.presented.in.this.report.
are.discounted.by.the.proportion.of .the.
population.that.shared.an.improved.type.of .
sanitation.facility..The.ratio.(proportion.of .the.
population.that.shares.an.improved.sanitation.
facility between two or more households)
derived.from.average.of .all.available.ratios.
from.household.surveys.and.censuses.is.
subsequently.subtracted.from.the.trend.
estimates.of .improved.sanitation.facilities,.
and.this.gives.the.estimates.for.shared.
sanitation.facilities.
Drinking-water.trend.analysis.at.the.country.
level.is.carried.out.for.the.following.categories:.
piped.water.into.dwelling,.plot.or.yard;.and.
improved.sources.of .drinking-water.
Challenge: dealing with a moving baseline
The.MDG.target.sets.the.proportion.of .people.in.1990.without.access.to.safe.drinking-water.and.basic.
sanitation.as.the.baseline.to.be.halved.by.2015..To.capture.the.concept.of .access.as.a.measurable.indicator,.
JMP.monitors.progress.to.the.MDG.target.on.the.basis.of .estimates.of .the.proportion.of .the.population.using.
an.improved.drinking-water.source.and.an.improved.sanitation.facility,.respectively.
The.1990.baseline.was.estimated.for.the.first.JMP.report.using.the.data.available.at.that.time..However,..
as.the.monitoring.exercise.has.continued.to.gather.momentum,.an.increasing.number.of .new.data.sources.
become.available.each.year..From.a.methodological.standpoint,.JMP.takes.the.view.that.the.estimates.in.
each.successive.report.should.be.as.accurate.as.possible..This.means.using.all.the.available.data.–.not.only.
estimating.access.for.the.most.recent.year,.but.also.recalculating.the.estimates.for.earlier.years.if .more.data.
have.come.to.light..Consequently,.these.new.estimates.may.affect.the.baseline.values,.the.trends,.and.the.
projections.for.2015,.the.target.year.
The.advantage.of .this.method.is.that.each.report.presents.the.most.accurate.and.detailed.picture.of .the.
current.situation.and.of .progress.made.since.1990..The.disadvantage.is.that.reports.are.not.comparable..
from.one.year.to.the.next..
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 3 6
use.of .drinking-water.and.sanitation.facilities.by.
household.members..This.difference.is.important.
as.a.service.once.provided.may.no.longer.be.
operational,.or.simply.may.not.be.used.for.various.
reasons..
uSIng dIfferent defInItIonS of acceSS
NSOs.and.different.line-ministries.may.use.
different.definitions.of .access.and.these,.in.turn,.
may.differ.from.the.definitions.used.for.the.MDG.
coverage.estimates..Understanding.the.differences.
in.definitions.is.key.to.the.process.of .comparing.
national.and.MDG.coverage.estimates.
how coverage IS meaSured
for mdg monItorIng
Since.the.MDG.targets.are.based.on.the.use.of .
improved.sanitation.and.drinking-water.facilities,.
the.JMP.relies.on.nationally.representative.
household.surveys.and.censuses.usually.
conducted.by.NSOs..In.order.to.be.able.to.
compare.coverage.rates.and.progress.among.
countries,.standard.definitions.of .access.are.used.
across.all.countries.(see.definitions.on.page.34).
reconcIlIng Jmp
and country eStImateS
Over.the.past.two.years,.JMP.has.worked.with.a.
number.of .pilot.countries.to:
•. develop.a.common.understanding.of .monitoring.
methods;
•. explore.the.possibility.of .harmonizing.or.
aligning.monitoring.approaches;
•. encourage.greater.collaboration.among.national.
agencies,.and.between.national.agencies.and.
JMP.
Once.definitions.are.clarified.at.national.level,.it.
is.possible.to.make.national.and.JMP.definitions.
correspond.better..The.JMP.objective.is.to.ensure.
comparability.between.countries..Efforts.by.JMP.
to.reconcile.data.have.advanced.understanding.
of .the.different.approaches.taken.by.countries..
However,.it.is.not.within.the.JMP’s.mandate.or.
capacity.to.carry.out.such.a.process.in.every.
country..JMP.is.therefore.collaborating.with.other.
country-based.organizations.to.pursue.this.task.
At.country.level,.differences.may.be.
observed.in.the.figures.on.the.use.of .
drinking-water.sources.and.sanitation.
facilities.presented.by.different.agencies...
Often.there.are.also.differences.between.
these.national.estimates.and.those.at.
the.MDG.level..At.the.origin.of .these.
discrepancies.lies.the.issue.of .institutional.
fragmentation..Responsibilities.for.rural.
drinking-water.and.sanitation.may.be.with.
different.national.bodies,.who.may.each.
apply.their.own.monitoring.definitions,.
methods.and.procedures..The.same.is.
true,.often.at.the.municipal.level,.for.urban.
drinking-water.and.sanitation..What.is.the.
nature.of .these.different.approaches?.Can.
definitions.be.harmonized?.Is.it.possible.
to.align.numbers.so.discrepancies.can.be.
reduced?.Can.barriers.between.sectoral.
institutions.be.overcome.in.the.area.of .
monitoring?.Ultimately,.can.national.
monitoring.of .sanitation.and.drinking-water.
be.fitted.into.a.common.framework?
This.challenge.has.been.addressed.by.JMP.
over.the.past.two.years.in.collaboration.
with.a.small.number.of .countries..The.first.
results.of .these.data.reconciliation.and.
alignment.processes.are.enlightening.and.
promising.
..
dIfferent actorS meaSurIng
dIfferent aSpectS
At.national.level,.it.is.common.for.different.institutions.
to.monitor.national.access.to.drinking-water.and.
sanitation..The.National.Statistics.Office.(NSO).usually.
has.the.overall.responsibility.for.all.national.data,.
however.individual.line-ministries.responsible.for.actual.
service.provision.often.have.their.own.monitoring.
mechanisms..Where.NSOs.largely.rely.on.household.
surveys.and.census.data,.line-ministries.often.track.
progress.based.on.recorded.outputs.of .the.sector.
While.line.ministries.responsible.for.water.supply.and.
sanitation.often.measure.the.provision.of .drinking-water.
supply.and.sanitation.facilities.and/or.the.number.of .
service.connections,.NSOs.tend.to.measure.the.actual.
cHaLLEngE: coMParing and rEconciLing
di FFErEnt countrY EStiMatES
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 3 8
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
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open
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shared
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open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
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other
improved
total
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Piped on
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other
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N
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2
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P
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s
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a
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d
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8
3 9
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
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F

s
a
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F
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number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
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d
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P
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P
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l
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t
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)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
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b
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r
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l
t
o
t
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improved
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unimproved
i
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d
unimproved
i
m
p
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v
e
d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
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1
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7
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6
3
4
3

8
1
1
2
0
0
8
8

6
6
2
4
1
2
4
3
4
1
1
3
1
4
1
0
6
8
0
1
2
2
0
8
6
0
8
4
2
6
5
8
1
6
6
9
2
6
7
3
1
7
5
1
2
6
3
2
5
B
h
u
t
a
n
1
9
9
0
5
4
9
1
6
























2
0
0
0
5
6
1
2
5
8
7

9
4
5
4

3
5
1
1
6
2

2
9
9

9
9
8
1
1
8
1
8
8
4
5
4
3
1
2
9
1
5
4
3
7
9

2
0
0
8
6
8
7
3
5
8
7

9
4
5
4

3
5
1
1
6
5

2
6
9
9
9
8
1
1
8
1
8
8
4
5
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3
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9
2
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8
B
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l
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(
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6
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7
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5
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3
1
7
6
2
3
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4
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1
0
1
7
8
1
4
1
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3
2
3
3
1
1
1
3
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1

1
5
6
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4
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7
6
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6
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3
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3
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6
1
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2
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3

6
6
8
2
0
0
8
9

6
9
4
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6
3
4
4
4
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6
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1
6
2
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5
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3
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2
1
9
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H
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1
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2
0
0
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3

6
9
4
4
3
9
8
0
2
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9
3
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5
1
9
5
1
3
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9
9
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6
3
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9
6
7
7
1
9
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9
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8
5
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2
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3

7
7
3
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7
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1
B
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w
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a
1
9
9
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1

3
5
2
4
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5
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5
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2
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6
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1
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6
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8
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5
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3
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7
2
3
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3
6
7
6
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8
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6
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7
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9
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6
6
6
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9
6
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3
8
1
8
9
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5
6
4
1
1
9
4
4
4
5
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6
5
6
8
2
0
0
8
1

9
2
1
6
0
7
4
7
1
8
1
3
9
1
1
1
2
3
8
6
0
9
1
5
1
6
9
9
8
0
1
9
1
9
0
3
5
5
5
1
0
9
5
6
2
3
3
5
B
r
a
z
i
l
1
9
9
0
1
4
9

5
7
0
7
5
8
1

1
5
4
3
5

2
5
4
0
6
9

1
8
1
3
9
6
9
2
4
4
6
5
3
5
3
0
3
5
8
8
7
8
1
0
1
2
2
0
0
0
1
7
4

1
7
4
8
1
8
4

1
2
4
3
6

3
0
3
4
7
5

1
5
1
0
5
0

3
7
4
9
7
9
5
2
3
7
5
5
0
2
5
2
5
9
3
8
7
6
7
5
4

5
9
0
2
0
0
8
1
9
1

9
7
2
8
6
8
7

1
0
3
3
7

3
3
3
0
8
0

1
3
7
9
9
9
6
3
1
8
4
6
2
2
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6
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7
9
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3
B
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V
i
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n

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s
l
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d
s
1
9
9
0
1
7
5
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0
0

0
0
1
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0

0
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0
0
9
8
9
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1
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9
8
9
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1
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8
9
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8
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9
8
9
7
1
2
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8
2
3
6
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0
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0
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0
0
9
8
9
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1
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9
8
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1
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8
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2
B
r
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a
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s
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m
1
9
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2
0
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2
0
0
8
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9
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B
u
l
g
a
r
i
a
1
9
9
0
8

8
1
9
6
6
1
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0

0
0
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8

2

9
9

1

1
0
0
9
6
4
0
9
9
7
2
2
7
1
1
0
0
8
8
1
2
0
2
0
0
0
8

0
0
6
6
9
1
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0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
n
a
*
1
0
0
9
6
4
0
1
0
0
7
2
2
8
0
1
0
0
8
9
1
1
0
n
a
*
2
0
0
8
7

5
9
3
7
1
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
9
6
4
0
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0
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0
1
0
0


0
B
u
r
k
i
n
a

F
a
s
o
1
9
9
0
8

8
1
4
1
4
2
8
1
7
4
2
1
3
2
2
6
9
0
6
4
1
1
7
9
7
3
1
2
6
1
2
7
3
6
0
3
6
6
4
4
1
2
3
9
5
9
2
0
0
0
1
1

6
7
6
1
7
3
1
1
8
4
1
1
0
4
5
8
8
3
8
7
1
4
7
1
1

1
4
7
8
5
1
7
6
8
1
5
5
5
0
5
5
4
5
6
0
3
5
7
4
0
7

9
6
4
2
0
0
8
1
5

2
3
4
2
0
3
3
2
0
3
9
8
6
7
1
0
7
7
1
1
1
0
1
5
6
4
9
5
2
1
7
4
5
7
2
0
7
2
2
8
7
6
4
7
2
2
4
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 4 0
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
C
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
u
s
e

o
F

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
-
W
a
t
e
r

s
o
u
r
C
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
B
u
r
u
n
d
i
1
9
9
0
5

6
8
1
6
4
1
1
8
4
0
1
4
4
4
4
9
3
4
4
5
4
8
3
9
7
3
2
6
5
3
6
8
1
6
7
3
2
7
0
3
6
7
3
0
2
0
0
0
6

4
7
3
8
4
6
2
0
3
3
1
4
5
4
4
9
2
4
5
5
4
8
2
1

2
1
4
8
9
4
1
4
8
1
1
7
0
1
6
9
3
0
7
2
4
6
8
2
8
1

8
3
7
2
0
0
8
8

0
7
4
1
0
4
9
2
2
2
7
2
4
6
4
4
9
1
4
6
6
4
7
1
8
3
4
7
3
6
1
7
7
1
1
7
0
2
9
7
2
6
6
6
2
8
C
a
m
b
o
d
i
a
1
9
9
0
9

6
9
0
1
3
3
8
5
9
4
8
5
1
5
8
9
9
2
5
8
4
5
2
1
7
3
5
4
8
3
3
0
3
3
6
7
3
5
2
3
3
6
5
2
0
0
0
1
2

7
6
0
1
7
5
0
7
6
3
7
1
0
2
6
8
2
1
7
3
6
7
4
3

3
5
1
6
4
3
3
3
1
3
6
4
2
2
4
0
5
8
4
6
7
3
9
5
4
5

4
9
1
2
0
0
8
1
4

5
6
2
2
2
6
7
9
2
2
2
1
8
4
3
7
5
2
9
5
2
6
4
8
1
5
5
2
6
1
9
5
6
5
5
1
4
4
6
1
1
6
4
5
3
9
C
a
m
e
r
o
o
n
1
9
9
0
1
2

2
3
3
4
1
6
5
2
0
1
3
2
3
5
8
3
6
2
1
4
7
1
3
2
7
1
3
7
7
2
5
5
2
2
3
3
1
2
2
9
6
9
5
0
1
1
3
9
5
0
2
0
0
0
1
5

8
6
5
5
0
6
0
1
9
2
0
1
3
5
8
4
2
1
5
4
7
1
3
3
2
8
3

2
2
2
8
6
2
5
6
1
1
4
4
3
2
4
1
5
7
6
4
1
3
5
1
3
6
8

0
0
9
2
0
0
8
1
9

0
8
8
5
7
5
6
1
7
2
6
1
3
5
8
4
7
1
0
4
7
1
3
3
5
5
9
2
2
5
6
7
8
5
1
3
4
8
4
9
7
4
1
5
5
9
2
6
C
a
n
a
d
a
1
9
9
0
2
7

7
0
1
7
7
1
0
0

0
0
9
9

1

1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
9


1
1
0
0


0
2
0
0
0
3
0

6
8
7
7
9
1
0
0

0
0
9
9

1

1
0
0

0
0
5

5
5
8
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
9
3
8
6
1
1
1
0
0
8
7
1
3
0
5

5
5
8
2
0
0
8
3
3

2
5
9
8
0
1
0
0

0
0
9
9

1

1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
9


1
1
0
0


0
C
a
p
e

V
e
r
d
e
1
9
9
0
3
5
4
4
4
























2
0
0
0
4
3
9
5
3
6
4

1
3
5
2
4

2
7
4
4
5

2
5
3

8
6
4
2
4
4
1
4
8
0
9
7
1
2
0
8
3
2
7
5
6
1
7

2
0
0
8
4
9
9
6
0
6
5

2
3
3
3
8

6
5
6
5
4

4
4
2
8
5
4
6
3
9
1
5
8
2
2
7
5
5
1
8
8
4
3
8
4
6
1
6
C
a
y
m
a
n

i
s
l
a
n
d
s
1
9
9
0
2
6
1
0
0
9
6

4

N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
9
6

4


3
7


N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A

3
7


2
0
0
0
4
0
1
0
0
9
6

4

N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
9
6

4

2
8
9
3
6
7
2
6
7
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
9
3
6
7
2
6
7

2
0
0
8
5
6
1
0
0
9
6

4

N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
9
6

4

9
5
9
2
3
5
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
9
5
9
2
3
5
C
e
n
t
r
a
l

a
f
r
i
c
a
n

r
e
p
u
b
l
i
c
1
9
9
0
2

9
2
8
3
7
2
1
1
2
5
7
1
0
5
2
4
4
4
9
1
1
6
4
8
3
5
7
8
8
7
0
2
2
4
7
0
4
7
5
3
5
8
3
5
5
4
2
2
0
0
0
3

7
4
6
3
8
3
2
1
8
4
4
6
1
6
8
3
6
4
0
2
2
1
2
3
9
2
7
1

1
5
3
8
5
7
7
8
1
5
4
9
0
4
9
5
1
6
3
3
6
0
3
7
1

2
0
9
2
0
0
8
4

3
3
9
3
9
4
3
2
4
3
0
3
2
8
1
4
2
7
3
1
3
4
1
8
2
8
2
0
9
2
6
8
6
8
5
1
0
5
1
4
9
6
7
2
6
5
3
3
C
h
a
d
1
9
9
0
6

1
0
5
2
1
2
0
1
6
3
8
2
6
2
2
3
9
3
6
5
1
0
7
9
4
8
1
0
3
8
5
2
3
6
0
3
6
6
4
3
8
2
3
6
6
2
2
0
0
0
8

4
0
2
2
3
2
2
1
8
4
0
2
0
3
4
6
8
7
7
7
1
5
7
1
6
1
6
6
0
1
4
4
6
4
0
4
1
0
4
1
5
9
4
5
3
4
2
5
5
3

1
3
7
2
0
0
8
1
0

9
1
4
2
7
2
3
1
9
4
2
1
6
4
5
8
8
3
9
9
1
7
6
5
6
7
1
7
5
0
3
3
4
4
1
4
3
5
6
5
0
5
4
5
5
0
C
h
i
l
e
1
9
9
0
1
3

1
9
1
8
3
9
1

4
5
4
8

4
5
7
8
4

1
1
5
9
9
9
7
2
1
4
8
2
2
2
6
5
2
9
0
8
4
6
1
0
2
0
0
0
1
5

4
1
9
8
6
9
6

2
2
7
1

2
5
4
9
2

6
2
5

0
5
2
9
9
9
8
1
1
6
6
3
9
2
7
3
4
9
4
9
0
4
6
4

2
6
0
2
0
0
8
1
6

8
0
4
8
8
9
8

1
1
8
3

1
5
2
9
6

3
1
9
9
9
9
0
1
7
5
4
7
2
8
2
5
9
6
9
3
3
4
C
h
i
n
a
1
9
9
0
1

1
4
2

0
9
0
2
7
4
8
2
5
2
4
3
3
8
6
4
7
9
4
1
1
1
4
1
7
9
7
8
6
1
1
3
5
6
4
2
1
4
4
4
6
7
5
4
1
3
3
3
2
0
0
0
1

2
6
6

9
5
4
3
6
5
5
2
8
1
2
5
4
6
7
4
1
6
4
9
1
5
3
0
6
2
6
7

3
1
9
9
8
9
2
6
2
7
0
5
9
1
1
3
0
8
0
7
1
9
2
0
4
2
5

0
9
6
2
0
0
8
1

3
3
7

4
1
1
4
3
5
8
3
0
6
6
5
2
8
3
8
2
5
5
1
7
2
4
4
9
8
9
6
2
2
8
2
7
3
9
1
8
8
9
8
3
6
1
1
C
o
l
o
m
b
i
a
1
9
9
0
3
3

2
0
4
6
8
8
0
1
4
2
4
4
3
4
1
1
4
2
6
8
1
1
5
1
6
9
8
9
8
0
2
6
8
5
9
9
3
2
8
8
8
6
2
1
2
2
0
0
0
3
9

7
7
3
7
2
8
0
1
4
4
2
5
0
5
1
5
3
0
7
2
1
1
7
1
0
1
0

7
3
0
9
9
9
5
4
1
7
1
5
7
1
4
2
9
9
1
8
4
7
9
1
2

1
9
2
2
0
0
8
4
5

0
1
2
7
4
8
1
1
5
2
2
5
5
5
1
8
2
2
7
4
1
2
7
7
9
9
9
4
5
1
7
3
5
6
1
7
2
7
9
2
8
4
8
8
C
o
m
o
r
o
s
1
9
9
0
4
3
8
2
8
3
4
2
6
4
0
1
1
1
8
6
2
1
7
1
8
1
1
9
8
3
1
6
7
2
8
3
1
0
7
3
1
7
8
7
1
6
7
1
1
3
2
0
0
0
5
5
2
2
8
4
2
2
5
6
0
2
3
2
7
4
1
2
8
2
6
9
1
1
6
3
9
3
4
5
4
8
7
9
2
1
7
7
5
8
9
2
2
5
6
7
8
2
4
7
2
0
0
8
6
6
1
2
8
5
0
3
4
6
1
3
0
2
6
8
0
3
6
2
6
2
0
9
1
5
3
3
8
9
9
7
2
1
7
6
3
9
5
3
0
6
5
5
C
o
n
g
o
1
9
9
0
2

4
4
6
5
4
























2
0
0
0
3

0
3
6
5
8
3
1
3
1
3
6
2
2
9
1
6
3
7
1
8
3
0
2
5
3
6
9

9
5
4
3
5
2
5
3
4
3
3
1
6
6
7
0
2
6
4
4
3
0

2
0
0
8
3

6
1
5
6
1
3
1
3
1
3
6
2
2
9
1
6
3
7
1
8
3
0
2
5
3
7
8
9
5
4
3
5
2
5
3
4
3
3
1
6
6
7
1
2
8
4
4
2
9
C
o
o
k

i
s
l
a
n
d
s
1
9
9
0
1
8
5
7
1
0
0

0
0
9
1

9

9
6

4

9
9


1
8
7


1
3
9
4


6
2
0
0
0
1
8
6
5
1
0
0

0
0
9
9

1

1
0
0

0
0
3
9
9


1
8
7


1
3
9
5


5

2
0
0
8
2
0
7
1
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
9
8


2








4 1
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
C
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
u
s
e

o
F

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
-
W
a
t
e
r

s
o
u
r
C
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
C
o
s
t
a

r
i
c
a
1
9
9
0
3

0
7
8
5
1
9
4
4
1
1
9
1
4
1
4
9
3
4
1
2
9
9
9
2
7
1
8
6
7
1
1
5
1
4
9
3
8
2
1
1
7
2
0
0
0
3

9
3
1
5
9
9
5
4
0
1
9
4
4
0
2
9
5
4
0
1
1

4
3
0
9
9
9
7
2
1
8
9
8
1
8
1
1
9
5
9
0
5
5
1

5
2
1
2
0
0
8
4

5
1
9
6
3
9
5
4
1
0
9
6
4
0
0
9
5
4
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
1
8
9
2
9
9
7
9
6
1
3
C
ô
t
e

d

i
v
o
i
r
e
1
9
9
0
1
2

6
1
0
4
0
3
8
2
5
3
1
6
8
8
2
8
5
6
2
0
1
5
2
9
3
6
9
0
4
9
4
1
1
0
6
7
5
6
2
3
3
7
6
2
2
5
4
2
4
2
0
0
0
1
7

2
8
1
4
4
3
7
2
4
3
3
6
1
0
1
0
2
8
5
2
2
2
1
6
3
0
3
2
2

2
1
4
9
2
5
9
3
3
8
6
7
1
0
5
7
3
3
7
8
3
1
4
7
2
2
6

8
8
9
2
0
0
8
2
0

5
9
1
4
9
3
6
2
4
3
5
5
1
1
1
2
2
9
4
8
2
3
1
8
3
2
2
7
9
3
6
7
2
6
7
6
8
1
4
5
4
3
2
8
0
4
0
4
0
2
0
C
r
o
a
t
i
a
1
9
9
0
4

5
1
7
5
4
























2
0
0
0
4

5
0
5
5
6
9
9
1
0
0
9
8
1
0
1
9
9
1
0
0

1
0
0
9
6
4
0
9
7
7
7
2
0
3
9
9
8
8
1
1
1

2
0
0
8
4

4
2
3
5
7
9
9
1
0
0
9
8
1
0
1
9
9
1
0
0
1
0
0
9
6
4
0
9
7
7
7
2
0
3
9
9
8
8
1
1
1
C
u
b
a
1
9
9
0
1
0

5
8
7
7
3
8
6
5
8
1
6
4
1
0
2
0
6
8
0
6
1
2
2
9
3
7
7
1
6
7
5
3
3
0
2
3
4
7
8
2
6
4
1
8
1
8
2
0
0
0
1
1

0
8
7
7
6
9
0
5
4
1
7
3
1
2
1
0
5
8
6
7
5
2
1

7
2
7
9
5
8
0
1
5
5
7
3
4
4
2
9
2
7
9
0
7
1
1
9
1
0
1

8
5
1
2
0
0
8
1
1

2
0
5
7
6
9
4
5
1
0
8
1
1
3
4
2
9
1
7
2
0
9
6
8
2
1
4
4
8
9
5
4
3
5
1
1
9
4
7
5
1
9
6
C
y
p
r
u
s
1
9
9
0
6
8
1
6
7
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
7
8
7
6
9
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
8
2
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
8
2
2
0
0
8
8
6
2
7
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
C
z
e
c
h

r
e
p
u
b
l
i
c
1
9
9
0
1
0

3
0
3
7
5
1
0
0
0
0
0
9
8
2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
7
3
0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
2
0
0
0
1
0

2
2
4
7
4
9
9
1
0
0
9
7
3
0
0
9
8
2
0
0
n
a
*
1
0
0
9
7
3
0
1
0
0
9
1
9
0
1
0
0
9
5
5
0
1
6
2
0
0
8
1
0

3
1
9
7
3
9
9
1
0
0
9
7
3
0
0
9
8
2
0
0
1
0
0
9
7
3
0
1
0
0
9
1
9
0
1
0
0
9
5
5
0
d
e
m
o
c
r
a
t
i
c

P
e
o
p
l
e

s

r
e
p
u
b
l
i
c

o
f

k
o
r
e
a
1
9
9
0
2
0

1
4
3
5
8












1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
2
0
0
0
2
2

8
5
9
6
0
5
8

4
2

6
0

4
0

5
9

4
1


1
0
0
8
1
1
9
0
1
0
0
7
1
2
9
0
1
0
0
7
7
2
3
0
3

6
7
6
2
0
0
8
2
3

8
1
9
6
3












1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
d
e
m
o
c
r
a
t
i
c


r
e
p
u
b
l
i
c

o
f


t
h
e

C
o
n
g
o
1
9
9
0
3
7

0
1
6
2
8
2
3
3
3
3
9
5
4
4
6
9
2
3
9
1
2
6
1
1
8
9
0
5
1
3
9
1
0
2
7
0
2
7
7
3
4
5
1
4
3
0
5
5
2
0
0
0
5
0

8
2
9
3
0
2
3
3
3
4
0
4
1
3
1
3
5
6
1
8
1
6
1
9
5
1
1
4
1
1

4
4
8
8
5
3
8
4
7
1
5
2
7
1
2
6
7
3
4
4
1
2
3
2
5
6
1
2

9
0
1
2
0
0
8
6
4

2
5
7
3
4
2
3
3
3
4
2
2
2
3
2
2
4
1
1
4
2
3
2
6
4
1
1
0
8
0
2
3
5
7
2
0
2
8
2
2
6
7
2
4
6
9
3
7
5
4
d
e
n
m
a
r
k
1
9
9
0
5

1
4
0
8
5
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
5

3
3
5
8
5
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
3
1
8
1
0
0


0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0


0
3
1
8
2
0
0
8
5

4
5
8
8
7
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0


0
d
j
i
b
o
u
t
i
1
9
9
0
5
6
0
7
6
7
3
6
1
0
1
1
4
5
6
2
4
7
6
6
6
8
2
0
8
0
6
9
1
1
2
0
6
9
1
9
5
0
3
1
7
7
5
7
2
0
2
3
2
0
0
0
7
3
0
8
3
6
9
5
2
0
6
3
0
4
1
3
5
3
6
3
5
1
8
1
4
1
0
6
8
8
7
5
1
3
1
2
6
1
1
2
4
9
3
9
8
4
6
5
1
9
1
6
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5
0
2
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0
8
8
4
9
8
7
6
3
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3
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0
1
2
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6
1
5
6
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9
8
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2
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2
1
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2
1
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2
1
7

9
6
7
8
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d
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8
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7
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6
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9

9
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3
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3
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t
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7
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3
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2
7
9
5
9
7
8
6
4
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5

0
3
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9
9
9
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4
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9
3
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7
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7
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5
2
7
4
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l

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1
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3
3
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9
8
8
8
1
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6
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3
1
3
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5
5
1
1
9
9
0
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2
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8
1
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4
4
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4
4
3
3
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9
4
5
5
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8
9
8
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7
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4
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2
2
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6
0
1
1
1

3
3
9
9
2
7
6
1
6
8
6
8
2
9
3
9
3
2
8
2
5
6
2
6
1
8
1

3
9
3
2
0
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6

1
3
4
6
1
8
9
8
1
2
8
3
5
0
1
2
8
7
7
0
6
9
4
8
0
1
4
6
7
6
4
2
3
4
2
4
8
7
6
5
2
2
1
3
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 4 2
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
C
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
u
s
e

o
F

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
-
W
a
t
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r

s
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s


(
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r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
r
b
a
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r
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r
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t
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t
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improved
u
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m
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d
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u
n
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m
p
r
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d
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u
n
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m
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d
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m
p
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e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
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e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
e
q
u
a
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a
1
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1
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4


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4
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2
0
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5
7
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1
5

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4
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2
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8
8
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6
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F
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a
1
9
9
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2
0
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1
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2
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4
1
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9
5
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2
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8
3
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3
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2
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4
4
8
8
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3
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3
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2
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1
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1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
7
3
0
1
0
0
9
9
1
0
2

8
3
1
2
0
0
8
8
2

2
6
4
7
4
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
7
3
0
1
0
0
9
9
1
0
g
h
a
n
a
1
9
9
0
1
4

9
6
8
3
6
1
1
4
4
3
4
1
1
4
2
1
4
7
2
8
7
2
9
4
2
2
2
8
4
4
1
4
3
1
6
3
7
2
3
5
6
3
5
4
1
6
3
8
4
6
2
0
0
0
1
9

5
2
9
4
4
1
5
5
8
1
8
9
5
3
1
3
3
3
1
9
4
3
2
7
2
1
1

9
8
8
8
8
3
5
5
3
1
2
5
8
3
5
5
4
2
7
1
1
7
5
4
2
9
1
1

0
6
5
2
0
0
8
2
3

3
5
1
5
0
1
8
7
0
5
7
7
3
8
2
1
3
4
1
3
5
4
1
3
2
0
9
0
3
0
6
0
1
0
7
4
3
7
1
2
6
8
2
1
7
6
5
1
8
g
r
e
e
c
e
1
9
9
0
1
0

1
6
1
5
9
1
0
0

0
0
9
2

0
8
9
7

0
3
9
9
9
9
0
1
9
2
8
2
1
0
8
9
6
9
2
4
4
2
0
0
0
1
0

9
4
2
6
0
9
9

1
0
9
6

0
4
9
8

0
2
1

0
5
9
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
8
9
5
3
2
9
9
9
8
1
1
1

3
8
3
2
0
0
8
1
1

1
3
7
6
1
9
9

1
0
9
7

1
2
9
8

1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
9
9
9
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
4 3
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
C
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
u
s
e

o
F

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
-
W
a
t
e
r

s
o
u
r
C
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
g
r
e
n
a
d
a
1
9
9
0
9
6
3
2
9
6

4

9
7

3

9
7

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9
7


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2
0
0
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1
0
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3
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6

4

9
7

3

9
7

3

7
9
7
9
3
4
3
9
3
7
5
1
8
7
9
4
8
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1
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6

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0
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8
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u
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8
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u
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8

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0
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0
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0
2
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5
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9
3
9
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1

9
8

2

9
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1

4
1
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0
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0
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0
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0
4
2
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8
1
7
6
9
3
9
9

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9
8

2

9
9

1

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0
0


0
1
0
0


0
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0
0


0
g
u
a
t
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m
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l
a
1
9
9
0
8

9
1
0
4
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8
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7
4
5
5
1
2
1
2
3
5
6
5
4
8
2
3
9
1
6
8
2
3
9
7
5
3
5
4
0
2
5
8
2
4
9
3
3
1
8
2
0
0
0
1
1

2
3
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4
5
8
7
7
3
3
6
3
2
1
3
2
2
7
4
4
9
1
3
5

2
9
4
9
5
8
3
1
2
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8
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5
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3
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6
8
9
6
7
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5
5
9
2
0
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8
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3

6
8
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9
7
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8
1
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8
7
9
8
9
5
3
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9
0
6
8
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9
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8
1
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6
g
u
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a
1
9
9
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8
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8
2
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6
6
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4
1
2
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8
9
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6
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1
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6
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6
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u
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a
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i
s
s
a
u
1
9
9
0
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6


3
7
0
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3

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3
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4
3
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8
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7
9
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5
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7
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4
1
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2
0
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9
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a
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1
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6
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9
2
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6
2
2
1
8
2
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4
0
-
1
6
9
6
7
2
4
4
3
3
3
4
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3
4
6
5
1
5
5
1
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5
4
5
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8
8
1
2
0
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8
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8
7
6
4
7
2
4
2
4
4
3
9
1
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6
3
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1
7
1
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3
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7
1
2
1
5
0
2
9
5
5
4
5
1
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1
3
7
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o
n
d
u
r
a
s
1
9
9
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9
0
1
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0
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8
9
1
2
1
1
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8
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9
1
8
2
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7
4
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7
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8
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3
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6
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4
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9
3
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9
4
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6
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3
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8
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7
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2
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7
6
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1
9
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7
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7
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u
n
g
a
r
y
1
9
9
0
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6
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a
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1
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c
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l
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n
d
1
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3
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1
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9
0
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i
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7
1
2
5
1
8
0
7
4
6
2
0
9

1
3
2
2
0
0
8
3
0

0
9
6
6
7
7
6
1
9
5
0
6
6
1
2
1
7
5
7
3
1
7
8
2
9
1
9
0
1
9
5
5
4
9
6
4
5
7
9
7
6
3
2
1
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 4 4
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
C
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
u
s
e

o
F

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
-
W
a
t
e
r

s
o
u
r
C
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
i
r
e
l
a
n
d
1
9
9
0
3

5
1
5
5
7
1
0
0

0
0
9
8

2
0
9
9

1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
9
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
3

8
0
4
5
9
1
0
0

0
0
9
8

2
0
9
9

1
0
9
1
3
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
9
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
2
2
2
0
0
8
4

4
3
7
6
1
1
0
0

0
0
9
8

2
0
9
9

1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
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1
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9
9
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
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s
r
a
e
l
1
9
9
0
4

5
1
4
9
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
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0
6

0
8
4
9
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0
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0
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1
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0
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5
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1
0
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9
8
2
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0
0
1
0
0
0
0
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5
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9
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0
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t
a
l
y
1
9
9
0
5
6

9
9
8
6
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1
0
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0
0
0
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0
0
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6
4
0
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0
0
9
9
1
0
2
0
0
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7

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1
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6
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1
0
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0
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0
0
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0
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0
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6
0
6
2
0
0
8
5
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6
0
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6
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0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
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0
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0
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1
0
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0
0
0
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a
m
a
i
c
a
1
9
9
0
2

3
6
4
4
9
8
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6
1
1
8
3
1
2
5
0
8
3
1
4
3
0
9
8
8
9
9
2
8
8
3
3
5
5
1
2
9
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6
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3
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7
2
0
0
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5
6
8
5
2
8
2
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6
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3
1
2
5
0
8
2
1
4
4
0
2
8
5
9
8
9
0
8
2
8
8
4
1
4
7
1
2
9
3
6
6
2
7
7
3
4
7
2
0
0
8
2

7
0
8
5
3
8
2
1
6
2
0
8
4
1
2
3
1
8
3
1
4
3
0
9
8
9
1
7
2
8
9
4
7
4
2
1
1
9
4
7
0
2
4
6
J
a
p
a
n
1
9
9
0
1
2
3

1
9
1
6
3
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
9
7
3
0
1
0
0
8
6
1
4
0
1
0
0
9
3
7
0
2
0
0
0
1
2
6

7
0
6
6
5
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
4

1
0
2
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
1
0
0
9
1
9
0
1
0
0
9
6
4
0
4

1
0
2
2
0
0
8
1
2
7

2
9
3
6
6
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
9
9
1
0
1
0
0
9
5
5
0
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
J
o
r
d
a
n
1
9
9
0
3

2
5
4
7
2
9
8
2
0
0








9
9
9
8
1
1
9
1
8
7
4
9
9
7
9
5
2
3
2
0
0
0
4

8
5
3
7
8
9
8
2
0
0
9
6
1
1
2
9
8
2
0
0

9
8
9
6
2
2
9
1
8
2
9
9
9
6
9
3
3
4
2

7
3
4
2
0
0
8
6

1
3
6
7
8
9
8
2
0
0
9
7
1
2
0
9
8
2
0
0
9
8
9
4
4
2
9
1
7
9
1
2
9
9
6
9
1
5
4
k
a
z
a
k
h
s
t
a
n
1
9
9
0
1
6

5
3
0
5
6
9
6
3
1
0
9
7
1
0
2
9
6
2
1
1
9
9
9
1
8
1
9
2
2
8
6
4
8
9
6
6
3
3
3
4
2
0
0
0
1
4

9
5
7
5
6
9
7
3
0
0
9
7
1
1
1
9
7
2
1
0
n
a
*
9
9
8
7
1
2
1
9
1
2
6
6
5
9
9
6
6
0
3
6
4
n
a
*
2
0
0
8
1
5

5
2
1
5
8
9
7
3
0
0
9
8
1
1
0
9
7
2
1
0
9
9
8
2
1
7
1
9
0
2
4
6
6
1
0
9
5
5
8
3
7
5
k
e
n
y
a
1
9
9
0
2
3

4
3
3
1
8
2
4
4
5
2
8
3
2
7
1
5
4
1
1
7
2
6
2
0
4
0
1
4
9
1
5
7
3
4
9
3
2
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0
2
2
6
8
4
3
1
9
2
4
5
7
2
0
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1

4
4
1
2
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6
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3
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3
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6
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8
2
9
2
2
3
4
1
5
5

9
2
5
8
7
4
9
3
8
1
3
4
3
1
1
3
2
5
7
5
2
1
8
3
4
4
8
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2

7
9
5
2
0
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8
3
8

7
6
5
2
2
2
7
5
1
2
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2
3
2
1
8
3
2
1
8
3
1
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9
1
5
8
3
4
4
3
9
1
7
5
2
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2
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9
1
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4
0
4
1
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i
r
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b
a
t
i
1
9
9
0
7
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3
5
3
6
7
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6
4
1
2
1
2
1
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5
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7
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7
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5
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7
7
4
8
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9
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3
5
0
2
1
2
9
5
0
6
2
3
3
2
9
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8

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0
0
8
9
7
5
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k
u
w
a
i
t
1
9
9
0
2

1
4
3
9
8
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
9
9


1
9
9


1
9
9


1
2
0
0
0
2

2
2
8
9
8
1
0
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0
0
1
0
0

0
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1
0
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0
0
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7
6
9
9


1
9
9


1
9
9


1
7
6
8
2
0
0
8
2

9
1
9
9
8
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
9
9


1
9
9


1
9
9


1
k
y
r
g
y
z
s
t
a
n
1
9
9
0
4

3
9
5
3
8
9
4
5
1
0








9
8
7
5
2
3
2

2
5



4
4


2
0
0
0
4

9
5
5
3
5
9
4
5
1
0
9
3
2
5
0
9
3
3
4
0

9
8
8
2
1
6
2
7
3
3
0
4
3
2
7
8
2
4
8
3
4
1
8

2
0
0
8
5

4
1
4
3
6
9
4
5
1
0
9
3
2
5
0
9
3
3
4
0
9
9
8
9
1
0
1
8
5
3
4
5
1
1
5
9
0
5
4
3
6
1
0
l
a
o

P
e
o
p
l
e

s


d
e
m
o
c
r
a
t
i
c


r
e
p
u
b
l
i
c
1
9
9
0
4

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1
5
























2
0
0
0
5

4
0
3
2
2
6
2
4
8
2
6
1
6
1
8
7
5
2
6
2
8
6
4

7
7
3
5
4
2
2
3
4
0
5
3
5
6
0
4
8
1
2
3
6
5
2

2
0
0
8
6

2
0
5
3
1
8
6
5
3
6
3
8
2
8
5
2
5
3
3
6
3
8
7
2
5
5
1
7
2
8
5
1
4
4
7
4
9
5
7
2
0
3
7
4
3
l
a
t
v
i
a
1
9
9
0
2

6
6
3
6
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1
0
0


0
9
6


4
9
9


1
2
0
0
0
2

3
7
4
6
8
8
2
1
3
5
0
7
1
3
2
6
0
7
8
1
0
1
2
0

1
0
0
9
3
7
0
9
6
5
9
3
7
4
9
9
8
2
1
7
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n
a
*
2
0
0
8
2

2
5
9
6
8
8
2
1
3
5
0
7
1
3
2
6
0
7
8
1
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
9
3
7
0
9
6
5
9
3
7
4
9
9
8
2
1
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e
b
a
n
o
n
1
9
9
0
2

9
7
4
8
3
1
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0
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1
0
0
1
0
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0
0


0
1
0
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0
2
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0
0
3

7
7
2
8
6
1
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0

0
0
8
7

1
3

9
8

2


1
0
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0
0
8
5
1
5
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0
0
9
8
2
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2
1
9
2
0
0
8
4

1
9
4
8
7
1
0
0

0
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1
0
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0
0


0
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0
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s
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t
h
o
1
9
9
0
1

6
0
2
1
4
2
9
2
5
3
7
9
3
2
4
1
3
5
1
3
2
7
1
6
4
5
8
8
1
9
6
9
1
2
5
7
1
5
6
4
3
6
1
4
5
7
3
9
2
0
0
0
1

8
8
9
2
0
3
5
3
0
2
7
8
2
8
4
1
7
5
1
2
9
9
2
0
4
2
8
2
9
2
3
9
5
3
8
6
9
3
6
6
3
1
7
4
1
0
6
4
2
6
7
6
5
2
0
0
8
2

0
4
9
2
5
4
0
3
5
1
7
8
2
5
3
2
1
5
1
2
9
1
1
2
0
4
0
9
7
5
9
3
8
3
8
1
5
7
6
1
9
8
5
1
9
6
6
1
5
4 5
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
C
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
u
s
e

o
F

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
-
W
a
t
e
r

s
o
u
r
C
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
l
i
b
e
r
i
a
1
9
9
0
2

1
6
7
4
5
2
1
2
1
4
3
1
5
3
1
1
1
8
6
8
1
1
1
6
2
9
4
4
8
6
2
1
6
5
1
4
3
4
3
3
1
6
6
5
8
1
1
4
7
4
2
2
0
0
0
2

8
2
4
5
4
2
3
2
4
3
0
2
3
4
1
1
1
2
7
3
1
4
1
8
2
2
4
6
4
0
7
8
2
1
1
7
1
1
8
4
4
2
4
2
5
6
6
5
7
5
8
3
5
1

3
2
3
2
0
0
8
3

7
9
3
6
0
2
5
2
5
2
0
3
0
4
1
2
7
7
7
1
7
2
0
1
4
4
9
7
9
3
7
6
2
1
5
1
0
5
1
4
9
6
8
2
6
6
3
2
l
i
b
y
a
n

a
r
a
b

J
a
m
a
h
i
r
i
y
a
1
9
9
0
4

3
6
5
7
6
9
7

3

9
6

4

9
7

3

5
4


4
6
5
5


4
5
5
4


4
6
2
0
0
0
5

3
4
6
7
6
9
7

3

9
6

4

9
7

3

1

8
7
2
5
4


4
6
5
5


4
5
5
4


4
6

2
0
0
8
6

2
9
4
7
8
9
7

3

9
6

4

9
7

3













l
i
t
h
u
a
n
i
a
1
9
9
0
3

6
9
8
6
8













8
9



4
9



7
6


2
0
0
0
3

5
0
1
6
7














9
2



5
5



8
0



2
0
0
8
3

3
2
1
6
7
























l
u
x
e
m
b
o
u
r
g
1
9
9
0
3
8
2
8
1
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
4
3
7
8
4
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
9
9
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
9
2
0
0
8
4
8
1
8
2
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
m
a
d
a
g
a
s
c
a
r
1
9
9
0
1
1

2
7
3
2
4
1
4
2
6
3
5
2
5
6
9
8
7
7
8
1
3
1
4
6
5
7
8
2
5
5
3
2
2
1
6
0
1
6
8
4
3
1
6
2
5
6
9
2
0
0
0
1
5

2
7
5
2
7
1
5
2
7
3
7
2
1
8
1
4
2
4
5
4
1
0
1
8
2
7
4
5
1

2
0
0
7
3
1
9
5
4
2
7
2
4
2
2
2
7
6
3
7
7
3
0
6
3
4

3
4
1
2
0
0
8
1
9

1
1
1
2
9
1
5
2
8
3
9
1
8
1
0
1
7
3
5
3
8
1
1
2
0
3
7
3
2
7
1
1
4
5
7
2
9
2
9
4
2
5
7
1
4
1
7
3
4
5
9
m
a
l
a
w
i
1
9
9
0
9

4
5
1
1
2
5
0
4
1
5
4
4
1
1
7
7
3
5
4
2
2
0
7
3
1
9
0
4
5
4
5
1
0
3
3
2
3
1
6
7
4
0
7
3
3
6
0
2
0
0
0
1
1

8
3
1
1
5
5
1
4
2
4
3
5
0
2
1
7
2
2
5
0
2
4
7
1
9
4

3
4
4
9
3
3
4
5
9
7
5
8
2
5
6
4
2
6
3
7
5
6
3
7
8

0
9
6
2
0
0
8
1
4

8
4
6
1
9
5
1
4
2
5
2
5
7
2
4
8
1
1
5
6
2
7
8
9
9
5
2
6
6
9
5
7
7
2
7
5
2
3
8
0
7
7
3
2
0
m
a
l
a
y
s
i
a
1
9
9
0
1
8

1
0
3
5
0
8
8
4
7
1
8
1
3
7
9
8
4
3
8
5
9
4
8
6
8
6
8
2
5
9
2
3
1
8
8
8
7
2
1
6
1
2
2
0
0
0
2
3

2
7
4
6
2
9
4
4
1
1
9
0
4
2
4
9
2
4
2
2
1
0

7
2
7
9
9
9
5
4
1
9
3
8
0
1
3
7
9
7
8
9
8
3
1
1

0
8
3
2
0
0
8
2
7

0
1
4
7
0
9
6
4
0
0
9
5
4
0
1
9
6
4
0
0
1
0
0
9
9
1
0
9
9
9
1
8
1
1
0
0
9
7
3
0
m
a
l
d
i
v
e
s
1
9
9
0
2
1
6
2
6
1
0
0

0
0
5
8

1
2
3
0
6
9

9
2
2
1
0
0
4
7
5
3
0
8
7
0
8
7
1
3
9
0
1
2
7
8
1
0
2
0
0
0
2
7
2
2
8
1
0
0

0
0
7
4

7
1
9
8
1

5
1
4
1
5
0
1
0
0
6
8
3
2
0
8
7
0
8
7
1
3
9
1
1
9
7
2
9
8
4
2
0
0
8
3
0
5
3
8
1
0
0

0
0
9
6

0
4
9
8

0
2
9
9
9
5
4
1
8
6
2
8
4
1
4
9
1
3
7
5
4
9
m
a
l
i
1
9
9
0
8

6
5
5
2
3
3
6
2
0
4
0
4
2
3
1
0
3
1
3
6
2
6
1
2
3
3
2
9
5
4
1
7
3
7
4
6
2
2
0
2
2
7
8
2
9
4
2
5
7
1
2
0
0
0
1
0

5
2
3
2
8
4
1
2
3
3
2
4
2
8
1
2
3
2
2
8
3
2
1
5
3
2
2
1
2

3
2
4
6
9
2
6
4
3
3
1
3
4
1
3
3
6
6
4
4
8
3
6
5
6
4

6
0
5
2
0
0
8
1
2

7
0
6
3
2
4
5
2
5
2
6
4
3
2
1
4
3
3
2
1
3
6
1
8
3
0
1
6
8
1
3
4
4
7
1
9
4
4
1
4
3
5
6
5
6
1
2
4
4
4
4
m
a
l
t
a
1
9
9
0
3
6
0
9
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
8
9
8
0
2
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
3
8
9
9
2
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
4
7
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
4
7
2
0
0
8
4
0
7
9
4
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
m
a
r
s
h
a
l
l

i
s
l
a
n
d
s
1
9
9
0
4
7
6
5
7
7
1
1


4
1
9


6
4
1
0
2
6

9
4


6
9
7


3
9
5


5
2
0
0
0
5
2
6
6
8
0
1
2


4
8
1
1


6
9
1
2
1
9

1
3
9
3


7
9
8


2
9
5


5
1
2
2
0
0
8
6
1
6
8
8
3
1
2
1
4
5
3
1
2
0
3
5
7
3
1
2
1
1
4
9
2
1
9
1
8
9
9
0
9
9
1
9
4
1
9
3
6
m
a
r
t
i
n
i
q
u
e
1
9
9
0
3
5
9
9
8












1
0
0
9
9
1
0








2
0
0
0
3
8
5
9
8
9
4

6










1
0
0
9
9
1
0









2
0
0
8
4
0
3
9
8
9
5

5









1
0
0
9
9
1
0








m
a
u
r
i
t
a
n
i
a
1
9
9
0
1

9
8
8
4
0
2
9
1
0
3
8
2
3
8
3
3
1
5
8
1
6
6
3
4
4
4
3
6
1
5
2
1
6
4
2
6
0
2
6
7
4
3
0
6
2
4
7
0
2
0
0
0
2

6
0
4
4
0
3
8
1
4
2
8
2
0
9
4
1
9
6
8
2
1
8
2
2
4
9
5
1
8
4
5
2
6
1
9
5
5
3
7
8
2
9
6
3
4
0
1
5
2
5
6
0
9
7
9
2
0
0
8
3

2
1
5
4
1
5
0
1
8
1
6
1
6
9
4
8
7
9
2
6
1
0
1
1
5
3
5
2
3
4
1
8
4
8
4
7
1
4
3
3
5
3
4
9
2
2
2
7
5
1
m
a
u
r
i
t
i
u
s
1
9
9
0
1

0
5
6
4
4
9
3
7
0
0
9
0
7
3
0
9
1
7
2
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
9
9
9
0
1
9
9
9
9
0
1
2
0
0
0
1

1
9
5
4
3
9
3
7
0
0
9
0
7
3
0
9
1
7
2
0
2
0
3
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
9
9
9
0
1
9
9
9
9
0
1
2
2
1
2
0
0
8
1

2
8
0
4
2
9
3
7
0
0
9
0
7
3
0
9
1
7
2
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
9
9
9
9
0
1
9
9
9
9
0
1
m
e
x
i
c
o
1
9
9
0
8
3

4
0
4
7
1
8
0
6
4
1
0
3
0
7
9
5
4
6
6
6
5
2
3
9
4
8
8
6
6
6
4
5
0
1
4
3
6
8
5
7
7
8
1
5
2
0
0
0
9
9

5
3
1
7
5
8
5
7
2
6
5
1
1
2
6
3
1
7
6
8
4
1
2
3
7

2
2
6
9
5
9
0
5
5
7
7
6
2
1
5
2
3
9
0
8
3
7
1
0
3
1

1
4
9
2
0
0
8
1
0
8

5
5
5
7
7
9
0
7
1
2
6
8
1
6
4
1
2
8
5
9
2
4
9
6
9
2
4
4
8
7
7
2
1
5
1
3
9
4
8
7
7
6
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 4 6
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
C
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
u
s
e

o
F

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
-
W
a
t
e
r

s
o
u
r
C
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
m
i
c
r
o
n
e
s
i
a

(
F
e
d
e
r
a
t
e
d


s
t
a
t
e
s

o
f
)
1
9
9
0
9
6
2
6
5
5

4
5

2
0

8
0

2
9

7
1

9
3


7
8
7


1
3
8
9


1
1
2
0
0
0
1
0
7
2
2
5
9

4
1

1
6

8
4

2
6

7
4


9
4


6
9
2


8
9
2


8

2
0
0
8
1
1
0
2
2












9
5


5








m
o
n
a
c
o
1
9
9
0
2
9
1
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
3
2
1
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
1
0
0

0
0
3
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
3
2
0
0
8
3
3
1
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
m
o
n
g
o
l
i
a
1
9
9
0
2

2
1
6
5
7












8
1
5
2
2
9
1
9
2
7
0
2
7
7
3
5
8
3
0
2
8
4
2
2
0
0
0
2

3
8
9
5
7
6
6
3
2
2
0
2
6
2
0
1
8
3
6
4
9
2
7
8
1
6

8
8
4
2
4
6
1
2
3
7
1
3
6
6
3
6
6
2
4
4
2
3
4
7
2
2
2
0
0
8
2

6
4
1
5
7
6
4
3
1
2
3
3
2
2
4
1
8
2
6
5
0
2
8
9
1
3
9
7
3
2
6
5
3
4
9
2
4
7
5
1
7
6
1
9
5
7
2
4
m
o
n
t
e
n
e
g
r
o
1
9
9
0
5
8
7
4
8
























2
0
0
0
6
6
1
5
9
9
6
3
1
0
8
6
3
1
0
1
9
2
3
5
0

1
0
0
9
8
2
0
9
6
6
6
3
0
4
9
8
8
5
1
3
2

2
0
0
8
6
2
2
6
0
9
6
3
1
0
8
6
3
1
0
1
9
2
3
5
0
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
9
6
6
6
3
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9
8
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t
1
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1
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4

9
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9
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1
0
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9
8
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8
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1
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4

9
6

4

9
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4

n
a
*
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
8
9
0
n
a
*
2
0
0
8
6
1
5
9
6

4

9
6

4

9
6

4

1
0
0
9
8
2
0
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0
0
0
1
0
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0
1
0
0
1
5
8
5
0
m
o
r
o
c
c
o
1
9
9
0
2
4

8
0
8
4
8
8
1
1
4
0
5
2
7
3
1
6
9
5
3
8
1
3
8
9
4
7
4
2
0
6
5
5
5
5
0
4
5
7
4
3
8
3
5
2
6
2
0
0
0
2
8

8
2
7
5
3
8
2
1
4
2
2
4
3
5
2
5
0
6
4
1
0
2
2
4
8

6
6
0
9
6
8
2
1
4
4
5
8
1
3
4
5
4
2
7
8
5
0
2
8
2
2
7

2
4
3
2
0
0
8
3
1

6
0
6
5
6
8
3
1
4
3
0
5
2
6
4
3
8
6
9
1
0
4
1
7
9
8
8
8
1
0
2
6
0
1
9
4
1
4
0
8
1
5
8
2
3
1
9
m
o
z
a
m
b
i
q
u
e
1
9
9
0
1
3

5
4
3
2
1
3
6
7
2
5
3
2
4
1
2
1
7
4
1
1
2
2
2
6
5
7
3
2
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5
1
2
7
2
6
1
2
5
7
4
3
6
5
3
1
6
4
2
0
0
0
1
8

2
4
9
3
1
3
7
7
3
1
2
5
4
1
2
7
6
8
1
4
3
2
8
5
5
2

3
1
5
7
5
2
1
5
4
2
5
2
7
1
2
6
7
3
4
2
7
3
5
5
8
5

6
4
4
2
0
0
8
2
2

3
8
3
3
7
3
8
7
4
1
1
4
4
1
3
6
5
9
1
7
3
3
8
4
2
7
7
2
0
5
7
2
3
2
9
1
2
8
7
1
4
7
8
3
9
5
3
m
y
a
n
m
a
r
1
9
9
0
4
0

8
4
4
2
5












8
7
1
9
6
8
1
3
4
7
1
4
6
5
3
5
7
5
5
2
4
3
2
0
0
0
4
6

6
1
0
2
8
8
1
1
0
8
1
5
9
8
1
9
1
4
6
5
9
1
6
1
0

8
0
1
7
6
3
2
0
6
0
2
5
8
4
0
6
6
6
6
0
3
4
1
1

9
0
8
2
0
0
8
4
9

5
6
3
3
3
8
6
1
0
4
0
7
9
1
1
9
1
8
1
1
1
7
1
7
5
1
5
6
0
2
5
6
9
2
6
7
3
1
7
1
6
6
5
2
9
n
a
m
i
b
i
a
1
9
9
0
1

4
1
7
2
8
6
6
1
8
5
1
1
9
2
6
8
3
2
5
6
6
6
3
9
9
8
2
1
7
1
5
1
1
4
3
7
4
9
6
4
3
3
3
1
3
6
2
0
0
0
1

8
2
4
3
2
6
3
1
7
5
1
5
1
3
3
7
7
7
2
9
8
6
5
7
3
4
9
9
9
7
7
2
2
1
7
2
2
1
5
1
2
8
8
1
3
9
4
2
1
9
1

0
5
3
2
0
0
8
2

1
3
0
3
7
6
0
1
7
5
1
8
1
7
4
6
7
3
3
3
9
5
5
3
9
9
7
2
2
7
1
8
8
2
7
6
1
1
2
9
2
4
4
4
8
8
n
a
u
r
u
1
9
9
0
9
1
0
0




N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A








N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A




2
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0




N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A









N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A





2
0
0
8
1
0
1
0
0
5
0
2
3
2
6
1
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
5
0
2
3
2
6
1
9
0


1
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
9
0


1
0
n
e
p
a
l
1
9
9
0
1
9

1
0
5
9
4
1
2
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5
3
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8
2
5
8
5
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1
4
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8
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9
6
4
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3
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7
4
5
6
9
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6
7
6
8
6
8
2
4
2
0
0
0
2
4

4
3
2
1
3
4
7
2
7
4
2
2
1
9
5
5
7
1
2
3
8
5
6
4
6

8
2
9
9
4
4
8
4
6
6
8
1
8
7
3
1
9
8
3
1
3
7
0
1
7
1
0

8
3
3
2
0
0
8
2
8

8
1
0
1
7
5
1
3
0
4
1
5
2
7
7
6
6
0
3
1
1
1
6
5
2
9
3
5
2
4
1
7
8
7
1
0
7
7
1
3
8
8
1
7
7
1
1
2
n
e
t
h
e
r
l
a
n
d
s
1
9
9
0
1
4

9
5
3
6
9
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
5
5
0
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
2
0
0
0
1
5

9
1
5
7
7
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1

5
7
5
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1

5
7
5
2
0
0
8
1
6

5
2
8
8
2
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
n
e
w

Z
e
a
l
a
n
d
1
9
9
0
3

3
8
6
8
5




8
8

1
2





1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
3

8
6
8
8
6













1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
8
4
4
2
0
0
8
4

2
3
0
8
7












1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
n
i
c
a
r
a
g
u
a
1
9
9
0
4

1
3
8
5
2
5
9
8
2
9
4
2
6
4
2
6
4
4
4
3
6
2
8
2
3
9
2
8
3
9
8
5
4
1
8
3
6
4
6
7
4
5
2
2
2
2
6
2
0
0
0
5

1
0
1
5
5
6
1
8
2
7
4
3
2
5
3
2
3
1
4
8
7
2
9
1
6
1

1
6
8
9
5
8
6
9
5
6
2
2
3
3
9
3
8
8
0
5
7
2
3
2
0
1

7
5
5
2
0
0
8
5

6
6
7
5
7
6
3
9
2
4
4
3
7
6
3
6
2
1
5
2
8
2
9
1
1
9
8
8
8
1
0
2
6
8
2
7
4
1
3
2
8
5
6
2
2
3
1
5
n
i
g
e
r
1
9
9
0
7

9
0
4
1
5
1
9
1
4
4
1
2
6
2
1
2
9
5
5
3
8
8
4
5
7
2
1
3
6
4
3
3
1
0
3
1
6
9
3
5
3
3
2
6
5
2
0
0
0
1
1

0
3
1
1
6
2
7
2
0
3
1
2
2
3
1
3
9
3
7
4
7
8
2
9
2
8
7
8
3
0
4
8
2
2
3
5
1
3
4
6
5
4
2
6
3
6
5
8
4

2
9
2
2
0
0
8
1
4

7
0
4
1
6
3
4
2
5
2
1
2
0
4
2
3
9
1
9
6
6
7
9
9
6
3
7
5
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
6
1
4
8
7
4
1
5
2
4 7
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
U
s
e

o
f

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

f
a
C
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
f

P
o
P
U
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
U
s
e

o
f

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
-
w
a
t
e
r

s
o
U
r
C
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
f

P
o
P
U
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
U
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
U
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
improved
U
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
U
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
U
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
Unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
Unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
Unimproved
shared
Unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
Unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
Unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
n
i
g
e
r
i
a
1
9
9
0
9
7

3
3
8
3
5
3
9
4
2
1
1
8
3
6
1
8
1
2
3
4
3
7
2
6
1
2
2
5
7
9
3
2
4
7
2
1
3
0
4
2
6
7
0
4
7
1
4
3
3
5
3
2
0
0
0
1
2
4

8
4
2
4
3
3
7
4
0
1
3
1
0
3
2
1
6
2
0
3
2
3
4
2
6
1
7
2
3
1
2

3
7
3
7
7
2
0
5
7
2
3
3
6
2
3
4
6
4
5
3
1
0
4
3
4
7
4
1

9
5
4
2
0
0
8
1
5
1

2
1
2
4
8
3
6
3
8
1
4
1
2
2
8
1
4
2
7
3
1
3
2
2
6
2
0
2
2
7
5
1
1
6
4
2
5
4
2
2
4
0
5
8
5
8
6
5
2
4
2
n
i
u
e
1
9
9
0
2
3
1
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
2
0
0
0
2
3
4
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
n
a
*
1
0
0


0
1
0
0
8
0
2
0
0
1
0
0


0
n
a
*
2
0
0
8
2
4
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
n
o
r
t
h
e
r
n

M
a
r
i
a
n
a

i
s
l
a
n
d
s
1
9
9
0
4
4
9
0
8
5

1
5

7
8

2
2

8
4

1
6

9
8


2
1
0
0


0
9
8


2
2
0
0
0
6
9
9
3
9
2

8

9
3

7

9
2

8


9
8


2
9
7


3
9
8


2
4
1
2
0
0
8
8
5
9
3




9
6

4





9
8


2
9
7


3
9
8


2
n
o
r
w
a
y
1
9
9
0
4

2
4
1
7
2
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
4

4
8
4
7
6
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
5
2
5
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
5
2
5
2
0
0
8
4

7
6
7
7
7
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
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0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
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1
0
0
0
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1
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m
a
n
1
9
9
0
1

8
4
3
6
6
9
7

1
2
6
1

7
3
2
8
5

3
1
2
8
4
2
9
5
5
1
6
7
2
6
6
6
2
8
8
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2
1
5
9
2
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2
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4
0
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7
2
9
7

1
2
6
1

7
3
2
8
7

2
1
1

8
7
4
6
4
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1
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4
1
1
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2
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8
3
3
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4
7
1
7
9
7
7
2
0
0
8
2

7
8
5
7
2
9
7

3









9
2
6
8
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4
8
7
7
1
8
5
9
2
3
8
8
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3
4
1
2
P
a
k
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s
t
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n
1
9
9
0
1
1
5

7
7
6
3
1
7
3
6
1
4
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8
1
2
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7
1
2
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3
1
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1
9
6
5
7
3
9
4
8
1
9
7
2
1
9
8
6
2
4
6
2
1
4
2
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8

1
3
2
3
3
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2
6
1
6
6
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3
2
3
5
4
3
7
4
2
1
3
8
4
7

2
1
1
9
5
5
6
3
9
5
8
5
1
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1
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8
2
9
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9
1
2
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6
9
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1
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9
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7
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6
1
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2
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9
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3
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0
P
a
l
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u
1
9
9
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1
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7
0
7
6

2
4

5
4

4
6

6
9

3
1

7
3


2
7
9
8


2
8
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1
9
2
0
0
0
1
9
7
0
9
2

8

5
2

4
8

8
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2
0


7
8


2
2
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5
8
3


1
7

2
0
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8
2
0
7
0
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6

4





















P
a
n
a
m
a
1
9
9
0
2

4
1
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5
4
7
3
1
1
1
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1
4
0
4
3
1
2
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5
8
8
2
2
1
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9
9
7
2
1
6
6
6
0
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4
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9
5
1
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6
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4
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1
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1
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6
5
9
1
9
7
9
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6
9
7
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2
3
7
7
7
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5
2
3
9
0
8
7
3
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1

1
3
4
2
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0
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3

3
9
9
7
3
7
5
1
1
1
2
2
5
1
5
3
1
1
3
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9
9
1
7
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9
7
9
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4
3
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3
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1
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3
8
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7
P
a
p
u
a

n
e
w

g
u
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e
a
1
9
9
0
4

1
3
1
1
5
7
8

1
9
3
4
2

4
2
1
6
4
7

3
9
1
4
8
9
6
1
2
8
1
1
3
2
4
2
8
6
8
4
1
1
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5
9
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3
8
8
1
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5

2
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4
4
2

4
1
1
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6

3
9
1
5
1

0
1
8
8
8
5
9
2
9
1
2
3
2
3
2
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8
3
9
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6
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1

0
0
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0
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6

5
7
7
1
2
7
1

2
4
5
4
1

4
1
1
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5

3
9
1
6
8
7
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3
3
3
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3
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4
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P
a
r
a
g
u
a
y
1
9
9
0
4

2
5
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6
1
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3
5
1
1
5
0
8
1
4
3
7
1
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9
3
8
1
5
9
2
2
1
9
2
5
0
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5
7
5
5
2
2
9
2
3
4
8
2
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3
5
0
5
5
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9
4
1
6
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3
1
0
6
7
2
5
8
2
3
9
1
2

7
9
4
9
2
7
5
1
7
8
5
1
2
1
3
0
4
9
7
4
5
1
2
3
2
6
3

1
5
5
2
0
0
8
6

2
3
8
6
0
9
0
4
5
1
4
0
1
5
8
1
7
0
3
2
6
1
9
9
8
5
1
4
1
6
6
3
5
3
1
3
4
8
6
6
5
2
1
1
4
P
e
r
u
1
9
9
0
2
1

7
7
6
6
9
7
1
8
5
1
6
1
6
1
9
7
4
5
4
6
6
3
4
8
8
7
3
1
5
1
2
4
5
1
5
3
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5
5
7
5
5
5
2
0
2
5
2
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0
0
4
7
1
7
7
8
7
8
2
7
2
2
1
5
0
6
2
6
1
2
2
0
7

8
5
0
9
0
7
9
1
1
1
0
5
4
2
6
2
8
4
6
7
9
6
3
1
6
2
1
7

3
1
4
2
0
0
8
2
8

8
3
7
7
1
8
1
9
9
1
3
6
3
3
0
3
1
6
8
7
1
5
1
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9
0
8
4
6
1
0
6
1
3
5
2
6
3
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8
2
7
0
1
2
1
8
P
h
i
l
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p
p
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n
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s
1
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9
0
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2

4
2
7
4
9
7
0
1
4
8
8
4
6
9
2
2
2
3
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8
1
1
1
5
1
6
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3
4
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7
6
8
6
8
2
4
8
4
2
4
6
0
1
6
2
0
0
0
7
7

6
8
9
5
9
7
6
1
5
3
6
5
9
1
2
1
1
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6
9
1
4
6
1
1
3
2

4
5
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9
3
5
1
4
2
7
8
2
1
8
6
4
1
8
8
8
3
7
5
1
1
2
2
9

7
7
8
2
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8
9
0

3
4
8
6
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1
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3
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6
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5
1
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9
3
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3
3
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8
7
2
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1
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9
P
o
l
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n
d
1
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3
8

1
1
1
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1
9
6

4









1
0
0
9
7
3
0
1
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7
3
2
7
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1
0
0
8
8
1
2
0
2
0
0
0
3
8

4
3
3
6
2
9
6

4

8
0

2
0

9
0

1
0


1
0
0
9
9
1
0
1
0
0
8
9
1
1
0
1
0
0
9
5
5
0
n
a
*
2
0
0
8
3
8

1
0
4
6
1
9
6

4

8
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2
0

9
0

1
0

1
0
0
9
9
1
0
1
0
0
9
6
4
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9
8
2
0
P
o
r
t
u
g
a
l
1
9
9
0
9

9
7
9
4
8
9
7

1
2
8
7

1
1
2
9
2

1
7
9
8
9
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3
2
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4
8
0
1
4
6
9
6
8
7
9
4
2
0
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1
0

2
2
6
5
4
9
9

0
1
9
6

0
4
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8

0
2
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4
9
6
9
9
9
8
1
1
9
8
9
5
3
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9
9
9
7
2
1
9
9
0
2
0
0
8
1
0

6
7
7
5
9
1
0
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0
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0
0
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0
0

0
0
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9
9
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1
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9
9
9
9
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1
P
u
e
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t
o

r
i
c
o
1
9
9
0
3

5
2
8
7
2
























2
0
0
0
3

8
1
9
9
5


























2
0
0
8
3

9
6
5
9
8
























Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 4 8
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
C
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
u
s
e

o
F

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
-
W
a
t
e
r

s
o
u
r
C
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
Q
a
t
a
r
1
9
9
0
4
6
7
9
2
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
2
0
0
0
6
1
7
9
5
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
8
1
3
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
8
1
3
2
0
0
8
1

2
8
1
9
6
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
r
e
p
u
b
l
i
c

o
f

k
o
r
e
a
1
9
9
0
4
2

9
8
3
7
4
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
9
7
9
6
1
3








2
0
0
0
4
6

4
2
9
8
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
5

1
6
9
9
8
9
7
1
2
7
5
4
6
2
9
2
5
9
3
8
7
6
7

2
0
0
8
4
8

1
5
2
8
1
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
9
9
1
0
8
8
6
4
2
4
1
2
9
8
9
3
5
2
r
e
p
u
b
l
i
c

o
f

m
o
l
d
o
v
a
1
9
9
0
4

3
6
4
4
7
























2
0
0
0
4

1
0
0
4
5
8
5
7
8
0
7
4
5
2
1
0
7
9
6
1
5
0

9
7
7
8
1
9
3
8
8
9
7
9
1
2
9
2
4
0
5
2
8

2
0
0
8
3

6
3
3
4
2
8
5
7
8
0
7
4
5
2
1
0
7
9
6
1
5
0
9
6
7
9
1
7
4
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5
1
3
7
2
1
5
9
0
4
0
5
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1
0
r
o
m
a
n
i
a
1
9
9
0
2
3

2
0
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5
3
8
8
3
9
0
5
2
1
4
7
0
7
1
2
2
7
0

8
5



3



4
7


2
0
0
0
2
2

1
3
8
5
3
8
8
3
9
0
5
4
1
4
5
0
7
2
2
2
6
0
n
a
*

8
8



1
6



5
5



2
0
0
8
2
1

3
6
1
5
4
8
8
3
9
0
5
4
1
4
5
0
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2
2
2
6
0

9
1



2
6



6
1


r
u
s
s
i
a
n


F
e
d
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
1
9
9
0
1
4
8

0
6
5
7
3
9
3

7

7
0

3
0

8
7

1
3

9
8
8
7
1
1
2
8
1
4
5
3
6
1
9
9
3
7
6
1
7
7
2
0
0
0
1
4
6

6
7
0
7
3
9
3

7

7
0

3
0

8
7

1
3

n
a
*
9
8
9
0
8
2
8
6
4
2
4
4
1
4
9
5
7
7
1
8
5
n
a
*
2
0
0
8
1
4
1

3
9
4
7
3
9
3

7

7
0

3
0

8
7

1
3

9
8
9
2
6
2
8
9
4
0
4
9
1
1
9
6
7
8
1
8
4
r
w
a
n
d
a
1
9
9
0
7

1
5
0
5
3
5
1
2
5
0
3
2
2
2
6
9
7
2
3
3
6
7
7
9
6
3
2
6
4
4
6
6
0
6
6
3
4
6
8
2
6
6
3
2
2
0
0
0
7

9
5
8
1
4
4
3
1
5
4
0
2
4
0
4
5
1
5
4
0
6
4
9
5
3

6
0
5
8
5
2
2
6
3
1
5
6
4
0
6
4
3
6
6
7
3
6
4
3
3
1

4
5
6
2
0
0
8
9

7
2
1
1
8
5
0
1
8
3
1
1
5
5
6
3
6
3
5
4
8
3
5
3
7
7
1
5
6
2
2
3
6
2
1
6
1
3
8
6
5
4
6
1
3
5
s
a
i
n
t

k
i
t
t
s

a
n
d

n
e
v
i
s
1
9
9
0
4
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1
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2
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9
7
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9
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9
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3
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8
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3
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8
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8
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1
1
4
2
6
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1
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2
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5
1
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4
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6
1
9
9
2
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1
8
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6
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2
0
0
0
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1
3
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5
1
9
6
3
1
0
8
8
3
9
0
9
2
3
5
0

9
9
9
7
2
1
9
8
6
3
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5
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9
9
8
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2
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9

8
3
9
5
2
9
6
3
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8
8
3
9
0
9
2
3
5
0
9
9
9
7
2
1
9
8
6
3
3
5
2
9
9
8
1
1
8
1
4 9
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
C
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
u
s
e

o
F

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
-
W
a
t
e
r

s
o
u
r
C
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
s
e
y
c
h
e
l
l
e
s
1
9
9
0
7
2
4
9
























2
0
0
0
8
1
5
1
9
4

5
1









8
4
8
4
0
1
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2
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8
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7

2
1








1
0
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1
0
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s
i
e
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1
9
9
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4

0
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3
























2
0
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4

2
2
8
3
6
2
1
4
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3
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5
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3
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8
3
4
1
1
2
3
4
2
2
4

7
5
2
8
4
7
2
5
4
4
2
4
2
5
6
5
5
1
1
4
4
4
5

2
0
0
8
5

5
6
0
3
8
2
4
4
7
2
5
4
6
1
8
4
0
3
6
1
3
2
9
3
4
2
4
8
6
1
5
7
1
1
4
2
6
1
2
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7
4
4
9
6
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5
1
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n
g
a
p
o
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e
1
9
9
0
3

0
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6
1
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9
9

1

N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
9
9

1

1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
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1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
4

0
1
8
1
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1
0
0

0
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
1
0
0

0
0
1

6
2
9
1
0
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1
0
0
0
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1

5
9
9
2
0
0
8
4

6
1
5
1
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
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A
1
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1
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0
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0
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l
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v
a
k
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1
9
9
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2
5
6
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1
0
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8
9



9
5


2
0
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3
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9
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6
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4
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9
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l
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1
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9
9
9
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9
8
5
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0
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8
1
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9
9
9
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1
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0
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6
8
2
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8
2

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0
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0
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9
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o
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m
o
n

i
s
l
a
n
d
s
1
9
9
0
3
1
4
1
4
9
8

2










7
6










2
0
0
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4
1
6
1
6
9
8

2

1
8

8
2

3
1

6
9


9
4
7
6
1
8
6
6
5
1
6
4
3
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s
o
m
a
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1
9
9
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5
9
6
3
0
























2
0
0
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3
9
4
3
3
4
5
2
6
1
6
1
3
1
0
9
9
7
2
2
2
1
5
1
1
5
2

3
6
9
2
7
6
4
1
7
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1
7
8
3
2
3
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2
0
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9
2
6
3
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3
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5
3
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6
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8
5
4
6
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1
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0
9
9
1
3
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9
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0
s
o
u
t
h

a
f
r
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c
a
1
9
9
0
3
6

7
4
5
5
2
8
0
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0
8
2
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8
8
1
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9
9
9
1
3
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8
8
5
1
3
2
6
6
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4
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3
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6
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1
7
2
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8
7
2
5
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8
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6
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6
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8
1
0
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7
3
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8
1
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1
2

8
9
0
9
8
8
7
1
1
2
7
1
2
8
4
3
2
9
8
6
6
2
2
4
1
4
1
4

6
9
9
2
0
0
8
4
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6
6
8
6
1
8
4
1
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4
2
6
5
9
9
1
7
7
7
1
0
5
8
9
9
8
9
1
0
1
7
8
3
2
4
6
2
2
9
1
6
7
2
4
9
s
p
a
i
n
1
9
9
0
3
8

8
3
9
7
5
1
0
0

0
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0
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0
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0
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9
1
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9
9
1
0
2
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4
0

2
6
4
7
6
1
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0

0
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0
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0
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6
4
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9
1
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1
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9
9
1
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6
4
7
2
0
0
8
4
4

4
8
6
7
7
1
0
0

0
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0

0
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0
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1
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1
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r
i

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a
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k
a
1
9
9
0
1
7

2
9
0
1
7
8
5
7
4
4
6
7
2
1
5
1
6
7
0
3
1
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1
4
9
1
3
7
5
4
9
6
2
6
5
6
3
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6
7
1
1
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6
3
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1
8

7
6
7
1
6
8
7
7
3
3
8
1
3
8
8
8
2
4
7
7
6

1
5
2
9
5
5
3
4
2
5
7
7
1
5
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3
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0
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9
2
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6

4
7
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2
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0
6
1
1
5
8
8
7
3
2
9
2
3
4
1
9
1
4
4
1
9
8
6
5
3
3
2
8
8
2
2
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6
1
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0
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8
6
2
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s
u
d
a
n
1
9
9
0
2
7

0
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1
2
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6
3

2
7
1
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2
3

2
9
4
8
3
4

2
8
3
8
8
5
7
6
9
1
5
5
8
1
9
3
9
4
2
6
5
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3
1
3
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9
0
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3
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5
8

2
7
1
5
2
0

2
6
5
4
3
4

2
6
4
0
4

8
4
7
7
3
6
0
1
3
2
7
5
5
1
6
3
9
4
5
6
1
3
2
2
9
3
9
5

9
5
9
2
0
0
8
4
1

3
4
8
4
3
5
5

2
5
2
0
1
8

2
4
5
8
3
4

2
5
4
1
6
4
4
7
1
7
3
6
5
2
1
4
3
8
4
8
5
7
2
8
2
9
4
3
s
u
r
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n
a
m
e
1
9
9
0
4
0
7
6
8
9
0
9
1
0








9
9
9
4
5
1








2
0
0
0
4
6
7
7
2
9
0
9
1
0
6
5
1
1
2
2
2
8
3
1
0
1
6

9
8
9
1
7
2
7
3
4
9
2
4
2
7
9
1
7
9
1
2
9

2
0
0
8
5
1
5
7
5
9
0
9
1
0
6
6
1
1
3
2
0
8
4
1
0
1
5
9
7
7
8
1
9
3
8
1
4
5
3
6
1
9
9
3
7
0
2
3
7
s
w
a
z
i
l
a
n
d
1
9
9
0
8
6
4
2
3
























2
0
0
0
1

0
8
0
2
3
6
0
3
1
6
3
4
6
1
8
8
2
8
4
9
2
1
8
2
2

8
6
5
8
2
8
1
4
4
6
1
3
3
3
5
4
5
5
2
3
3
2
4
5

2
0
0
8
1

1
6
8
2
5
6
1
3
2
5
2
5
3
2
0
6
2
1
5
5
2
3
6
1
6
9
2
6
7
2
5
8
6
1
2
1
4
0
3
9
6
9
3
2
3
7
3
1
s
w
e
d
e
n
1
9
9
0
8

5
5
9
8
3
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
8

8
6
0
8
4
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
6
4
6
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
6
4
6
2
0
0
8
9

2
0
5
8
5
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
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1
0
0
0
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1
0
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1
0
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0
0
s
w
i
t
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e
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l
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d
1
9
9
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6

7
1
5
7
3
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
9
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
7

1
8
4
7
3
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
8
2
7
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
9
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
8
2
7
2
0
0
8
7

5
4
1
7
3
1
0
0

0
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1
0
0

0
0
1
0
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0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
9
9
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 5 0
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
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n

F
a
C
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s


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r
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t
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o
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P
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a
t
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n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
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d
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number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
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u
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u
n
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d
unimproved
i
m
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d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
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v
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d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
s
y
r
i
a
n

a
r
a
b

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e
p
u
b
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c
1
9
9
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1
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7
2
1
4
9
9
4
4
2
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7
2
4
5
1
9
8
3
4
3
1
0
9
6
9
3
3
4
7
5
5
1
2
4
2
5
8
5
7
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3
1
5
2
0
0
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1
6

5
1
1
5
2
9
5
4
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8
2
5
3
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8
9
4
2
5
9

8
1
9
9
5
9
3
2
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7
9
5
9
2
0
2
1
8
7
7
7
1
0
1
3
8

0
7
9
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2
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9
6
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6
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a
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1
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3
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0




















2
0
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1
7
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6
9
4
4
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8
9
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9
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9
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8
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8
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9
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2
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8
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4
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9
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3
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6
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t
h
a
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d
1
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4
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6
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4
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t
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e

F
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1
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0
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2
0
0
0
2

0
1
2
6
3
9
2
5
3
0
8
2
7
1
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1
8
8
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6
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1
0
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9
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2
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8
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7
9
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3
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8
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7
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8
9
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5
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i
m
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e
1
9
9
0
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2
0
0
0
8
1
5
2
4
5
5
4
2
0
2
1
2
5
1
2
2
5
2
3
2
2
2
2
4
4

6
9
2
8
4
1
3
1
4
7
1
1
3
6
5
3
5
2
1
5
3
7
4
8

2
0
0
8
1

0
9
8
2
7
7
6
5
0
1
9
4
0
2
6
5
2
5
0
3
4
4
3
8
6
2
8
5
8
1
4
6
3
1
1
5
2
3
7
6
9
1
6
5
3
3
1
t
o
g
o
1
9
9
0
3

9
2
6
3
0
2
5
4
6
5
2
4
8
1
6
2
7
4
1
3
2
5
3
5
9
7
9
1
4
6
5
2
1
3
6
0
3
6
6
4
4
9
4
4
5
5
1
2
0
0
0
5

2
4
7
3
7
2
4
4
5
8
2
3
5
1
0
9
7
6
1
2
2
3
8
5
7
2
6
5
8
3
1
3
7
0
1
7
3
9
0
3
9
6
1
5
5
5
5
0
4
5
1

9
5
1
2
0
0
8
6

4
5
9
4
2
2
4
4
4
9
2
3
3
6
1
3
7
8
1
2
2
2
1
1
5
5
8
7
1
2
7
5
1
3
4
1
1
4
0
5
9
6
0
6
5
4
4
0
t
o
k
e
l
a
u
1
9
9
0
2
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
4
1

5
9

4
1

5
9

N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
9
0


1
0
9
0


1
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
6
3

3
7

6
3

3
7

0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
9
3


7
9
3


7
0
2
0
0
8
1
0
N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
9
3

7

9
3

7

N
A
N
A
N
A
N
A
9
7


3
9
7


3
t
o
n
g
a
1
9
9
0
9
5
2
3
9
8

2

9
6

4

9
6

4













2
0
0
0
9
9
2
3
9
8

2

9
6

4

9
6

4

9
1
0
0
7
2
2
8
0
1
0
0
7
6
2
4
0
1
0
0
7
5
2
5
0

2
0
0
8
1
0
4
2
5
9
8

2

9
6

4

9
6

4

1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
t
r
i
n
i
d
a
d

a
n
d

t
o
b
a
g
o
1
9
9
0
1

2
1
9
9
9
3
7
0
0
9
3
7
0
0
9
3
7
0
0
9
2
8
1
1
1
8
8
8
6
8
2
0
1
2
8
8
6
9
1
9
1
2
2
0
0
0
1

2
9
5
1
1
9
2
7
1
0
9
2
7
1
0
9
2
7
1
0
9
3
9
5
8
5
1
0
5
9
1
7
1
2
0
9
9
1
7
3
1
8
9
1
8
1
2
0
0
8
1

3
3
3
1
3
9
2
7
1
0
9
2
7
1
0
9
2
7
1
0
9
8
8
8
1
0
2
9
3
7
4
1
9
7
9
4
7
6
1
8
6
t
u
n
i
s
i
a
1
9
9
0
8

2
1
5
5
8
9
5
2
0
3
4
4
6
4
4
6
7
4
4
1
2
1
9
5
8
9
6
5
6
2
2
2
4
0
3
8
8
1
6
1
2
0
1
9
2
0
0
0
9

4
5
2
6
3
9
5
2
2
1
5
7
7
1
1
2
5
8
1
4
5
1
0
2

5
6
5
9
8
9
2
6
2
7
7
3
3
4
4
2
3
9
0
7
0
2
0
1
0
2

9
0
5
2
0
0
8
1
0

1
6
9
6
7
9
6
2
2
0
6
4
8
1
4
1
4
8
5
4
6
5
9
9
9
4
5
1
8
4
3
9
4
5
1
6
9
4
7
6
1
8
6
t
u
r
k
e
y
1
9
9
0
5
6

0
8
6
5
9
9
6
1
3
0
6
6
2
2
7
5
8
4
1
1
3
2
9
4
9
1
3
6
7
3
5
4
1
9
2
7
8
5
7
6
9
1
5
2
0
0
0
6
6

4
6
0
6
5
9
6
2
2
0
7
1
3
2
3
3
8
7
2
1
0
1
1
9

4
1
0
9
7
9
5
2
3
8
5
7
4
1
1
1
5
9
3
8
8
5
7
2
5

5
0
2
2
0
0
8
7
3

9
1
4
6
9
9
7
2
1
0
7
5
3
2
1
1
9
0
2
8
0
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
9
6
9
2
4
4
9
9
9
6
3
1
t
u
r
k
m
e
n
i
s
t
a
n
1
9
9
0
3

6
6
8
4
5
9
9

1
0
9
7

2
1
9
8

1
1
9
7


3








2
0
0
0
4

5
0
2
4
6
9
9

1
0
9
7

2
1
9
8

1
1
1

3
4
8
9
7
8
1
1
6
3
7
2
2
9
4
3
2
8
8
3
5
3
3
0
1
7

2
0
0
8
5

0
4
4
4
9
9
9

1
0
9
7

2
1
9
8

1
1
9
7


3








t
u
r
k
s

a
n
d

C
a
i
c
o
s

i
s
l
a
n
d
s
1
9
9
0
1
2
4
3
9
8

2









1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
2
0
0
0
1
9
4
3
9
8

2

9
4

6

9
6

4


1
0
0
7
8
2
2
0
1
0
0
6
0
4
0
0
1
0
0
6
8
3
2
0
2
1
2
0
0
8
3
3
4
7
9
8

2









1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
1
0
0


0
t
u
v
a
l
u
1
9
9
0
9
4
1
8
6

1
4

7
6

2
4

8
0

2
0

9
2


8
8
9


1
1
9
0


1
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
4
6
8
7

1
3

7
9

2
1

8
3

1
7

1
9
5


5
9
3


7
9
4


6
2
2
0
0
8
1
0
4
9
8
8

1
0
2
8
1

1
2
7
8
4

1
1
5
9
8
9
7
1
2
9
7
9
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9
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3
3
5 1
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
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t
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n

F
a
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F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
u
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F

d
r
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n
k
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l
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n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
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t
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improved
u
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u
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u
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unimproved
i
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unimproved
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m
p
r
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d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
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k
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1
9
9
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V
a
n
u
a
t
u
1
9
9
0
1
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1
9












9
1
7
9
1
2
9
4
9
2
7
2
2
5
1
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3
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2
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4
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9
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7
9
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1
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8
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3
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2
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6
6
2
9
5
0
4
8
1
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2
1
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2
9
2
9
6
7
9
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7
4
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3
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V
e
n
e
z
u
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(
B
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v
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)
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9
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V
i
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t

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1
9
9
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F
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1
9
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3
4
9
9
9
4
5
1
7
0
7
6
3
3
0
7
8
3
2
4
6
2
2
2
0
0
0
1
2

4
5
5
3
4
5
7
4
1
1
1
3
7
1
5
5
4
3
4
4
2
4
3
2
9
9
8
5
9
9
9
1
8
1
7
1
6
6
5
2
9
8
0
3
5
4
5
2
0
2

0
6
0
2
0
0
8
1
2

4
6
3
3
7
5
6
4
0
2
2
3
7
1
5
9
3
9
4
4
2
4
7
2
5
9
9
8
8
1
1
1
7
2
5
6
7
2
8
8
2
3
6
4
6
1
8
Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 5 2
Country, area or territory
Year
Population (thousand)
Percentage urban
population
u
s
e

o
F

s
a
n
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

F
a
C
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sanitation
1990-2008 (thousand)
u
s
e

o
F

d
r
i
n
k
i
n
g
-
W
a
t
e
r

s
o
u
r
C
e
s


(
P
e
r
C
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
F

P
o
P
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
number of people who gained
access to improved sources
of drinking-water 1990-2008
(thousand)
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
u
r
b
a
n
r
u
r
a
l
t
o
t
a
l
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
improved
u
n
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d
unimproved
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
shared
unimproved
facilitites
open
defecation
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
total
improved
Piped on
premises
other
improved
s
u
b
-
s
a
h
a
r
a
n

a
f
r
i
c
a
1
9
9
0
5
1
7
.
9
6
1
2
8
4
3
2
9
1
7
1
1
2
1
1
0
2
2
4
7
2
8
1
6
2
0
3
6
8
3
4
3
4
0
1
7
3
6
4
3
2
6
4
4
9
1
5
3
4
5
1
2
0
0
0
6
7
4
.
6
9
3
3
3
4
3
3
0
1
7
1
0
2
3
1
1
2
3
4
3
2
9
1
8
2
1
3
2
1
1
4

3
4
4
8
2
3
8
4
4
1
8
4
2
4
3
8
5
8
5
5
1
5
4
0
4
5
2
3
7

8
1
2
2
0
0
8
8
2
2
.
4
3
6
3
7
4
4
3
1
1
7
8
2
4
1
3
2
5
3
8
3
1
2
0
2
2
2
7
8
3
3
5
4
8
1
7
4
7
5
4
2
5
3
6
0
1
6
4
4
4
0
n
o
r
t
h
e
r
n

a
f
r
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c
a
1
9
9
0
1
2
0
.
6
7
5
4
9
9
1
6
0
3
5
5
4
1
2
2
9
7
2
5
6
1
7
9
4
8
6
8
6
7
8
3
3
4
5
2
2
8
6
5
8
2
8
1
4
2
0
0
0
1
4
4
.
6
2
1
5
1
9
3
6
0
1
7
2
5
6
1
7
8
3
6
2
9
5
8

8
9
9
9
4
8
9
5
6
8
3
5
1
3
2
1
7
8
9
7
0
1
9
1
1
4
7

1
0
0
2
0
0
8
1
6
4
.
4
6
6
5
3
9
4
6
0
0
8
3
6
2
9
8
9
6
1
4
9
5
9
1
4
5
8
7
6
8
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9
1
3
9
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e
a
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n

a
s
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a
1
9
9
0
1
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2
1
3
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5
0
9
3
0
5
3
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9
3
3
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6
4
6
9
4
3
1
2
3
8
7
9
7
8
7
1
0
3
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6
4
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5
5
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1
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3
4
5
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7
3
9
3
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5
8
2
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4
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7
4
0
6
5
1
1
5
2
9
5
2
7
5

8
6
5
9
8
9
2
6
2
7
0
5
9
1
1
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8
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7
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3
6

9
8
1
2
0
0
8
1
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4
1
9
.
5
3
2
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6
1
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3
8
3
7
2
5
6
1
8
2
2
4
9
8
9
6
2
2
8
2
7
3
9
1
8
8
9
8
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6
1
1
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n

a
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i
a
1
9
9
0
1
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2
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0
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0
4
3
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5
6
1
8
3
2
3
1
3
3
3
8
1
2
5
7
2
6
6
9
1
5
5
3
6
9
6
9
9
6
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7
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4
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2
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4
6
2
.
9
6
0
2
9
5
8
1
9
5
1
8
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5
6
6
9
3
1
9
6
5
4
3
0
5

4
6
7
9
3
5
3
4
0
7
7
6
1
0
6
6
2
4
8
1
2
2
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9
1
9
5
4
7

4
3
3
2
0
0
8
1
.
6
6
8
.
7
4
6
3
1
5
7
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9
1
0
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6
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0
5
8
3
6
1
0
1
0
4
4
9
5
5
1
4
4
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8
3
1
1
7
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7
8
7
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3
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4
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3
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o
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a
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a
1
9
9
0
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3
9
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5
9
1
3
2
6
9
8
1
0
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3
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4
1
4
6
6
1
6
3
2
9
2
4
1
5
1
8
6
3
6
5
7
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7
7
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7
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5
2
8
2
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0
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5
1
7
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1
9
3
4
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7
4
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7
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5
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9
8
1
2
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1
9
2

9
4
1
9
2
4
7
4
5
8
7
2
1
1
6
1
2
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8
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4
4
2
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5
7
5
.
6
2
6
4
7
7
9
1
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9
9
8
1
4
9
2
5
2
4
0
8
8
1
1
6
6
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1
9
8
6
3
3
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3
1
4
W
e
s
t
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r
n

a
s
i
a
1
9
9
0
1
3
5
.
8
5
0
6
1
9
6
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3
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5
3
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9
8
0
2
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0
8
9
6
9
3
3
4
7
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5
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6
7
8
8
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4
2
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4
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3
9
4
6
5
9
3
6
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6
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2
5
7
6
6
9

4
7
8
9
6
9
3
4
4
7
4
5
4
2
0
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6
8
8
7
9
9
1
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2
3
4
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2
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7
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9
9
1
6
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6
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8
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5
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3
9
6
9
3
3
4
7
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6
1
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7
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c
e
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n
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a
1
9
9
0
6
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4
4
9
2
4
8
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1
5

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6

3
7
1
7
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5

4
5
1
4
9
2
6
7
2
5
8
3
8
7
3
1
6
2
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1
2
2
2
9
4
9
2
0
0
0
8
.
1
2
1
2
4
8
5

1
5

4
3

4
0
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3

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7
1
4
1

5
3
5
9
2
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7
3
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4
0
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5
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9
.
6
3
3
2
3
8
1

1
9

4
5

3
7
1
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3

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7
1
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9
2


8
3
7
6
3
1
6
3
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3
1
5
0
l
a
t
i
n

a
m
e
r
i
c
a


a
n
d

t
h
e

C
a
r
i
b
b
e
a
n
1
9
9
0
4
4
2
.
3
1
0
7
1
8
1

1
3
6
3
9
6
1
2
4
3
6
9

1
4
1
7
9
5
8
7
8
5
6
3
3
6
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3
7
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5
7
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5
2
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2
1
.
2
2
8
7
5
8
4

1
2
4
4
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7
1
4
3
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5

1
4
1
1
1
5
4

4
0
9
9
6
9
0
6
4
7
2
4
8
2
4
2
8
9
0
8
0
1
0
1
0
1
6
1

5
1
3
2
0
0
8
5
7
6
.
1
0
2
7
9
8
6

1
2
2
5
5
9
1
6
2
0
8
0

1
4
6
9
7
9
2
5
3
8
0
5
8
2
2
2
0
9
3
8
4
9
7
C
o
m
m
o
n
w
e
a
l
t
h

o
f

i
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t

s
t
a
t
e
s
1
9
9
0
2
8
0
.
8
9
9
6
5
9
4

6

7
9

2
1

8
9

1
1

9
8
8
8
1
0
2
8
2
3
9
4
3
1
8
9
2
7
1
2
1
8
2
0
0
0
2
8
0
.
9
9
8
6
4
9
3

7

8
0

2
0
0
8
9

1
1

n
a
*
9
8
8
9
9
2
8
4
3
7
4
7
1
6
9
3
7
1
2
2
7
4
3
2
2
0
0
8
2
7
6
.
8
2
0
6
4
9
3

7

8
3

1
6
1
8
9

1
1

9
8
9
0
8
2
8
7
3
3
5
4
1
3
9
4
6
9
2
5
6
d
e
v
e
l
o
p
e
d


r
e
g
i
o
n
s
1
9
9
0
9
3
3
.
0
7
3
7
1
1
0
0

0
0
9
7

2
1
9
9

1
0
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
9
8
7
4
2
4
2
9
9
9
1
8
1
2
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9
8
5
.
2
7
3
7
4
1
0
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0
0
9
6

4
0
9
9

1
0
9
3

1
6
6
1
0
0
9
8
2
0
9
8
7
7
2
1
2
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0
2
9
2
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1
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0
2
8
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5
2
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1
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4
0
9
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1
0
1
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9
8
2
0
9
8
8
1
1
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6
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d
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g

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s
1
9
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4
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6
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3
8
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3
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5
1
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1
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5
2
3
4
4
4
1
9
1
8
3
2
9
3
7
1
2
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8
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1
7
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9
3
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4
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2
2
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2
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6
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5
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4
4
4
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5
3
3
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3
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9
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3
2
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6
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6
3
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2
4
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4
4
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3
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1
6
w
o
r
l
d
1
9
9
0
5

2
9
0

3
5
9
4
3
7
7
1
1
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6
3
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5
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3
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1
1
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2
1
9
4
7
7
7
1
3
4
6
4
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3
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2
6
3

5
4
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7
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4
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7
4
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8
7
2
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1
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1
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4
7
8
3
4
4
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2
8
7
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1
3
mdg regions and
the World
.“
N
A

.
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Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate 5 4
annEx B
gLoBaL and rEgionaL Sanitation
LaddErS: urBan and ruraL
Figure B. .Urban.and.rural.proportion.of .the.population.using.an.improved,.shared.or.unimproved.sanitation.
facility.or.practising.open.defecation,.by.MDG.region,.in.1990.and.2008
open defecation unimproved facilities shared improved
5 5
Annex C
GlobAl And reGionAl drinkinG-wAter
lAdders: urbAn And rurAl
© World Health Organization and UNICEF 2010
All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization,
20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: bookorders@who.int).
The World Health Organization and UNICEF welcome requests for permission to reproduce or translate their publications
— whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution. Applications and enquiries should be addressed to WHO, Office of
Publications, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: permissions@who.int) or to UNICEF, Division of Communication,
3 United Nations Plaza, New York 10017, United States of America (fax: +1 212 303 7985; e-mail: nyhqdoc.permit@unicef.org).
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion
whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization or UNICEF concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city
or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent
approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended
by the World Health Organization or UNICEF in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and
omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.
The World Health Organization and UNICEF do not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete and
correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use.

Printed in France
Design: www.paprika-annecy.com
Photo credit: Cover: iStockphoto/Klaas Lingbeek-van Kranen, WaterAid/Abir Abdullah, WaterAid/Juthika Howlader;
pIV: fotolia/TMAX; p3: Rifat Hossain; pp4-5: iStockphoto/Claudia Dewald; p10: iStockphoto/Anantha Vardhan; p11: WaterAid/
Abir Abdullah; pp14-15: iStockphoto/Britta Kasholm-Tengve; pp20-21: iStockphoto/Raido Väljamaa; p24: iStockphoto/Gabriela
Schaufelberger; pp26-27: iStockphoto/Christoph Achenbach; p29: WHO; p30: iStockphoto/Sean Warren; pp32-33: iStockphoto/
Tjui Tjioe; p35: fotolia/Garrett Hoffman; p37: iStockphoto/Bart Coenders; Back cover: Thierry Helsens.
WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-water: 2010 Update.
1. Drinking-water supply. 2. Sanitation. 3. Millennium Development Goals. 4. MDG monitoring. 5. Open defecation.
I. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation.
ISBN 978 92 4 156395 6 (NLM classification: WA 670)
FigureC Urban and rural proportion of the population using a piped water connection, other improved
drinking-water sources or an unimproved source, by MDG region, in 1990 and 2008
43
35
40
48
17 17
4 5
32
42
64
53
71
73
22
21
7
21
31
39
45
40
24
80 79
15 17
5
4
27
34
37
44
36
22
55
51
36
44
9
11
60
72
31
17
9
5
6
10
2
87
96
44
18
14
9
42
73
8 8
51
40
41
52
37
19
57
65
6
16
4 4
3 3
93 93
30
22
15
17
55
61
6 5
8
4
86
91
22
13
45
19
33
68
3
2
43
35
40
48
17 17
4 5
32
42
64
53
71
73
22
21
7
21
31
39
45
40
24
80 79
15 17
5
4
27
34
37
44
36
22
55
51
36
44
9
11
60
72
31
17
9
5
6
10
2
87
96
44
18
14
9
42
73
8 8
51
40
41
52
37
19
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65
6
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4 4
3 3
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3
2
Unimproved Otherimproved Pipedonpremises
2.6 billion people do not use
improved sanitation
• Although1.3billionpeoplehavegainedaccess
toimprovedsanitationsince1990,theworld
islikelytomisstheMDGsanitationtargetby
abillionpeople.
• Open defecation rates have decreased from
25%in1990to17%in2008.Worldwide,1.1
billion people practise open defecation, a
declineof167millionsince1990.
• With only 45% of the rural population using
improvedsanitation,ruralareaslagfarbehind
urbanareas,wheretherateis76%.
• Seven out of ten people without improved
sanitationliveinruralareas,butthenumber
of people in urban areas without improved
sanitation is increasing because of rapid
growthinurbanpopulations.
With only five years to Go
until the MDG tarGet Date
884 million people do not use an
improved source of drinking-water
• The world is on track to meet the MDG
drinking-water target. In developing regions,
84% of the population uses an improved
sourceofdrinking-water.
• In urban areas the use of improved sources
of drinking-water has been maintained at
96% since 2000, with over 1 billion more
peoplenowusingsuchasourcethanin1990.
However, this increase is barely keeping up
withurbanpopulationgrowth.
• Thenumberofpeoplelivinginruralareaswho
do not use an improved source of drinking-
water is over five times the number living in
urbanareas.
• Worldwide, 37% of people not using an
improved source of drinking-water live in
Sub-SaharanAfrica.
WorldHealthOrganization
AvenueAppia20
1211Geneva27,Switzerland
UnitedNationChildren’sFund
3UNPlaza
NewYork,NY10017USA

WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-water: 2010 Update. 1. Drinking-water supply. 2. Sanitation. 3. Millennium Development Goals. 4. MDG monitoring. 5. Open defecation. I. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. ISBN 978 92 4 156395 6 (NLM classification: WA 670)

© World Health Organization and UNICEF 2010
All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: bookorders@who.int). The World Health Organization and UNICEF welcome requests for permission to reproduce or translate their publications — whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution. Applications and enquiries should be addressed to WHO, Office of Publications, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: permissions@who.int) or to UNICEF Division of Communication, , 3 United Nations Plaza, New York 10017, United States of America (fax: +1 212 303 7985; e-mail: nyhqdoc.permit@unicef.org). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization or UNICEF concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization or UNICEF in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. The World Health Organization and UNICEF do not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. Printed in France Design: www.paprika-annecy.com Photo credit: Cover: iStockphoto/Klaas Lingbeek-van Kranen, WaterAid/Abir Abdullah, WaterAid/Juthika Howlader; pIV: fotolia/TMAX; p3: Rifat Hossain; pp4-5: iStockphoto/Claudia Dewald; p10: iStockphoto/Anantha Vardhan; p11: WaterAid/ Abir Abdullah; pp14-15: iStockphoto/Britta Kasholm-Tengve; pp20-21: iStockphoto/Raido Väljamaa; p24: iStockphoto/Gabriela Schaufelberger; pp26-27: iStockphoto/Christoph Achenbach; p29: WHO; p30: iStockphoto/Sean Warren; pp32-33: iStockphoto/ Tjui Tjioe; p35: fotolia/Garrett Hoffman; p37: iStockphoto/Bart Coenders; Back cover: Thierry Helsens.

.

................53 Annex........without...................... Annex....regional....Goals:.........drinking-water:......7 ......urban-rural........................................on.6 .and.........disparities...of ....................2008.for.2008..........29 Socioeconomic..............1990............................Sub-Saharan...ladder:....................drinking-water...other.........................regional....................................................8 Drinking-water:..........drinking-water.............................22 Shared..premises..................................defecation.......... Jmp method JMP..........ladders:.....improved.....34 StatIStIcal table Progress..................MDG.Development.....................improved.urban........................................2 StatuS and progreSS towardS the mdg target Billions..................water.....30 ............................MDG.................55 ..sources...trends......to..............................................12 Drinking-water..............54 ..............................sanitation...... .....................target.....25 addItIonal perSpectIveS Time....and........38 Progress.................global...B..and................2000......2000..........world..........Global............................for....unimproved..................................of ....sanitation.ladders:....................regional.........................................Global...........................and. Sanitation:........and...............sanitation..........16 Drinking-water:.A....................explained............method...................................regional.......................urban-rural........ ..........drinking-water:........1990.............................28 Collection..............track....and.......................................of ...................sanitation.................. ....and.................estimates................groupings....world...........13 urban-rural dISparItIeS Sanitation:...........................Millennium......................and........................and........................... annexeS Annex........regional..sanitation....global...............................................................................23 Piped...country.....trends.....................disparities...............improved..........track..........................9 Sanitation............18 a cloSer look at the ladderS Open..................drinking-water... ..................................drinking-water:....................52 ...............target........regional.and......gender..............and............ Millions..........without...........for.....on..................rural........for..estimates.....collect...........................................................contents IntroductIon...........off ..............................ladder:.........on.....................and....on................drinking-water...................................C..disparities................rural...........urban.....................................disparities:....Africa..facilities..........sources......global..................and...............................

and.by.role.. drinking-water.the..to...are.collection.disparities.completed. to..this.to.page.report.safe.available.Programme.drinking-water.to.needs.health..38.between.provide.datasets. the.is.run.this.their.describes.data.terms.newly. gained.well-being.and.is.anew.safe.2008.access.this.recognize.sanitation.be. important.efforts.relation.halve.International.the.report. f validating. throughout.. e .Supply.in. around.confirms.to.(JMP).and.the. countries.access..the.constantly.universal.including. a.introduction This. provided.between.better. m and.supersedes.in. d •.world.respect.engine. The.where.2015.300.the.JMP.that.database.drinking-water..and.of .MDG.of .current.to. emerges.made.or.censuses.access.of .and.decide.MDG..strategy.in.improved.sanitation.access. and.2015.period.to.the.important.the.for..The.reports.accurate.to.data.to.where.do.previous.progress.to.and.baselines.by.and.progress.the.proportion.new.1985. and.use.it.vision.are.in..the.Joint.for.to..of .practice..2000.around. The.some.improved. aintaining.trends.report.2015. needs.censuses.are.where.towards.are: •.done.a.disparities:.trends.years.integrity.in. socioeconomic.drinking-water.period.in.populations.Millennium.where.WHO/UNICEF. most.of .the.to.of .world.human.target.database.society.milestone.formulated.yet.different.has.who.seeks.achievement.the.which.that.importance.Group.see.sanitation.striking.to.not.promote.the.. nongovernmental.of .focus.progress.during.JMP’s. in.time.in.and.assesses..period. future challengeS We.and..is. sanitation.. and.and.publishes. urban. universal. vulnerabilities.year.to.drinking-water.This.sustainable.incorporates.the.differences.-.1990-2008.global.UNICEF .use.status.to.to.this.the...2008.strata.strategy.action.of .this.2008.renewed.in.have.picture.and.be.of .and.support.in..of .platform.and.total. information.measurable.Year.key. associated.been.however. table.how.targets.catching-up. The.With.indicators. and.the.way. sanitation..The.is. facilities.continue.stakeholders.by. Each.from. greater.by.surveys.insufficient.be.in.a.surveys. must..JMP. interaction.to..a.the.there.provide.to.data.for.beyond.the.the.what.open defecation.safe.every.JMP.identify.regions.stop.developing.updated.mobilized.clearer.go.also.the.to.was.two..(MDG).This.since.and.the.accelerate. 2025.presented. and.and.of .gap.themselves.progress.as. 2 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate . purpoSe and Scope of thIS report This.. •. people.how.order.providing.on. proposed.progress.Advisory.to.detailed.role.JMP.analysis.created. nhancing.policy-makers.to.the.rural.for. Sanitation.to...divide. the.starting.developing.become. their.to.started.the.target.and. falter.of .successive.governmental.in.the.to.target.of .report. question.achieve.vision. and.position.sources.for.of .done.basic. advances. •..behind.to.report.donors.. target. Monitoring.and.sanitation.support.monitoring.and.The.challenges.priority..the..2010-2015. not.Sanitation.the. access.shows.mind.the.and.an.1990.agencies. accelerate.post-2015.estimates.latrines.and.sanitation.so.JMP.. drinking-water.ultimately.with.be.is.towards.first.JMP.Development.with.of .starting.of .up.in.the..bearing.water.access. With.to.well..access..becomes.MDG.and.reflect. to. household.by.and.from.previous.the.sanitation. toilets.are.ulfilling.the.JMP. Data.the.all.indicators.. address.in.people.vital.that.from.presents.that.challenges.estimates.safe. Progress.of .strategic.each.to.world.accurate.estimates.the.strategy.normative.the. to.without.2008. period. JMP. it.report.there.to.improved.target.estimates.2007-2008.to..meaningful. sources.sustainable.the.from.information.basic..four.contained. given.JMP.In.use.trends. target.data.note.publication.sanitation.number.made.different.is.basic.from.It. between.to. achieving. and. earlier.Water.achieve.towards.covering.report.and.who.however.situation.versus.efforts.statistical.this. different.as.the.in.table. Strategic.MDG.focus.approaches.of . isseminating.services.. performing.and. The.areas..on.the.the.that.JMP.includes.. and.addressing. It.report. censuses. ends. help.in.more.the.activity.drinking-water.surveys.water.are.JMP.WHO.JMP.of .beyond.an.report.is.the.. a new Strategy for Jmp A.in.between.for. JMP With.placed.the.left.their.to.mind.and.impetus. As.of .Goal.they.increasingly.being.and.towards.basic.2015. added.development.ensuring. to.and.

but.practice.is.previously.addressed.not.also.JMP. The.kind.of .no.indicators.the.analysing..and.200.progress. changed.data.open.and.and.resolution.too.of .different.in.globally.reliably.the.report.the.faces.greater.have.to.of .more.territories. still. requires.speed.accommodating.assessing.of ..comparable.a.of . The.people.challenges.of .safety.but.be. sanitation.improved.countries.is.Piped.to.defecation.unavailable.decision-making.often.use.drinking-water..the.world.has.documents.or.from. The.to.. higher.sources.yet.in. adhering. new.estimates.and.declining.sanitation. over. households.facilities.not.a.much. from.and.improved..access.needs.of .drinking-water.introduction Better. methodological.improved..terms.that.so.many.datasets.disaggregation.. are.how.data.of . facilities.so..any.of . 3 .to.of .reaching.all.challenge.present..sources.water.ever.common.

.

.

also.improved. R people. point.but. W 61% of global population uses improved sanitation facilities 2..the.Asia.sanitation.of .Africa. Sub-Saharan.Northern.of .world.. egional.sanitation.increases. South-eastern.in.population.also.not.the.are.1990-2008 6 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate .between.Eastern.used.change.there.are.. .disparities.are. Use of improved sanitation facilities is low in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia Figure 1.Oceania.of .disparities.Notable.and.the.uses.large.not.the.the.improved...sanitation. great.regions.2008.of .by.sanitation.regions.do. R facilities.masks.2.improved.use.population..billion.of .has.sanitation.and.developing. orldwide.6 billion people – 72% of whom live in Asia – do not use improved sanitation facilities Figure 3.Commonwealth.improved.been.a.decline.6.in.Among.by.number.the.use.in.distribution.2008..in.around. States.there.Eastern.(million) Figure 2.percentage.6 bIllIon people do not uSe Improved SanItatIon Improved.and.global.world.numbers..progress.2008.1990.Asia.the.the.whereas.2.who.population.in.improved.only. facilities.two.are.Asia.use.entire.and.in.6.uses. ..since.less. egional.Virtually.no.made.using.of . .improved.Independent.regions.facilities.billion.been.sanitation.in.Southern.in.picture. facilities.greatest.Africa.developed.sanitation..Asia. progress.in. but.thirds.have.population.facilities.BiLLionS WitHout iMProVEd Sanitation 2.in.The.facilities.of .the.in.far..in.There.the.improved.use.than.half .people.

over.point.towards.sources.population.not..drinkingR water.60%..87%.get.the.population. Sub-Saharan Africa faces the greatest challenge in increasing the use of improved drinking-water Figure 4 W .despite.of .increase.of .2008..of .drinking-water.lagging.all..progress.million.regions.getting..of . do. 87% of global population uses improved drinking-water sources.almost.developing.behind.world.in.points.in.since.and.is.from.the. egional.people.of .in.sources.in.of .from.and.sources.use.that.population.percentage.and.in.84%.MiLLionS WitHout iMProVEd SourcES oF drinking-WatEr 884 mIllIon people do not uSe Improved SourceS of drInkIng-water The.Even.the.11.improved. egional.sources. the.of .a.2008.improved.drinking-water. .2008.their. .884.in.improved.of .drinking-water.of . accounts.not.percentage. R people.world.third.is.globally.high.people. change.so.using.use.1990.drinking-water.sources.still.884.MDG.for.improved.with.improved..them..Africa.such.distribution. orldwide.drinking-water.their.of ..(million) Figure 5.using.of .in.the.improved.the. an increase of 10% point in 18 years 884 million people – 37% of whom live in Sub–Saharan Africa – still use unimproved sources for drinking-water Figure 6.an.of .Sub-Saharan.with.use.1990-2008 7 .regions.target.drinking-water.only.developing.number.million. sources.

be.to.was.progress..MDG.basic.5%.points.progress.target:.2008.improved.available.not.who.either. anitation:..and.target.use.of .we.not.the.efforts.basic. made.access.figure.people.rate.the.or.remains. Sanitation: world is projected to miss the MDG target Figure 7.towards.Unless.sanitation.13.If .to.within.by.to.2.are.people.an.2008.the.in.have.miss.trend.data.required.of ..1.sanitation.of .without.by.the.1990-2008.target. not on track:.meet.benefited.the.basic.halved.will.to.people.territories.to. were.proportion.of .between.be. required.target.meet.out.additional.billion.of .towards.miss.people. .required.sanitation.will.will.meet.countries.there. G projected.world.rate. projected.the..not.figure.rate.2015 Sanitation: most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia are not on track to meet the MDG target on track:.the.billion.from.the.meet.access.Progress.10%.to.if ..between.2008.1990-2008.sufficient.MDG. lobal. no or insufficient data: includes.2008 S 8 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate .progress.decreasing.rate.current. 5%.without.the.flat.currently. Progress but insufficient:.7.2015.Sanitation: WorLd oFF track For Mdg targEt At.10%.the.be.should.target.or.was.not.trends Figure 8. there.Even..target.trend. . MDG.will.without.was.the.as.the.>95%..were.to..access.will.within.MDG.estimate.to.or.and.the.where.still.percentage.of .target.7.by.or.billion. figure.MDG.huge.or..2015.sanitation.trend..

in.2015.of .MDG.the.>95%.between.target.towards.the.target. most countries are on track to meet the MDG target on track:.required.on.progress.figure.was.the.were.in..of . figure.either..of ..31.sufficient.to.2008.monitoring.MDG.of ..to.Even.people.sources.5%.and.2008.sources.progress.safe. has.use.will.without.of ..target. were.the.countries.to.the.world.of .not.is.to. population. .of .flat.or.within.2015 Drinking-water: except for Sub-Saharan Africa.access.expected.the.10%.MDG.to.2008 9 .figure.challenge.or.lack.or.sustainable.is. Drinking-water:.use.where.quality.data.towards.the.target.estimate.drinking-water.or.current.territories.all.million.improved.the.the..safe.drinking-water.meet.rate.progress.was.not.provide.For.672.. 5%.The.fact.not.in.page.target:. not on track:.projected.to.drinkingwater.purposes. Progress but insufficient:.not.drinking-water.rate.trend.equated.drinking-water.trend. no or insufficient data: includes.actual.drinking-WatEr: WorLd on track For Mdg targEt At.is..the. lobal.access. required.to. G sources.improved.was.water. improved.proportion.meet.between.exceed.still.required.addressed.meet.access.rate.rate.drinking-water.2008.or. Drinking-water: world is projected to reach the MDG target Figure 9.of .to.10%.so.available.halving..improved.the.that.but.sources.the.trends Figure 10.the.1990-2008.to.safe.to.target.of .1990-2008.decreasing.within.been.measuring.

sources.from.with.countries.progress.1.countries.of .that.reach.countries.have.between.in..the.access.despite.gained.countries..the.influence..3..alone. sanitation.of .drinking-water. Four out of 10 people gaining access in 1990-2008 to improved sanitation live in China and India Nearly half of world population gaining access to improved sources of drinking-water in 1990-2008 live in China and India 10 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate .31%). populous.on.Both.global.two.China.to. people.globally.drinking-water.1990.India.18%.population.to.made.475.together.of .Obviously..China.of .billion.compared.meet.sanitation.the.of . countries.47%.India.89%.cHaLLEngE: gLoBaL trEnd HEaViLY inFLuEncEd BY ProgrESS in LargE PoPuLouS countriES Global.the..the.home.the.these.two.and.facilities.2008.(from.that.dependent..the..and.million.the.performance.(from.than.on.are. track..almost.distributed.two. sources.significantly.progress.population.use..72%.target.between.In.share.countries.billion.3.55%).a.target...1990.of .2.the..is. equally.the.people.to.Therefore.world.estimates.38%.the.between. China.to. For..increase.This.a.fact.made considerable.population..1.2008. improved.in.two.population.account.a.1990.such.41%.people.gained.This.share.from.improved.India.using.access.large.and.as.India.and.of .in.sanitation.highly.access.and.MDG.88%..to.1.and.from.of .improved.up.use.ability.hinge..of .the.sanitation.of .67%.drinking-water.billion.for.improved.these.is.share..heavily.that.the.gained.In.1.proportion.these.to. trend.on..third..1990.to.the.is.the.in.more.not.access.the.8.in.use.to.is.China..world.even.billion.sources.in..

.

of .of . Trends.using.data. bodies.water.excreta.27%.are.improved.Africa.Sub-Saharan.SANITATION 2010 uPdate unimproved sanitation facilities: do.of . pit.of .solid..improved.25%.by.Latin.developed.all.sanitation.most.-.slab.than. P or.12 open defecation open defecation: when.open.hygienic.Western.and.using. different..available.pit.of .and.defecation.is.sewer.decreased.data.an.facilities.by.human.ensure.2008 improved improved sanitation facilities:.in.hanging.in.charts.defecation.open.of . Africa.population.for.and.sanitation..separate.between.use.or.of .are. human. o. roportion.the.not.and.(VIP).in.the.the.human.practices.assessed.and.sidebar..region.categorized.the.is..forests.five. Southern.still.the.in..defecation.facilities.the.SANITATION •.waste.Only..not.States.system -.2008.of .bushes.facility..to: -.less.public.improved. fields.an.tank -.of .of .latrines.in. faeces.in.America.worldwide.Southern. .latrine •.Africa..of .population.and..has.are.practised. otherwise. latrine •.acceptable..as.regions.seven.taking.regions. bucket.population.disaggregated.shared.that.only.for.the.the.the..respectively. IMPROVED.regions.or.be.1990.which.where.from..latrines.from.improved. Open.in.Asia.4%..separation.developing.insufficient.disposed.practises.in.disposed.human..the. piped.because.and.Commonwealth.contrast.MDG..all.In.defecation.or.and..separation.practised.latrines. other.the. pit.defecation.use.toilet The.in.Asia.open. Sanitation LaddEr: gLoBaL and rEgionaL trEndS Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water unimproved facilities UNIMPROVED..open.15%. Ventilated.easily.more.of .is.practice.latrine. shared shared sanitation facilities: Sanitation.Northern.not.with.facilities.developing.considered. shared.two.Asia.Independent.Oceania.beaches. Pit.can.population.the.provided.Sub-Saharan.declining..contact. excreta.the.view. ensure. Figure 11.use.a. .than..LADDER 1.now.and. less.improved.by. following.of . Open.. population.with.proportion.facilities.half .include. or.Eastern.the.of .sanitation. septic.type.only.of .to. are.by.1.open. hygienic..defecation.from.or. households. SANITATION.Caribbean. of .facilities.facilities. contact.are.of ..more.They.44%. Composting.spaces.. Unimproved.without. are.of .unimproved.17%.in.slab •.regions. platform.in.flush. N . sanitation.or.1990.widely.human.open.increasing.sanitation.and.population.shared.for.Asia.practising.the.In.regions..a.3%.or. Flush/pour.the.are.is.facilities:.

unimproved

drinking-WatEr LaddEr: gLoBaL and rEgionaL trEndS

UNIMPROVED.DRINkING-WATER Figure 12 . roportion.of .the.population.using.piped.drinking-water.on.premises,.other.improved.drinking-water. P source.or.an.unimproved.source,.by.MDG.region,.in.1990.and.2008

unimproved drinking-water sources: Unprotected.dug. well,.unprotected.spring,. cart.with.small.tank/drum,. surface.water.(river,.dam,.lake,. pond,.stream,.canal,.irrigation. channels),.and.bottled.water.

Today.87%.of .the.world’s.population,.a.total.of .5.9.billion.people.worldwide,.uses.drinking-water.from.improved. sources,.an.increase.of .1.8.billion.people.since.1990..About.3.8.billion.people.(57%.of .the.global.population).get. their.drinking-water.from.a.piped.connection.that.provides.running.water.into.their.dwelling,.plot.or.yard.

All.regions.of .the.world.have.succeeded.in.reducing.the.proportion.of .the.population.using.unimproved.sources.for. drinking-water..Progress.has.been.greatest.in.Eastern.Asia,.where.the.use.of .unimproved.sources.has.declined.by. 20.percentage.points.

other improved

All.regions.except.for.the.Commonwealth.of .Independent.States.have.seen.progress.in.the.use.of .piped.water.on. premises..Moreover,.the.rate.of .increase.in.the.use.of .piped.water.on.premises.has.been.faster.than.the.rate.of . progress.in.the.use.of .other.improved.drinking-water.sources,.in.all.regions.except.for.Sub-Saharan.Africa,.Southern. Asia.and.CIS.

other improved drinkingwater sources: Public.taps. or.standpipes,.tube.wells.or. boreholes,.protected.dug.wells,. protected.springs.or.rainwater. collection..

IMPROVED.DRINkING-WATER

Piped into dwelling, plot or yard

Piped water on premises: Piped.household.water. connection.located.inside.the. user’s.dwelling,.plot.or.yard.

DRINkING-WATER.LADDER

13

....sanitation. rban-rural.and.2008 Figure 15.Southern. opulation.between.sanitation.Seven.growth.in.people. U population.also.use.Africa...gaining.Asia.to.particularly.live.and. rban.Regions.rural. U in.2008 Major progress in the use of improved sanitation is undermined by population growth Figure 14.are.Latin.improved. Caribbean.in.population.use.Sanitation: urBan-ruraL diSParitiES The.sanitation. worldwide.of .is.ten.rural. .MDG. .the.facilities.&.striking.areas.sanitation.sanitation. disparity..and.without. worldwide.urban.overall.urban.. P compared.Sub-Saharan. Use of improved sanitation in urban areas is higher than in rural areas Seven out of 10 people without improved sanitation live in rural areas Figure 13.apparent.particularly.Disparities.low.at.in.rural.without.–.America.even..to.so.improved.is..improved.improved. improved.Oceania.of ..rural.out.areas.access.and.of . .31%.1990-2008 16 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate .

population.areas.higher.to..people..sanitation.improved..population.areas..of . improved.....facilities.significant..number.keep.the.percentage.disparities.of .Rural.Use..rural. struggling..better..live.and.though.and.continue..improved.access.urban.urban.in. to.urban..sanitation.than.improved.areas.people..in.urban.to.with.areas.who.have.up..However.2008 17 .areas.sanitation.of ..using..served.Use.improved.approximately..growth.the.sanitation.2008 Figure 17.are.in.urban.lower.between.areas.Of .64%..the.of .regard.a.without.a.are..of .areas..rural.during.the.Sanitation: urBan-ruraL diSParitiES There.1.in.1990-2008.gained..3.sanitation. Urban-rural disparities in the use of improved sanitation are significant in most developing countries Figure 16.rural.to.billion. period.

population. U drinking-water.drinking-WatEr: urBan-ruraL diSParitiES Worldwide. opulation.populations. sources.improved. U population.gaining..population.also.rural.the.84%.in.76%.of .is. .sources.of .high.of .regions.. improved.. worldwide.improved.at. rban.drinking-water.regions..94%.uses. Use of improved drinking-water sources in urban areas is almost double the use in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania 84% of the world population without an improved drinking-water source lives in rural areas Figure 18. worldwide.to..developing.and.drinking-water.gets.access. .of .. rban-Rural.population.urban.figure.corresponding.to.. P compared.without.2008 Increase in the use of improved drinking-water sources is barely keeping up with the urban population growth Figure 19. for..and.from.sources. of ..While.drinking-water.the.and.improved.growth.improved.2008 Figure 20.only.their.developing...it.urban.1990-2008 18 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate ..rural.uses.the.regions.sources.of .is.of .MDG. .87%.rural.

billion.in.live.but.areas..disparities.is.areas.1990-2008..to.also.with.in. Use.Latin.Sub-Saharan.2008 U Figure 22.source.2008 .Asia. visible.drinking-water. se.of ..and..urban.barely.areas.in..particularly.coverage.areas.gaining.drinking-WatEr: urBan-ruraL diSParitiES The.drinking-water.improved.America.in..keeping.is.over. urban.Africa.improved.the.of .The.urban-rural.improved..pace.areas.that.in.sources.an.rural.rural.increase.drinking-water.growth.8.are.in. 59%.are.urban.to.access.of ..almost.period.1.than.improved.times.Of . population.In.of .greater.drinking-water.five.striking.without.sources.in.. Urban-rural disparities are striking in Africa Figure 21 . 19 .access.however.in.population.the.people.urban.

.

.

in.urban.188. umber.Asia.defecation.from.fell.in.25.that..open. defecation.billion.all.declined.2008.decreased.in.to.world. .of .in.of .open.open..this.in.of .the..recorded.urban..1990.1 billion people that defecate in the open worldwide live in 10 countries The number of people practising open defecation increased in urban areas Figure 23 Distribution.population..oPEn dEFEcation 1.of .in.number.to.people.of .in..population.2008.A.from..population.rates..regions.million. defecation.In..was.areas.open..cent.in.practice.in.defecation.224.1990..defecation.but.17%.66%. rural.areas. .most..open..proportion.the.defecation.number. egional.of .a.majority.rapid. defecate.1 bIllIon people StIll defecate In the open By. However..growing.defecate.from.(million) Open defecation declined considerably in all developing regions Figure 24.one.to.in.people.in.practising.1.64%.the.to.far.increases.absolute.. 1990-2008 Figure 25.open. that.partly.the.open.increased.areas.Sub-Saharan.changes.and.rates.million. The..world.2008..in.rates.practise.is..population.almost.home.the. N practising.Southern.open.declining.by.by.great.defecation.in.open.open.the.1.25%..who.In.because.practising.in.urban.the.per.practises.the.44%.third. 1990.the.worldwide.. R 1990-2008 22 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate .rural.decline. 81% of 1.live.–. however. defecation.of .numbers.people.people.In.2008.population. ..Africa.

. .compared.1990. N sharing.unimproved.areas.million.rely.35%.despite.(31%).or.and. facilities.that.areas.SHarEd and uniMProVEd Sanitation FaciLitiES 751 mIllIon people Share theIr SanItatIon facIlItIeS Shared.the.the.Often.using..developing.facilities.particularly.in.Sharing.of .1990-2008 a tenth of the world populatIon uSeS unImproved SanItatIon facIlItIeS Unimproved.is. U countries. .shared. .are.or.the. . although.monitoring.of .than.a.risen.MDG. Use of unimproved sanitation facilities is much higher in rural areas than in the urban areas. .to.Those.or.sanitation.regions.prevalent.MDG.on... .unimproved.excreta. 23%.areas.private. facilities.use.This.as.and.worldwide.in.people.existing.otherwise.is. 70 56 51 47 44 44 42 42 40 38 36 35 .sanitation.Leone Bolivia Togo Malawi Guinea Zimbabwe Nigeria Gabon Lesotho Figure 26.disparities. to.urban.populated.households.254.more. ..497.construct..the.defined..to. .space.4%. .more.rural..in.various. rban.1990..to.either.facilities.in.sanitation.urban.2008. . in.In.are. urban.sanitation.facility.2008..of .areas.for.decrease.of . Globally.facilities.prevent.shared. .facilities.ways. use.urban.rural.in.in.areas.and.shared.where.of .20%.use.people.areas.numbers. facilities.a. Sub-Saharan. uSe of Shared SanItatIon.of . .may.areas. .improved.people.more.proportion.facilities. rural.as.sufficient.the.doubled. .sanitation. .shared.public.almost.in.in. between.2008 23 .do.in.of .to.urban. facilities.rural.and.of .is.million. .million.in. representing..sanitation.have. human.Among. unsatisfactory.most.sanitation.. . . .have.densely.terms.not.common.type.Africa.urban.urban.be.public.in.contact.with.in.of ..improved.now.facilities.is. population.in.from.purposes.the.health. . different. rural..regions. areas.in..increase..are...with.used..for..fourfold. 2008 (%) urban rural total .public.shared.of . upgraded.areas.an.or.Ghana. .249.areas.the.sanitation.rate.regions.sanitation.in. million.the. Figure 27 Urban-rural.unimproved.is. umber. Shared sanitation increased almost two fold but remains considerably higher among urban users table 1.in.total. 38 22 18 18 16 6 24 6 15 14 25 3 54 26 25 29 34 22 27 18 24 26 34 11 country Ghana Uganda kenya Sierra.most.and.two. sanitation. 145.that.facilities. facilities. .using.rural.shared.urban. .

population.of .as.2008.likely.improved. roofs.from.while.censuses. free from flies and maggots.or.Chinese.large.the..the.MDG.considerable..and.uses.or.substantial.of ..sanitation.to.sanitation.1991.dry. for.the.that.significant.of .gradually...as.sanitation.shallow.that.facilities.authorities.especially.68%.distinguish.China.Chinese.has.when..harmless..The.a.25%..type.large.the.household.latrines.and. 24 .this.China.on.a.defined.meet..the.an.separates.has.surveys.to.criteria.improved.rural.types.of .84%.the.covered.challenge: are Shallow-pItS and dry-latrIneS Improved or not? Classifying..facilities.in.improved.2008.it. Chinese.contact.facilities.survey.and.a.criteria..type.sanitary.global.dry..facility. could.sanitary.in.by.the.for.challenge. proportion.proportion.national.the.waste. by.of .human.Sanitary.“improved”.non-covered..facilities.impact.However..for.without.used.either.surveys..improved..with.sanitation.different.improved.impact.areas.proportion.facility.latrines.of .national.pit.it.fact. seepage-free and leakage free storage tanks..hygienically.these.covered.latrine.an.meet.facility. concerns.could.number.access.Though.by.the.specific.on.. about.they.facility.population.Sanitation.impact.human.increased.rates.country.do.be.as.a.of .in. and in which faeces are collected in a timely manner and are treated so as to be harmless.or.meet.the.is.large.estimates.data.sanitary.or.an.JMP .When.to.sanitation.of .these.an.latrine.and.classify.criteria. to.as. with a clean latrine room.information.of .some. According. from.uses.latrines.be. are.sanitary.challenge.that.that.as.unimproved.the.facility.for.use.such.both.different.toilet.the.another.to. odourless.to.rural.decreased.labelled.latrines.them.is.pit.ongoing.The.a.not.sanitation.in.the.a.Authority.pit.by.has. furnished with airtight covers.population.on. “unimproved”.access.types.without.gradually.MDG.those structures which have walls.been.census. is.a.the. people.these.has.of ..

on.household.sources.sources..73%. urban.access.billion..relying.three.population.growth.worldwide.population.improved.1990-2008 Figure 29.access. worldwide.drinking-water.on. C piped.connection.than.piped..only.Eastern. In.uses..regions..of ..by. by.of .improved.rural.73.of .and.a.sources.in.people.areas.&.Caribbean.water.of .while.the.the.35%.Africa..of .gaining.of .actually.other.than..regions.times. in.Africa..premises.and.supplies.million.Sub-Saharan.piped.Sub-Saharan.piped.household.connections.In.times.was..Northern. water.to.America.improved.Sub-Saharan.6.that.the.a.in. the..In.piped..premises.Northern.piped.it.on.Africa.urban. Caribbean.Asia.to. .Latin.&.of .premises.on.to.number.respectively..to.or.This.the.14.to.167.access.with.South.2008.to.population.other.was.other.piped.use.more.household.region.Eastern.5%.million.in.to. premises.gained.contrast.population.population.from..piped..access.5.the.gained.MDG.the.61.those.population.improved.million.Africa.PiPEd WatEr on PrEMiSES and otHEr iMProVEd SourcES oF drinking-WatEr InveStmentS In pIped connectIonS on premISeS drIve progreSS In moSt regIonS Between.Asia.progress.result.developing.using.dwellers. In.only... U population.and.twice.in.million.3.. higher.2008 25 .more.connections.In.other.on.water.growth.getting.of .premises.inhabitants.than.urban.their.Since.Africa.declined.rural.. higher..connection.connection. 31%. hange. people.gained. In. Growth in piped connections on premises is twice as high as the growth in other improved drinking-water sources Urban use of piped water on premises is more than double rural use Figure 28.on.access.gets.on.from.The.in..sources..in.Asia.510.drinking-water.a.is.piped.rural.water.1990.piped.water.the.1.1990.2.and.premises..in.exclusively.America.million.have.increases.million. rban. and.was.Latin.premises. ..

.

.

those.improvements. M 2005-2008.Haller.30.Geneva.Domestic.than.and.Health. 3.and.are.Organization..and. using. H .an. Organization..of .various. 4.the. Geneva.drinking-water. over..round. ercentage..that.having. Africa.2004.countries.Africa4.or.Bartram.World.half ..most.Health.notably..water.meet.G.L.analysis..less.World.hour.their.four. collection.. collect. . H .from.countries.MICS.years.an.multiple...population.of .G. spends.enormous..has.trips.Quantity.from. source.the.collect.sanitation.Yemen.or.half .in.population.and.than..arid.needs.Water.in. oward. roportion.to. per.2003.unimproved.more.. In.water. utton.Evaluations of the costs and benefits of water and sanitation improvements at the global level.3 More than a quarter of the population in several countries of Sub-Saharan Africa takes longer than 30 minutes to make one water collection round trip An.less..level.Health.trip.G.hour.make..Geneva.an. one third of the improved drinkingwater sources that are not piped on premises need a collection time of more than 30 minutes.Organization.countries... water..to.Bartram.of .shown.Africa.well.surveys.surveys.spending. Figure 31.the.benefits.source. progressively.that.DHS.DHS.the.that.and.to.minutes.more.to.as. P spending.Haller.of .of ..round.or.most.minutes..than.than.water.round.trip.in. In many African countries.Sub-Saharan.World.such.eventually.half .Mongolia. service level and H health.to. drinking-water.trip..G. utton. .water.are...Level. H Organization. Figure 30 .than.water.and.L.a.a.global.shows.daily. outside.and.Sub-Saharan.improved. 2. prevalent.of .2004 2.minimum.collect.quarter.the.population.tiME dEFEcation oPEnto coLLEct drinking-WatEr Research.Service.over.of . oward.collect.Health....2.costs.the.per. . ICS.from.Evaluations.costs. more.as.an.30.Africa 28 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate .Eastern..hour.of .and.at.conducted.Health.as.Additionally.hour.2003 collection.. P more.economic.on.trips..per.Domestic water quantity.an.water.half . 3.24.J.and.of .in.families’.an.past.more.fail.Geneva..day. .Africa.spends.J.World.

it.12%.responsibility.surveys.responsibility.drinking-water.two..usually.under.who.to.collect.the.usually. ICS.case.of .collection.age.this. many.is.without.premises.main.with.higher.age.who. from.the.of .–.source.those. men. while.go..from.collecting.to.drinking-water. girls.DHS.the.of .make.children.as.The.water.and.. of .twice.45.women.in.a.. on. M .developing.water.the.in.not.thirds.because.15.Surveys.households. likely.however.–.years.source.. 29 .2005-2008.the.. roundtrips.usually.children.15.the.real.though. person.4 Women shoulder the largest burden in collecting drinking-water Figure 32..burden.in. istribution.is.show.is.shared.to.quarter.households.that.. under.coLLEction oF drinking-WatEr: gEndEr diSParitiES For.being.responsible.who.families.of .collect. to.this. D drinking-water 5.water.water. is.developing..as. .collect.children.In.countries5.the. on.for.45..boys.it.burden.often. is.several.the..almost.almost.and.carry.countries.of .a.. main.households.be.carry.carrying.years.households.likely.

.benefits.from. is.is.. .is.likely.richest. around.use.richest. practise.and.20...Sub-Saharan.even.using.improved. quintile.times. times.use.than.SocioEconoMic diSParitiES: SuB-SaHaran aFrica The.poorest.Africa.as. M .likely.unimproved.among.quintile.6.than.than.in.of .more.an.by.population.unimproved.as.Still. the.wealthiest. Sub-Saharan.Africa.open.the.Sub-Saharan.in. sanitation.Africa 6. poorest...the.of . open.practises. roportion.or.richest.other. of .the.improved.more.33.4%. open.premises.drinking-water.five.sanitation.to.to.water. P piped.facility. ICS. The. Africa The richest quintile is more than twice as likely than the poorest quintile to use improved drinking-water Figure 34. in. roportion.only.2004-2009..the. drinking-water.surveys.The. The poorest quintile is 16 times more likely than the richest quintile to practise open defecation Figure 33.quintile.on.on.an.the.improved..source.Sub-Saharan.20%.improved. enjoyed.poorest.quintile.quintile. population.likely.defecation.countries.by.wealth.practicing.by.%..population..of .defecation.premises.the.an.The.to.Sub-Saharan.facility.population.DHS.as..or.or.are.of .wealth. P shared.quintile.twice.Africa.source.an.drinking-water.piped.using.almost.defecation.the. 30 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate .. richest.16.quintile.the. source.

“safe”.cHaLLEngE: MEaSuring WatEr quaLitY The.and.and.third. Any.refers.definitions.measurement.to.certain.at.randomly.be.for.of .the. microbial. Pilot survey: rapid assessment of drinking-water quality (RADWQ) Drinking-water.contamination.come..have.target.it.measuring.and.on.to. global.to.water.pilot.estimated.implement.country. of .be.to.the. monitored.pilot.drinking-water.Water. 31 .established.Drinking-water quality guidelines provides.the.in.or. in.E.cost.provide.and.system.the.the.2015.sanitary. along.quality.adapt.quality.out.improved.have.as.The.tested.manner.close.level?.and. using.quality..considered. at.needed.feature.(see.for.new.Tajikistan).viable.each. Plans.On.of .how.also.option.of .supplies.be.90%.safety. concepts. guidelines.JMP. needed.managing. own.using.below).for.thermotolerant.advances.access.global.safe.of .between.Field.to.in.the.selected. task.what..with. The.ensuring.sources.to.and. and. In. sustainable. (Bangladesh.to.(RADWQ).(Geneva.be. the.water..quality.assessment.tools.such.other.large.pilot.. beset.microbiological.drinking-water. a.countries.such.method.in.microbiological.there.study.between.the.at.of . frameworks.Jordan.already. measured.water.new.economically..target.. notwithstanding.developed.of .number.risk.Apart.will.standard.reporting.could.drinking-water.and.using.in..countries.the.quality..microbial.past.the.MDG.will..Safety.with.drinking-water.rapid.directly.edition.kits.contexts.and.cost-effective.to.WHO.development..needed.do.household. a.forthcoming).JMP.level.questions..not.survey.in.in.has.drinking-water.It.carried.RADWQ..and.be.a.WHO. indicators.Nicaragua.for. for.quality.of .of .drinkingwater.would.and.160.surveys?.to.rapid.question..or.drinking-water.the.survey.are. opportunity. What.people.the.country.reliable.risk.1600.and. To.which.Ethiopia.chemical.logistical.been.testing.as..demonstrated.safety.a.evaluate.scale.on.also.safe.chemical.from.World.piped. and.measurement.testing.quality. that.basic.addressed.and.and.with.safety.access..final.and. them.chemical.for.a.of .for.values.quality. The.of .water.been.to.assessment.need.These.be.are. (RADWQ)..households.a..and..What.China.improved.of .Technological..indicators.countries.of .countries.safety.the.India.Organization.of .water.capacity. test. and.globally?.assist.project.meaningful.emphasis.have..many.guideline.. safe.sanitation. the. cheap.a.locally.beyond.used..assessing.of .situation.integrated. a.meaningful.water.measuring.compliance.But.some. of .by.force.the.and.reliable.to.rapid.The.on. How.guidelines.40%.their.measurements.were.for.to.of . does.periodic.. Microbiological.apply.will...socioeconomic. allows.and.incremental.from.access.the.to.UNICEF.which..decision-makers.but.innovative.WHO. assessment.of .technical.the.How.a.UNICEF .technical. to.sources.70%.indicators..be.in.based.sample.single-point.has.decade..a..risks.sanitation. address.a.resources.eight.away.and. from.if . water.Nigeria.have.showed.cost:. risks.way.is.would.a.was.to.quality. provided.of .households.average.be.of . cost-effective.water.is.and.countries.out.water. to.UNICEF.was..specific.methods.assessment.set.coli.sustainable.will.and.by.RADWQ.to.can.hazards.to.. the.independently.method..water..meets.the.water.water.Within.compliance. Source:.survey.world?. be.by.sources.developed. was.regulatory.with.that.efforts.weaknesses. and.values.management.coliforms.the.Health.rapid. This.method.rapid.study.research.level.date.improving.feasibility.reports.assess..up..and. quality.used.to.context?.to..a. carry.indicators.appraise.process.for.difficulties..WHO.high.affordability.varied.mean?.standards..the.shifts.

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are.these..on.the.sanitation.and.case-by-.source.of .within.available.facilities.the.the.may.one.reported.developed.basis. drinking-water.to.2008.the.come.because.of .is.improved.defined.Commonwealth. JMP.based.Network.JMP.MDG.used.of . lake.database.widely.nature.in.not..contact.relies.to.an.Censuses.no. report.countries.drinking-water..countries.revision.and.urban.is. An.datasets.a.from.access.for..the.categories.is.318. complement.used. bush or field IMPROVED DRINkING-WATER use of the following sources: • • • • • • Piped water into dwelling.with.that.categories.census.7c.classified.report.areas). database. Currently..by.population. •.United. drinking-water. the.time.those.sustainable.sanitation. .sources..from. data collectIon: gatherIng momentum The.reliable.facilities.MDG.without.sanitation.JMP MEtHod ExPLainEd defInIng acceSS to SanItatIon and drInkIng-water MDG.estimated.improved.and.has.surveys.administratively.the.grown.is.developed.level.the.this.use.basic. and.used.one.for.has.the.on.reports.(IHSN).a. not to piped sewer system.database. first.In.many..countries.from.and.the.to.a. as.directly.estimates..The.developing. global.longer.largely.human.information.water.collect. each..in. to.Almost.Survey.comparable.developed.report.supplied.safe..the.data.time.water.national.(including. septic tank or pit latrine) • Pit latrine without slab/open pit • Bucket • Hanging toilet or hanging latrine IMPROVED SANITATION shared facilities of any type no facilities.more.facility.and.is.the.the..people.Independent.than.729.lesser..improved.sources..when.JMP.JMP.. proportion. •.protects.estimates.the.differ.source.that.uses.of . set.and.the.national. JMP.300.for.used.of .personal.and.been.by..only.cooking..improved.for.water. countries.of .can.drinking-water.currently includes. estimates.data.household.may.hygienically.sanitation.An.separates.by..adequately.and.that.mandated.are.information.are...faecal.more.these.to.on. irrigation channel) • Bottled water7 These.for.to.estimate.the..report. contamination.facility.to.a.its.drinking-water.vary.revised.construction.rural.global.and. JMP.those.proportion. Since.by.is.from.and.offer.for.to...152.from.Population.among..sanitation. of .population. use of the following facilities: • Flush or pour-flush to: • piped sewer system • septic tank • pit latrine • Ventilated improved pit (ViP) latrine • Pit latrine with slab • Composting toilet use of the following facilities: UNIMPROVED SANITATION UNIMPROVED DRINkING-WATER • Flush or pour-flush to elsewhere (that is.report.and. sanitation.Estimates.to.by.estimates.to.is.across. 7.to.human..added.matter.urban. B hygiene.estimates.living.definitions.at.and.reported.proportion.and.Division.report. proportion.population.used.from.JMP. a.be.JMP.the.and.administratively..excreta.of . Since.. stream.particular.to..includes.household.number.countries. rural.in.the.to.able.trends.The.which. canal.has.“improved”.sanitation.JMP.Because.urban. dam.safe..on. 2010 uPdate 34 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water .order.where.data.“unimproved”.States.from.outside. basic.halve.improved.from.using.regions.source.of .countries.2008.Nations.using. drinking-water..International.nationally.this.with.this.in.data. provided. required.and.household. picture. Also.2015.Household.are.Of ..to.considered. access.sanitation.bottled.improved.are.and.first.the. yard or plot Public tap or standpipe tubewell or borehole Protected dug well Protected spring rainwater collection use of the following sources: • • • • • unprotected dug well unprotected spring Cart with small tank or drum tanker truck surface water (river.on.rural.JMP.extent.Target.regions. ottled.JMP.drinking-water.basic.access.has.population.and.water.two.therefore.national. all.to.been..the.governments.calls.of .all..source.in.indicators:. pond.representative.data.from.an. Because.is. differ.estimates..database.surveys.record...a.improved.and.an. analyse.not.100. safe.case.

if .from.is..progress.method.each.an.view. population.but.exercise..to.basic..as.proportion.sanitation.most.is.that.comparable.come.are.trend. from.baseline.of .and.improved.recalculating.this..(proportion.country.a.has.JMP MEtHod ExPLainEd derIvIng mdg progreSS eStImateS For..estimates..the.the.as. piped.the.country.a. these.ratio.drinking-water.data. improved.sanitation.the.drinking-water.the. current.data. weighted.improved.the. estimates.an.all.sanitation.surveys. sanitation. facility between two or more households) derived.for.to.time.report.. The.are.out.respectively.new.may.a.data.was.and..The.of .Consequently.successive.1990.is.of .The.trends.access.not..presents.most.average.next.halved.the.progress.method.the. from.methodological.each.first.as.the.and.values.affect.indicator.the..of .shared..of ..JMP. population. 35 .year.of .This.facilities.in.through.also.2015.one. subsequently.plot.carried.the. are.and..year.improved.accurate.The.monitors.census.access.for.level.of .. Drinking-water.facilities.the.and.plotted..JMP.using.The.provide.should.of .available.improved.available.gather.an.the.to. sanitation. level.2000.urban.the.possible.linear.the.baseline.target.population.following.1990.the..discounted.not.reports.picture.at..the.for.the.(wherever.detailed. The.A.trend.on.the.to.However.be.takes.2008.estimates.the.monitoring.earlier.for.for.from.year.is.1995.analysis.report.number.improved.rural.total.2005. the.MDG.in.To. 1990.each.to.by.and.year. projections.the.of ..yard.at.report..available.facility.of .country.ratios.least-squares. have.new.standpoint..household.for. Challenge: dealing with a moving baseline The..increasing.categories:.From.estimates.defecation.made.disadvantage.and.based. open.into.proportion.presented.and.the.line. JMP.target..population.. sanitation.on. and.safe.present.estimated.an...baseline. the.2015.data.that.more.available.proportion.trend.recent.access.situation.improved.years.gives.the. Sanitation.for. become.that.the.shares.survey. estimating.are.of .without.drinking-water.that.water.data. each..advantage.dwelling.this.people.the.using. sanitation..timescale..momentum.target.trend.is.facilities.since.these.of .light.in.using.sets.estimates.and...the..accurate.for.report.on.or.of .data.for.from..MDG.of . possible).the.to.average.censuses.estimates.facility.concept.continued.and. made.to.estimates.capture.shared.of .and.to.as.at.measurable.basis.means..that.source.1980.drawn. as.facilities. are.sanitation.sources.subtracted.–.the. numbers.improved.estimates.1990.this.by.sources.the.analyses.the.be.estimates.type.all.points..of .that.only. an.

line-ministries.collaboration. household.line-ministries. coverage.those.the.(see.cHaLLEngE: coMParing and rEconciLing diFFErEnt countrY EStiMatES At.there.is.pilot.different.for.possible.past.for..the..and.members. monitoring.important. observed. across. reduced?.What..definitions.at.are.be.and.a.drinking-water.it.NSOs.same.is.national.drinking-water.the. While.once. encourage.for.monitor. 36 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate .NSOs.on.usually.of .data.are.be.a.has.census.area. however..differences.process.sanitation.no.the. reasons.the.sanitation.small.on. Once.a.be.the. results.of .these.understanding. surveys.other.responsible. service.the.The.differences. aligning.origin.drinking-water..carry.national.often..In.worked.track.Efforts.such.and.their.ensure. sanitation.this.better. comparability.every.facilities.often.sanitation.definitions.connections.level.sanitation. may.may.may.household.sanitation.definitions.own.not. definitions.national.responsible.of .in.the.of .the.supply.each.definitions.approaches?. institutions.. the.access.sources.the. sanitation.data.objective. alignment.fitted.also.to.rural.is.JMP.in.and.agencies. be.at.presented.framework? This.mandate. to..national.collaborating.years.Understanding.institutional..JMP. service.by..in.to.or.. as.is.use.be.on.to: •.page.and. However..various. discrepancies.and.make. fragmentation.has.for.harmonized?.two.use.and.agencies.the.urban. explore.MDG.34).between.level.actual.of .by.of .. these.of ..definitions. conducted.access.greater..may.been.countries.sanitation.and.and.enlightening.Office.and.outputs.be..process.can.censuses.two.of .of .nationally. •.these.Statistics.a.national.comparing.JMP.used.with.and.of .are.MDG.The.often. household.sanitation.procedures.may. dIfferent actorS meaSurIng dIfferent aSpectS At.of .differences..national.the. progress. monitoring?.tend.to.turn.based.or.line.be.of .different.the.and..barriers. countries.reconcile. reconcIlIng Jmp and country eStImateS Over.processes.years.harmonizing.sectoral. in.pursue.institutions.issue.is. is.measure.to..estimates.service.all.data.organizations.who.to..into.for.common. .have.their.between.these.facilities.The.Is.a.and.collaboration.usually.common. agencies.monitoring.by.to. drinking-water.in.JMP.provided.common.among.and. true. supply.with.based.order..on.so.different.surveys.of .estimates.and.national. facilities.on.numbers.lies.approaches.key. of .countries.among. uSIng dIfferent defInItIonS of acceSS NSOs.use.longer.and. over.within.for.level.. drinking-water. number.JMP..responsibility.ministries.. different.Can.align.by.provision.line-ministries.different.discrepancies.difference. methods.of . correspond.countries.and.the. country-based.This.may. •.used.the.coverage.addressed.not. promising.level..of .and.measure.between.largely.monitoring.at.The.representative.number.targets.coverage. improved.understanding.and..municipal..countries.NSOs.number..often.MDG. operational.of .reconciliation.and.with.have. compare.and.sector. use. .are.countries.different. methods.level.be.to.be.Responsibilities.Ultimately.on.simply.estimates. JMP . the. has.rates.facilities.of .definitions.clarified.the.progress.task.out.own. mechanisms.At. nature...recorded.standard.Can.figures.JMP.Where.national.the.monitoring.the.rely.these. to.first..actual.monitoring.relies. national.for. different.for.it.definitions.from.used.is.can.advanced. how coverage IS meaSured for mdg monItorIng Since.bodies. drinking-water.the.drinking-water.MDG.overall. capacity..the.overcome.the. to.challenge.it.and.possible.by.national. apply.individual.is. develop.taken.drinking-water.water.(NSO).a.all.by.National.differ.definitions.JMP’s.are.data..between. country.in.is.therefore.the..it.. with.possibility.to.JMP.approaches. Often.past.of .the.provision.or.to.able..may.of .and/or.access.national.country..

.

area or territory open defecation – open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites – 10 406 – albania – 2010 uPdate algeria 4 764 andorra 32 32 angola 7 606 5 172 anguilla 6 – antigua and Barbuda – 6 647 – argentina 8 139 armenia – – aruba – 42 australia 3 983 3 983 austria 667 667 azerbaijan – 1 936 Bahamas 82 – Bahrain 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 – 12 580 20 536 27 208 3 289 3 068 3 143 25 283 30 506 34 373 53 66 84 10 661 14 280 18 021 8 11 15 62 77 87 32 498 36 939 39 883 3 545 3 076 3 077 63 91 105 17 091 19 171 21 074 7 671 8 005 8 337 7 212 8 121 8 731 256 305 338 493 650 776 18 21 24 36 42 47 52 60 65 95 92 90 37 49 57 100 100 100 35 37 43 87 90 92 67 65 64 50 47 47 85 87 89 66 66 67 54 51 52 80 82 84 88 88 89 – 46 60 – 97 98 99 99 98 100 100 100 58 70 86 99 99 99 98 98 98 93 92 91 95 95 95 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 63 51 100 100 100 100 100 100 – – – – 2 2 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4 4 4 – – – – – – – – – – 8 6 – – – – – – – 43 38 – 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 7 10 13 1 1 1 2 2 2 7 8 9 1 1 1 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 29 41 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 11 2 – – – 0 1 1 0 0 0 35 20 1 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 28 30 – 85 98 77 82 88 100 100 100 6 11 18 NA NA NA – 94 – 73 77 77 – 77 80 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 24 39 100 100 100 – – – – – – – 1 1 – – – – – – – – – NA NA NA – – – – – – – 3 3 – – – – – – – – – – 1 1 – – – – – – – 40 50 – 14 1 8 4 2 0 0 0 17 22 29 NA NA NA – 6 – 27 23 23 – 20 17 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 75 48 0 0 0 – – – – 32 20 – – – 15 14 10 0 0 0 77 67 53 NA NA NA – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 12 0 0 0 – – – – 32 37 – 90 98 88 92 95 100 100 100 25 40 57 99 99 99 – 95 – 90 91 90 – 89 90 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 44 45 100 100 100 – – – – – – – 1 1 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4 4 – – – – – – – – – – 5 4 – – – – – – – 40 47 – 9 1 5 2 1 0 0 0 14 16 20 1 1 1 – 5 – 10 9 10 – 7 6 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 51 44 0 0 0 – – – – 28 16 – – – 7 6 4 0 0 0 61 44 23 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 7 0 0 0 – – – – 36 78 100 100 96 100 93 85 100 100 100 30 43 60 – 60 – 95 95 95 97 98 98 99 99 98 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 88 88 88 98 98 98 100 100 100 – 10 16 98 97 91 87 84 80 100 100 100 1 12 34 – 45 – – 73 – 76 81 83 96 96 97 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 67 72 78 – 69 – 100 100 100 – 26 62 2 3 5 13 9 5 0 0 0 29 31 26 – 15 – – 22 – 21 17 15 3 3 1 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 21 16 10 – 29 – 0 0 0 – 64 22 0 0 4 0 7 15 0 0 0 70 57 40 – 40 – 5 5 5 3 2 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 12 12 2 2 2 0 0 0 – 17 39 – 95 98 88 84 79 100 100 100 40 40 38 NA NA NA – 89 – 72 78 80 – 83 93 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 49 59 71 – 86 – – – – – 0 0 – 43 82 48 52 56 – – – 0 1 1 NA NA NA – 82 – 22 39 45 59 64 70 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 17 18 20 – 80 – – – – – 17 39 – 52 16 40 32 23 – – – 40 39 37 NA NA NA – 7 – 50 39 35 – 19 23 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 32 41 51 – 6 – – – – – 83 61 – 5 2 12 16 21 0 0 0 60 60 62 NA NA NA – 11 – 28 22 20 – 17 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 51 41 29 – 14 – – – – – 21 48 – 97 97 94 89 83 100 100 100 36 41 50 – 60 – – 91 – 94 96 97 – 93 96 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 74 80 – 96 – – – – – 2 4 – 66 86 68 71 72 – – – 0 6 20 – 45 – – 79 – 69 77 80 84 85 87 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 44 46 50 – 71 – – – – – 19 44 – 31 11 26 18 11 – – – 36 35 30 – 15 – – 12 – 25 19 17 – 8 9 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 26 28 30 – 25 – – – – – 79 52 – 3 3 6 11 17 0 0 0 64 59 50 – 40 – – 9 – 6 4 3 – 7 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 26 20 – 4 – – – – – .Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water: CountrY estimates For 1990. 2000 and 2008 use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total 38 use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water afghanistan Country.

use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Country. area or territory open defecation 39 704 na* – 657 open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites 130 800 – 1 156 – 666 50 374 6 – na* 7 12 15 0 0 0 – 1 1 0 0 0 17 8 0 15 13 11 – 9 9 2 10 16 – 2 1 25 21 18 15 12 10 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 42 41 39 1 147 7 5 3 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 5 2 0 51 40 31 – 4 4 31 17 6 – 0 0 12 6 1 4 4 3 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 13 10 8 34 43 52 100 100 100 – 96 97 100 100 100 75 81 86 1 3 4 – 54 54 6 8 9 – 93 92 20 31 39 35 36 37 100 100 100 – – – 98 100 100 2 4 6 16 20 24 – – – – 2 2 – – – 6 6 7 1 6 10 – – – 10 14 16 – 1 1 6 8 11 – – – – – – – – – – – – 2 5 7 10 13 16 0 0 0 – 2 1 0 0 0 7 6 5 3 4 6 – 35 35 4 15 25 – 5 7 21 16 12 25 30 33 0 0 0 – – – 2 0 0 6 8 10 40 24 8 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 12 7 2 95 87 80 – 11 11 80 63 50 – 1 0 53 45 38 40 34 30 0 0 0 – – – – 0 0 90 83 77 39 46 53 100 100 100 – 93 93 100 100 100 74 82 90 5 9 12 – 62 65 19 23 25 – 95 95 36 50 60 69 75 80 100 100 100 – – – 99 100 100 6 8 11 18 21 25 – – – – 6 6 – – – 6 6 7 8 14 20 – – – 26 31 34 – 1 1 6 7 9 – – – – – – – – – – – – 4 7 10 10 13 15 0 0 0 – 1 1 0 0 0 11 7 2 7 8 8 – 29 26 2 11 20 – 3 4 22 19 15 18 15 13 0 0 0 – – – 1 0 0 11 14 15 33 20 7 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 9 5 1 80 69 60 – 9 9 53 35 21 – 1 0 36 24 16 13 10 7 0 0 0 – – – – 0 0 79 71 64 88 86 85 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 89 95 99 72 78 84 – 99 99 92 94 96 – 99 100 100 99 99 96 97 99 98 98 98 – – – 100 100 100 73 85 95 28 26 24 98 100 100 – 89 95 100 100 100 77 82 87 19 23 26 – 81 81 78 87 93 – 96 94 39 61 80 92 95 96 97 97 97 – – – 96 96 96 12 17 21 60 60 61 2 0 0 – 11 5 0 0 0 12 13 12 53 55 58 – 18 18 14 7 3 – 3 6 61 38 19 4 2 3 1 1 1 – – – 4 4 4 61 68 74 12 14 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 5 1 28 22 16 – 1 1 8 6 4 – 1 0 0 1 1 4 3 1 2 2 2 – – – 0 0 0 27 15 5 76 77 78 100 100 100 99 99 99 100 100 100 63 83 100 47 59 69 – 88 88 42 56 67 – 96 98 88 89 90 65 75 84 98 98 98 – – – 99 100 100 36 55 72 0 0 0 – – – – 30 72 96 99 100 20 42 61 0 2 2 – 45 45 14 33 47 – 77 71 13 25 35 35 50 62 97 97 97 – – – 72 72 – 0 0 0 76 77 78 – – – – 69 27 4 1 0 43 41 39 47 57 67 – 43 43 28 23 20 – 19 27 75 64 55 30 25 22 1 1 1 – – – 27 28 – 36 55 72 24 23 22 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 37 17 0 53 41 31 – 12 12 58 44 33 – 4 2 12 11 10 35 25 16 2 2 2 – – – 1 0 0 64 45 28 78 79 80 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 75 89 99 56 66 75 – 91 92 70 79 86 – 97 99 93 94 95 88 93 97 98 98 98 – – – 100 100 100 41 60 76 6 6 6 – – – – 71 89 100 100 100 47 61 74 7 10 12 – 54 57 50 66 77 – 85 82 24 44 62 78 87 91 97 97 97 – – – 88 89 – 2 3 4 72 73 74 – – – – 28 11 0 0 0 28 28 25 49 56 63 – 37 35 20 13 9 – 12 17 69 50 33 10 6 6 1 1 1 – – – 12 11 – 39 57 72 22 21 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 11 1 44 34 25 – 9 8 30 21 14 – 3 1 7 6 5 12 7 3 2 2 2 – – – 0 0 0 59 40 24 37 807 na* na* 657 Belize 155 Benin 3 811 Bhutan – Bolivia (Plurinational state of) 3 668 Bosnia and Herzegovina – Botswana 568 Brazil 54 590 British Virgin islands 6 Brunei darussalam – Bulgaria na* Burkina Faso 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 115 632 140 767 160 000 260 252 255 10 260 10 054 9 679 9 933 10 193 10 590 190 252 301 4 795 6 659 8 662 549 561 687 6 671 8 317 9 694 4 308 3 694 3 773 1 352 1 723 1 921 149 570 174 174 191 972 17 21 23 257 333 392 8 819 8 006 7 593 8 814 11 676 15 234 20 24 27 33 36 40 66 70 73 96 97 97 47 48 52 34 38 41 16 25 35 56 62 66 39 43 47 42 53 60 75 81 86 50 57 61 66 71 75 66 69 71 14 17 20 59 57 56 100 100 100 – 91 91 100 100 100 73 84 93 14 19 24 – 87 87 29 32 34 – 98 99 58 67 74 81 84 87 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 28 31 33 27 26 26 – – – – 8 8 – – – 5 6 7 20 28 34 – – – 38 41 44 – 0 0 5 6 7 – – – – – – – – – – – – 17 18 20 7 964 39 .

area or territory open defecation 1 214 3 351 3 222 open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites 5 558 – 28 1 153 616 5 052 267 319 10 730 163 40 33 27 9 6 2 13 20 26 0 0 0 – 1 2 4 4 4 57 44 30 38 40 42 4 2 1 24 12 6 2 4 2 64 56 46 – 36 36 – 9 – – 1 0 – – 0 96 100 100 – – – 4 0 0 – 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 99 100 0 91 – 99 99 98 – – – – – – 1 1 2 87 87 – – – – – – – 1 1 2 48 37 22 2 1 1 0 0 0 – 35 33 – – – 10 6 3 26 20 16 5 2 1 3 5 6 4 2 2 0 0 1 – 2 2 44 45 46 5 10 18 35 35 35 99 99 99 – 24 38 NA NA NA 5 16 28 2 3 4 48 71 83 38 46 52 43 50 55 11 23 30 – 29 29 4 4 4 1 2 4 8 8 8 – – – – – – NA NA NA 2 8 14 2 4 5 – – – 6 7 8 4 5 5 1 2 2 – 16 16 49 49 49 5 6 3 36 42 47 1 1 1 – 2 6 NA NA NA 44 36 27 3 6 8 45 25 15 47 41 38 11 15 18 86 74 68 – 37 37 3 2 1 89 82 75 21 15 10 – – – – 74 56 NA NA NA 49 40 31 93 87 83 7 4 2 9 6 2 42 30 22 2 1 0 – 18 18 44 45 46 9 17 29 47 47 47 100 100 100 – 45 54 96 96 96 11 22 34 6 7 9 84 92 96 41 49 55 68 72 74 17 28 36 – 30 30 5 5 6 2 3 5 13 13 13 – – – – – – – – – 6 12 18 5 7 9 – – – 11 15 17 11 11 12 1 2 2 – 25 25 48 48 47 5 6 2 27 32 35 0 0 0 – 2 4 4 4 4 48 39 28 10 15 17 11 6 3 41 30 24 5 7 7 81 69 62 – 36 37 3 2 1 84 74 64 13 8 5 0 0 0 – 53 42 – – – 35 27 20 79 71 65 5 2 1 7 6 4 16 10 7 1 1 0 – 9 8 97 89 83 52 64 81 77 86 92 100 100 100 – 86 85 – 93 95 78 85 92 48 60 67 99 99 99 97 98 98 98 99 99 98 93 91 – 95 95 32 41 47 17 33 55 25 25 25 100 100 100 – 42 46 37 67 92 8 7 6 10 14 17 97 98 99 86 92 96 98 95 94 31 45 53 – 43 43 65 48 36 35 31 26 52 61 67 0 0 0 – 44 39 – 26 3 70 78 86 38 46 50 2 1 0 11 6 2 0 4 5 67 48 38 – 52 52 3 11 17 48 36 19 23 14 8 0 0 0 – 14 15 – 7 5 22 15 8 52 40 33 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 7 9 – 5 5 68 70 71 33 42 56 31 43 51 99 99 99 – 80 82 NA NA NA 47 49 51 36 41 44 48 66 75 56 70 82 68 71 73 83 92 97 – 34 34 1 1 1 0 2 5 2 2 3 – 38 – – 9 27 NA NA NA 0 0 0 0 0 1 22 39 47 42 59 73 59 57 56 10 17 21 – 3 3 67 69 70 33 40 51 29 41 48 – 61 – – 71 55 NA NA NA 47 49 51 36 41 43 26 27 28 14 11 9 9 14 17 73 75 76 – 31 31 32 30 29 67 58 44 69 57 49 1 1 1 – 20 18 NA NA NA 53 51 49 64 59 56 52 34 25 44 30 18 32 29 27 17 8 3 – 66 66 13 13 – 70 72 72 35 46 61 50 64 74 100 100 100 – 83 84 – 93 95 58 63 67 38 45 50 90 94 96 67 80 89 88 91 92 87 92 95 – 70 71 94 95 – 3 4 6 2 7 16 11 13 15 – 87 – – 27 38 37 67 92 3 3 2 2 3 5 84 90 93 54 71 83 86 84 84 16 25 30 – 26 28 – – – 67 68 66 33 39 45 39 51 59 – 13 – – 56 46 – 26 3 55 60 65 36 42 45 6 4 3 13 9 6 2 7 8 71 67 65 – 44 44 – – – 30 28 28 65 54 39 50 36 26 0 0 0 – 17 16 – 7 5 42 37 33 62 55 50 10 6 4 33 20 11 12 9 8 13 8 5 – 30 29 6 5 – – – – 1 837 5 491 8 009 Canada 5 558 Cape Verde – Cayman islands – Central african republic 1 209 Chad 3 137 Chile 4 260 China 425 096 Colombia 12 192 Comoros 247 Congo 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 5 681 6 473 8 074 9 690 12 760 14 562 12 233 15 865 19 088 27 701 30 687 33 259 354 439 499 26 40 56 2 928 3 746 4 339 6 105 8 402 10 914 13 191 15 419 16 804 1 142 090 1 266 954 1 337 411 33 204 39 773 45 012 438 552 661 2 446 3 036 3 615 6 8 10 13 17 22 41 50 57 77 79 80 44 53 60 100 100 100 37 38 39 21 23 27 83 86 88 27 36 43 68 72 74 28 28 28 54 58 61 41 46 49 38 50 67 65 60 56 100 100 100 – 64 65 96 96 96 21 32 43 20 22 23 91 96 98 48 55 58 80 80 81 34 42 50 – 31 31 18 20 22 5 7 9 20 19 17 – – – – – – – – – 12 18 24 16 18 19 – – – 25 28 30 14 14 15 2 2 3 – 31 31 – 1990 100 Cook islands 2000 2008 18 18 20 57 65 71 100 100 – .40 use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water Burundi Cambodia 2010 uPdate Cameroon Country.

area or territory open defecation 1 430 2 214 open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites – 1 727 182 na* – 11 448 318 106 – 2 878 5 311 35 030 1 0 1 31 33 35 – 0 0 8 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 42 – 39 40 42 0 0 0 10 20 32 – 2 – 5 2 1 5 2 1 2 0 0 1 0 1 1 339 1 1 0 6 6 5 – 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 5 4 2 0 0 0 11 6 0 – 18 – 3 3 2 7 3 0 4 2 0 3 3 2 91 94 96 8 10 11 – 98 98 64 73 81 100 100 100 98 97 97 – 60 – 4 13 23 100 100 100 45 30 10 – 84 – 61 69 74 48 70 84 57 79 92 62 74 83 4 4 4 8 10 12 – 1 1 10 12 13 – – – 2 3 3 – – – 4 13 22 – – – 6 4 1 – – – 11 12 13 2 3 4 4 5 6 3 4 5 1 0 0 28 28 29 – 0 0 20 10 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 40 – 69 56 41 0 0 0 2 13 28 – 2 – 8 6 6 11 5 3 22 9 2 1 0 0 4 2 0 56 52 48 – 1 1 6 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 23 18 14 0 0 0 47 53 61 – 14 – 20 13 7 39 22 9 17 7 0 34 22 12 93 95 95 20 22 23 – 99 99 80 86 91 100 100 100 100 98 98 – 59 – 9 16 23 100 100 100 66 63 56 – 81 – 73 79 83 69 83 92 72 86 94 75 83 87 4 4 4 15 16 18 – 1 1 6 7 7 – – – 0 2 2 – – – 12 19 26 – – – 6 5 4 – – – 10 11 11 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 1 0 1 29 30 32 – 0 0 12 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 41 – 61 51 41 0 0 0 8 18 32 – 2 – 6 3 2 8 3 2 13 5 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 36 32 27 – 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 18 14 10 0 0 0 20 14 8 – 17 – 11 7 4 21 11 3 11 5 0 19 11 6 99 99 100 90 92 93 – 100 100 93 95 96 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 90 85 80 100 100 100 80 88 98 – 96 – 98 92 87 81 91 97 96 99 100 90 92 94 92 97 100 49 59 67 – 96 96 77 80 82 100 100 100 97 97 97 – 81 – 51 38 23 100 – – 69 75 82 – 78 – 94 86 80 66 85 96 90 95 99 72 76 80 7 2 0 41 33 26 – 4 4 16 15 14 0 0 0 3 3 3 – 19 – 39 47 57 0 – – 11 13 16 – 18 – 4 6 7 15 6 1 6 4 1 18 16 14 1 1 0 10 8 7 – 0 0 7 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 15 20 0 0 0 20 12 2 – 4 – 2 8 13 19 9 3 4 1 0 10 8 6 86 89 91 67 67 68 – 97 97 53 73 89 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 27 27 28 100 100 100 69 61 52 – 92 – 76 80 84 62 78 88 86 93 98 58 68 76 71 81 89 5 10 14 – 77 77 30 44 54 100 100 100 – 91 91 – 71 – 0 1 2 100 100 100 19 12 3 – 49 – 46 50 54 24 55 74 39 65 87 14 29 42 15 8 2 62 57 54 – 20 20 23 29 35 0 0 0 – 9 9 – 29 – 27 26 26 0 0 0 50 49 49 – 43 – 30 30 30 38 23 14 47 28 11 44 39 34 14 11 9 33 33 32 – 3 3 47 27 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 73 73 72 0 0 0 31 39 48 – 8 – 24 20 16 38 22 12 14 7 2 42 32 24 93 95 97 76 78 80 – 99 99 82 90 94 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 45 44 46 100 100 100 77 84 92 – 95 – 88 87 86 72 86 94 90 96 99 74 82 87 82 90 96 22 31 40 – 88 88 64 71 75 100 100 100 – 95 95 – 77 – 14 12 9 100 – – 57 65 72 – 70 – 73 72 72 47 73 88 61 78 92 43 56 65 11 5 1 54 47 40 – 11 11 18 19 19 0 0 0 – 5 5 – 23 – 30 32 37 0 – – 20 19 20 – 25 – 15 15 14 25 13 6 29 18 7 31 26 22 7 5 3 24 22 20 – 1 1 18 10 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 56 54 0 0 0 23 16 8 – 5 – 12 13 14 28 14 6 10 4 1 26 18 13 1 521 6 889 Croatia – Cuba 1 851 Cyprus 182 Czech republic 16 3 676 democratic People’s republic of korea democratic republic of the Congo 12 901 denmark 318 djibouti 350 dominica – dominican republic 2 071 ecuador 5 272 egypt 28 706 el salvador 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 3 078 3 931 4 519 12 610 17 281 20 591 4 517 4 505 4 423 10 587 11 087 11 205 681 787 862 10 303 10 224 10 319 20 143 22 859 23 819 37 016 50 829 64 257 5 140 5 335 5 458 560 730 849 69 68 67 7 374 8 830 9 953 10 278 12 310 13 481 57 785 70 174 81 527 5 330 5 945 6 134 51 59 63 40 44 49 54 56 57 73 76 76 67 69 70 75 74 73 58 60 63 28 30 34 85 85 87 76 83 87 68 71 73 55 62 69 55 60 66 43 43 43 49 58 61 94 95 95 38 37 36 – 99 99 86 90 94 100 100 100 100 99 99 – 58 – 23 23 23 100 100 100 73 69 63 – 80 – 83 85 87 86 92 96 91 95 97 88 89 89 4 4 4 25 24 24 – 1 1 5 5 5 – – – 0 1 1 – – – 33 33 33 – – – 6 5 5 – – – 9 10 10 2 3 3 3 3 3 8 8 8 1 393 41 .use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared Costa rica Côte d’ivoire Country.

area or territory open defecation – open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites 406 – – eritrea 1 647 2010 uPdate estonia na* ethiopia 7 754 22 461 Fiji – – Finland 318 318 France 5 194 5 194 French guiana 379 529 659 3 158 3 657 4 927 1 567 1 370 1 341 48 292 65 515 80 713 724 802 844 4 986 5 173 5 304 56 842 59 128 62 036 116 165 220 – 69 35 39 39 16 18 21 71 69 69 13 15 17 42 48 52 61 61 63 74 76 77 75 75 76 – French Polynesia 70 gabon – – gambia – 865 georgia na* na* germany 2 831 2 831 ghana 1 988 11 065 greece 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1 059 195 236 266 926 1 233 1 448 896 1 302 1 660 5 460 4 745 4 307 79 433 82 075 82 264 14 968 19 529 23 351 10 161 10 942 11 137 56 52 52 69 80 85 38 49 57 55 53 53 73 73 74 36 44 50 59 60 61 – 60 – 58 54 52 – 96 96 21 26 29 92 96 – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 85 – 99 99 99 – 37 33 – 65 68 97 96 96 100 100 100 11 15 18 100 99 99 – – – – – – – 4 4 25 30 34 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 40 36 – 25 27 3 3 3 – – – 44 58 70 – – – – – – 10 8 7 – 0 0 7 18 29 8 4 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 15 – 1 1 1 – 21 30 – 9 4 0 1 1 0 0 0 34 18 5 0 1 1 – – – 32 38 41 – 0 0 47 26 8 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 2 1 – 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 9 7 0 0 0 – 46 – 0 2 4 – 94 94 1 5 8 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 57 – 97 97 97 – 30 30 – 61 65 95 94 93 100 100 100 4 5 7 92 96 97 – – – – – – – 6 6 0 1 2 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 24 25 – 13 14 1 1 1 – – – 21 31 38 – – – – – – 0 1 0 – 0 0 0 8 19 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 43 – 3 3 3 – 41 43 – 17 14 2 3 4 0 0 0 47 33 21 0 0 1 – – – 100 97 96 – 0 0 99 86 71 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 5 2 – 9 7 2 2 2 0 0 0 28 31 34 8 4 2 – 51 – 9 11 14 – 95 95 4 8 12 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 78 – 98 98 98 – 36 33 – 63 67 96 95 95 100 100 100 7 9 13 97 98 98 – – – – – – – 5 5 3 5 7 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 37 34 – 19 21 2 2 2 – – – 29 43 54 – – – – 49 – 2 2 1 – 0 0 1 10 21 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 22 – 2 2 2 – 24 32 – 13 8 1 2 2 0 0 0 42 27 13 0 0 1 – – – 89 87 85 – 0 0 92 77 60 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 3 1 – 5 4 1 1 1 0 0 0 22 21 20 3 2 1 – 45 – 62 70 74 99 99 99 77 88 98 92 93 – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 88 – 100 100 100 – 95 95 85 91 96 94 97 100 100 100 100 84 88 90 99 100 100 12 16 – 40 42 42 92 95 97 10 26 40 – 32 – 96 99 100 100 100 100 – 83 – 99 99 99 – 52 49 24 41 55 81 86 92 100 100 100 41 35 30 99 100 100 – 29 – 22 28 32 7 4 2 67 62 58 – 61 – 4 1 0 0 0 0 – 5 – 1 1 1 – 43 46 61 50 41 13 11 8 0 0 0 43 53 60 0 0 0 – 55 – 38 30 26 1 1 1 23 12 2 8 7 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 12 – 0 0 0 – 5 5 15 9 4 6 3 0 0 0 0 16 12 10 1 0 0 – 42 – 39 50 57 97 97 97 8 18 26 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 71 – 100 100 100 – 47 41 67 77 86 66 80 96 100 100 100 37 58 74 92 98 99 0 0 0 0 0 0 51 65 75 0 0 0 – 7 – 85 92 – 95 99 100 – 65 – 96 96 96 – 8 10 0 3 5 19 34 51 97 97 97 2 3 3 82 95 99 – 42 – 39 50 57 46 32 22 8 18 26 – – – 15 8 – 5 1 0 – 6 – 4 4 4 – 39 31 67 74 81 47 46 45 3 3 3 35 55 71 10 3 0 – 58 – 61 50 43 3 3 3 92 82 74 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 29 – 0 0 0 – 53 59 33 23 14 34 20 4 0 0 0 63 42 26 8 2 1 – 43 – 43 54 61 98 98 98 17 28 38 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 84 – 100 100 100 – 85 87 74 84 92 81 89 98 100 100 100 54 71 82 96 99 100 4 6 – 6 7 9 80 86 90 1 4 7 – 19 – 92 96 – 99 100 100 – 79 – 98 98 98 – 43 43 9 22 33 53 61 73 99 99 99 16 17 17 92 98 100 – 37 – 37 47 52 18 12 8 16 24 31 – – – 8 4 – 1 0 0 – 5 – 2 2 2 – 42 44 65 62 59 28 28 25 1 1 1 38 54 65 4 1 0 – 57 – 57 46 39 2 2 2 83 72 62 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 16 – 0 0 0 – 15 13 26 16 8 19 11 2 0 0 0 46 29 18 4 1 0 1 383 .42 use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water equatorial guinea Country.

area or territory open defecation 7 – open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites 41 5 294 1 315 – – -169 3 040 na* 61 211 049 59 682 – 4 4 4 – 6 5 1 1 1 4 3 2 53 37 23 – 46 41 – 4 5 1 21 43 12 9 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 6 7 16 12 8 14 14 – – 5 5 – – – – – – – – – – 5 3 2 6 3 1 – 4 2 – 1 0 10 10 9 11 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 22 18 18 17 16 – – – – 0 0 97 97 97 – – – 98 98 98 51 63 73 6 9 11 – 7 9 – 77 80 19 15 10 28 47 62 100 100 100 100 100 100 7 14 21 22 30 36 78 78 – – 54 66 – – – – – – – – – 2 2 2 4 5 6 – 0 0 – 8 8 12 9 6 2 4 5 – – – – – – 1 3 4 7 9 11 – – – – 10 12 3 3 3 – – – 2 2 2 12 13 14 36 44 50 – 40 48 – 14 10 7 20 35 12 11 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 6 23 19 17 22 22 – – 21 17 – – – – – – – – – 35 22 11 54 42 33 – 53 43 – 1 2 62 56 49 58 38 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 90 79 69 48 42 36 – – – – 15 5 97 97 97 – – – 99 99 99 65 74 81 9 15 19 – 18 21 – 79 81 26 22 17 44 59 71 100 100 100 100 100 100 18 25 31 33 44 52 83 83 – – 69 73 – – – – – – – – – 4 4 4 9 14 18 – 2 2 – 9 9 21 18 14 5 7 8 – – – – – – 6 8 9 7 9 10 – – – – 16 17 3 3 3 – – – 1 1 1 8 9 8 41 41 41 – 42 46 – 11 9 6 20 39 12 10 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 6 21 16 12 17 17 – – 10 8 – – – – – – – – – 23 13 7 41 30 22 – 38 31 – 1 1 47 40 30 39 24 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 74 63 54 39 31 26 – – – – 5 2 97 97 97 98 98 98 100 100 100 91 95 98 87 88 89 – 79 83 – 93 98 62 67 71 91 93 95 98 100 100 100 100 100 90 93 96 92 90 89 98 98 98 97 95 91 – 93 – 98 98 98 – – – 68 83 95 21 24 26 6 18 27 – 75 76 27 24 21 82 89 94 94 95 95 100 100 100 52 50 48 24 31 37 96 96 96 – 92 90 – 4 – 0 0 0 – – – 23 12 3 66 64 63 – 61 56 – 18 22 35 43 50 9 4 1 4 5 5 0 0 0 38 43 48 68 59 52 2 2 2 – 3 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 0 0 0 9 5 2 13 12 11 – 21 17 – 7 2 38 33 29 9 7 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 10 7 4 8 10 11 2 2 2 3 5 9 – 93 – – 93 – 100 100 100 75 84 90 38 51 61 37 45 51 – 87 93 41 49 55 59 69 77 91 98 100 100 100 100 66 76 84 62 67 71 83 83 – 44 49 55 – 75 – – 75 – – – – 35 53 68 0 0 1 0 0 1 – 54 63 2 3 4 42 59 72 72 86 93 100 100 100 8 9 11 2 5 8 69 69 – – 37 49 – 18 – – 18 – – – – 40 31 22 38 51 60 37 45 50 – 33 30 39 46 51 17 10 5 19 12 7 0 0 0 58 67 73 60 62 63 14 14 – – 12 6 – 7 – – 7 – 0 0 0 25 16 10 62 49 39 63 55 49 – 13 7 59 51 45 41 31 23 9 2 0 0 0 0 34 24 16 38 33 29 17 17 – 56 51 45 – 94 – – 98 – 100 100 100 82 89 94 52 62 71 – 55 61 – 89 94 47 55 63 72 80 86 96 99 100 100 100 100 72 81 88 71 77 80 91 93 – 81 80 79 – 81 – – 98 – – – – 49 67 81 6 7 10 2 5 9 – 60 67 9 10 12 58 72 83 86 92 94 100 100 100 19 20 22 9 16 23 84 86 – – 74 76 – 13 – – 0 – – – – 33 22 13 46 55 61 – 50 52 – 29 27 38 45 51 14 8 3 10 7 6 0 0 0 53 61 66 62 61 57 7 7 – – 6 3 – 6 – – 2 – 0 0 0 18 11 6 48 38 29 – 45 39 – 11 6 53 45 37 28 20 14 4 1 0 0 0 0 28 19 12 29 23 20 9 7 – 19 20 21 – 76 guam 42 guatemala 5 559 guinea 3 785 guinea-Bissau – guyana – Haiti 2 881 Honduras 2 765 Hungary 62 iceland 61 india 418 886 indonesia 55 933 iran (islamic republic of) – iraq 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 96 101 104 386 429 464 134 155 176 8 910 11 231 13 686 6 147 8 384 9 833 1 022 1 304 1 575 749 756 763 7 108 8 648 9 876 4 901 6 230 7 319 10 365 10 215 10 012 255 281 315 862 162 1 042 590 1 181 412 177 385 205 280 227 345 56 733 66 903 73 312 18 079 24 652 30 096 32 31 31 99 98 98 91 93 93 41 45 49 28 31 34 28 30 30 30 29 28 29 36 47 40 44 48 66 65 68 91 92 92 26 28 29 31 42 52 56 64 68 70 68 67 96 96 96 – 94 95 99 99 99 84 87 89 18 27 34 – 43 49 – 85 85 44 34 24 68 75 80 100 100 100 100 100 100 49 52 54 58 63 67 86 86 – – 76 76 – – – – – – – – – 7 7 7 23 33 42 – 7 8 – 10 10 45 35 24 9 10 11 – – – – – – 19 20 21 8 8 9 – – – – 19 19 9 132 43 .use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared grenada guadeloupe Country.

area or territory open defecation open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites 913 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water ireland 922 israel 2 538 2 538 2010 uPdate italy – 2 606 Jamaica 285 347 Japan 4 102 4 102 Jordan – 2 734 kazakhstan na* na* kenya 5 925 12 795 kiribati – – kuwait 776 768 kyrgyzstan – – lao People’s democratic republic – – latvia – na* lebanon – 1 219 lesotho 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 82 3 515 3 804 4 437 4 514 6 084 7 051 56 998 57 116 59 604 2 364 2 568 2 708 123 191 126 706 127 293 3 254 4 853 6 136 16 530 14 957 15 521 23 433 31 441 38 765 72 84 97 2 143 2 228 2 919 4 395 4 955 5 414 4 207 5 403 6 205 2 663 2 374 2 259 2 974 3 772 4 194 1 602 1 889 2 049 57 59 61 90 91 92 67 67 68 49 52 53 63 65 66 72 78 78 56 56 58 18 20 22 35 43 50 98 98 98 38 35 36 15 22 31 69 68 68 83 86 87 14 20 25 100 100 100 100 100 100 – – – 82 82 82 100 100 100 98 98 98 96 97 97 24 26 27 36 47 – 100 100 100 94 94 94 – 62 86 – 82 82 100 100 100 29 35 40 – – – – – – – – – 16 16 16 – – – 2 2 2 3 3 3 45 48 51 7 9 – – – – 5 5 5 – 4 5 – 13 13 – – – 25 30 35 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 28 23 20 16 3 – 0 0 0 1 1 1 – 8 3 – 5 5 0 0 0 37 27 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 2 41 41 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 26 6 – 0 0 0 0 0 9 8 8 98 98 98 100 100 100 – – – 83 83 84 100 100 100 – 96 97 97 97 98 27 30 32 21 22 – 100 100 100 – 93 93 – 16 38 – 71 71 – 87 – 32 28 25 – – – – – – – – – 12 12 12 – – – – 1 1 1 1 1 15 16 18 2 2 – – – – – 2 2 – 1 2 – 3 3 – – – 4 4 3 2 2 2 0 0 0 – – – 5 5 3 0 0 0 – 1 2 0 1 1 41 36 32 12 21 – 0 0 0 – 5 5 – 8 8 – 26 26 – 13 – 13 17 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 1 0 0 0 – 2 0 2 1 0 17 18 18 65 55 – 0 0 0 – 0 0 – 75 52 – 0 0 – – – 51 51 51 99 99 99 100 100 100 – – – 83 82 83 100 100 100 – 98 98 96 97 97 26 29 31 26 33 – 100 100 100 – 93 93 – 26 53 – 78 78 – 98 – 32 29 29 – – – – – – – – – 14 14 14 – – – – 2 2 2 2 2 20 22 25 4 5 – – – – – 3 3 – 2 3 – 10 10 – – – 7 9 11 1 1 1 0 0 0 – – – 3 4 3 0 0 0 – 0 0 1 1 1 40 34 29 13 13 – 0 0 0 – 4 4 – 8 6 – 12 12 – 2 – 16 20 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 1 0 0 14 15 15 57 49 – 0 0 0 – 0 0 – 64 38 – 0 0 – – – 45 42 40 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 98 98 98 100 100 100 99 98 98 99 99 99 91 87 83 76 77 – 99 99 99 98 98 99 – 77 72 100 100 100 100 100 100 88 92 97 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 89 90 91 97 98 99 98 96 94 91 87 82 57 49 44 46 48 – – – – 75 82 89 – 35 55 – 93 93 100 100 100 19 39 59 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 8 7 3 2 1 1 2 4 8 12 17 34 38 39 30 29 – – – – 23 16 10 – 42 17 – 7 7 0 0 0 69 53 38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 1 1 9 13 17 24 23 – 1 1 1 2 2 1 – 23 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 8 3 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 88 88 89 100 100 100 91 91 91 92 91 90 32 43 52 33 50 – 99 99 99 – 73 85 – 40 51 96 96 96 100 100 100 57 69 81 99 99 99 98 98 98 96 100 100 33 41 47 86 91 95 87 82 79 28 26 24 10 11 12 13 21 – – – – 25 30 34 – 5 4 – 59 59 – 85 – 1 3 5 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 0 0 55 47 42 14 9 5 4 9 12 64 65 66 22 32 40 20 29 – – – – – 43 51 – 35 47 – 37 37 – 15 – 56 66 76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 12 11 0 0 0 9 9 9 8 9 10 68 57 48 67 50 – 1 1 1 – 27 15 – 60 49 4 4 4 0 0 0 43 31 19 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 93 93 94 100 100 100 97 96 96 96 96 95 43 52 59 48 62 – 99 99 99 – 82 90 – 48 57 99 99 99 100 100 100 61 74 85 100 100 100 100 100 100 99 100 100 61 66 70 93 96 98 95 93 91 63 60 58 19 18 19 25 33 – – – – 44 48 54 – 12 20 – 82 82 – 98 – 4 10 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 32 27 24 7 4 2 2 3 5 33 36 37 24 34 40 23 29 – – – – – 34 36 – 36 37 – 17 17 – 2 – 57 64 66 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 7 6 0 0 0 3 4 4 4 4 5 57 48 41 52 38 – 1 1 1 – 18 10 – 52 43 1 1 1 0 0 0 39 26 15 765 .44 use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared Country.

use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared Country. area or territory open defecation open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites 407 1 872 – 99 1 200 4 344 10 727 150 2 324 47 13 – 518 203 43 30 20 3 3 3 – – – 0 0 0 35 37 39 5 4 5 7 1 0 0 0 0 40 32 26 0 0 0 – – 1 – 6 5 38 28 16 0 0 0 4 2 1 37 226 15 23 30 – – – – – – 0 0 0 25 21 18 4 3 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 0 0 0 – – 4 – – – 23 20 16 0 0 0 10 6 2 3 4 4 96 96 96 – – – 100 100 100 6 8 10 41 50 57 81 90 95 58 74 96 23 28 32 100 100 100 41 48 53 – – – 8 9 9 90 90 90 30 51 68 11 11 12 – – – – – – – – – 9 14 17 17 21 24 3 4 4 – – – 10 12 14 – – – 9 11 12 – – – 3 4 4 7 7 7 7 12 16 18 12 7 4 4 4 – – – 0 0 0 8 24 35 7 7 8 7 2 0 12 7 0 31 32 33 0 0 0 – – 0 – – – 31 19 8 3 3 3 9 6 4 68 73 77 – – – – – – 0 0 0 77 54 38 35 22 11 9 4 1 30 19 4 36 28 21 0 0 0 – – 35 – – – 58 68 79 0 0 0 54 31 12 11 14 17 97 97 97 – – – 100 100 100 8 10 11 42 50 56 84 92 96 69 81 98 26 32 36 100 100 100 64 69 73 – – – 16 21 26 91 91 91 66 76 85 16 18 20 – – – – – – – – – 13 18 20 20 24 27 3 4 4 – – – 12 15 18 – – – 10 12 12 – – – 6 8 10 7 7 7 6 8 9 29 22 14 3 3 3 – – – 0 0 0 14 27 37 7 7 8 8 2 0 9 5 0 33 32 30 0 0 0 26 19 1 – – – 34 22 11 2 2 2 5 4 2 44 46 49 – – – – – – 0 0 0 65 45 32 31 19 9 5 2 0 22 14 2 29 21 16 0 0 0 – – 14 – – – 44 49 53 0 0 0 23 12 4 86 82 79 54 54 – – – – 100 100 100 78 73 71 90 93 95 94 99 100 100 100 99 54 69 81 100 100 100 94 93 92 100 100 100 36 45 52 100 100 100 94 95 96 21 11 3 – – – 89 92 – 100 100 100 25 19 14 45 34 26 86 95 99 47 68 95 17 26 34 100 100 100 – – 1 99 99 99 15 26 34 100 100 100 88 90 92 65 71 76 – – – – – – 0 0 0 53 54 57 45 59 69 8 4 1 53 32 4 37 43 47 0 0 0 – – 91 1 1 1 21 19 18 0 0 0 6 5 4 14 18 21 46 46 – – – – 0 0 0 22 27 29 10 7 5 6 1 0 0 0 1 46 31 19 0 0 0 6 7 8 0 0 0 64 55 48 0 0 0 6 5 4 34 44 51 55 55 – – – – 100 100 100 16 24 29 33 58 77 82 93 99 87 87 86 22 34 44 98 100 100 97 98 99 – – – 26 37 47 99 99 99 64 77 87 3 2 0 – – – 49 55 – 98 98 98 0 2 4 2 2 2 59 80 91 0 0 2 0 1 1 98 100 100 – – 0 – – – 0 8 14 99 99 99 50 62 72 31 42 51 – – – – – – 2 2 2 16 22 25 31 56 75 23 13 8 87 87 84 22 33 43 0 0 0 – – 99 – – – 26 29 33 0 0 0 14 15 15 66 56 49 45 45 – – – – 0 0 0 84 76 71 67 42 23 18 7 1 13 13 14 78 66 56 2 0 0 3 2 1 – – – 74 63 53 1 1 1 36 23 13 58 65 68 54 54 – – – – 100 100 100 31 37 41 40 63 80 88 97 100 90 91 91 29 44 56 100 100 100 95 95 94 – – – 30 40 49 99 99 99 85 90 94 11 7 2 – – – 76 80 – 100 100 100 6 7 7 7 7 7 72 89 97 12 19 37 4 8 12 100 100 100 – – 1 – – – 6 15 22 99 99 99 77 83 87 47 58 66 – – – – – – 0 0 0 25 30 34 33 56 73 16 8 3 78 72 54 25 36 44 0 0 0 – – 93 – – – 24 25 27 0 0 0 8 7 7 42 35 32 46 46 – – – – 0 0 0 69 63 59 60 37 20 12 3 0 10 9 9 71 56 44 0 0 0 5 5 6 – – – 70 60 51 1 1 1 15 10 6 liberia 1 323 libyan arab Jamahiriya – lithuania – luxembourg 99 madagascar 4 341 malawi 8 096 malaysia 11 083 maldives 84 mali 4 605 malta 47 marshall islands 12 martinique – mauritania 979 mauritius 221 mexico 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 2 167 2 824 3 793 4 365 5 346 6 294 3 698 3 501 3 321 382 437 481 11 273 15 275 19 111 9 451 11 831 14 846 18 103 23 274 27 014 216 272 305 8 655 10 523 12 706 360 389 407 47 52 61 359 385 403 1 988 2 604 3 215 1 056 1 195 1 280 83 404 99 531 108 555 45 54 60 76 76 78 68 67 67 81 84 82 24 27 29 12 15 19 50 62 70 26 28 38 23 28 32 90 92 94 65 66 68 98 98 98 40 40 41 44 43 42 71 75 77 21 23 25 97 97 97 – – – 100 100 100 14 15 15 50 51 51 88 94 96 100 100 100 36 41 45 100 100 100 77 80 83 – 94 95 29 38 50 93 93 93 80 85 90 21 24 25 – – – – – – – – – 26 27 28 41 42 42 4 4 4 – – – 20 23 25 – – – 11 12 12 – – – 10 14 18 7 7 7 6 7 7 31 149 45 .

area or territory open defecation – – 8 660 2 315 – 349 open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites – 6 829 1 575 – 1 168 45 41 – 0 0 0 – 2 2 – 1 1 4 4 4 0 2 3 25 31 41 – 8 4 5 5 5 – – 26 5 4 4 0 0 0 – – – 29 27 24 41 31 21 928 – – – 0 0 0 – 0 3 – 0 0 – – – 5 2 0 32 25 14 – 1 0 11 15 18 – – 1 30 22 15 0 0 0 – – – 4 4 4 26 22 20 20 16 – NA NA NA – 26 32 – 86 86 96 96 96 27 43 52 4 4 4 – 59 79 9 13 17 NA NA NA 8 19 27 100 100 100 88 – – 26 32 37 2 3 4 – – – NA NA NA – 20 24 – 3 3 – – – 3 5 6 1 1 1 – 8 11 2 3 4 NA NA NA 2 5 7 – – – – – – 4 5 6 1 1 2 80 84 – NA NA NA – 18 18 – 10 10 4 4 4 1 2 4 21 27 36 – 19 9 6 7 6 NA NA NA 5 5 6 0 0 0 12 – – 26 32 36 2 3 3 – – – NA NA NA – 36 26 – 1 1 – – – 69 50 38 74 68 59 – 14 1 83 77 73 NA NA NA 85 71 60 0 0 0 – – – 44 31 21 95 93 91 29 26 – 100 100 100 – 49 50 – 92 92 96 96 96 53 64 69 11 14 17 – 65 81 25 29 33 – – 50 11 23 31 100 100 100 – – – 43 48 52 5 7 9 – – – – – – – 27 28 – 3 3 – – – 8 10 10 2 3 3 – 9 11 6 8 9 – – 23 4 8 11 – – – – – – 6 7 8 3 4 6 71 74 – 0 0 0 – 8 9 – 5 5 4 4 4 1 2 4 22 28 38 – 16 7 6 6 5 – – 26 5 5 6 0 0 0 – – – 28 29 29 8 7 6 – – – 0 0 0 – 16 13 – 0 0 – – – 38 24 17 65 55 42 – 10 1 63 57 53 – – 1 80 64 52 0 0 0 – – – 23 16 11 84 82 79 93 94 95 100 100 100 81 88 97 – 100 100 100 100 100 94 96 98 73 75 77 87 80 75 99 99 99 – – 90 96 94 93 100 100 100 100 100 100 92 95 98 57 78 96 – – – 100 100 100 52 42 32 – 98 98 98 98 98 74 82 88 22 21 20 19 17 15 82 77 72 – – – 43 48 52 100 100 100 100 100 100 83 86 88 21 30 37 – – – 0 0 0 29 46 65 – 2 2 2 2 2 20 14 10 51 54 57 68 63 60 17 22 27 – – – 53 46 41 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 10 36 48 59 7 6 5 0 0 0 19 12 3 – 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 2 27 25 23 13 20 25 1 1 1 – – 10 4 6 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 5 2 43 22 4 87 92 – NA NA NA 27 37 49 – 96 96 100 100 100 55 58 60 26 27 29 47 60 69 51 72 88 NA NA NA 74 81 87 100 100 100 100 100 100 54 62 68 31 35 39 – – – – – – NA NA NA NA NA NA 0 27 1 36 2 47 – – 66 30 66 30 0 100 0 100 0 100 5 50 13 45 19 41 1 25 1 26 1 28 1 46 2 58 2 67 14 37 21 51 27 61 NA NA NA NA NA NA 5 69 8 73 10 77 95 5 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 18 36 23 39 27 41 0 31 1 34 1 38 13 8 – NA NA NA 73 63 51 – 4 4 0 0 0 45 42 40 74 73 71 53 40 31 49 28 12 NA NA NA 26 19 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 46 38 32 69 65 61 89 92 – 100 100 100 58 66 76 – 98 98 100 100 100 74 78 81 36 42 47 57 66 71 64 81 92 – – 90 76 83 88 100 100 100 100 100 100 74 80 85 35 42 48 – – – 100 100 100 30 24 19 – 85 85 12 11 15 38 50 58 5 7 8 5 6 6 33 39 44 – – – 8 13 17 98 100 100 100 100 100 52 57 62 3 6 7 – – – 0 0 0 28 42 57 – 13 13 88 89 85 35 28 23 31 35 39 52 60 65 31 42 48 – – – 68 70 71 2 0 0 0 0 0 22 23 23 32 36 41 11 8 – 0 0 0 42 34 24 – 2 2 0 0 0 26 22 19 64 58 53 43 34 29 36 19 8 – – 10 24 17 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 26 20 15 65 58 52 – 3 722 – na* 7 243 5 644 11 908 1 053 nauru – nepal 10 833 netherlands 1 575 new Zealand 844 nicaragua 1 755 niger 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 96 107 110 29 32 33 2 216 2 389 2 641 587 661 622 11 5 6 24 808 28 827 31 606 13 543 18 249 22 383 40 844 46 610 49 563 1 417 1 824 2 130 9 10 10 19 105 24 432 28 810 14 953 15 915 16 528 3 386 3 868 4 230 4 138 5 101 5 667 7 904 11 031 14 704 26 22 22 100 100 100 57 57 57 48 59 60 13 11 15 48 53 56 21 31 37 25 28 33 28 32 37 100 100 100 9 13 17 69 77 82 85 86 87 52 55 57 15 16 16 55 59 – 100 100 100 – 66 64 – 96 96 96 96 96 81 82 83 36 37 38 – 81 86 66 63 60 – – 50 41 47 51 100 100 100 – – – 59 61 63 19 27 34 – – – – – – – 32 31 – 3 3 – – – 14 14 14 7 7 7 – 10 10 18 17 17 – – 23 24 27 30 – – – – – – 8 8 9 14 20 25 4 292 .46 use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water micronesia (Federated states of) – 3 monaco 2010 uPdate mongolia montenegro montserrat na* morocco mozambique myanmar namibia Country.

area or territory open defecation open defecation open defecation Unimproved facilitites Unimproved facilitites Unimproved facilitites 12 373 na* – 525 – 47 211 – 946 1 018 2 794 7 850 32 457 – 1 496 11 13 14 0 0 0 15 8 – 0 0 0 1 1 3 14 16 17 24 8 4 15 13 12 19 21 24 35 16 5 5 7 9 8 3 0 4 4 4 1 0 0 – – – – 8 10 12 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 2 2 – 7 6 5 – – – 1 2 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 16 8 1 8 6 4 – – – 2 1 0 – – – 36 32 28 100 100 100 78 93 96 100 100 100 61 61 – 8 20 29 54 52 – 40 47 51 42 42 41 15 31 40 16 27 36 46 59 69 – 80 80 87 96 100 – – – 18 16 14 – – – – – – – – – – – – 1 3 5 – – – 4 4 5 – – – 0 0 1 1 2 3 9 12 14 – – – – – – – – – 12 20 27 0 0 0 22 7 4 0 0 0 7 7 – 20 23 26 46 48 – 31 32 31 42 41 41 81 67 58 9 21 30 22 11 3 – 20 20 1 0 0 – – – 34 32 31 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 32 32 – 71 54 40 – – – 25 17 13 16 17 18 4 2 1 74 50 31 23 18 14 – – – 12 4 0 – – – 37 34 32 100 100 100 84 92 – 100 100 100 85 87 – 28 37 45 69 80 – 58 65 69 47 46 45 37 58 70 54 62 68 58 69 76 – 90 90 92 98 100 – – – 26 26 26 – – – – – – – – – – – – 3 4 5 – – – 8 9 9 – – – 1 2 3 6 6 7 11 14 15 – – – – – – – – – 12 17 20 0 0 0 16 8 – 0 0 0 3 2 – 18 21 23 31 20 – 22 19 17 39 39 39 59 39 26 6 12 15 15 6 1 – 10 10 1 0 0 – – – 25 23 22 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 12 11 – 51 38 27 – – – 12 7 5 14 15 16 3 1 1 34 20 10 16 11 8 – – – 7 2 0 – – – 79 77 75 100 100 100 98 98 98 100 100 100 84 87 92 96 95 95 73 78 – 99 97 97 89 88 87 81 92 99 88 90 90 93 93 93 100 100 100 98 99 99 – – – 32 20 11 – – – – – – 100 100 100 29 46 68 57 56 55 – – – 97 95 93 61 59 57 59 75 85 73 79 84 40 51 60 97 99 99 95 98 99 – – – 47 57 64 – – – – – – 0 0 0 55 41 24 39 39 40 – – – 2 2 4 28 29 30 22 17 14 15 11 6 53 42 33 3 1 1 3 1 0 – – – 21 23 25 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 16 13 8 4 5 5 27 22 – 1 3 3 11 12 13 19 8 1 12 10 10 7 7 7 0 0 0 2 1 1 – – – 30 36 42 100 100 100 100 97 97 100 100 100 72 74 77 81 85 87 98 95 – 66 77 83 32 32 33 25 51 66 45 54 61 76 82 87 100 100 100 94 98 100 – – – 4 2 2 – 80 – – – – 100 100 100 6 11 18 9 15 20 – – – 60 72 79 4 3 3 0 21 35 15 26 35 8 18 25 73 89 96 80 95 100 – – – 26 34 40 – 20 – – – – 0 0 0 66 63 59 72 70 67 – – – 6 5 4 28 29 30 25 30 31 30 28 26 68 64 62 27 11 4 14 3 0 – – – 70 64 58 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 28 26 23 19 15 13 2 5 – 34 23 17 68 68 67 75 49 34 55 46 39 24 18 13 0 0 0 6 2 0 – – – 47 53 58 100 100 100 98 98 98 100 100 100 80 83 88 86 88 90 81 83 – 84 90 93 41 39 40 52 74 86 75 79 82 84 88 91 100 100 100 96 99 99 – – – 14 10 6 – – – – – – 100 100 100 21 36 54 24 29 33 – – – 80 87 89 13 10 10 29 51 65 55 63 70 24 37 48 88 95 98 87 97 99 – – – 33 43 52 – – – – – – 0 0 0 59 47 34 62 59 57 – – – 4 3 4 28 29 30 23 23 21 20 16 12 60 51 43 12 5 2 9 2 0 – – – 53 47 42 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 20 17 12 14 12 10 19 17 – 16 10 7 59 61 60 48 26 14 25 21 18 16 12 9 0 0 0 4 1 1 – – – nigeria 41 954 niue na* northern Mariana islands 41 norway 525 oman 977 Pakistan 59 690 Palau – Panama 1 134 Papua new guinea 1 003 Paraguay 3 155 Peru 7 314 Philippines 29 778 Poland na* Portugal 990 Puerto rico 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 97 338 124 842 151 212 2 2 2 44 69 85 4 241 4 484 4 767 1 843 2 402 2 785 115 776 148 132 176 952 15 19 20 2 413 2 951 3 399 4 131 5 388 6 577 4 250 5 350 6 238 21 776 26 004 28 837 62 427 77 689 90 348 38 111 38 433 38 104 9 979 10 226 10 677 3 528 3 819 3 965 35 43 48 31 34 40 90 93 93 72 76 77 66 72 72 31 33 36 70 70 70 54 66 73 15 13 12 49 55 60 69 71 71 49 59 65 61 62 61 48 54 59 72 95 98 39 37 36 100 100 100 85 92 – 100 100 100 97 97 97 73 72 72 76 92 96 73 74 75 78 75 71 61 79 90 71 77 81 70 76 80 96 96 96 97 99 100 – – – 42 40 38 – – – – – – – – – – – – 6 6 6 – – – 11 11 11 – – – 3 4 4 8 8 9 14 15 16 – – – – – – – – – – 47 .Use of sanitation faCilities (PerCentage of PoPUlation) Urban Unimproved Unimproved Unimproved improved improved Unimproved Unimproved improved improved improved Unimproved rural total Urban rural total Use of drinking-water soUrCes (PerCentage of PoPUlation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared Country.

area or territory open defecation open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites 813 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water Qatar 813 republic of korea 5 169 – 2010 uPdate republic of moldova – na* – romania – russian Federation na* 3 605 na* rwanda 1 456 saint kitts and nevis 10 – 10 saint lucia 31 saint Vincent and the grenadines – – samoa 21 – san marino – – sao tome and Principe – – saudi arabia – – senegal 3 363 3 828 serbia 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 – 467 617 1 281 42 983 46 429 48 152 4 364 4 100 3 633 23 207 22 138 21 361 148 065 146 670 141 394 7 150 7 958 9 721 41 46 51 138 157 170 107 108 109 161 177 179 24 27 31 116 140 160 16 259 20 808 25 201 7 538 9 902 12 211 9 569 10 134 9 839 92 95 96 74 80 81 47 45 42 53 53 54 73 73 73 5 14 18 35 33 35 29 28 28 41 44 47 21 22 23 90 93 94 44 53 61 77 80 82 39 41 42 50 51 52 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 85 85 88 88 88 93 93 93 35 43 50 96 96 96 – 89 – – – – 100 100 100 – – – – 27 30 100 100 100 62 66 69 – 96 96 – – – – – – – 7 7 3 3 3 – – – 12 15 18 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4 4 – – – 17 18 19 – 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 8 8 9 9 9 7 7 7 50 40 31 4 4 4 – 11 – – – – 0 0 0 – – – – 4 17 0 0 0 12 11 10 – 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 3 2 1 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – – 65 49 0 0 0 9 5 2 – 0 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 74 74 52 54 54 70 70 70 22 40 55 96 96 96 – 89 – 96 96 96 98 100 100 – – – – 15 19 – – – 22 31 38 – 88 88 – – – – – – – 5 5 1 1 1 – – – 2 4 6 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4 5 – – – 6 8 10 – 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 21 21 47 45 45 30 30 30 69 51 36 4 4 4 – 11 – 4 4 4 2 0 0 – – – – 3 12 – – – 14 18 21 – 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 7 5 3 – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 – – – – 78 64 – – – 58 43 31 – 0 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 79 79 71 72 72 87 87 87 23 40 54 96 96 96 – 89 – – – – 98 100 100 – – – – 21 26 – – – 38 45 51 – 92 92 – – – – – – – 6 6 2 2 2 – – – 3 6 8 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4 4 – – – 10 12 14 – 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 15 15 27 26 26 13 13 13 67 49 35 4 4 4 – 11 – – – – 2 0 0 – – – – 4 15 – – – 13 15 16 – 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 7 5 3 – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 – – – – 71 55 – – – 39 28 19 – 0 0 100 100 100 97 98 100 – 97 96 – – – 98 98 98 96 85 77 99 99 99 98 98 98 – – – 99 92 – – – – – 86 89 97 97 97 88 90 92 – 99 99 – – – 96 97 99 – 78 79 85 88 91 87 90 92 32 22 15 – 72 – – 75 – – – – – 74 – – – – – 31 32 97 97 97 45 61 74 – 97 97 – – – 1 1 1 – 19 17 – – – 11 8 6 64 63 62 – 27 – – 23 – – – – – 18 – – – – – 55 57 0 0 0 43 29 18 – 2 2 0 0 0 3 2 0 – 3 4 – – – 2 2 2 4 15 23 1 1 1 2 2 2 – – – 1 8 – – – – – 14 11 3 3 3 12 10 8 – 1 1 100 100 100 – 75 88 – 88 85 – – – 81 86 89 66 64 62 99 99 99 98 98 98 – 93 – 89 88 – – – – – 70 88 63 – – 43 48 52 – 98 98 – – – – 46 64 – 9 13 3 16 26 45 42 40 0 0 1 – 72 – – 75 – – 73 – – 52 – – – – – 14 18 60 – – 3 8 12 – 63 63 – – – – 29 24 – 79 72 – – – 36 44 49 66 64 61 – 27 – – 23 – – 20 – – 36 – – – – – 56 70 3 – – 40 40 40 – 35 35 0 0 0 – 25 12 – 12 15 – – – 19 14 11 34 36 38 1 1 1 2 2 2 – 7 – 11 12 – – – – – 30 12 37 – – 57 52 48 – 2 2 100 100 100 – 93 98 – 92 90 – – – 93 95 96 68 67 65 99 99 99 98 98 98 – – – 91 89 – – – – – 79 89 89 – – 61 65 69 – 99 99 – – – – 87 93 – 40 40 47 55 61 76 77 78 2 3 4 – 72 – – 75 – – – – – 57 – – – – – 23 26 88 – – 19 30 38 – 80 81 – – – – 6 5 – 52 50 – – – 17 18 18 66 64 61 – 27 – – 23 – – – – – 32 – – – – – 56 63 1 – – 42 35 31 – 19 18 0 0 0 – 7 2 – 8 10 – – – 7 5 4 32 33 35 1 1 1 2 2 2 – – – 9 11 – – – – – 21 11 11 – – 39 35 31 – 1 1 – .48 use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared Country.

area or territory open defecation – – 1 629 144 88 – – 12 890 open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites 5 647 6 152 4 847 – – 646 – 5 2 – 32 25 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 – 16 15 8 6 4 0 0 0 4 3 3 27 27 25 1 1 1 – 6 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 827 – 1 1 – 6 4 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – 13 3 2 2 2 0 0 0 4 3 2 10 15 20 0 0 0 – 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – 5 6 NA NA NA 100 100 99 100 100 100 – 18 – – 10 6 58 61 65 100 100 100 67 81 92 23 20 18 – 65 66 – 46 53 100 100 100 100 100 100 – – – – 13 18 NA NA NA 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 9 6 8 8 9 – – – 2 3 3 – – – – 11 11 – 18 20 – – – – – – – – – – 48 40 NA NA NA 0 0 1 0 0 0 – 82 – – 9 5 10 10 9 0 0 0 15 8 4 29 26 24 – 2 3 – 8 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – 34 36 NA NA NA 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – 72 83 24 21 17 0 0 0 16 8 1 48 54 58 – 22 20 – 28 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – 11 13 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 31 – – 22 23 69 73 77 100 100 100 70 82 91 34 34 34 – 83 84 – 49 55 100 100 100 100 100 100 – – – – 23 29 – – – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 15 15 9 9 10 – – – 3 4 4 – – – – 10 10 – 21 23 – – – – – – – – – – 42 34 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 69 – – 11 8 9 8 5 0 0 0 13 7 4 28 26 25 – 1 1 – 8 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – 24 24 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – 52 54 13 10 8 0 0 0 14 7 1 38 40 41 – 6 5 – 22 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 84 100 – 75 86 100 100 100 – 100 100 100 100 100 – 94 – – 36 67 98 98 99 100 100 100 91 95 98 85 73 64 99 98 97 – 86 92 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 84 100 – 28 15 100 100 100 100 96 94 100 100 100 76 76 – – 9 51 85 87 89 99 99 99 37 53 65 76 60 47 94 91 78 – 58 67 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 0 0 – 47 71 0 0 0 – 4 6 0 0 0 – 18 – – 27 16 13 11 10 1 1 1 54 42 33 9 13 17 5 7 19 – 28 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 16 0 – 25 14 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – 6 – – 64 33 2 2 1 0 0 0 9 5 2 15 27 36 1 2 3 – 14 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – 44 26 NA NA NA – 100 100 99 99 99 – 65 – – 17 9 66 71 78 100 100 100 62 77 88 58 55 52 – 73 81 – 46 61 100 100 100 100 100 100 – – – – 2 1 NA NA NA 89 92 94 99 99 99 – 1 – – 0 0 25 28 32 100 100 100 6 15 22 19 16 14 – 49 45 – 13 21 100 100 100 99 99 99 – – – – 42 25 NA NA NA – 8 6 0 0 0 – 64 – – 17 9 41 43 46 0 0 0 56 62 66 39 39 38 – 24 36 – 33 40 0 0 0 1 1 1 – – – – 56 74 NA NA NA – 0 0 1 1 1 – 35 – – 83 91 34 29 22 0 0 0 38 23 12 42 45 48 – 27 19 – 54 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – 55 49 100 100 100 – 100 100 100 100 99 – 70 – – 23 30 83 86 91 100 100 100 67 80 90 65 61 57 – 91 93 – 55 69 100 100 100 100 100 100 – – – – 11 6 100 100 100 95 94 94 100 100 99 – 13 – – 3 19 56 62 67 99 99 99 11 21 28 34 32 28 – 79 70 – 23 32 100 100 100 100 100 100 – – – – 44 43 0 0 0 – 6 6 0 0 0 – 57 – – 20 11 27 24 24 1 1 1 56 59 62 31 29 29 – 12 23 – 32 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – 45 51 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 1 – 31 – – 77 70 17 14 9 0 0 0 33 20 10 35 39 43 – 9 7 – 45 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – 1 599 – 68 – – 14 699 spain 5 647 sri lanka 6 470 sudan 5 959 suriname – swaziland – sweden 646 switzerland 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 72 81 84 4 084 4 228 5 560 3 016 4 018 4 615 5 256 5 379 5 400 1 927 1 985 2 015 314 416 511 6 596 7 394 8 926 36 745 44 872 49 668 38 839 40 264 44 486 17 290 18 767 20 061 27 091 34 904 41 348 407 467 515 864 1 080 1 168 8 559 8 860 9 205 6 715 7 184 7 541 49 51 56 33 36 38 100 100 100 56 56 56 50 51 48 14 16 18 30 33 37 52 57 61 75 76 77 17 16 15 27 36 43 68 72 75 23 23 25 83 84 85 73 73 73 – 94 97 – 21 24 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 98 98 98 – 45 52 80 82 84 100 100 100 85 87 88 63 58 55 90 90 90 – 60 61 100 100 100 100 100 100 – – – – 41 47 – – – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 26 30 10 10 10 – – – 7 7 7 – – – 9 9 9 – 31 32 – – – – – – 827 49 .use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared seychelles sierra leone singapore slovakia slovenia solomon islands somalia south africa Country.

50 use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water syrian arab republic 9 819 – Country. area or territory open defecation 19 353 open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites 8 079 – 2010 uPdate 14 466 – – – – 265 1 951 0 0 9 – 93 181 2 565 2 905 19 410 25 502 1 348 – – 21 1 2 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 tajikistan 2008 1990 2000 thailand 2008 1990 the Former Yugoslav republic 2000 of macedonia 2008 1990 2000 timor-leste 2008 1990 2000 togo 2008 1990 2000 tokelau 2008 1990 2000 tonga 2008 1990 trinidad and 2000 tobago 2008 1990 2000 tunisia 2008 1990 2000 turkey 2008 1990 2000 turkmenistan 2008 1990 turks and Caicos 2000 islands 2008 1990 2000 tuvalu 2008 1990 2000 uganda 2008 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 0 0 – 3 3 – 20 0 5 8 9 NA NA NA 2 2 2 0 1 1 0 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 14 13 10 9 7 4 8 280 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 – 0 0 – 21 19 24 23 23 NA NA NA – – – 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – – 2 4 2 2 72 82 95 – 89 94 74 92 96 – 82 82 – 25 40 8 5 3 41 63 93 96 96 96 93 92 92 44 57 64 66 71 75 97 97 97 – 94 – 76 79 81 40 45 49 4 5 5 – 3 3 3 4 4 – 7 7 – 1 2 16 10 6 – – – – – – 7 7 7 6 7 8 2 3 3 – – – – – – – – – 18 20 22 5 3 0 – 6 2 0 0 0 – 10 10 – 22 6 2 9 13 59 37 7 4 4 4 0 1 1 4 11 14 27 23 21 2 2 2 – 6 – 24 21 12 14 16 18 19 10 0 – 2 1 23 4 0 – 1 1 – 52 52 74 76 78 – – – – – – 0 0 0 46 25 14 5 3 1 1 1 1 – – – – – 7 28 19 11 83 89 96 – 90 94 80 93 96 – 88 89 – 32 50 13 12 12 41 63 93 96 96 96 93 92 92 74 81 85 84 87 90 98 98 98 – 96 – 80 83 84 39 44 48 4 4 4 – 3 3 4 4 4 – 6 6 – 2 3 25 23 22 – – – – – – 7 7 7 4 4 4 1 2 2 – – – – – – – – – 22 24 26 3 2 0 – 6 2 0 0 0 – 6 5 – 22 4 3 8 11 59 37 7 4 4 4 0 1 1 1 5 6 13 10 8 1 1 1 – 4 – 20 17 11 14 15 16 10 5 0 – 1 1 16 3 0 – 0 0 – 44 43 59 57 55 – – – – – – 0 0 0 21 10 5 2 1 0 1 1 1 – – – – – 5 25 17 10 12 721 16 511 21 227 5 303 6 173 6 836 56 673 62 347 67 386 1 909 2 012 2 041 740 815 1 098 3 926 5 247 6 459 2 2 1 95 99 104 1 219 1 295 1 333 8 215 9 452 10 169 56 086 66 460 73 914 3 668 4 502 5 044 12 19 33 9 10 10 17 731 24 433 31 657 49 52 54 32 26 26 29 31 33 58 63 67 21 24 27 30 37 42 0 0 0 23 23 25 9 11 13 58 63 67 59 65 69 45 46 49 43 43 47 41 46 49 11 12 13 94 95 96 93 94 95 93 94 95 – 92 92 – 55 76 25 24 24 NA NA NA 98 98 98 93 92 92 95 95 96 96 96 97 99 99 99 98 98 98 86 87 88 35 37 38 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 – 5 5 – 4 5 46 45 44 NA NA NA – – – 7 7 7 2 2 2 1 2 2 – – – – – – – – – 52 54 56 96 95 94 – 92 94 97 98 99 – 100 100 – 69 86 79 83 87 NA NA NA – 100 100 92 95 98 95 98 99 94 97 100 97 97 97 100 100 100 92 95 98 78 85 91 93 93 93 – 78 83 78 82 85 – 96 96 – 28 28 14 13 12 NA NA NA – 72 – 81 85 88 89 92 94 91 95 98 – 81 – – 78 – – – 97 9 14 19 3 2 1 – 14 11 19 16 14 – 4 4 – 41 58 65 70 75 NA NA NA – 28 – 11 10 10 6 6 5 3 2 2 – 16 – – 22 – – – 1 69 71 72 4 5 6 – 8 6 3 2 1 – 0 0 – 31 14 21 17 13 NA NA NA – 0 0 8 5 2 5 2 1 6 3 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 8 5 2 22 15 9 75 79 84 – 49 61 89 95 98 – 99 99 – 47 63 36 39 41 90 93 97 – 100 100 88 91 93 62 77 84 73 85 96 – 72 – 100 100 100 89 93 97 39 53 64 51 59 71 – 20 25 14 29 39 – 84 84 – 11 11 0 0 1 – – – – 76 – 68 71 74 22 33 39 54 74 92 – 29 – – 60 – – – 97 0 0 1 24 20 13 – 29 36 75 66 59 – 15 15 – 36 52 36 39 40 – – – – 24 – 20 20 19 40 44 45 19 11 4 – 43 – – 40 – – – 0 39 53 63 25 21 16 – 51 39 11 5 2 – 1 1 – 53 37 64 61 59 10 7 3 – 0 0 12 9 7 38 23 16 27 15 4 – 28 – 0 0 0 11 7 3 61 47 36 85 87 89 – 60 70 91 96 98 – 100 100 – 52 69 49 55 60 90 93 97 – 100 100 88 91 94 81 90 94 85 93 99 – 83 – 100 100 100 90 94 97 43 57 67 72 77 83 – 35 40 33 46 54 – 92 92 – 15 16 4 5 6 – – – – 75 – 69 73 76 61 70 76 76 88 96 – 53 – – 68 – – – 97 1 2 3 13 10 6 – 25 30 58 50 44 – 8 8 – 37 53 45 50 54 – – – – 25 – 19 18 18 20 20 18 9 5 3 – 30 – – 32 – – – 0 42 55 64 15 13 11 – 40 30 9 4 2 – 0 0 – 48 31 51 45 40 10 7 3 – 0 0 12 9 6 19 10 6 15 7 1 – 17 – 0 0 0 10 6 3 57 43 33 13 586 .

area or territory open defecation 99 99 98 100 100 100 100 100 100 94 86 80 100 100 100 98 99 100 97 98 98 91 93 96 93 94 – 88 94 99 NA NA NA 100 95 91 – 82 72 89 88 87 99 99 99 93 92 87 – 80 80 100 100 100 34 28 23 97 97 97 94 96 98 86 86 85 79 79 79 87 89 – 45 51 56 NA NA NA – 88 84 – 63 54 49 42 37 94 91 88 6 7 11 – 20 20 0 0 0 60 58 57 3 3 3 4 3 2 11 12 13 12 14 17 6 5 – 43 43 43 NA NA NA – 7 7 – 19 18 40 46 50 5 8 11 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 14 20 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 2 2 9 7 4 7 6 – 12 6 1 NA NA NA 0 5 9 – 18 28 11 12 13 1 1 1 – 92 97 100 100 100 100 100 100 46 45 45 94 94 94 79 88 100 85 83 81 49 66 79 71 74 – 51 74 92 100 100 100 – 88 91 – 59 57 23 36 46 70 71 72 – 50 25 – 70 70 98 98 98 1 2 3 46 46 46 50 73 92 37 32 26 27 31 33 44 50 – 0 5 9 80 80 81 – 64 64 – 20 17 1 1 1 7 6 5 – 42 72 – 30 30 2 2 2 45 43 42 48 48 48 29 15 8 48 51 55 22 35 46 27 24 – 51 69 83 20 20 19 – 24 27 – 39 40 22 35 45 63 65 67 – 8 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 54 55 55 6 6 6 21 12 0 15 17 19 51 34 21 29 26 – 49 26 8 0 0 0 – 12 9 – 41 43 77 64 54 30 29 28 – 97 98 100 100 100 100 100 100 55 54 54 99 99 99 96 98 100 90 89 87 57 72 83 90 92 – 58 79 94 100 100 100 – 93 91 – 65 62 49 54 60 78 80 82 open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites – 78 67 – 78 78 100 100 100 7 8 8 84 86 88 89 94 98 57 52 48 37 41 44 80 85 – 9 16 22 80 80 81 – 81 78 – 31 28 20 15 14 32 35 36 unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 41 36 0 0 0 1 1 0 5 3 0 – 18 5 7 2 – 10 7 1 NA NA NA – 8 9 29 13 1 11 15 17 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 3 2 2 0 0 0 4 2 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 4 5 – 26 10 0 NA NA NA – 1 0 6 4 3 3 2 2 0 1 2 91 91 90 95 95 95 100 100 100 23 22 21 99 99 99 83 90 99 76 87 100 – 36 48 45 54 – 29 50 67 96 96 96 – 84 84 6 21 33 36 40 43 37 37 37 4 4 4 5 5 5 – – – 23 21 21 – – – 1 1 1 – – – – 10 13 – – – 2 3 4 – – – – – – 1 2 3 8 8 9 15 15 15 5 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 44 43 41 1 1 1 1 1 0 24 13 0 – 51 36 14 6 – 23 22 21 0 0 0 – 14 16 39 34 29 14 19 22 0 5 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 10 14 17 – – – 15 8 0 0 0 0 – 3 3 41 40 – 46 25 8 4 4 4 – 2 0 54 43 35 42 33 26 48 43 39 95 95 95 97 97 97 100 100 100 24 24 24 100 100 100 94 96 100 84 91 100 – 41 52 82 89 – 35 57 75 96 96 96 – 89 89 18 37 52 46 47 49 43 44 44 3 3 3 3 3 3 – – – 23 23 23 – – – 0 0 0 – – – – 13 17 – – – 2 3 4 – – – – – – 1 2 3 14 13 14 23 24 24 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 44 42 40 0 0 0 1 1 0 16 9 0 – 44 29 8 2 – 21 19 15 0 0 0 – 10 11 37 28 20 13 18 19 0 3 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 9 11 13 – 0 – 5 3 0 0 0 0 – 2 2 10 9 – 42 21 6 4 4 4 – 1 0 44 33 25 27 22 18 34 29 25 – 19 31 – 22 22 0 0 0 48 46 46 15 13 11 7 4 2 33 37 39 20 31 39 10 7 – 49 63 72 20 20 19 – 12 13 – 34 34 29 39 46 46 45 46 – 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 46 46 1 1 1 4 2 0 10 11 13 43 28 17 10 8 – 42 21 6 0 0 0 – 7 9 – 35 38 51 46 40 22 20 18 – 2 618 3 993 8 941 56 233 364 5 193 107 – 43 227 0 – – 3 696 51 583 48 870 45 992 1 867 3 238 4 485 57 237 58 907 61 231 25 455 34 131 42 484 254 865 287 842 311 666 3 110 3 321 3 349 20 515 24 776 27 191 149 190 234 19 741 24 408 28 121 66 247 78 663 87 096 14 15 15 2 154 3 149 4 147 12 314 18 182 22 917 7 910 10 467 12 620 10 461 12 455 12 463 67 67 68 79 78 78 89 89 90 19 22 25 75 79 82 89 91 92 40 37 37 19 22 25 84 90 93 20 24 28 0 0 0 68 71 72 21 26 31 39 35 35 29 34 37 97 97 97 98 98 98 100 100 100 27 29 32 100 100 100 95 97 100 95 97 100 – 57 66 89 93 – 61 79 94 NA NA NA – 91 91 64 81 94 62 60 59 58 57 56 2 2 2 2 2 2 – – – 25 28 30 – – – 0 0 0 – – – – 25 29 – – – 3 4 5 NA NA NA – – – 1 2 2 24 23 22 41 41 40 2 060 51 .use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared ukraine 1990 2000 2008 1990 united arab 2000 emirates 2008 united kingdom of 1990 2000 great Britain and northern ireland 2008 1990 united republic 2000 of tanzania 2008 1990 united states 2000 of america 2008 1990 2000 uruguay 2008 1990 2000 uzbekistan 2008 1990 2000 Vanuatu 2008 1990 Venezuela 2000 (Bolivarian republic of) 2008 1990 2000 Viet nam 2008 1990 Wallis and Futuna 2000 islands 2008 1990 West Bank and 2000 gaza strip 2008 1990 2000 Yemen 2008 1990 2000 Zambia 2008 1990 2000 Zimbabwe 2008 na* 2 539 3 993 4 087 56 801 426 9 958 – – 42 135 0 – 9 701 2 545 985 Country.

gain.available.073 985.998 276.449 8.represents.273 1.387 4.626 135.publication.961 674.675 144.419.negative.at.746 439.Shown.960 1.948 5.436 120.633 442.444.462.028.310 521. area or territory the World open defecation open defecation open defecation unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites unimproved facilitites Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water sub-saharan africa 114 344 58 899 237 812 2010 uPdate 47 100 275 865 436 981 305 467 547 433 192 941 174 442 69 478 70 234 1 535 1 506 154 409 161 513 na* 432 93 166 97 029 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 northern africa 2008 1990 2000 eastern asia 2008 1990 2000 southern asia 2008 1990 south eastern 2000 asia 2008 1990 2000 Western asia 2008 1990 2000 oceania 2008 1990 latin america 2000 and the Caribbean 2008 1990 Commonwealth 2000 of independent states 2008 1990 developed 2000 regions 2008 1990 developing 2000 regions 2008 17 17 17 0 0 0 19 9 3 3 5 10 10 7 3 3 1 0 15 15 19 13 12 12 6 7 7 0 0 0 9 7 5 1 172 937 39 19 8 18 34 29 54 58 61 7 10 11 14 11 11 25 21 17 1 263 547 6 6 4 4 5 45 6 41 6 36 5 20 95 96 96 80 80 79 15 16 17 5 4 4 64 71 78 27 31 34 11 10 8 3 1 0 3 5 6 23 18 14 13 10 8 0 0 0 – – – 6 4 2 – – – 0 0 0 10 8 7 21 23 24 55 72 83 39 47 53 13 20 26 36 49 60 53 60 67 46 43 45 39 48 55 79 80 83 97 96 96 28 35 40 10 11 13 4 5 6 6 7 8 3 5 6 5 7 8 2 4 5 – – – 6 7 9 – – – – – – 5 7 8 22 23 25 12 6 2 46 40 37 3 6 10 18 15 12 26 21 18 37 40 37 12 14 16 21 20 16 2 4 4 23 20 20 47 43 38 29 17 9 9 6 2 81 69 58 41 29 20 19 15 10 17 17 18 43 31 20 – 0 1 1 0 0 44 38 32 28 29 31 72 83 89 43 51 56 25 31 36 46 59 69 80 82 85 55 53 53 69 75 80 89 89 89 99 99 99 41 48 52 16 18 20 5 6 6 12 15 18 7 9 10 6 8 9 2 5 5 – – – – – – – – – – – – 9 11 13 20 21 22 6 2 1 38 29 22 2 6 10 16 12 8 10 7 7 45 47 47 14 14 14 11 11 11 1 1 1 18 15 14 36 32 27 17 9 4 7 5 4 66 54 44 32 21 14 8 6 3 14 14 14 17 11 6 – – – 0 0 0 32 26 21 517.193 575.time.200.591 517.applicable.not. 2000 and 2008 use oF sanitation FaCilities (PerCentage oF PoPulation) urban unimproved unimproved unimproved improved improved unimproved unimproved improved improved improved unimproved rural total urban rural total use oF drinking-Water sourCes (PerCentage oF PoPulation) Percentage urban population number of people who gained access to improved sanitation 1990-2008 (thousand) number of people who gained access to improved sources of drinking-water 1990-2008 (thousand) Population (thousand) other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises other improved Piped on premises total improved total improved total improved shared shared Year improved shared mdg regions and Country.076.access.043 1.data.991 6.in.growth.668.213.NA.848..negative.466 1.899 280.509 1.533 28 33 37 49 51 53 30 38 45 26 29 31 32 40 47 61 65 67 24 24 23 71 75 79 65 64 64 71 74 75 35 40 44 43 43 44 91 93 94 53 58 61 56 58 57 69 74 79 96 93 94 85 85 81 81 84 86 94 93 93 100 100 100 65 67 68 29 30 31 6 6 6 25 28 30 18 19 19 8 9 10 1 6 6 – – – – – – – – – – – – 16 18 20 83 82 83 94 94 95 97 98 98 91 93 95 92 92 92 96 96 96 92 92 92 95 96 97 98 98 98 100 100 100 93 94 94 43 38 35 86 89 91 87 92 96 55 53 51 41 47 52 93 93 93 67 57 – 87 90 92 88 89 90 98 98 98 71 72 73 40 44 48 8 5 4 10 6 2 36 40 44 51 45 40 3 4 3 25 35 – 8 6 5 10 9 8 2 2 2 22 22 21 17 18 17 6 6 5 3 2 2 9 7 5 8 8 8 4 4 4 8 8 8 5 4 3 2 2 2 0 0 0 7 6 6 36 42 47 78 83 87 56 70 82 69 76 83 63 72 81 70 74 78 38 40 37 63 72 80 82 84 87 98 98 98 60 69 76 4 4 5 33 51 68 42 59 73 9 10 11 6 11 16 55 54 61 7 8 6 36 48 58 39 37 33 74 77 81 21 27 31 32 38 42 45 32 19 14 11 9 60 66 72 57 61 65 15 20 17 31 32 31 27 24 22 43 47 54 24 21 17 39 42 45 37 40 44 64 58 53 22 17 13 44 30 18 31 24 17 37 28 19 30 26 22 62 60 63 37 28 20 18 16 13 2 2 2 40 31 24 36 29 22 49 55 60 86 89 92 69 81 89 75 81 87 72 80 86 86 88 90 51 52 50 85 90 93 92 93 94 99 100 100 71 79 84 77 83 87 15 15 16 58 70 80 55 71 83 21 22 23 17 26 33 78 79 82 22 20 19 72 80 84 71 71 69 91 93 94 39 45 49 50 54 57 34 40 44 28 19 12 14 10 6 54 59 64 55 54 53 8 9 8 29 32 31 13 10 9 21 22 25 8 7 6 32 34 35 27 29 30 51 45 40 14 11 8 31 19 11 25 19 13 28 20 14 14 12 10 49 48 50 15 10 7 8 7 6 1 0 0 29 21 16 23 17 13 1 677 021 1990 5 290 359 43 77 11 world 2000 6 115 219 47 77 13 1 774 482 2008 6 749 872 50 76 15 “ .228 576.because.739 1.520 4.621 164.the.“–”.820 933.121 9.represents.102 280.as.result.and.of .of .693 822.data.not.as.532 1. . *.394 207.345.850 174.52 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water: regional and gloBal estimates For 1990.a.of . NA”.population.

and the subdivision of the developing regions Western Asia 53 .Annex A MillenniuM DevelopMent GoAls: reGionAl GroupinGs MDG ReGions Commonwealth of Independent States Developed regions DEvELOpINg rEgIONS Eastern Asia Latin America and Caribbean Northern Africa Oceania Southern Asia South-eastern Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Figure A nited Nations classification of the countries in the world into three regions (developed regions. developing U regions and the Commonwealth of Independent States).

or.open.practising.using. .population.region..2008 54 Progress on sanitation and drinking-Water 2010 uPdate .or.unimproved.shared.defecation.proportion.MDG.and.by.sanitation.in. rban.rural. U facility.improved.an..of ..and.1990.annEx B gLoBaL and rEgionaL Sanitation LaddErS: urBan and ruraL open defecation unimproved facilities shared improved Figure B.the.

in 1990 and 2008 55 . other improved drinking-water sources or an unimproved source. by MDG region.Annex C GlobAl And reGionAl drinkinG-wAter lAdders: urbAn And rurAl Unimproved Other improved Piped on premises 5 15 5 15 4 17 4 17 36 44 37 36 22 22 7 22 7 22 6 24 21 6 21 40 24 40 45 17 40 17 64 48 64 40 45 39 31 21 48 53 53 17 17 9 5 17 31 5 44 9 36 17 31 36 44 72 60 80 79 37 44 71 73 39 55 34 71 73 42 43 35 32 55 4 32 42 5 51 9 51 60 72 80 79 27 27 34 21 31 43 11 35 4 5 9 11 6 8 6 8 5 4 5 4 3 22 13 10 3 22 45 13 19 10 2 2 18 2 2 44 9 18 44 8 8 19 37 19 37 40 65 57 4 3 4 3 4 3 30 4 3 30 15 22 17 22 8 51 8 40 19 14 87 96 14 9 51 17 93 93 15 61 86 91 45 86 91 33 68 87 96 42 73 52 73 41 52 41 6 57 65 93 93 55 68 33 42 16 55 61 6 16 Figure C Urban and rural proportion of the population using a piped water connection.

with over 1 billion more people now using such a source than in 1990. 1. • ith only 45% of the rural population using W improved sanitation. Switzerland United Nation Children’s Fund 3 UN Plaza New York. World Health Organization Avenue Appia 20 1211 Geneva 27. However. the world is likely to miss the MDG sanitation target by a billion people. this increase is barely keeping up with urban population growth. • orldwide. but the number of people in urban areas without improved sanitation is increasing because of rapid growth in urban populations.3 billion people have gained access A to improved sanitation since 1990. a decline of 167 million since 1990. 84% of the population uses an improved source of drinking-water. In developing regions. • even out of ten people without improved S sanitation live in rural areas. Worldwide.With only five years to Go until the MDG tarGet Date 2. where the rate is 76%. 884 million people do not use an improved source of drinking-water • he world is on track to meet the MDG T drinking-water target. • pen defecation rates have decreased from O 25% in 1990 to 17% in 2008. • n urban areas the use of improved sources I of drinking-water has been maintained at 96% since 2000.1 billion people practise open defecation. 37% of people not using an W improved source of drinking-water live in Sub-Saharan Africa.6 billion people do not use improved sanitation • lthough 1. rural areas lag far behind urban areas. NY 10017 USA . • he number of people living in rural areas who T do not use an improved source of drinkingwater is over five times the number living in urban areas.