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Artabanus III of Parthia

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Artabanus III

"King of kings of Iran"

Coin of Artabanus III.

10 – 35 (first reign)
Reign
36 – 38 (second reign)

Vonones I (predecessor)
Predecessor
Tiridates III (usurper)

Successor Vardanes I

Born Unknown

Died 38

Dynasty Arsacid dynasty

Father Darius II of Media Atropatene

Mother Unnamed Parthian princess

Religion Zoroastrianism
Artabanus III of Parthia (Persian: ‫)اردوان سوم‬, flourished second half of 1st century BC – 38)
was a Prince of Iranian and Greek ancestry. Artabanus III served as a King of Media Atropatene
and later as King of Parthia.

Contents
[hide]

 1 Family background and early life


 2 Kingship of Media Atropatene and later Parthia
 3 References
 4 Sources

Family background and early life[edit]


Artabanus III was a son born to an unnamed Arsacid Parthian Princess[1] who was a relation to
the King Vonones I of Parthia and her husband, the Median Atropatenian Prince, Darius.[2][3][4] His
known grandparents which were his paternal ones were the Monarchs Artavasdes I of Media
Atropatene and his wife, Athenais.[5][6] Artabanus III had a younger brother who also served as
King of Media Atropatene and Parthia, Vonones II.[7] Artabanus III was the namesake of the
previous ruling Parthian monarchs of this name. A daughter of Artabanus III was married to
Mithridates, the Parthian general who attacked Asineus and Anileus and the Babylonian Jews on
the Sabbath.[8]

Although Artabanus III was born and raised in the Parthian Empire, he spent his youth living
among the Dahae nomads.[9] However this may refer to Artabanus III’s exile in a period when
Rome dominated the Kingdoms of the Caucasus area.[10]

Kingship of Media Atropatene and later Parthia[edit]


In 6 after the death of his paternal first cousin Artavasdes II, who served as Artavasdes III, as
King of Media Atropatene and Armenia from 4 to 6,[11] Artabanus III succeeded his cousin as
King of Media Atropatene.[12] He served as King from 6 until 10 and little is known on his reign.

Letter in Greek of King Artabanus III to the inhabitants of Susa (the city retained Greek
institutions since the time of the Seleucid Empire). Musée du Louvre.

In 10, Artabanus III abdicated his throne of Media Atropatene to become King of Parthia. His
kingship of Media Atropatene was succeeded by his brother Vonones II. Artabanus III ruled the
Parthian Empire from about 10 to 38. He was raised to the throne by the Parthian grandees, who
would not acknowledge Vonones I, whom the Roman emperor Augustus had sent from Rome
(where he lived as a hostage) as successor of his father Phraates IV.

The war between Vonones I and Artabanus III was long and doubtful. On a coin Vonones I,
mentions victory over Artabanus III. At last Artabanus III defeated his rival completely and
occupied the Parthian capital Ctesiphon. Vonones I fled to Armenia, where he was
acknowledged as King, under the protection of the Romans. When Artabanus III invaded
Armenia, Vonones I fled to Syria. The Roman emperor Tiberius thought it was prudent to
support him no longer. Tiberius' nephew and first heir Germanicus, whom he sent to the East,
concluded a treaty with Artabanus III, in which he was recognized as King and friend of the
Romans. Armenia was given in 18 to Artaxias III.

Artabanus III like all Parthian Princes was much troubled by the opposition of the grandees. He
is said to have been very cruel in consequence of his education among the Dahae nomads. To
strengthen his power he killed all the Arsacid princes whom he could reach. Rebellions of the
subject nations may have occurred also. We learn that he intervened in the ancient Greek city
Seleucia, in favour of the oligarchs, and those two Jewish brigands, Anilai and Asinai,
maintained themselves for years in Neerda in the swamps of Babylonia and were acknowledged
as dynasts by Artabanus III.

In 35, he tried a new way to conquer Armenia and to establish his son Arsaces I as King there. A
war with Rome seemed inevitable. That party among the Parthian magnates which was hostile to
Artabanus III applied to Tiberius for a king of the race of Phraates IV. Tiberius sent Phraates
IV's grandson, Tiridates III and ordered Lucius Vitellius the Elder (the father of the Roman
emperor Vitellius) to restore the Roman authority in the East. By very dexterous military and
diplomatic operations Vitellius succeeded completely. Artabanus III was deserted by his
followers and fled to the East. Tiridates III who was proclaimed King, could no longer maintain
himself, because he appeared to be a vassal of the Romans. Artabanus III returned from Hyrcania
with a strong army of Scythian (Dahae) auxiliaries and was again acknowledged by the
Parthians. Tiridates III left Seleucia and fled to Syria. Artabanus III wasn’t strong enough for a
war with Rome; he therefore concluded a treaty with Vitellius in 37, in which he gave up all
further pretensions. A short time afterwards Artabanus III was deposed again, and a certain
Cinnamus was proclaimed king. Artabanus III took refuge with his vassal, the King Izates bar
Monobaz and Izates by negotiations and the promise of a complete pardon induced the Parthians
to restore Artabanus III once more to the throne. Shortly afterwards Artabanus III died and was
succeeded by his son, Vardanes I, whose reign was still more turbulent than that of his father.

Artabanus III from an unknown wife had four sons Arsaces I, Orodes, Artabanus (he with his
wife and son, were all killed in 40 by Gotarzes II who were considered as potential rivals for the
Parthian throne) and Vardanes I. Gotarzes II may have been his natural or adoptive son and
according to numismatic evidence, Artabanus III may have been the father of Artabanus IV.

References[edit]
1. Jump up ^ Tacitus, Annals, 6.42
2. Jump up ^ Baldwin, Comments on "Iberian route"
3. Jump up ^ Ptolemaic Genealogy: Affiliated Lines, Descendant Lines Archived July 16, 2011, at
the Wayback Machine.
4. Jump up ^ Ptolemaic Genealogy: Tryphaena, Footnote 13
5. Jump up ^ Ptolemaic Genealogy: Affiliated Lines, Descendant Lines Archived July 16, 2011, at
the Wayback Machine.
6. Jump up ^ Ptolemaic Genealogy: Tryphaena, Footnote 13
7. Jump up ^ Ptolemaic Genealogy: Tryphaena, Footnote 13
8. Jump up ^ Josephus, Antiquities, Book 18, Ch 9 (353.
9. Jump up ^ Tacitus, Annals, 2.3
10. Jump up ^ Ptolemaic Genealogy: Tryphaena, Footnote 13
11. Jump up ^ Swan, The Augustan Succession: An Historical Commentary on Cassius Dio’s
Roman History, Books 55-56 (9 B.C.-A.D. 14), p.114
12. Jump up ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 18.2.4

Sources[edit]
 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 18–20
 Tacitus, Annals, ii–vi
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm,
Hugh, ed. (1911). "Artabanus". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press.
 S. Baldwin, Comments on "Iberian route" DFA line, web, 1996
 P.M. Swan, The Augustan Succession: An Historical Commentary on Cassius Dio’s
Roman History, Books 55-56 (9 B.C.-A.D. 14) (Google eBook), Oxford University Press,
2004
 Ptolemaic Genealogy: Affiliated Lines, Descendant Lines
 Ptolemaic Genealogy: Tryphaena

Artabanus III of Parthia


Arsacid dynasty

Preceded by Great King (Shah) of Parthia Succeeded by


Vonones I 10–35 Tiridates III

Preceded by Great King (Shah) of Parthia Succeeded by


Tiridates III 36–38 Vardanes I

[hide]

 v
 t
 e
Rulers of the Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD)

 Arsaces I (250–246/211 BC)


 Tiridates I (246–211 BC)
 Arsaces II (211–191 BC)
 Phriapatius (191–176 BC)
 Phraates I (176–171 BC)
 Mithridates I (171–132 BC)
 Phraates II (132–126 BC)
 Artabanus II (126–124 BC)
 Mithridates II (124–88 BC)
 Gotarzes I (95–90 BC)
 Orodes I (90–80 BC)
 Sanatruces (77–70 BC)
 Phraates III (70–57 BC)
 Mithridates III (57–54 BC)
 Orodes II (57–38 BC)
 Pacorus I§ (51 BC)
 Phraates IV (37–2 BC)
 Tiridates II§ (32 BC)
 Musa (2 BC–4 AD)
 Phraates V (2 BC–4 AD)
 Orodes III (4–6)
 Vonones I (6–12)
 Artabanus III (10–35)
 Tiridates III (35–36)
 Artabanus III (36–38)
 Vardanes I (40–47)
 Gotarzes II (40–51)
 Vonones II (51)
 Vologases I (51–78)
 Vardanes II§ (55–58)
 Vologases II (77–80)
 Pacorus II (78–105)
 Artabanus IV§ (80–90)
 Vologases III (105–147)
 Osroes I (109–116)
 Parthamaspates§ (116–117)
 Sanatruces II§ (116)
 Osroes I (117–129)
 Vologases III (129–140)
 Mithridates IV (129–140)
 Vologases IV (147–191)
 Osroes II§ (191)
 Vologases V (191–208)
 Vologases VI (208–228)
 Artabanus V§ (208–224)

§
usurpers or rival claimants

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artabanus_III_of_
Parthia
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Anilai and Asinai
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Anilai and Asinai were two Babylonian-Jewish robber chieftains of the Parthian Empire whose
exploits were reported by Josephus.

They were apprenticed by their widowed mother to a weaver. Having been punished for laziness
by their master, they ran away and became freebooters in the marshlands of the Euphrates. There
they gathered about them a large number of discontented Jews, organizing troops, and levying
forced contributions on the shepherds, and finally established a little robber-state at the forks of
the Euphrates.

One Sabbath they were surprised by the Parthian ruler of Babylonia, but they determined to fight
regardless of the day of rest, and defeated their assailant so completely that the Parthian king
Artabanus III (10-40 CE), who was just then engaged in putting down a rebellion, resolved to
make use of such brave Jews to keep the satraps in check. He concluded an alliance with them,
entrusting them with the control of that portion of Babylonia which they already occupied.

They then built fortifications, and the little state lasted for fifteen years (c. 18-33). Its downfall
was brought about by the marriage of Anilai with the widow of a Parthian general, whom he had
attacked and killed in battle. He tolerated the religion of his foreign wife, and met the religious
intolerance of his people with rigor, thus estranging some of his followers and sowing dissension
among them.

After Asinai had been poisoned by his brother's wife for his intolerant utterances, Anilai assumed
the leadership of his troops. He sought to divert them with wars, and succeeded in capturing
Mithridates[disambiguation needed], governor of Parthyene, and son-in-law of the king. He soon, however,
released Mithridates, fearing that Artaban might take vengeance on the Babylonian Jews for his
death. Being signally defeated by Mithridates in a subsequent engagement, he was forced to
withdraw to the forests, where he lived by plundering the Babylonian villages about Nehardea,
until his resources were exhausted and the little robber-state disappeared.

Babylonians' discontent with the Jews, so far restrained because of their fear of Anilai, now
broke forth afresh, causing the Jews to flee from the persecutions to Seleucia, yet without finding
the desired peace in the exile, either.

The name Anilai is identical with "Ḥanilai" in Talmudic literature. This was, for example, the
name of the father of the well-known haggadist Tanḥum b. Ḥamilas (Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amor.
iii.627).

Sources[edit]
 Josephus, Antiquities, xviii.9.

References[edit]
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer,
Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Anilai". Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk &
Wagnalls Company.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anilai_and_Asinai

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ROBERT DREWS

Professor of Classics Emeritus


PMB 92
230 Appleton Place
Nashville, TN 37203-5721
(615) 322-2516
robert.drews@vanderbilt.edu

COURSEBOOK: JUDAISM,
CHRISTIANITY AND
ISLAM, TO THE
BEGINNINGS OF MODERN
CIVILIZATION by Robert
Drews
Chapter One. The Old Gods.pdf

Chapter Two. New Directions.pdf

Chapter Three. Israel and Judah.pdf

Chapter Four. The Babylonian Captivity and its Consequences.pdf

Chapter Five. The GrecoRoman World from Alexander to Hadrian.pdf

Chapter Six. Religion and Philosophy in the Hellenistic World and the Early Roman Empire.pdf

Chapter Seven. The Remarkable Story of Hellenistic Judaism.pdf

Chapter Eight. Decline of the Seleukids and Restoration of a Judaean Monarchy.pdf

Chapter Nine. Hasmonaean and Herodian Judaea and the Coming of Rome.pdf

Chapter Ten. New Religious Directions in Late Hellenistic Judaea.pdf


Chapter Eleven. Judaea from 4 BC to the Death of Herodes Agrippa in 44 CE

Chapter Twelve. Judaea from the Death of Herodes Agrippa to the Destruction of the Temple.pdf

Chapter Thirteen. New Covenant and Other Christianities to ca. 185 CE.pdf

Chapter Fourteen. Rabbinic and Other Judaisms from 70 to 250.pdf

Chapter Fifteen. The Roman Empire at Its Zenith to 235 CE.pdf

Chapter Sixteen. The Christian Attack on Greco-Roman Culture, ca. 135 to 235

Chapter Seventeen. The Establishment of Christendom 235 to 430.pdf

Chapter Eighteen. Judaism in Late Antiquity ca. 250 to 565.pdf

Chapter Nineteen. Muhammad and the Beginnings of Islam.pdf

Chapter Twenty. The Rightly Guided Califs and the Establishment of an Arabian Empire.pdf

Chapter TwentyOne.The Arabian Empire and its Successors, to ca. 1000.pdf.

Chapter TwentyTwo. Abbasid Civilization and the Culture of Islam.pdf

Chapter TwentyThree. Christianity from the Fifth to the Eleventh Century.pdf

Chapter TwentyFour. Judaism from the Arabian Conquests to the Crusades.pdf

Chapter TwentyFive. The Crisis of the Dar al Islam through the Wars of Timur the Lame.pdf

Chapter TwentySix. Religion and Religiosity after the Crusades.pdf

Chapter TwentySeven. Catholic Europes Road to the Renaissance.pdf

Chapter TwentyEight. Beginning of the Burning Times in Western Christendom.pdf

Chapter TwentyNine. The CatholicProtestant Conflicts in Western Christendom to ca. 1700.pdf

Chapter Thirty. The Ottoman Empire Judaism and Eastern Europe to 1648.pdf

Chapter ThirtyOne. The Scientific Revolution.pdf

Chapter ThirtyTwo. Religion in Eastern Europe and the Middle East from 1648 through the Reign of Catherine the Great.pdf

Chapter ThirtyThree. The Beginnings of Religious Skepticism in Western Christendom to ca. 1720.pdf

Chapter ThirtyFour. Retrenchment and Revival in Western Christianity to ca. 1750.pdf

Chapter ThirtyFive. Enlightenment Secularism and Atheism to 1789.pdf

Chapter ThirtySix. The Beginnings of Modernity in Europe and America.pdf

Bibliography.pdf

From: https://my.vanderbilt.edu/robertdrews/publications/

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https://my.vanderbilt.edu/robertdrews/files/2014/01/Chapter-Four.-The-Babylonian-Captivity-and-its-
Consequences.pdf

On this episode see Josephus AJ 18.310-376. Smallwood 1981, p. 415, dates the rule of Anileus (and
Asineus) to ca. 20-35 CE.

Smallwood 1981

Smallwood, Elizabeth M., “The Jews under Roman Rule”, (Leiden: Brill, 1981), p.415

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Tiridates III of Parthia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tiridates III of Parthia (Persian: ‫)سوم تيرداد‬, ruled the Parthian Empire briefly in 35–36. He was the
grandson of Phraates IV. He was sent to Rome as a hostage and was educated there.

In about 36, when the Parthian nobility rebelled against Artabanus III, they applied to the Roman
emperor Tiberius for a king of the race of Phraates. Tiberius sent Tiridates to the east, and ordered
Lucius Vitellius (the father of the emperor Vitellius) to restore the Roman authority there. By very
dexterous military and diplomatic operations Vitellius succeeded completely. Artabanus was deserted
by his followers and fled.

However, Tiridates, who was proclaimed king, could not maintain himself, because he appeared to be a
vassal of the Romans. Artabanus soon returned from Hyrcania with a strong army of Scythian (Dahan)
auxiliaries, and was again acknowledged by the Parthians. Tiridates left Seleucia and fled to Syria.

The Roman historian Tacitus writes that the Parthian court official Abdagaeses, who exerted political
control over Tiridates, spared Tiridates from danger by preventing him from visiting the Parthian
tribes.[1] This policy kept the distrustful clans from uniting against Tiridates in the meantime. However,
when situations became untenable, it was Abdagaeses who advised Tiridates to retreat west to
Mesopotamia where strategic defensive locations were suitable. This move was viewed as an act of
cowardice by the Parthian tribes, which led to Tiridates' ousting from his seat of power.

Notes[edit]
Jump up ^ Bunson, 1.

References[edit]

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
"article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Bunson, Matthew (1994). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. New York: Facts on File Inc.

Dio Cassius, lviii, 26.

Tacitus, Annals, vi. 32.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiridates_III_of_Parthia

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Vardanes I

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coin of Vardanes I.

Vardanes I of Parthia (Persian: ‫يکم وردان‬, flourished 1st century) was a Prince of Iranian and Greek
ancestry. He ruled the Parthian Empire as King from about 40 until 45 CE.[1] He succeeded his father
Artabanus III, but had to continually fight against his brother Gotarzes II, a rival claimant to the throne.

His coins show that he was in full possession of the throne from about 40 to 45.[1] In 43, he forced the
city of Seleucia to submit to the Parthians again after a rebellion of seven years. Ctesiphon, the
residence of the kings on the bank of the Tigris, opposite to Seleucia, naturally profited by this war and
Vardanes I is therefore called founder of Ctesiphon by Ammianus Marcellinus. He also prepared for a
war against the Roman Empire, with the aim of reconquering Armenia, but ultimately decided against
facing the Roman legions.

In a new war with Gotarzes II, he gained a great success against the eastern nomads. According to
Tacitus (Annales xi. 8-10), Vardanes I was expelled temporarily from the throne by Gotarzes II, and fled
to take refuge "in the plains of the Bactrians" (possibly the Yuezhi, who occupied Bactria at that time).
Once he resumed power, he led a victorious campaign against the Dahae army of Gotarzes II, as far as
the Sindes River (the Tejen). Vardanes I is praised by Tacitus as a young and highly gifted ruler of great
energy, but lacking in humanity. In about 47 he was assassinated while hunting and Gotarzes II became
King again.
Vardanes I is mentioned in Life of Apollonius of Tyana as a benefactor to Apollonius of Tyana (2–c. 98).
He gives him letters guaranteeing safe passage to India, so that he can meet there the ruler of India,
Phraotes:

"And with that, he showed them a letter, written to that effect, and this gave them occasion to marvel
afresh at the humanity and foresight of Vardanes. For he had addressed the letter in question to the
satrap of the Indus, although he was not subject to his dominion; and in it he reminded him of the good
service he had done him, but declared that he would not ask any recompense for the same, "for", he
said, "it is not my habit to ask for a return of favors." But he said he would be very grateful, if he could
give a welcome to Apollonius and send him on wherever he wished to go. And he had given gold to the
guide, so that in case he found Apollonius in want thereof, he might give it him and save him from
looking to the generosity of anyone else." – Book II:17[2]

References[edit]

^ Jump up to: a b Bury, John (1893). The student's Roman Empire: A History of the Roman Empire from
its Foundation to the Death of Marcus Aurelius. Harper & Brothers. p. 322.

Jump up ^ Life of Apollonius Tyana II 17

Sources[edit]

Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, xx, 3, 4

Tacitus, Annals, xi, 9, 10

Life of Apollonius Tyana, II, 17

Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae, xxiii, 6, 23

J. Bury, The student's Roman Empire: A History of the Roman Empire from its Foundation to the Death
of Marcus Aurelius, Harper & Brothers, 1893

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
"Vardanes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vardanes_I

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Vonones I
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coin of Vonones I from a mint at Ecbatana.

Vonones I of Parthia (Persian: ‫)يکم ونون‬, (ΟΝΩΝΗΣ on his coins) ruled the Parthian Empire from about 8
to 12 AD. He was the eldest son of Phraates IV of Parthia (ruled c. 37–2 BC) and was sent to Rome as a
hostage in the 20s BC as surety for a treaty his father made with Augustus.[1]

Contents [hide]

1 Ascension

2 Fall

3 Coins

4 Notes

5 References

Ascension[edit]

After the assassination of Orodes III in about 6 AD, the Parthians applied to Augustus for a new King
from the house of Arsaces.[2] Augustus sent them Vonones I, but he could not maintain himself as King;
he had been educated as a Roman, and was despised by the Parthian nobility as a Roman stooge.[2]

Fall[edit]

Another member of the Arsacid house, Artabanus III (ruled c. 10–38), who was living among the Dahan
nomads in the east of Parthia, was invited to the throne. In a civil war he defeated and expelled Vonones
I.

Coins[edit]

The coins of Vonones I date from 8 to 12 AD and bear the inscription "King Vonones, conqueror of
Artabanus" commemorating a temporary victory over his rival. Those of Artabanus II begin in the year
10. In about the year 12 Vonones I fled into Armenia and became King there.[3] Artabanus II demanded
his deposition, and as Augustus did not wish to begin a war with the Parthians he moved Vonones I into
Syria, where he was kept in custody, though in a kingly style.[4] Later he was moved to Cilicia,[5] and
when he tried to escape in about 19 AD, he was killed by his guards.[6]
Notes[edit]

Jump up ^ Tacitus, The Annals 2.1

^ Jump up to: a b Tacitus, The Annals 2.2

Jump up ^ Tacitus, The Annals 2.3

Jump up ^ Tacitus, The Annals 2.4

Jump up ^ Tacitus, The Annals 2.58

Jump up ^ Tacitus, The Annals 2.68

References[edit]

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
"article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Hon. Ana. 5, 9.

Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, xviii, 2, 4.

Tacitus, Annals, ii, 4, 58, 68.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vonones_I

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Orodes III of Parthia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coin of Orodes III

Orodes III (Persian: ‫ )سوم ارد‬was raised to the throne of the Parthian Empire around AD 4 by the
magnates after the death of Phraates V (reigned c. 2 BC – AD 4). He was killed after a short reign "on
account of his extreme cruelty" (Josephus). After his death, Phraates V's brother Vonones I (reigned c.
AD 8–12) tried to assume the throne, but a civil war with Artabanus III (reigned c. AD 10–38) followed.

References[edit]
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
"article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, xviii.

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Phraates V

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coin of Phraates IV on the left, and Musa on the right.

Phraates V (Persian: ‫)پنجم فرهاد‬, known by the diminutive Phraataces (Ancient Greek: Φραατάκης), ruled
the Parthian Empire from 2 BC to AD 4. He was the younger son of Phraates IV of Parthia (37–2 BC) and
Musa of Parthia, with whom he is associated on his coins. Under Phraates V a war threatened to break
out with Rome about the supremacy in Armenia and Media. But when Augustus (27 BC – AD 14) sent his
adopted son Gaius Caesar into the east in order to invade Iran, the Parthians preferred to conclude a
treaty (AD 1), by which once again Armenia was recognized as in the Roman sphere. Soon afterwards
Phraates V and his mother were slain by the Parthians, sometime around AD 4. Josephus alleges that
Phraates V married his mother Musa, and, this being unacceptable to the Parthians, they rose up and
overthrew him, offering the crown to Orodes III of Parthia (who ruled briefly in AD 6).

References[edit]

Toumanoff, Cyril (1986). "Arsacids". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 5. Cyril Toumanoff. pp. 525–546.

Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, xviii, 2.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
"Phraates". Encyclopædia Britannica. 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phraates_V

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