SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY.

SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY
BY

F.

BRUNNOW, PH. DR.

TRANSLATED BY THE AUTHOR FROM THE SECOND

GERMAN

EDITION.

LONDON:

ASHER
13,

& CO.

BEDFORD STREET, COVENT GARDEN.
1865.

DEDICATED
TO THE

REV.

GEORGE

P.

PROFESSOR OF MATHKMATICS

IN

WILLIAMS, OF
THE UNIVERSITY

L. L. D.

MICHIGAN

rt

BY THE AUTHOR
AS AN EXPRESSION OF AFFECTION AND GRATITUDE FOR UNVARYING FRIENDSHIP AND A NEVER CEASING INTEREST IN ALL HIS
SCIENTIFIC PURSUITS.

2

72.

PREFACE.
.During

my

connection

with the University of
I felt

Michigan as Professor of Astronomy

very

much

the want of a book written in the English language, to which I might refer the students attending my lec
tures,

and

it

seems that the same want was

felt

by

other Professors, as I
expressed, that I

heard very frequently the wish should publish an English Edition of

my

at least for

Spherical Astronomy, and thus relieve this one important branch of Astronomy.
I

want

How

ever while

was

in

America

I

never found leisure to

undertake this translation, although the arrangements for it were made with the Publishers already at the time
In of the publication of the Second German Edition. mean time an excellent translation of a part of the book was published in England by the Rev. R. Main; but
the

seemed to me desirable to have the entire work translated, especially as the Second Edition had been
still

it

considerably enlarged.

Therefore when

I

returned to

Germany and was invited by the Publishers to pre pare an English translation, I gladly availed myself of

my

comply with their wishes, and hav ing acted for a number of years as an instructor of
leisure here to

VJII

science in America,
at the

it

close

of

my

was especially gratifying to me career there to write a work in

the language of the country, which would leave me in an intellectual connection with it and with those

young men whom

I

had the pleasure of instructing

in

my

science.
Still I

as publish this translation with diffidence, I am well aware of its imperfection, and as I fear that, not to speak of the want of that finish of style which

might have been expected from an English Translator, there will be found now and then some Germanisms, which are always liable to occur in a translation, espe made by a German. I have discovered cially when

some such mistakes myself and have given them
the Table of Errors.
I trust therefore that this translation

in

may

be re

ceived with indulgence and may be found a useful guide for those who wish to study this particular branch of science.
JENA, August 1864.
F.

BRtTNNOW.

TABLES OF CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION.
A.

TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES. FORMULAE OF SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
Page
1

1.

Formulae for the transformation of co-ordinates
Their application to polar co-ordinates Fundamental formulae of spherical trigonometry

2.

2 3

3.
4. 5.
6.

Other formulae of spherical trigonometry Gauss s and Napier s formulae
Introduction of auxiliary angles into the formulae of spherical trigo

4
.

5
9

nometry
7.

On

the precision attainable in finding angles by

means of tangents
10
11

and of sines
8.
9.

Formulae

for right angled triangles

The

10.

11.

formulae of spherical trigonometry Approximate formulae for small angles Some expansions frequently used in spherical astronomy
differential

12

14

....

14

B.
12. 13.

THE THEORY OF INTERPOLATION.
Notation of differences

Object of interpolation.

18

Newton

14.
15.

formula for interpolation Other interpolation - formulae
s

20 22
27

Computation of numerical
C.

differential coefficients

THEORY OF SEVERAL DEFINITE INTEGRALS USED
SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY.
f e~* dt
(/

IN

16.

The

integral

33

17.

Various methods for computing the integral
T

f*-*3
I

e

dt

....
dx

35 38

18.

Computation of the integrals

rV^ n^
si

and
2

C
-,

(1
2

x) sin

J

Fcos

2

-}-2*sin

cos

-h
P

2 sing .x

D.
19.

THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES.
Page

Introductory

remarks.

On

the form of the equations of condition

derived from observations
20. 21.

40
42

The law of the The measure of

errors of observation

precision of observations, the

mean

error and

the

22.

probable error Determination of the most probable value of an unknown quantity and of its probable error from a system of equations

46

48 54

23.

Determination
quantities

of

the

most

probable

values

of several

unknown
57

24.
25.

from a system of equations Determination of the probable error in

this case

Example

60

E.
26. 27.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODICAL FUNCTIONS FROM GIVEN NUMERICAL VALUES.
Several propositions relating to periodical series

63 65

Determination of the coefficients of a periodical series from given numerical values

28.

On

the identity of the results

obtained by this method with those

obtained by the method of least squares

68

SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY.
FIRST SECTION.
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE AND ITS DIURNAL MOTION. THE SEVERAL SYSTEMS OF GREAT CIRCLES OF THE
CELESTIAL SPHERE.
1.

I.

The equator and

the horizon

and

their poles

71

2. 3. 4. 5.

Co-ordinate system of azimuths and altitudes Co-ordinate system of hour angles and declinations Co-ordinate system of right ascensions and declinations
Co-ordinate system of longitudes and latitudes
II.

73 74

....

75
77

THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF
CO-ORDINATES.

6.

Transformation of azimuths and altitudes into hour angles and decli
nations

79

7.

Transformation of hour angles and declinations into azimuths and
altitudes

80
Differential formulae for the

8.
9.

Parallactic angle.

two preceding cases

85 86

Transformation of right ascensions and declinations into longitudes and latitudes

XI
Page
10.

Transformation of longitudes and latitudes into right ascensions and declinations

88
89

11.

Angle between the circles of declination and formulae for the two preceding cases
tudes
III.

latitude.

Differential

12.

Transformation of azimuths and altitudes into longitudes and

lati

90

SIDEREAL, APPARENT
13. 14.

THE DIURNAL MOTION AS A MEASURE OF TIME. AND MEAN SOLAR TIME.
Sidereal day

Sidereal time.

91

Apparent solar time.
earth in her orbit.

Apparent solar day.

On

the motion of the
ecliptic

Equation of the centre.

Reduction to the

91

15.

Mean

solar time.

Equation of time
.

96 98 99

16.
17.

Transformation of mean time into sidereal time and vice versa

18.

Transformation of apparent time into mean time and vice versa Transformation of apparent time into sidereal time and vice versa
.

100

IV.
19.

PROBLEMS ARISING FROM THE DIURNAL MOTION.
of culmination of fixed stars and moveable bodies
.
. .

Time

101

20.

21. 22.
23.
24.

Rising and setting of the fixed stars and moveable bodies Phenomena of the rising and setting of stars at different latitudes
. . .

103
104 106 107

Amplitudes

at rising

and setting of

stars

Zenith distances of the stars at their culminations

Time

of the greatest altitude

when

the declination

is

variable

.

.

108

25.

Differential

formulae

of altitude and azimuth with respect to the

hour angle
26.

109 109

Transits of stars across the prime vertical

27. 28.

Greatest elongation of circumpolar stars Time in which the sun and the moon move over a given great circle

110
111

SECOND SECTION.
ON THE CHANGES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANES TO WHICH THE PLACES OF THE STARS ARE REFERRED.
I.

THE PRECESSION.

1.

Annual motion of the equator on the ecliptic and of the ecliptic on the equator, or annual lunisolar precession and precession pro
duced by the planets.
ecliptic

Secular variation of the obliquity of the

115
in longitude

2.

Annual changes of the stars ascension and declination

and latitude and

in right

119

3.

Rigorous formulae for computing the precession in longitude and latitude and in right ascension and declination

124

XII
Page
4.

Effect of precession on the appearance of the sphere of the heavens Variation of the length at a place on the earth at different times.

of the tropical

128
"year

II.

THE NUTATION.
130

5.

Nutation in longitude and latitude and in right ascension and de
clination

6.

Change of

the expression of nutation,

when

the constant

is

changed

133

7.
8.

Tables for nutation

134
136

The

ellipse of nutation

THIRD SECTION.
CORRECTIONS OF THE OBSERVATIONS ARISING FROM THE POSITION OF THE OBSERVER ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH AND FROM CERTAIN PROPERTIES OF LIGHT.
I.

THE PARALLAX.
139

1.

Dimensions of the
on the earth

2.

Equatoreal horizontal parallax of the sun Geocentric latitude and distance from the centre for different places
earth.

140
144
147

3.

Parallax in altitude of the heavenly bodies

4.

Parallax in right ascension and declination and in longitude and
latitude

5.

Example

for the

moon.
II.

Rigorous formulae for the

moon

.

.

.

152

THE REFRACTION.
Differential expression of refraction
.

6. 7.

Law Law

of refraction of light.

154

of the decrease

of temperature and

of the

density

of the

atmosphere.
8.
9.

Hypotheses by Newton, Bessel and Ivory

....
.
.

160
163

10.

Integration of the differential expression for Bessel s hypothesis Integration of the differential expression for Ivory s hypothesis Computation of the refraction by means of Bessel s and Ivory

164
166
169

s

formulae.
11.

Computation of the horizontal refraction Computation of the true refraction for any indications of the ba rometer and thermometer

12.

Reduction of the height of the barometer to the normal tempera Final formula for computing the true refraction. ture. Tables
for refraction

172 174

13.

Probable errors of the tables for refraction.

14.

Simple expressions for refraction. Formulae of Cassini, Simpson and Bradley Effect of refraction on the rising and setting of the heavenly bo
.

.

dies.

the
15.

Example for computing the time of rising and moon, taking account of parallax and refraction
twilight.

setting of

176

On

The

shortest twilight

178

XIII
Page
III.

THE ABERRATION.
and
latitude
.
.

16.

in right ascension and de Expressions for the annual aberration

clination
17.

and

in longitude

180
188

Tables for aberration

18.
19.

20.

21.
22.

Formulae for the annual parallax of the stars Formulae for diurnal aberration Apparent orbits of the stars round their mean places Aberration for bodies, which have a proper motion
for this case Analytical deduction of the formulae

188
190
.
.

.

.

191

192
194

FOURTH SECTION.
ON THE METHOD BY WHICH THE PLACES OF THE STARS AND THE VALUES OF THE CONSTANT QUANTITIES NECESSARY FOR THEIR REDUCTION ARE DETERMINED BY OBSERVATIONS. I. ON THE REDUCTION OF THE MEAN PLACES OF STARS TO APPARENT PLACES AND VICE VERSA.
1.

Expressions for the apparent place of a
for their computation

star.

Auxiliary quantities

202
star

2. 3. 4.

Tables of Bessel

Formulae

Other method of computing the apparent place of a for computing the annual parallax

.

.

.

204
206

II.

DETERMINATION OF THE RIGHT ASCENSIONS AND DECLINATIONS OF THE STARS AND OF THE OBLIQUITY OF THE ECLIPTIC.
Determination of the differences of right ascension of the stars
Determination of the declinations of the stars
.

5.
6.

206 212

,

7.

89.

Determination of the obliquity of the ecliptic Determination of the absolute right ascension of a star
Relative

214

....
Obser

218
223

determinations.

The use

of the standard stars.

vation of zones
III.

ON THE METHODS OF DETERMINING THE MOST PROBABLE VALUES OF THE CONSTANTS USED FOR THE REDUCTION OF THE PLACES OF THE STARS.
A. Determination of the constant of refraction. Determination of the constant of refraction and the latitude by upper and lower culminations of stars. Determination of the coefficient
for the expansion of atmospheric air

10.

227

B.

Determination of the constants of aberration and nutation and of the

annual parallaxes of
11.

stars.

Determination
observed
right

of the

constants

of aberration and
declinations

nutation from

ascensions and
stars

of Polaris

Struve

s

method by observing

on the prime vertical. Determination of the constant of aberration from the eclipses of Jupiter s satellites

231

XIV
Page
12.

Determination of the annual parallaxes of the stars by the changes
of their places relatively to other stars in their neighbourhood
.

237

C.

Determination of the constant of precession and of the proper motions

of the
13.

stars.

Determination of the lunisolar precession from the mean places- of the stars at two different epochs

239
241

14.

On

the

proper motion of the

stars.

Determination of the point
is

towards which the motion of the sun
15.

directed

Attempts made of determining the constant of precession, taking account of the proper motion of the sun
Reduction of the place of the pole-star from one epoch to another. On the variability of the proper motions

245

16.

248

FIFTH SECTION.
DETERMINATION OF TOE POSITION OF THE FIXED GREAT CIRCLES OF THE CELESTIAL SPHERE WITH RESPECT TO THE HORIZON OF A PLACE. I. METHODS OF FINDING THE ZERO OF THE AZIMUTH AND THE TRUE BEARING OF AN OBJECT.
1.

Determination
test

elongations

of the zero of the azimuth by observing the grea of circumpolar stars, by equal altitudes and by

2.

observing the upper and lower culminations of stars Determination of tfie azimuth by observing a star, the declination and the latitude of the place being known

253

255
257

3.

Determination of the true bearing of a terrestrial object by ob serving its distance from a heavenly body

II

METHODS OF FINDING THE TIME OR THE LATITUDE BY AN
OBSERVATION OF A SINGLE ALTITUDE.
Method of finding the time by observing the altitude of a star Method of computation, when several altitudes of the same body
.

4. 5.

259 262 264
266

have been taken
6.

7. 8.

Method of finding the latitude by observing the altitude of a star Method of finding the latitude by circum-meridian altitudes The same problem, when the declination of the heavenly body is
.
.

variable
9.

.

269
271

10.
III

Method of Method of

finding the latitude by the pole-star finding the latitude, given by Gauss

275

METHODS OF FINDING BOTH THE TIME AND THE LATITUDE
BY COMBINING SEVERAL ALTITUDES.
Methods of finding the latitude by upper and lower culminations of stars, and by observing two stars on different sides of the zenith

1 1

278

XV
Page
12.

Method of
altitudes

finding the time by equal altitudes.

Equation for equal

279

13
14.

The same, when the time of true midnight is found Method of finding the time and the latitude by two
stars

284
altitudes of

285

15. 16.

Particular case,

when

the

same

star

is

observed twice

....

289

Method of

finding the time and the latitude as well as the azimuths and altitudes from the difference of azimuths and altitudes and the
interval of time

between the observations
Tables of Douwes
the
latitude

291

17.

Indirect solution of the problem, to find the time and the latitude

by observing two
18.

altitudes.

293
296

Method of
Method of

finding the

time,

and the declination by

three altitudes of the
19.

same

star

finding

the time,

the latitude and the altitude by ob

serving three stars at equal altitudes.
20.

Solution given by Gauss

.

296 301

21.

Solution given by Cagnoli Analytical deduction of these formulae
IV.

303

METHODS OF FINDING THE LATITUDE AND THE TIME
BY AZIMUTHS.
finding the time by the azimuth of a star

22. 23.

Method of Method of

....
.

305 307

finding the time by the disappearance of a star behind

24. 25.

a terrestrial object Method of finding the latitude by the azimuth of a star Method of finding the time by observing two stars on the same
. .

308

vertical circle

312

V.

DETERMINATION OF THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE MERIDIANS OF TWO PLACES ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH, OR OF THEIR
DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE.
Determination
of the
difference
at

26.

of longitude
the

by observing such

phenomena, which are seen and by chronometers
27.
tric

same

instant at both places,

313
316

Determination of the difference of longitude by means of the elec
telegraph

28.

Determination of the difference of longitude by eclipses. which was formerly used

Method
322 323

29.

Method

given by eclipse of the sun

Bessel.

Example of

the

computation of an

30.

Determination
stars

of the difference of longitude

by occultations of

336
calculating an eclipse
.

31. 32.

Method of

339

33.

Determination of the difference of longitude by lunar distances Determination of the difference of longitude by culminations of
the

344 350

moon

XVI

SIXTH SECTION.
ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE DIMENSIONS OF THE EARTH AND THE HORIZONTAL PARALLAXES OF THE HEAVENLY
BODIES.
I..

DETERMINATION OF THE FIGURE AND THE DIMENSIONS OF THE EARTH.
Page

1.

Determination of the figure and the dimensions of the earth from two arcs of a meridian measured at different places on the earth
.

357

2.

Determination of the figure and the dimensions of the earth by

any number of arcs
II.

360

DETERMINATION OF THE HORIZONTAL PARALLAXES OF THE

HEAVENLY BODIES.
3.

Determination
its

horizontal parallax of a body by observing meridian zenith distance at different places on the earth
.
.

of the

366
375

4.

Effect of the parallax

on the

transits of

Venus

for different places

on the earth
5.

Determination of the horizontal parallax of the sun by the transits
of Venus

384

SEVENTH SECTION.
I.

THEORY OF THE ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS. SOME OBJECTS PERTAINING IN GENERAL TO ALL INSTRUMENTS.
1.

A. Use of the spirit-level. Determination of the inclination of an axis by means of the spi
rit-level

390
its

2.

Determination of the value of the unit of

scale
.

395 398
401 403

3.

Determination of the inequality of the pivots of an instrument
13.

The vernier and

the reading microscope.

4.
5.

Use of the vernier

Use and adjustments of the reading microscope
C.

Errors arising from the excentricity of the

circle

and

errors of division.

6.

Effect of the excentricity

of the circle on the readings.

The use
408
them
.

of two verniers opposite each other.
tricity
7.

Determination of the excen

by two such verniers

.

On
D.

the errors of division and the methods of determining

411

On

flexure or the action of the force of gravity upon the telescope

and
8.

the circle.

Methods of arranging the observations so as
of flexure.

to eliminate the effect

Determination of the flexure

417

9.

of Determination of the periodical errors of the screw. of the equal length of the threads

E.

On

the examination

the micrometer screws.

Examination

425

XVII
Page
II.

THE ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH INSTRUMENT.
upon the observations
.

10.

Effect of the errors of the instrument

.

429
433 434 437
439

11.
12.

Geometrical method for deducing the approximate formulae Determination of the errors of the instrument
Observations of altitudes

.

.

13.
14.

Formulae for the other instruments deduced from those
titude

for the al

and azimuth instrument
III.

THE EQUATOREAL.
upon the observations
. .

15.
16.
17.

Effect of the errors of the instrument

441

Determination of the errors of the instrument

Use of the equatoreal
IV.

for determining the relative places of stars

445 449

THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT AND THE MERIDIAN CIRCLE.
upon the observations
. .

18. 19.

Effect of the errors of the instrument

451

20.

Geometrical method for deducing the approximate formulae Reduction of an observation on a lateral wire to the middle wire.
.

.

456
457
461

Determination of the wire -distances
21.

Reduction of the observations,

if

the observed body has a parallax

and a
22.

visible

disc

Determination of the errors of the instrument

466

23.

Reduction of the zenith distances observed at some distance from
the

meridian.

Effect of the

inclination of the wires.
disc

The same

for the case

when

the

body has a

and a parallax

24.

Determination of the polar point and the zenith point of the Use of the nadir horizon and of horizontal collimators
V.

.... ....
circle.
.
.

477
482

THE PRIME VERTICAL INSTRUMENT.
upon the observations
484

25. 26.

Effect of the errors of the instrument

Determination of the latitude by means of this instrument, when the errors are large. The same for an instrument which is nearly
adjusted

488 492 498

27.

Reduction of the observations made on a lateral wire to the middle
wire

28.

Determination of the errors of the instrument
VI.

ALTITUDE INSTRUMENTS.

29.
30.

Entire circles

....
On
"by

...
Ob

499

The

measuring the angle between two objects. servations of altitudes means of an artificial horizon
sextant.

....

500 503

31.

Effect of the errors of the sextant

upon the observations and de

termination of these errors
VII.

INSTRUMENTS, WHICH SERVE FOR MEASURING THE RELATIVE PLACE OF TWO HEAVENLY BODIES NEAR EACH OTHER.

(MICROMETER AND HELIOMETER.)
32.

The

33.

micrometer of an equatoreal Other kinds of filar micrometers
filar

512 517

XVIII
Page
34.

Determination of the relative place of two objects by means of the ring micrometer
Best way of making observations with this micrometer Reduction of the observations made with the ring micrometer, one of the bodies has a proper motion

518
522

35.
36.

....
if

if

523

37.

Reduction of the observations with the ring micrometer, jects are near the pole

the ob

525
527 532

38. 39.

Various methods for determining the value of the radius of the ring The heliometer. Determination of the relative place of two. objects

40.

by means of this instrument Reduction of the observations

,

if

one of the bodies has a proper

motion
41.

539
circle

Determination of the zero of the position of one revolution of the micrometer -screw

and of the value

542

VIII.

METHODS OF CORRECTING OBSERVATIONS MADE BY MEANS OF A MICROMETER FOR REFRACTION.
Correction which is to be applied to the difference of two ap parent zenith distances in order to find the difference of the true
zenith distances

42.

545 550

43.

Computation of the difference of the true right ascensions and de clinations of two stars from the observed apparent differences
.

.

44.

of refraction for micrometers, by which the difference of right ascension is found from the observations of transits across wires which are perpendicular to the daily motion, whilst the dif
Effect

ference of declination
45.
46.
Effect of refraction Effect

is

found by direct measurement

.

.

.

.

of refraction

upon the observations with the ring micrometer upon the micrometers with which angles of

551 552

position and distances are observed

555

IX.

EFFECT OF PRECESSION, NUTATION AND ABERRATION UPON THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO STARS AND THE ANGLE

OF POSITION.
47.

Change of the angle of position by the lunisolar precession and by nutation. Change of the distance and the angle of position
by aberration

4

556

XIX

ERRATA.

XX
page 140 144
147
line line

16 from bottom

10 from bottom
2 from bottom

line line
line

148 154 155
169

from top 11 from bottom
1

for at

read on

line
line

8 from bottom
9 from top
/

171 line 4 from top 173 line 1,2, 18 from top 174 line 13 from top

r

stand

I

read height

176 178

line 14, line 11

11 from bott. for the refraction

read refraction

from top 181 line 12 from top
line 11 line

for at for
vertical

read on
read perpendicular read on

190

209

from top 5 from top

for at for vertical

210 214
226
232 272
286
331

line
line line line

4 and 5 from top for vertical 8 from top for usually 10 from top for at last
14 from bottom

read perpendicular read perpendicular
read and as usually read finally

for
for

Now
^p
3

read
sin
t

line 13
line 18 line
line

from bottom
from bottom

cost read

Now let 3 \p sin
sin A

t

cos

2
X

for cos S sin h

read cos

9 from top

for

=tang
7i
i

read =
tang read an
7t

18 from top 399 line 1 from bottom

397

for a for

and

{

read 2i and 2i read between read between
read from

425 450 456

line
line

14 from bottom

for of

4 from bottom
16 from top

line

for of for form

INTRODUCTION.
,1.

TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES. FORMULAE OF SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.

In Spherical Astronomy we treat of the positions 1. of the heavenly bodies on the visible sphere of the heavens, referring them by spherical co-ordinates to certain great cir
cles of the sphere and establishing the relations between the co-ordinates with respect to various great circles. Instead of using spherical co-ordinates we can give the positions of the

heavenly bodies also by polar co-ordinates, viz. by the angles, which straight lines drawn from the bodies to the centre of
the celestial sphere make with certain planes, and by the distance from this centre itself, which, being the radius of
the celestial sphere,
is

always taken equal to unity.

These

polar co-ordinates can finally be expressed by rectangular co-ordinates. Hence the whole of Spherical Astronomy can be reduced to the transformation of rectangular co-ordinates,
for

which we
If

shall

now

find the general formulae.

we imagine

in a plane

two axes perpendicular

to each

other and denote the abscissa and ordinate of a point by x and ?/, the distance of the point from the origin of the co-or
sitive

dinates by r, the angle, which this line makes with the side of the axis of a?, by t?, we have:
r

po

cos v

r sin v.

If we further imagine two other axes in the same plane, which have the same origin as the former two and denote the co-ordinates of the same point referred to this new sys1

tern

by x
have:

and y

and the angle corresponding

to

by

,

we

the

we denote then the angle, which the positive side of axis of x makes with the positive side of the axis of a?,
If to

by o, reckoning all angles in the same direction from v -\- w, hence 360, we have in general v

=
w w

:

x

y
or:

= =

r cos v cos r sin v cos
1

w w -\y
-J-

r sin v sin
1

w

r

cos v sin w,

x-=
y

= =

x cos x
sin

sin

y cos
sin

w w
w w

and likewise:
x

y=
of

x cos
re

sin

w -+- y w -f- y

cos

(1)

These formulae are true

for all positive

x and y and
2.

for all values of

w

from

and negative values to 360.
referred

Let

a;,

?/,

z be the co - ordinates of a point

to three axes perpendicular to

each other, let a be the angle, with its projection on the plane which the radius vector makes
of xy, B the angle between this projection and the axis of a? (or the angle between a plane passing through the point and the positive axis of z and a plane passing through the
positive, axes of x and a, reckoned from the positive side of the axis of x towards the positive side of the axis of y from to 360), then we have, taking the distance of the point
0"

from the origin of the co-ordinates equal to unity:
x

= cos B

cos

,

y

=

sin

B

cos a

,

2

=

sin a

.

But if we denote by a the angle between the radius vector and the positive side of the axis of a, reckoning it from the positive side of the axis of z towards the positive side of the axis of x and y from to 360, we have:
x

=

sin a cos

B\

y

=

sin

a sin

B\

z

= cos

a.

If

now we imagine

axis of y

another system of co-ordinates, whose coincides with the axis of ?/, and whose axes of
of x and z the angle c and if the radius vector and the posi

x and

a make with the axis we denote the angle between tive side of the axis of a
1

the plane passing through

the angle between by b and by and the positive axis of z and the

A

of x and plane passing through the positive axes direction as a and B\ both angles in the same
x

,

we

reckoning have:

=

sin b cos

A\ y

=

sin b sin

A

,

2

= cos

6,

and as

we have according
z

to the formulae for the transfor

mation of co-ordinates:

r=*y
a-

=x #=

sin c -+- z cos c

cos c

z sin

c,

we

find:

sin

sin

= = a cos B =
cos a

sin b sin c cos J.

H- cos

6 cos c

a sin .5

sin 6 sin

A A
cos b sin
c.

sin 6 cos c cos

a sphere, whose centre is the origin and whose radius is equal to unity and draw through the point and the points of intersection of the axes of z and * with the surface of this sphere arcs of great circle, these arcs form a spherical triangle, if we use this term in its most general sense, when its sides as well as The three sides ingles may be greater than 180 degrees. Z and Z Z of this spherical triangle are respectively Z, The spherical angle A at Z is equal to A, being a, b and c. the angle between the plane passing through the centre and the points and Z and the plane passing through the centre and the points Z and Z while the angle B at Z is generally B equal to 180 Introducing therefore A and B instead af A and B in the equations which we have found in No. 2,
3.

If

we imagine

of the co-ordinates

a,

,

.

1

we

get the following formulae, which are true for every spher
cos a

ical triangle:

B = sin b sin A sin a cos B = cos b sin c
sin a sin

= cos

b cos c -+- sin b sin c cos

A

sin 6 cos c cos ^4.

These are the three principal formulae of spherical tri gonometry and express but a simple transformation of co-or
dinates.

may consider each vertex of the spherical triangle the projection of the point on the surface of the sphere and the two others as the points of intersection of the two axes z and z with this surface, it follows, that the above
as

As we

formulae are true also for any other side and the adjacent
1*

4
if

angle,
ingly.

we change the other sides and angles correspond Hence we obtain, embracing all possible cases:
cos a
cos
I,

CO s

c

= cos cos = cos a cos = cos a cos
b

c

H- sin

b sin c

cos
cos

A

c -f- sin

a sin

c

B
C

(2)

6 -+- sin

a sin 6 cos
sin

sin a sin
sin

B = sin 6
sin C (7= sin
ft

a sin

=

A
(3)

c sin vl c sin

sin b sin sin a cos sin a cos sin b

5
A
B
C

sin 6 sin c
sin c

= cos = a cos cos C = cos a cos A = cos B = cos
C
J.

B = cos

sin c

sin 6 cos c cos

c sin b

sin c cos b cos -4
sin a cos c cos

cos

sin c

c sin

a

sin c cos a cos jB

cos

sin 6

sin a cos b cos sin 6 cos

6 sin

a

a cos C.

can easily deduce from these formulae all the other formulae of spherical trigonometry. Dividing the for mulae (4) by the corresponding formulae (3), we find:
4.
sin

We

A cotang B = cotang b sin c A cotang C = cotang c sin b sin B cotang A = cotang a sin c sin B cotang C = cotang c sin a sin C cotang A = cotang a sin b
sin

cos c cos cos b cos
cos c cos

A A
B

cos a cos
cos b cos

B
C

sin

C cotang B

= cotang
b sin

b sin

a

cos a cos C.

If

we

write the last of these formulae thus:
sin

C cos

J3

= cos

a sinB
cos a sin 25 cos C,
o

sm

we
or:

find:
sin

C cos .B

= cos

6 sin .A

cos a sin .B cos C,

sin J. cos b

= cos 5

sin

C -+

sin jB cos

C cos

a

an equation, which corresponds to the first of the formulae (4), but contains angles instead of sides and vice versa. By chang six equations: ing the letters, we find the following
sin sin

A cos 6 = cos^B sin (7-4- sin B cos C cos A cos c = cos C sin B -+- sin C cos B cos sin 5 cos a = cos A sin C H- sin A. cos C cos

a
a
6

sin

B cos c
C cos
a

= cos C

sin

sin (7 cos 6

= cos A = B
cos

sin ^4 -f- sin sin jB -f- sin

C cos

J. cos 6

A

cos J3 cos c

sin

A

-{- s

mB cos J. cos c

and dividing these equations by the corresponding equations
(3),

we

have:

sin a
sin a

sin 6
sin b

sin c
sin c

= cotang C = cotang C B 6 cotang a = cotang A cotang = cotang C cotang a = cotang A sinB A cotang = cotang B
cotang
b

.5 sin
sin

-\-f-

cos

C cos
C cos

a

cotang

c

cos jB cos a
cos
6
ft

sin

Y

-+-

c

sin J. -f- cos
-\-f-

A cos

cos .6 cos c

b

sin

cos ^4 cos

c.

From

the equations (6)
cos cos

we
cos a
6

A sin C = sin .5
C=
sin

easily deduce the following:
sin
sin

A cos

6 cos
(7

y

6
a.

B sin A

A cos

B cos

cos

Multiplying these
the value of sin
sin

C

equations by sin C and substituting cos b taken from the second equa
cos

tion into the first,

we

find:

following three equations, which correspond to the formulae (2), but again contain angles instead of sides and vice versa:

cos A = sin B sin C cos a and changing the letters we get the

B

cos

C

A = sin B sin C cos a = sin A sin C cos b cos C = sin A sin B cos c
cos

cos
cos

B cos
cos

cosB
5.

A cos A

C C

(8)

cos .5.

If

we add
sin a [sin

the two first of the formulae (3),

we

find

:

B -+- sin
.

C]

=

sin

A
-5-

[sin b -f- sin c]

,

or:

B
sm-j^cos
~

C

.cos^asm

B+C = sin --B+C
-^

.

6-4-c
.

6

c

-4 sin

cos ^-^4 cos

and

if

we

subtract the

same equations, we get:
b

8in4 a sin

B
-

C
.

cos

.,

a cos

=sm^ylcos

+

c
.

cos

4

.

b

sin

-~

c
-

-

Likewise
first

we

find

by adding and

subtracting the two

of the formulae (4): E-\-C

sm

.

a sin

BC BC
---

.

.

2
.

sm.4cos
cos f

2
b c

2i

.

cos

a sin

B+ C=
^
is

cos T

M sm
.

b

c

A cos

^
s

Each
equations,

of these formulae

the product of two of Gauss

equations; but in order to derive from these formulae Gauss

s

find another formula, in which a different combination of equations occurs. may use for this pur

we must

We

pose either of the following equations: B-\-C B+C --- cos T a cos =sin^cos ^ -.cos^asm Z Z
.

b-i-c

b

c

sm^acos-----,

.

BC
*

2
6-f-c

.cos^^lcos
b

n Z
c
j

.

.

B
2

C

.sm-^-asin

=smy^sin

.cos 7^4 sin-

6

which we find by adding or subtracting the
equations (6). If we take

first

two of the

now

:

sin

A sm 5
.
<r

6-hc

=a
p

sin? J-cos
cos j

A sin
.

c b -~

=y

COS

-5

.4

COS

~

and:

sm
cos

,

a cos

sin

=a = a cos BC = y a sm
tf

~

-

,

/a

.

,

cos

a

sm

.

-

=
=

o

,,
,

we

find the following six equations:
a 8

=a

8,

y p

from which we
or:

=a{3, y 8 y8 deduce the following:

=yp,

a

{3

t

a y

=ay,

=

a,

/9

=

/?,

/ = y,

3

=
Hence we

g, / 7 find the following relations
,
|

=-

=

,

= 8 =
,

8.

between the angles

and sides of a spherical triangle:
sm
-5

A sm b+c = sm
.

a cos

BC
-

sm
cos

b
-j^.

cos
-

,

-5-

-A sin 6

,

6

+ = cos ~ =
c
^r

B-+-C
.y

cos

g
(9)

c

=

sm

7 a a

i

BC sm
^

c

cos

J.

cos

^ -

= cos

ijr

sm

.

or:

sm

^ ^1

sm
cos

.

6+c = 2i

sm
cos

4-

a cos

sm
cos

4-

A
-4

6-hc
6
c

=
=

a cos

TJ

sm

.

r
6 c
<

sin

7 a sm
j

cos 5 vl cos

cos

a

sn -----

Both systems give us for the unknown quantities, which may be either two sides and the included angle or two angles and the interjacent side, the same value or at least values If we wish to find for instance differing by 360 degrees. b and c, we should get from the second system of for A,
mulae either for
first,
-----

and

-^

the

same values
differs

as

from the

but for
c

\A
and

a value which

find for

~
first

180,
180

or

we should
from those

values which

differ

derived from the

system

,

but for
of 4,

A
b

the same value.

In each case therefore the values

and

c as

found

from the two systems would differ only by 360. The four formulae (9) are therefore generally true and it is indifferent, whether we use for the computation of A, b and c the quan
tities

a, B,

C

themselves or add to or subtract from any of

them 360*).

The

four equations (9) are
if either

and are used,
are given

of a spherical triangle

Gauss s equations" one side and the two adjacent angles or two sides and the included angle
as

known

and it is required to find the other parts. The best of computing them is the following. If a, B and C are the given parts, we find first the logarithms of the following

way

quantities

:

(1)

cos

BC
(4)
(5)

(2)
,,,

sin ^
.

(3)

BC sm 5^
2i

a

cos
.

I

a

(6)

B+C sin
sin ^ a sin

and from these:
(7) sin

^ a cos
-

(9)

2

(8)

cos | a cos

(10)

cos \ a sin

the logarithm
(b
-|- c)

Subtracting the logarithm of (8) from that of (7) and of (10) from that of (9), we find log. tang
arid Ig. tg.
j[

(6

c),

from which we get b and
-+- c)
c),

c.

Then

we

take either log cos (6 cos ^ (6 c) or log sin (6

or log sin

i

(6 -+- c)

and log

whichever

is

the greater one

*)

Gauss, Theoria motus corporum

coelestium pag. 50 seq.

8
first from the greater one of the or (8), the other from the greater one of the logarithms (7) logarithms (9) or (10) and thus find log sin { A and log cos | A. Subtracting the latter from the first, we get log

of the two and subtract the

tang
cos
|

\

A

,

from which we find A.

As

sin

\

A

as

well as
\

A must

we may

necessarily give the same angle as tang use this as a check for our computation.

A,

If for instance

we have

the following parts given:
25
6
56."3

a=
.

= 184
11

11

55.

4

C=
we
have:
(7)

18 40. 3

cos

4

(B
sin

sin \ sin \ a cos
\

(B (B

= 86 24 C) = 8.7976413 ^ a = 8.9982605 = 9.9991432
7."55

97
)

42

47."85

9.1278046
9.9978351

cos i a
S in

(7)

^( B
^
(

-+- (7)
<7)

9.9960526
8.9974037 9.9938877
5 45 24. 13

C)
-f-

7.7959018
9.1256397.

sin

4

sin

cos 4 a cos

| (B

C)

cos \ a sin

^(B + (7)
c)

i(6-f-c)~ 177 19 13.49^ 9.9995248 cos 4- (b -h c)

_

sinM cos ^ A
4

9.1261149

9.9960835
7

JTTMO
taken
^
^
(

59."38~

= 183 = 171 A= 15
6
c

|(6 cos^(6
4

c)
37."62

9.9978042

33 49. 36
21 58. 76.

If

we had

B=

175

53 4.%, hence:
17
12."15

+C =
)

we

(5 C) should have found:
^ (6 _l_c)
7 |

=

82

93

35 52. 45

==

_ 240
185

46."51

(i

c

hence

6

= 183

)=
c

45

24. 13

4

37."62

and

=

188

26

;

10."64.

Dividing Gauss

s

equations by each other,

we find Napier
er,

s

equations. Writing A, B, C in place of 5, C, A and in place of 6, c, a, we find from the equations (9):
a
C S

6,

c

~~ b

tang

A-i-B --

(9 a)

tang

-

2

- cotang

C

A

B
r-

+b ~
2
cos
sin

->

A B
a
b

^ 2

c

are under nearly all the formulae in No. 3 and 4 a form not convenient for logarithmic computation, their second members consisting of two terms, we must convert them by
6.

As

the
free

introduction of auxiliary angles into others, which are from this inconvenience. Now as any two real, positive

or negative quantities x and y may be taken proportional to a sine or cosine of an angle we may assume:
x
for

=m

sin

M and y =
and

in

cos

M

we

find immediately:
tang If

=

m

=V

1
x"

+

y*

,

hence
all

M

and

m

expressed by real quantities.

Therefore as

the above formulas, which consist of several terms, con tain in each of these terms the sine and cosine of the same
angle, we can take their factors proportional to the sine and cosine of an angle and, applying the formulae for the sine or cosine of a binomial, we can convert the formulae into

a form convenient for logarithmic computation. For instance, if we have to compute the three formulae:
sin
sin

a sin

= cos a cos B = cos
cos a

B=

b cos c -f- sin b sin c cos

A
A,

sin 6 sin

A
sin b cos c cos

6 sin c

we may

put:
sin b cos

A = m sin M

cos b

= m cos M. = m cos
(c

and

find:
cos a
sin a sin

If

we know

the

B = sin b sin A sin a cos B = m sin (c M}. quadrant, in which B
S1

M)

is

situated,

we

can also write the formulae in the following manner, sub
stituting for

m

its

value
sin

M
:

--.

We
cos

compute

first:

tang

M=- tang b

A

10

and then

find:

tang=
tang a

tang

A -- M
sin

sm(c

M}

= tang(c ^ M) cos

logarithmic tables, by which we can find immediately the logarithms of the sum or the difference of two numbers from the logarithms of the numbers themselves,
If

we have

to use the it is easier and at the same time more accurate, three equations in their original form without introducing the

auxiliary angle.

Such

tables

have been computed for seven

decimals by Zech in Tubingen. (J. Zech, Tafeln fur die Ad ditions- und Subtractions -Logarithmen fur sieben Stellen.)

Kohler
7.

s

edition of

Lalande

s

logarithmic tables contains

similar tables for five decimals.

always best, to find angles by their tangents; for as their variation is more rapid than that of the sines or cosines, we can find the angles more accurately than by
It is

the other functions.
If /\x denotes a small increment of an angle,

we

have:

Now
dius,

it

is

customary to express the increments of angles
;

in seconds of arc

we

but as the unit of the tangent is the ra must express the increment A & a ls parts of the

m

radius, hence we must divide it by the number 206264,8*). Moreover the logarithms used in the formula are hyperbolic logarithms; therefore if we wish to introduce common loga

rithms,
Finally
*)
in

we must multiply by the modulus 0.4342945 in if we wish to find A (log tang x) expressed
convert

= M.

units

order to

into

is 5.3144251, is always used which are expressed in parts of the radius? seconds of arc and conversely. The number of seconds in the whole

The number 206264.8, whose logarithm
quantities,

circumference
unit
is

is

129(5000,

while this circumference

if

we

take the radius as
1.

27r or 6.2831853.

These numbers are

in

the ratio of 206264,8 to

Hence, if we wish to convert quantities, expressed in parts of the radius into seconds of arc, we must multiply them by this number; but if we wish to convert quantities, which are expressed in seconds of are, into parts of the
the radius, we must divide them by number of seconds contained in an
this

number, which

is

also equal to the

arc equal to the radius,

while

its

com

plement

is

equal to the sine or the tangent of one second.

11

by

of the last decimal of the logarithms used, we must multiply 10000000 if we employ logarithms of seven decimals.

We

find therefore:

A

(log tang x}

2 = -r M-

JL

/\x"

,

Q

10000000

or:
sin 2,

A

(log tang r).

This equation shows, with what accuracy an angle by

we may

find

Using
computation

tangent. logarithms of five
to

its

decimals

we may expect our
last decimal.

be exact within two units of the
case

Hence

in

this

A

(log tang
900"

a?)

being equal to 200, the

error of the angle

would be:
A*"

=

sin2 * 11 4:2,1

V

=5

"

sin2 *

Therefore if we use logarithms of five decimals, the error cannot be greater than sin 2x or as the maximum value of sin 2 x is unity, not greater than 5 seconds and an error of that magnitude can occur only if the angle is near 45.
5"

If

we use logarithms of seven decimals, the error must needs be a hundred times less hence in that case the greatest er
;

ror of an angle found by the tangent will be O."05. If we find an angle by the sine or cosine, we should have in the formula for A (log sin x) or A (log cos x) instead

of sin 2 x the factor tang x or cotang x which may have any value up to infinity. Hence as small errors in the logarithm of the sine or cosine of an angle may produce very great
errors
in

the

angle

itself,

it

is

always preferable, to find

the angles
8.

by

their tangents.

Taking one of the angles in the formulae for oblique triangles equal to 90, we find the formulae for right-angled If we denote then the hypothenuse triangles. by /, the two sides by c and c and the two opposite angles by C and we get from the first of the formulae (2), taking A 90
cos h

= cos

=

C",

:

c

cos c

,

and by the same supposition from the
sin h sin

first

C= sin

of the formulae (3)

:

c

12

and from the

first

of the formulae (4)
sin h cos

:

C= cos
C=

c sin c

or dividing this

by cos

h

:

tang h cos

tang c.

Dividing the same formula
cotang

C
c

or:
tang

= cotang = tang C

by

sin h sin C,
c sin c
,

we

find

:

sin c

.

Combining with

this the following
tang
c

formula:

we

obtain
cos h

= tang C = cotg Ccotg C
sin
c,

.

At

last

from the combination of the two equations:
sin h sin

C

;

and

sin h cos (7

= = cos
cos

sin c
c sin c
,

we

find:
cos

=

sin

C

c.

We
ing six
parts
:

have therefore for a right-angled triangle the follow formulae, which embrace all combinations of the five
cos h
sin c

tang tang
c

cos h

= h C = tang cos = tang C = cotang C cotang C
sin
sin

= cos

c

cos c

h

C"

sin c

cos (7= cos sin and these formulae enable us to find all parts of a rightangled triangle if two of them are given. Comparing these formulas with those in No. 6, we easily
r;
C",

that by the introduction of the auxiliary quantities m and M, we substitute two right-angled triangles for the oblique triangle. For if we let fall an arc of a great circle from the see,

vertex

C of the oblique triangle vertical to the side c, it is that m is the cosine of this arc and the part of the plain, side c between the vertex A and the point, where it is in tersected by the vertical arc.

M

For the numerical computation of any quantities in astronomy we must always take certain data from obser But as we are not sure of the absolute accuracy vations.
9.

of any of these, on the contrary them to be somewhat erroneous,

as
it

we must suppose
is

all

of

necessary in solving a

problem to investigate, whether a small error of the observed

13
quantity
is

may

to be found.

not produce a large error of the quantity which Now in order to be able easily to make such
differentiate the formulae of spherical
all

an estimate,
all

we must

trigonometry and in order to embrace

cases

we

will take

quantities as variable. Differentiating thus the first of the equations (2), sin b cos c -+- cos b sin c cos A] db sin a da cos b sin c -h sin b cos c cos A] -+- dc [

we

=

get:

[

sin b sin c sin

A.dA.

Here the

factor

of

db

is

the factor of dc equal to - sin a sin c sin B instead
differential

- sin a cos E\
of the

-- sin a cos C and equal to if we write also
factor of

A

,

we

find the

-formula
da

:

= cos Cdb
first
-+-

-J~

cos 13 dc

-+- sin c sin

BdA..

Writing the
form,

of the equations (3) in a logarithmic
log sin
it:

we

find:
log sin a

B = log sin

b -j~ log sin

A

and by

differentiating
cotang a da
-+-

cotang
first

Bd.B

= cotang bdb

Instead of the

of the

Ad A. formulae (4), we will
-\-

cotang

dif

ferentiate the first of the formulae (5),

the combination of the formulae (3) and (4).

which were found by Thus we find:
sin

dB
sin JD

-+-

dA

[cotang

B cos A
cos c
-+-

A
sin

cos

c]

=
or:

sm
sin

&a

, -,-

db
,

-+-

dc [cotang
cos

b

cos

A

c]

A -- dB smB*
sin

C

sm B

-dA=
7

sin c 72 sin b*

cos a
</6-h-.
:

--dc.

sin o

Multiplying this equation by sin B,
sm
or finally:
sin

we

find:

- d
b

a

B

cos CdA =

sin

C

cos a sin

db

B
dc,

-\-

sin b

sm

6

adB = sin Cdb
the
first

sin

B cos adc

sin b cos

CdA.
find

From

of the formulae (8)
cos

we
b sin

by

similar

reductions as those used for formula (2):

dA = Hence we have
:

cdB

cos

bdC -+- sin

Cda.
tri

the following differential formulae of
-f-

gonometry

cotang a da
sin

= cos Cdb cos Bdc Hcotang BdB = cotang bdb adB = Cdb B cos adc dA = cos cdB cos bdC
da
-+-

sin b sin
-+-

CdA A dA CdA

cotang

sin

sin

sin b cos

-}- sin- b sin

Cda.

14
as the angles are small, we may take their equal unity and their sines or tangents equal to the arcs themselves, or if we wish to have the arc expressed

10.

As long
to

cosines

in

seconds we

may

take 206265 a instead of sin a or tang

a.

If the

angles are

not so small that

we can

the

second term of the sine, we

may

neglect already proceed in the fol

lowing way. have:

We

sin

a

i

_ J_ a
6
y-

a

.

_i_

4

_

a

^120
-+- -j-r

and:
cos

a=

1

a2

a4

hence

:

y

cos a

=

1

a2

-f-

have therefore, neglecting only the terms higher than the third power:
sin

We

a

a

= \l cos a V
3

or:

a

=

sin

a y sec a

i/

This formula
of 10

is

so

we commit

only an error
3

accurate that using it for an angle less than a second. For we

have

:

log sin 10

]/ sec 10

= 9.2418864

and adding

number corresponding
11.

to this the logarithm 5.3144251 and finding the to it, we get 36000."74 or:
10
0."74.

As we make frequent use in spherical astronomy developement of formulae in series, we will deduce those, which are the most important. If we have an expression of the following form:
of the
,

1

a cos x

we

can easily develop y in a series, progressing according

to the sines of the multiples of x.

For

if

we

find

d*=

ndm

~m

we have tang

z=,

r-f-

2 t

-.

If

we

take thus in the formula

15
for

tang y a and y as variable,
dy da

-

-

;

-we
x
sin
1

find:

2 a cos x -+- a~

and

if

we develop
,

this expression

by the method of indeter

minate coefficients in a series progressing according to the

powers of

we
-^

find:
2

da
y =

= sinx-{-asin2x-i- a
0,
sin

sin 3

x

-+- ____ *)

Integrating this

when x
y

=

we
x
-f-

=a

equation and observing that we have find the following series for y:
2 3 ^ a sin 2 x -+- ^ a sin 3 x

-+- ____

(12)

Often

we have two
Asin
J.

equations of the following form:
JB

cos

B=1

=a

sin

.r

cos #,

and wish

to develop

B

and log A

cording to the sines or cosines of the multiples of x. this case we have
:

in a series progressing ac As in

tang

B=
1

a sin:r

-

,

a cos x

we

find for

B

a series progressing according to the sines of

the multiples of x from the above formula (12). to develop log A in a similar series, we have
:

But

in order

A=V

I

2acosx-i-a 2

.

find the following series determinate coefficients
:

Now we

by the method of
a 3 cos

in

a cos x
1

a2
~

2 a cos x -H a 2

= a cosx
-

-f-

a

cos

2x

-f-

ox

-f- ..

.

)

Multiplying this by
to a,

-

and integrating with respect

we

find for the left side:
2acosa:-t-a 2 )
<a

and as we have log
log ]/l

^4

=
te

when a

=
2

0,

we

get

:

2acos#-|-a

2

=log^l=
that

[ocosar+^a cos2ar+

a 3 cos3.r +

.

.

.]

(13)

*) It is easily seen,

first

term
cos x

is

sin^,

and that the

coefficient

of

a"

is

found by the equation:
A,,

= 2A

i

An-i
a:,

**) It
efficient of

is

again evident,
is

that the

coefficient of a is cos
:

while the co

a,,

found by the equation 2 An COS X A,
t

=

\

An

%.

16
If

we have

the

two equations:

A sin B = a sin x
A
cos

B=1

-+-

a cos

or

we

by substituting 180 and (13): (12)
find
.B

x instead ofx
4
.]

in the equations

= asinar
a COS.T tang y

a 2 sin

2*4- j a 3

sin

3*

....
....

(14)

a

2

cos2:r-4-

3 }a cosStf

(15)

If

we have an

expression of the following form:

= n tang =

j?,

we

can easily reduce J

it

to the

form tang y
(n
1
)

=
1
2

cos x

For we have:
x)

=

tang y

tang x

tang x

1-j- tang y tango:
(n
x"

l-f-ntang*
(n

1) sin
1

x cos x

-+-

2 n sin x

2

11 cos2*-f-n

1) sin

x cos x

4-

2

-cos2*

n

n(n 1) sin 2;r
(M

1

sm 2x
-- cos
1
a?,

.

(n4-D

--n-\-

Hence,
y

if

we have the equation tang y = n tang
sin 2

we
...

find

:

= x-}- n-hl
If

x -h 4- (-

sin6r .) sin4a: -t-4 ( ) \n-j-l/ Vn-f-lx
.

+

(16)

we

take here:

we have:
Hence from

---

= cos a, = tang 4 a
n

2
.

n-f-1

the equation:
tang^

= cos a tang x
]
6 tang \ a sin6a:

we

get
y

=x

2

tang^:

4 sin2o:H-^tang4a sin4ar

+

...

(17)

If

we have

we

find:

= sec = ^ tang
n

,

2 $
.

Hence from

tangy =

the equation:
sec

tang

a:

or tang x

= cos a

tangj/,

we

obtain for y 2 ^== x _|-tang^a sin2^+Jtang-;a 4 sm4a:-hitang^a 6 As we have: cos a cos 8
:

sinGa:4-...

(18)

ioI-a

dsin
sin

Tcos ft
sin
/9

-h

sin

i

17

we

find also

from the equation
tang

:

y=

cos

a

^
/?)

tang
(

or,

x

tang

4-

(

tang

4-

/?)

sin

and from:

^

= # -h tang ^
|

(
2
)

/?)

cotang
(

-^

(a -f- /9) sin 2 x
2

-+

tang

4-

(

cotang ^

-f- /9)

sin 4or

+

.

.

.

By
Napier
s

the

aid

of the two last formulae
series.

we can develop

formulae into a

For from the equation:

a-b Sm -2-=
2
s

A

B
c

we

find:

ab ~
~2~
or:
c

c

~2

-- tang B
Z?

T cotan g 2
A
2

A
sin c

+ ^ tan g B
-

2

A
cotang

2

sin 2 c

....

"^~

=:

a

6 ~

2

~2

+ tan S 2

cotan g

sin ( ft

~ 6 )H-Ttang B
A

2

A2
cotang

-y

sin 2 (a

6)4-

...

and

also in the

same way from the equation:

B
2

tang- - =
a+ft
2

C S

^
cos

^tang:

we

find the following
c

two

series
Sin

A
tang

B
"2"

2"

T tang
5
sin

+

A2
tang
~2~
^l
2

B
tang

2

S
T"

~
2

~^

--- tang

^4

2

tang

2

^

a

+^+

B
tang

2

tang
2"

T

sin 2

(-l- ^)

Quite similar series
equations
:

may be
sin

obtained from the two other

A-B

~2~

180-

(7

sin

-

-

a~b
~2~
cos

180-C7

It often

happens, that lowing form:

we meet
C os

y = cos x H-

with an equation of the
6

fol

18

from which we wish
according to the

to develop y into a series progressing obtain this by applying powers of b.

We
x

Taylor

s

theorem
put:

to the equation:

For

if

we

= cos x =
y

arc cos [cos
z

-f- b]

and y

=/(z -f-

?>),

we

get:

or as:
f
f \

z

=x

d

.f=

dz

_^.* ... d.cosx

=

L
sin*
cos x

d*f_
dz 2

sin*

dx
d.cosx

dx

sin* 3

~
d3

cos x
sin

f_
sin*

x3

dx __
d.cosx
sin* 2
,

[1

-h 3 cotang**]
sin

dz 3
y

dx
^cotang*

x3
2
]

=x

-i[lH-3cotang*

sin* 3

-,.... (19)

In the same

way we
sin

find from the equation: y

=
2

sin

*

-f- b

y

= x-\

cos *

Ktangs-^-r-H cos *

[1

+ 3 tang*

2

]- * cos

3

+ ...*)

(20)

.B.

THE THEORY OF INTERPOLATION.

12. continually use in astronomy tables, in which the numerical values of a function are given for certain nu

We

merical values

of the variable
the

quantity.

But

as

we

often

want

to

know

value of the function for such values of

the variable quantity as are not given in the tables, we must have means, by which we may be able to compute from
certain numerical values of a function its value for any other value of the variable quantity or the argument. This is the object of interpolation. By it we substitute for a function,

whose

analytical expression is either entirely unknown or at least inconvenient for numerical computation, another, which
Encke, einige Reihenentwickelungen aus der spharischen Astronomie. s astronomische Nachrichten No. 562.

*)

Schumacher

19
derived merely from certain numerical values, but which may be used instead of the former within certain limits.
is

We
quantity.
in

can develop any function by Taylor

s

theorem into
is

a series, progressing according to the powers of the variable

The only

case,

which forms an exception,

that,

which

tity

numerical value of the variable quan the value of one of the differential coefficients is infinity,
for a certain

so that the

function ceases to be

bourhood of this value.

The

continuous in the neigh theory of interpolation being

derived from the development of functions into series, which are progressing according to the integral powers of the va riable quantity, assumes therefore, that the function is con
tinuous between the limits within which
ration
it

comes

into conside
is fulfilled.

and can be applied only

if this

condition

If

we

call

w

the interval or the difference of two follow

ing arguments (which we shall consider as constant), we may denote any argument by a-\-nw, where n is the variable quantity, and the function corresponding to that argument by

f(a-\-nw}.
/"(a-hft-f-i),

We

will

denote further the difference of two

consecutive functions f (a -f- nw] and f(a -f- (n -f- 1) w) by writing within the parenthesis the arithmetical

mean of the two arguments, to which the difference belongs, but omitting the factor w*). Thus (a-!- 5) denotes the difference of f(a -h to) and f(a), f(tf-hf) the difference of f(a -l-20) and /"(a-f-w?). In a similar manner we will denote
/"

the higher differences, indicating their order by the accent. Thus for instance (a-\-Y) is the difference of the two first
f"

differences

f (a-Hf) and

/"(+).

the arguments and the corresponding functions with their differences in thus as follows:
Argument
a
Function
I.

The schedule of

Diff.

II. Diff.

III. Diff.

IV. Diff.

V.

Diff.

3w f(a

3 w)

/

(-

o-|-3;/(a
notation was introduced by Encke in his paper on ) This convenient mechanical quadrature in the Berliner Jahrbuch fiir 1837.

9*

20
All differences which have the same quantity as the ar gument of the function, are placed on the same horizontal
line.

In differences of an odd order the argument of the function consists of a-}- a fraction whose denominator is 2.
13.

As we may

develop any function by Taylor

into a series progressing according to the integral

s theorem powers of

the variable quantity,

we can assume:
ft
.

/(a + nw} = a H-

n

w -h

y

.

n2

1
w"

-+-

.

n3

iv

3

H-

.

.

.

function f (a) were If the analytical expression known, we might find the coefficients a, ft, 7, 6 etc., as we of the

have a
that

f(a)

/i

=

~r--

etc.

We

will

suppose

however,

we will not make use we know the numerical
certain

the analytical expression is not given, or at least that of it, even if it is known, but that values of the function f(a-\-nw) for
values

Then substituting of the argument a -+- nw. those different values of the variable n successively in the equation above, we get as many equations as we know values
of the function and
coefficients
,

we may

therefore find the values of the
2

/:?,

; ,

d etc. from them.

we have a

f(a) and that pw, /w of differences, which all may be reduced to a certain series of differences, so that we may assume f(^a-\-nw) to be of

easily seen, that are linear functions etc.
It is

the following form:

where ^,

by the introduction of certain values of n. an integral number, any function f (a -\-nw}
f(a)

which may be determined But when n is is derived from and the above differences by merely adding them successi
J5,

C... are functions of w,

vely, if we take the higher differences as constant or if we consider the different values of the function as forming an
arithmetical series of a higher order. If already the first dif ferences are constant, we have simply f(a-}-nw) f(a)+n /"(a-j-J), if the second differences are constant, we must add to the

=

above value

f"

(a-\-Y) multiplied
1

by the sum of the numbers
and
if

from

1

to n

or by-y~^;

(

only the third
/""(aH-f)

diffe

rences are constant, we have to add still by the sum of the numbers 1, l-}-2,

1 -{-

multiplied 2 -+- 3 etc. to

21

1

+2

"

-f-

.

.

.

-{-

2 or

by
(>*

(w

7^ J
1
.

(
.

"

~ 2)
.

o
n (n
1

We
1) (n

have therefore
2) i

in general

i

A

A

=

n,

n n B = -y-g 1) n
(a

etc.

^
(

g

hence

:

f(a

-+-

w ) ==/() 4- n/

+*)

+ ^-^/

+
where the law of progression
This formula
lation.
is

^^
obvious
s

+D
2)

/

(

+ t)H-...,

(0

is

*).

known

as

Newton

The

coefficient

of the
a?"

difference

formula for interpo of the order n is
(1-f-a?)*.

equal to the coefficient of

in the

development of

Example.

According

to the

Berlin

Almanac

for

1850
for

we have

the following heliocentric longitudes of
I.

Mercury

mean noon:
Diff.
II. Diff.

III. Diff.

Jan.

0303 2310 4317
6 3/1 D 324

25

651.5 +
1".

5

6 ! 7 1

7

29.5
.

29 oy zy 39
16

9 j

038 J^
ic 07

o

+18

48
.

S
q

21 32 24 9A -^
wt>

4
9 y
1

+* H-2
2 9

44"4

*
9

4 f^
_

-h

10".

1
<

.

47
-t
.

17.2 10340 30 20.6 If we wish to find
8 332

27 26

.

Jan.

1

at

now mean noon, we have
/(a)

the longitude of
:

Mercury

for

= 303
50".

25
n

1".

5 and n

=

,

further

:

/

( a -f-

|)

= -h 6

41

0,

=|
1
.

Product:

-h 3

20

55".

/(a + l)=

-h 18

48.0,^^ = -| Z
n

-221.0
s

+ = +

244.4

^=i

)2 = +
) -

+10.3

are
vity

*) We can see this easily by the manner in which the successive functions formed by the differences. For if we denote these for the sake of bre by / / etc. we have the following table
"

:

,

/",

I.

Diff.

II. Diff.

III. Diff.

/()
J(&)~r-*J H~/
f(
\
I

O

fl

I

f
Q
fll
I

J f
fill

J
\

J

_,
<

o fn

,

^/

~T"

fin J

J
,r;/;
./

fH

i

~T~ J
.

fill
f>

J

fll

r*>j

j

O

,.,

Q

,,;;

o

v

J

fin
/;//

/(a) H- 5/ /(a) 4- 6/

-4-

10/
15/"

-f-

+

+

f
10/"

+
Yf
fi

1
[T

"

"

20/"

^J
"

10^
I
K->

">

"

4/
5/"

,,

/"

-+

7

^"

/(a)4-7/-h21/"4-35/""

22

Hence we have
and we

to

add
-1-3

to f(cf)
18
43".

9

find the longitude of Mercury for Jan. 1 O h 4. 300 43
45".

We

may

write

Newton

s

formula in the following more
gain the advantage of using

convenient form, by which

we

more simple
/(a
-f- nto)

fractions as factors:

=/(a) H- n

[/ (a

+ $ ^-+-

[/"

(a+ 1)

+ --~- X

If n

is

again equal to
6".

|,

we have
this

-

=

|,

hence
mul-

4

/IV (aH-2) =

3.

Adding

to

f"

(4-f) and
19".

tiplying the

sum by

?-- =
f"

f,

we

find -- 1

0.

Ad

ding this again to

(a -f- 1)

and multiplying the sum by
if

^~

l
-

=

i,

we

get

4

22".

2 and

we

finally

add

this to
43".

f (a 4- 1) and
to f(d)

we have to add 3 18 9 multiply by and thus we find the same value as before, namely
4.

n=^

306 43
14.

45".

We

polation, if we tains only such differences as are found on the same horizon tal line and that for instance starting from f(a) we have to use only the differences /X#4-|), GO an(^ f a ~k~%)- The
/"

can find more convenient formulae of inter transform Newton s formula so, that it con

"(.

two

first

terms of

Newton

s

formula

may

therefore be re

tained.

Now we
/"

have:
( a H- 1)

/

"

(

/iv

(

/v

(

= f ()-+= a + H-I-/ = f H- 4-/ + f a+ =/ ()+2/v + -f-/v + a 4- I) ==/% + + yvi (a + v
f"

(a -f- 1),
(

-h

|)

f"

(a

)

1)

lv

2)

(a

1)

v

(

)

IV

(a

|)

(

1),

3

(

)

2)

=/

(

4- i)

4-/

VI

(a

+ +/
1)
f"

VI

(a

+

2),

etc.

We

obtain thus as coefficient of
n (n
1)

(a)

:

23
as coefficient of njn

f
lv

^a-h^)
n (n

-

1)

1) (n

2)

_

(n

H-

1

)_( w_

_1 )

~T:2
as coefficient of

1.2.3
f (a):
n(n
1) (n

1.2.3~
2) (n

n(n

l)(n

2)

3)

_

(n -+- 1) n (n

1) (n

2)

1.2.3
at last as coefficient of

1.2.3.4
v

1.2.3.4

n(

l)(n

2)

n(n

l)(n

2)(n

3)

n(n

l)(n

2)(n

3)(n-4)

1.2.3

1.2.3.4

1.2.3.4.5
1) (n

_ (n-f-2) (nH-1) n (n
1

2)

.2.3.4.5
is

where the law of progression

obvious.

Hence we have:

If

we

ment

is

introduce instead of the differences, whose argu a-Hf those whose argument is a f, we find:

/

(a

+

i)

=./"

(a

-

|)

+/"

(a),

Therefore in this case the differences of an odd order

remain the same, but the coefficient of
n (n
1)

f"(a)

is:

_

n

(n

+
2)

1)

1.2

1.2

and that of
/"

Iv

(a)
1)

:

(n+l)n(n 1.2.3

(n -+

l)n

(n

l)(n

(n

l)n(n

+

l) (n-f-2)

1.2.3.4

1.2.3.4

We

find therefore:
(a)

f"

+

1

( n --2)( n

-l)n(n+l)(nH-2)
"

~"i7273 .T.T TTT^IL 4^ where again the law of progression is obvious.

Supposing now, that we have to interpolate for a value, whose argument lies between a and a 0, n will be negative. But if n shall denote a positive number, we must introduce
n instead of n in the above formula,

which therefore

is

changed

into the following:

24

/(a)
w
(

- n/(a- i) +
4)

~^^/
2)

(a)

_

+ (n+ln-l)

/lv

(n4-2)(n-4-l)n(n-l)(n-2)

This formula
wards.
(3) as before

Making made with Newton

if we interpolate back the same change with the formulae (2) and s

~lT2T374~5~ we use therefore

formula,
[/"

we

find:

f(a 4- nw)

=/() + n
X
[/"

[

/"

(a

-K) H-

(a

4-|) -h
a

^
)

^
1

(a)

+
-

n

X
(2 a)

-|~-

[/

IV

(a) -4- ...

/(a

_ nw =/() _ n [/
)

(

- ~^
[/

^(a)

[/"

(a)

?^-

X
(3 a)

X
If

"

[/

(a

-$-n

Iv

-

...

drawn through the table of the functions and differences near the place which the value of the function, which we seek, would occupy and if we use the first formula, when a-\-nw is nearer to a than to a-\-w, and the second one, when a nw is nearer to a than to a we have to use always those differences, which
therefore a horizontal line
?,

we imagine

are situated next to the horizontal line on both sides.

It is

then not at
of the

all

necessary,

to

differences, but we rence so that it comes nearer to the difference on the other

pay any attention to the sign have only to correct each diffe

side
first

of the horizontal

line.

For instance

if

we apply

the

formula, the argument being between a and a-\~^w^ the horizontal line would lie between/""^) and (a-hl). Then
/"

we have

to

add

to

f"

(a):

Therefore
rected

if

f 00

is

(

smaller ) Vgreater/

than

f"(a

-hi), the corf"

f"

(a) will be

and hence come nearer
(f"*^)

(a 4-1).

little greater accuracy may be obtained by using in of the highest difference the arithmetical mean of the two differences next to the horizontal line on both sides of it.

A

stead

We

shall denote the arithmetical

mean of two

differences

by

25
the sign of the differences, adopted before, but using as the argument the arithmetical mean of the arguments of the two
differences, so that

we have
>

for instance

:

/ (a + ,/(+
As

J)+/(++
2

in this case the quantities within the parenthesis are fractions for differences of an even order and integral num bers for those of an odd order, while in the case of simple
rise to

differences they are just the reverse, this notation cannot give any ambiguity. If we stop for instance at the second

differences, direction
,

we must

use

the

arithmetical

so that

we

take

when we interpolate in a forward mean of (a) and (a -+- 1) or now instead of the term
f"
/*"

the term:

-?;* f (a+ * "-ri-Hence while using merely
"

"

}

"

(/ (o)

+ */

"

(a

+

)! -

equal to the
mit,
is

(a) we commit an error whole third term, the error which we now com
f"

only:
+>-

-

If

we have n
is

differences,
this

case

\, this error, depending on the third therefore reduced to nothing, and as it is in indifferent, which of the two formulae (2) or (3)

=

we

use, as

we can

either start

from the argument a and in

terpolate in a

forward direction or starting from the argument

a-+-w

interpolate in a backward direction, we get the most convenient formula by the combination of the two. Now for \ formula (2) becomes

=

:

while formula (3) becomes,
the starting point:

if

the argument (o-f-to)

is

made

"

(a -t-

26
If we take the arithmetical mean of these two formulae, terms containing differences of an odd order disappear and we obtain thus for interpolating a value, which lies ex

all

in the middle between two arguments, the following convenient formula, which contains only the arithmetical very mean of even differences:

actly

-

*
[/"(a-H)

-

^ [/
is

IV

(-K) - ~ f/V

where the law of progression Example. If we wish to
for Jan.

obvious.

find the longitude of

4 12 h ,

we apply formula
I.

(2 a).

The

differences,

Mercury which
IV. Diff.

we have

to use, are the following:
Diff.
38".

II. Diff.

III. Diff.
44".

+7
Jan. 4

317

7

29".

5
"

21
_

^

H-2 2 !jA_
.

3

+ 10

"

l

__
6

7 22 10

-

4 24 26
9~

2 54

.

5

324 29 39

~~9

4

.

7

In this case
n

~

we have
1

n

=

J

,

hence
n

:

== ~

A
8

!L]
3-

""2

A = 12
2

2

4

7 = 16

taking no account of the signs and we get: 7 differences X T g arithmetical mean of the
4"

corrected third difference

51".

3
8

corrected second difference

22
7

43".

corrected

first

difference

13
.

39".

X X X

^
f
.

,

= = = =

I

ll".

4

8
1

31".

4
7,

48

24".

hence the longitude
If

for Jan. 4

5
2.

318

55

54".

to find the longitude for Jan. 5.5, we have to apply formula (3 a) and to use the differences, which are on both sides of the lower one of the two horizontal lines.

we wish

Then we

find the longitude for Jan. 5 7. 322 36
56".

.

5

In order to

make an

application of formula (4 a)
.

we
1".

will

now

find the longitude for Jan. 5
arithmetical
arithmetical

0,

and get:
T
36

arithmetical

mean mean mean

of the 4 th differences

of the 2

d

differences

X X

^

of the functions

= = = 320

4
3
7

2

52".

48

34".

hence

the longitude for Jan.

5.0
42".

320 45

4.

27

Computing now the
interpolation
Jan.

differences

of the values found by
II. Diff.

we

obtain:
I.

Diff.

III. Diff.

4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

r29 318 5554
SIT"

.

5

.2

*

-hl

23".5

3204542.4
322 3656 .7

126.1 128.9

+

_

_
,/

2

8

324 29 39

.

9

regular progression of the differences shows us, the interpolation was accurately made. This check by forming the differences we can always employ, when we have
that

The

computed a
of the

series

argument.
in

of values of a function at equal intervals For supposing that an error x has been
/"(a),

made

computing the value of

the table of the diffe

rences will

now

be as follows

:

Hence an
very much

error in the value of a function

shows

itself

increased in the higher differences and the greatest irregularities occur on the same horizontal line with the er

roneous value of the function.
15.

We

often have occasion to find the numerical value

differential coefficient of a function, whose analytical expression in not known and of which only a series of nu merical values at equal intervals from each other is given. In this case we must use the formulae for interpolation in order to compute these numerical values of the differential

of the

coefficients.

If

we

develop
-f-

Newton
n[f
(a

s

formula
find:
/"

for

interpolation ac

cording to the

powers of w,
4-^)

we

/(oH-nuO =/(a)

(a 4-1) -+- j
"

+ -^2
but as

[/"

Ca H- 1)

-/

(a

+ f) 4

1.2.3

Ly

we have

also according to Taylor s theorem:

/C

/v

+

/v^^/M 0=/C) + i_ B
>

,

,d*f(a)n*w->d f(a)n + --,- i; - +- Ta r 1^3 +
,>

U

-

...

we

find

VQ =

by comparing the two JL [/ -f- i)
(

series:
(a

|/"

+ 1)+ I/

"

(a-f-i)

-

...]

^=
arithmetical

1- [/

(

+

1) -/" (a

-K|)

+

...].

More convenient values of the differential coefficients may be deduced from formula (2) in No. 14. Introducing the
mean
of the

odd differences by the equations:

etc.

we

find:

/(a+nu,)

=/() + / (a) 4- -^/

()
/

+ ^|^=^
(

)
/"

(a)

(^D^CnLt)
1.2.3.4

This formula contains the even differences which are on
the same horizontal line with
/"(a),

and the arithmetical mean

of the odd differences, which are on both sides of the hori zontal line. Developing it according to the powers of n we
obtain
:

/(a4-nu;)=/(a)

+ n [/
H-

(a)

-

J

:

/

"(a)

+ ^fv
(o)

(a)

- T io/
VI

VI1

(a)

+

.

.

.]

Y~2

If"

W ~ A/ v
(a)

H- F O

/ ()/vn (a)
"

]

+

f/"

~ ^V

(a)

+^

-

]

and from

this

we

find:

etc.

If

we wish
is

to find the differential coefficient of a function,
itself,

which
have:

not given

for instance of

f(a-\-nw\ we must

substitute in these

formulae a-\-n instead of a, so that

we

29

tfI

t0

.

P

,

J

IV
,
/"

aa

.

.>

,

(a-f-n) -h

..

.

,

z

etc.

The

differences

which are

to be

used now do not occur

in

the table of the differences, but must be computed. even differences such as (a -\- ri) for instance this
f"

For the

compu

tation

is

simple,

as

we

find these

by the ordinary formulae
/"

of interpolation, considering merely now (fl), f"(a-t-ri) etc. as the functions, the third differences as their first ones etc.

But the odd
find a

we

differences are arithmetical means, hence we must formula for the interpolation of arithmetical means. But have:

/ (0 +
and according
to

)

=(a
f)
1
/"

2

formula (2) in No. 14:

/ (a -

4

-h n)

=/ - + /
/ (aH-i) 4-

(a)

4-

^^/"

(a

(n+l)(n-l)
.2.3
(a)

H-

1.2.3
therefore
find

~J
of both formulae

taking the arithmetical

mean

we

the following formula for the interpolation of an arith metical mean:
)

=/

(a)

4-

nf"

(a)

4-

--"--/"

(a)

4-

{

nf"

(a)

The two terms:

arise

from the arithmetical mean of the terms:
n (n
1)

iT^

/

(

I)

and

which gives:
l^/"

()

H-

^

f/"

(a

4-

) -/"

(a

-

])].

30
lv Combining the two terms, which contain f (a), we may

write the above formula thus:

/

(

aH _ w )

=/

()

-+-

/ (a) -h y /
6

"

(a)

+

^/^ ()

H-

(7)

The formulae

5,

and 7 may be used to find the nu

merical values of the differential coefficients of a function for

any argument by using the even differences and the arith metical means of the odd differences, whenever a series of
numerical values of the function at equal intervals
is

given.

We

can also deduce other formulae for the

differential

which contain the simple odd differences and the For if we in arithmetical means of the even differences. troduce in formula (3) in No. 14 the arithmetical means of
coefficients,

the even differences

by the aid of the equations:
/(a

/() =

+

J)

i/(oH-j)

etc.

we

find, as

we

have:
1)

(n-hl)n(n

_

,

n (n

1)

1.2.3

=n

(n

1) (n

-

1.2
etc.

1.2.3

If

we

write here

w~h|

instead of w, the law of the co
as

efficients

becomes more obvious,
(

we

get:
(a

/[+ (n -hi) w] =f(a H- 1) -h /

-h

D

+

/"

+ i)

(!^i^^
Developing
this

formula according to the powers of

w,

we

find the terms independent of n:

hence

:

31
/[a

+ + 1) w] =/(

-h { w)

l920

/VII(a+4) -

-

]

Comparing
according

this

formula with the development of f(a-\-\w+ nw)
s

to

Taylor

theorem,

we

find:

(8)

etc.

These formulae

will

be the most convenient in case that
coefficients of a function for

we have

to find the differential
is

an argument, which

the arithmetical

mean

of two successive

given arguments. For other arguments, for instance a-+-(n-}-Qw

we have

again:

da

=/ + 1 -*^)
,

1

(

/ (a-H + n)

etc.

Here we can compute the difference f (a-{-\-\-ri) as well as all odd differences by the ordinary formulae of interpolation. But as the even differences are arithmetical means, we must use a different formula, which we may deduce from the for mula (7) for interpolating an arithmetical mean of odd diffe rences by substuting a -h \ instead of a and increasing all
accents by one, so that

we have

for instance:

/1V (a -h

TZ
Example.

According to the Berlin Almanac for 1848

we have

the following right-ascensions of the moon.

32
I.

Diff.

II. Diff.

III. Diff.

IV. DifF.

15

Oh

50 to

6 .39

If

we wish
1

find
1

the

first

differential

coefficients

for

h July 13 10 , II and 12 and use formula (9), we must first h h h compute the first and third differences for 10 , ll and 12
.

The

third of the first differences corresponds to the argument h h h (a -hi)? we have therefore for 10 , ll July 13 6 and is and \. Then inter and 12 h n respectively equal to *,
/"

^

polating in the ordinary way,
10h

we

find:

+25
25 26

57s. 11

-2s.
2
.

51

llh
12h

58 .81
.

2 .58

49

64

and from

this the differential coefficients:
for

10h

+25^573.21
25

llh 12h

58 .92
.

26

60

where the unit is an interval of 12 hours. If we wish to find them so that one hour is the unit, we must divide by 12 and
find thus the following values:
10 h
ll h 2
99. 77
9 .91

12h

10

.

05,

which are the hourly velocities of the moon in right-ascension. If we had employed formula (6), where the arithmetical Juli 13 12 h means of odd differences are used, taking a h we would have found for instance for 10 where n is J,

=
2

,

,

according to formula (7)

:

f (a

^)

= + 2556s.77

and

/

"(a

)

=

.

51

and from these the differential mula (6) equal to -4-2 m 9 s .77.

coefficient according to for

The second

differences are the following:
for 10h
-j-

20s. 55

llh
12*>

20 .34 20 12.
.

33
If
P>

we add to these the fourth differences multiplied by and divide by 144, we find the second differential co
for

efficients

1O
lib

-I-

s

.

1432 .1417
1402.

12h

.

where again the unit of time

is

one hour*).

C.

THEORY OF SEVERAL DEFINITE INTEGRALS USED
SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY.

IN

16.
limits

As
and

the integral
co

le- ~dt, either taken between the

or between the limits o and

T

or

T and

oo,

is often used in astronomy, the most important theorems re garding it and the formulas used for its numerical compu

tation shall be briefly deduced.

The
of the

definite integral

\e~^dt
s

is

a transformation of one

first

class of

Euler
class
x

integrals

known

as

the

Gamma

functions.

For

this

the

following notation

has been
(1)

adopted

:

le
o

.x"

dx

= F(a\

where a always is a positive quantity, and as we may deduce the following formula:
\e
x
.x"

easily

~

{

dx

=

\e

x
d(^"^

=

e

x
.

*"

*

-f-

fx a e

x

dx
to

and as the term without the integral sign becomes equal
zero after the substitution of the limits,
CO
<X

we
x"

find:

fir*

.

xa

~

l

dx

=

J
or:

a J

fe*.

dx
(2)

ar(a)

= r(a+l}

But

as

we have

also:

*)

Encke on interpolation and on mechanical quadrature
1837".

in

Berliner

Jahrbuch fur 1830 und

3

34
it

follows, that
If

when
F(n}

n
(n

is

=

an integral number,
\}(n
2)(n
3)....
1.

we have:
find:

we

take in the equation (1)

x

=

2
J
,

we

hence for a

=

o

\

:

2

feI

.d/

=
we
will multiply
it

In order to find this integral,
similar one

by a

\e~ yl dy, so that

r

we

get:

(
(I

=f
(>,/,

,-" rf ,

).
I)

d,
J>

=
Jj>"
II

2+
tl

"

2)
"

rf*.

Taking here y

=x

t

,

hence d/

=

t

.

dx

,

we

find

:

or as:

we

find:
2

(
(i

I

e~

d

ty

=

\
ii

I

=

^ (arc

tang GO

arc tang 0)

=

>

hence

:

From
If

this follows

r(|) = ||/7r,

JTQ)

=

r (I) = |1/7T
shall

J/TT,

hence from equation (2):
etc.

we

introduce in equation (1) a

by taking x

=

new

constant quantity

ky

,

where k

the limits of the integral

may

be positive in order that remain unchanged, we find:

hence

:

*V- ^ =

.

(4)

35

17.

To

find the integral
is

le-^dt, various methods are
easily

used.

While T

small,

we

obtain

by developing

-<

2

,,

T3
X

and as we have \e~

*dt=
>

we

also find

from the above

formula the integral

\e~ li dt.

crease only at the ratio of

This series must always converge, as the numerators in T 2 while the denominators arc con
,

stantly increasing; but only while T is small, does it converge with sufficient rapidity. therefore T is large, another series is used for computing this integral, which is obtained

When

parts. Although this series is divergent continued indefinitely, yet we can find from it the value of the integral with sufficient accuracy, as it has the property,

by integrating by
if

that the

sum
have:

of

all

the terms following
itself.

a certain term

is

not greater than this term

We
.

or integrating

by parts:

-

,

By

the same process

we

find:

/2
>~

) j

dt in

~ rl
,
,

e

or finally

re J

-^^=_

~
e

/2

2t

riL

l
2<

1.3.5....(2n
2"+

+

l)

_*2 f e -t*

rf<

J
3

36
or after substituting the limits:
,

f
The

_e~ =
2

Ti

T

[ L

1

_ l.3_

1.3.5
2

2712

(2r 2

)

(27

12
)

3

1.3. 5. ...(2?i-l)

1.3.5....

(5

factors in the

numerator are constantly increasing,
;

2 when this happens, hence they will become greater than 2 T as the numerators in the terms must indefinitely increase, But if we consider the crease more than the denominators.

remainder

:

-hl) C
t

J

we can

easily

prove that

it

is

smaller

than the
is

last

pre

ceding term. &

For the value of the
,11

integral

less

than

multiplied

and

OD

2 by the greatest value of e~ between the /12 and as we have: which is e~
,

limits

T

A
r

J

/-"+-

L. = 2n+l
_

_1 2
T

"-

the remainder must always be less than: 1 1.3.5...2n _

Now

this

expression

with opposite sign, remainder is negative and less than it. In order therefore to find a very accurate value of the integral, we have only to see, that the last term which we compute is a very small one, as the error committed by neglecting terms is less than this very small term.
the

that of the last preceding term so that if the last term is positive, the
is

remaining

Another method

for

computing
it

Laplace, consists in converting If we put:
x

this integral, given by into a continued fraction.

dx

=

7,

(a)

J
/

we

find

:

37
rf7
df<

= 2te
_

2
<

/
I

X2
e

dx

2

e

= 2* 71.
Now
d"

t

(/?)

the n ih differential coefficient of a product is: 8 d .xy __<*.* * 1) e*- * (n dy *Py
n
,

,

"

"

"

1
rf^"-

7
rfir

1.2

rfr

2

rf^

2

hence we have:
c/"

+1 77

rf-

7

If

we denote

this

the product equation thus:
r
=

1.2.3 ---- n by w/, we may write
o

=2
"

or denoting -7-7-7

by
(n

Un
1)

:

His

67rt+

i

=2
for

*

/
all

-4-

2 7w _i.

This equation

true

values
itself.

of n from n

=

1,
it:

when

t/

()

is

equal to the function

U

We

find

from

hence

:

But we have from equation

(/9):
,

~
hence
:

-

= 2t

1
2<

o

j

-i
"

U
and from equation
(; )

follows:
1

-2*
Z7,

38
If

we

substitute

this

value in the former equation and

continue the development,

we

find:

1

+3
1

H-

etc.,

therefore , taking

^^ = g

(7)

14-3?
14-4?"
1

4-

etc.

By

one of the three formulae (5), (6) or (7)

we can

i2 f2 always find the value of the integral Ie~ dt or ie~ dt, but

T

on account of the frequent use of tables have been constructed for
given in Bessel
s

this transcendental function
it.

One

of such tables

is

Fundamenta Astronomiae

for the function:

/J.-**,
from which the other forms are easily deduced. The part of this table has the argument T and extends from
to
first

T=

T=l,

But

as according to

the interval of the arguments being one hundreth. formula (6) the function is the more

nearly inversely proportional to its argument, the greater T becomes, the common logarithms of T are used as arguments
for values

of

T

greater than
is

1.

This second part of the

table extends from the logarithm

T == 0.000
is

to log.
still

T= 1.000,

which

for

most purposes

sufficient.

For

greater ar

guments the computation The integral 18.

by formula (6)

very easy.

-

dx

39
can be easily reduced to the one treated above.

For

if

we

introduce another variable quantity, given by the equation:
,

from which we have
the above integral
is

dx=

2

1

dt, ,

transformed into:

if

we

take

:

T= cotang

}

^

.

If

now we

introduce the following notation

we have
and also

:

I ^

^=: dx = }

-j-

^H

(8)

:

If

we

diflPerentiate

the expression e~ x

Vcos^ 2 -f-^

n
ft

x

with respect to x and then integrate the resulting equation with respect to x between the limits and oo, we easily find
:

where

T= cotang t
(9)

And

as

we have by formula

P

o

we

find:

J

\l

5-2

^
i

9
S111
=>

(10)

of which formulae

we

shall also

make use

hereafter.

40

D.
19.

THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES.

In astronomy

we

continually determine quantities

But when we observe any phenomenon re by we generally find different results by different ob peatedly,
observations.
servations, as the imperfection of the instruments as well as that of our organs of sense, also other accidental ex ternal causes produce errors in the observations, which render
It is therefore very important to have result incorrect. a method, by which notwithstanding the errors of single ob servations we may obtain a result, which is as nearly correct

the

as possible. The errors

committed

in

making an observation
all

are of

two kinds,

either

constant or accidental.

The former

are

such errors which are the same in

observations and which

may be caused

either

by

a peculiarity of the instrument used

or by the idiosyncrasy of the observer, which produces the same error in all observations. On the contrary accidental
errors

are

for different observations

such which as well in sign as in quantity differ and therefore are not produced by

causes

may

which act always in the same sense. These errors be eliminated by repeating the observations as often as

possible, as

we may expect, that among a very great number of observations there are as many which give the result too
great as there are such which give
result
it

too small.

But the

final

must necessarily remain
any, when

there are

by constant errors, if for instance the same observer is ob
affected

serving with the same instrument. In order to eliminate also these errors, it is therefore necessary, to vary as much as

methods of observation as well as the instruments and observers themselves, for then also these errors will for the most part destroy each other in the final result, deduced from the single results of each method. Here we shall con sider all errors as accidental, supposing, that the methods have been so multiplied as to justify this hypothesis. But
possible the
if this
is

method given
errors,

not the case the results deduced according to the hereafter, may still be affected by constant

41
a quantity by immediate measurement, it is natural to adopt the arithmetical mean of all single ob servations as the most plausible value. But often we do not determine a single quantity by direct observations, but only
If

we determine

which give us certain relations between several that quantities; we may however always assume, these relations between the observed and the unknown quan For although in ge tities have the form of linear equations. which expresses this relation neral the function ?/, etc.) between the observed quantities and the unknown quantities
find values,

unknown

/"(,

L,

be a linear function, we can always procure approximate values of the unknown quantities from the ob and f and assuming servations and denoting these by ?; , ,
,

?/,

C,

will not

that the correct values are
find

z etc., we -{-.T, ^o-4-y? Jo from each observation an equation of the following form
~+"

:

,...

9

,

,

provided that the assumed values are sufficiently approximate as to allow us to neglect the higher powers of ic, ?/, z etc. Here /"(, r^ ...) , ...) is the observed value, /X the value computed from the approximate values, hence
>/,

tfco

o

)

f(i
-^

Vi f
f

)

=n

is

a

known

quantity.

Denoting then

by

a,

~

by

6,

by

c etc.

and distinguish

ing these quantities for different observations by different ac cents, we shall find from the single observations equations
of the following form:

=n =n

-|-+-

ax

+

l>y

-+- c z -f-

. .

.

,

a x -h //y
etc.,

+

r z -f-

.

.

.

,

where

a?,

?/,

a ... are

unknown

values,

which we wish

to de

termine, while n is equal to the computed value of the function of these unknown quantities minus its observed value. There

must necessarily be as many such equations as there are ob servations and their number must be^as great as possible,, in order to deduce from them values of a;, */, z etc. which
are as free as possible from the errors of observation. easily see also , that the coefficients a , b , c ---- in the dif

We

ferent

equations
coefficients

must have
in all the

different

values

;

for

if

two of

these

different

equations were nearly

42
equal or proportional,

we

should not be able to separate the

unknown
the

quantities by which they are multiplied. In order to find from a large number of such equations

best possible values of the

unknown

quantities, the fol

lowing method was formerly employed.
all all

First the

signs of

equations the terms

were changed
containing x.

other equation resulted, In the same way equations were deduced, largest possible. in which the coefficient oft/ and z etc. was the largest pos
sible

same sign to equations, an in which the factor of x was the
so as to give the
all

Then adding

and thus as many equations were found as there were
quantities,

unknown

whose solution furnished pretty correct method is a little arbitrary, it is better to solve such equations according to the method of least squares, which allows also an idea to be formed of the ac curacy of the values obtained. If the observations were per fectly right and the number of the unknown quantities three, to which number we will confine ourselves hereafter, three such equations would be sufficient, in order to find their true values. But as each of the values n found by observations is generally a little erroneous, none of these equations would
values of them.

But

as this

be

satisfied,

even

if

we should

substitute the exact values of

#, y and

z\ therefore denoting the residual error to write these equations thus: ought

by A^ we

A
/y

= n 4- ax-}- by-i=,/+
* 4etc.,
/>V

cz,

+ cX

from a large number of such equations those values of x, y and z, which according to those equations are the most probable.

and the problem

is

this: to find

20.

We

have a right to assume, that small errors are

more probable than large ones and that observations, which are nearly correct, occur more frequently than others, also that errors, surpassing a certain limit, will never occur. There must exist therefore a certain law depending on the magni tude of the error, which expresses how often any error oc If the number of observations is TW, and an error of curs.
the magnitude

A

occurs according to this law p times,

43
expresses the probability of the error A and shall be de noted by (/-(A). This function (A) must be therefore zero, if A surpasses a certain limit and have a maximum for
5
</

/\

=

0,

besides

it

must have equal values

for equal, positive

or negative
will

values of A-

As we have p
m<f

= m y (A)
to the

,

there

be among

m

observations

tude A? likewise as the number of
all

my (A )
all

(A) errors of the magni errors of the magnitude A etc.; but

errors

must be equal

number of

observations,

we have:

i.
.

This sum being that of
certain limits
thesis
<^(A)

all
,

errors

must be taken between

k and
is

-f-

k

but as according to our hypo

ference, if
limits
oo

we
and

zero beyond this limit, it will make no dif take instead of the limits k and -{-k the
-+- oo.

But

as

any

A

between these

limits

are possible,, as we cannot assign any quantity between the limits k and -t-&, which may not possibly be equal to an as therefore the number of possible errors, hence also error,

the

number of the functions (A) is infinite, each cf (A) must be an infinitely small quantity. The probability that an error
</)

lies

between certain limits, is equal to the sum of all values f(A) which lie between these limits. If these limits are in

finitely

near to each other, the value rp (A) may be considered constant, hence </)(A).dA expresses the chance, that an er ror lies between the limit A and A H- ^A- The probability that an error lies between the limits a and 6, is therefore
expressed by the definite integral
1

9

(A)

.

</A

and we have according

to the

formula found before:

when
A?
is

According to the theory of probabilities we know, that ^ (A ) etc. express the probability of the errors
r/>(A),

etc. the probability, that these errors occur together, equal to the product of the probabilities of the separate

A

44
errors.

If therefore

W

ries of observations the errors A?

denotes the probability, that in a se etc. occur, we have: A)
A"

Therefore
errors A?
tions (1),

if

for

certain

assumed values of

a?,

?/,

z the

A

,

A"

etc.

W

is

express the residual errors of the equa the probability that just these errors have
therefore be used for measuring the pro

been made and

may

bability of these values of ,T, y and z. Any other system of values of x, y and z will give also another system of resi dual errors and the most plausible values of a?, y and z must evidently be those, which make the probability that just these

errors have been committed a

the function

W
(f-

itself is
is

a

maximum, for which maximum. But in order
it

therefore
to deter

mine,

when

(A)

a

maximum,

is

necessary to

know

the

form of
for

this function.
in the

Now
tity,

case that there

which the

m

by observations, it is all observation as the most probable value of x. therefore
:

is only one unknown quan values w, n\ etc. have been found the rule, to take the mean of always
n"

We

have

x

=
n

4- n

-f-

n"

4-

.

.

or:

n

_
x

a ._|_

_
x

m
ar

_|_

n

_

a .....

== o

j

0)

where n

x,

n

we have n
for the

x

=

etc.

correspond to the errors A, so that

/\,

n

=

/\

etc.
a?,

But

as

W

is

a

maximum
equa

most probable value of

we

find differentiating

tion (2) in a logarithmic form:

dx

d{\
rfA
.* c?:r

dx

and as

in this

case

we have

*----

= --= etc. =
rfA
f/.r JJT

1,

we

find

or:

d (-,) -:]?8fAT^ +(_,) J^2SJ^=^-+....0. d. (n d x) (n
x)
.

W
mean

(n

a?)

(n

a?)

But

as according to the hypothesis the arithmetical

gives the most probable value of a?, the two equations (a) and (6) must give the same value for a?, hence we have:
1

c/.logyCn

a?)

_
n
1

1

(

!_^

o S (p( n_
x)

x)

_

etc

__ ^

n

x

d(n

x)

x

d(n

45

where k is a constant quantity. We have therefore the lowing equation for determining the function
d_>

fol

log

y

(A)_

_
2

,

A.rfA

hence
logy
(A)

= ?A

4-logC

and

The
decreases

sign

of k
is

when A

can easily be determined for as y (A) increasing, k must be negative; we may
,

therefore put

\k=-

2
ft
,

so that

we have q(/\^=Ce

**^*.

In order to determine

C we

use the equation:

--

and as we have
00

ie~ x dx
or

*

=

J/TT,

we

a ^ a d/\ == get le~*
Of)

,

hence

^==1

0=-

and

finally:

The constant quantity ft remains the same for a system of observations, which are all equally good or for which the For such probability of a certain error /\ is the same.
rV

,

system the probability that an error lies between the limits

and

-f-rV is:

-hS

Now

if

in

another system of observations the
/\
is

proba

bility of an error

expressed by
lies

-

/

-e~

,

in this sys

tem the probability that an error and H-d is:
,

between the

limits

_

<Y

+

+h

Both integrals become equal when h
if

we have h an error 2x is

=

<)

=h

rV.

Therefore

, obvious, that in the second system as probable as an error x in the first system.

2ft

it

is

46

The accuracy
as

of the

that

of the

first system is therefore twice as great second and hence the constant quantity h

may be
vations.

considered as the measure of precision of the obser

observations

Usually instead of this measure of precision of their probable error is used. In any series of errors written in the order of their absolute magnitude and
21.

each written as often as

it

actually occurs,

we

call that error

which stands exactly in the middle, the probable error. If we denote it by r, the probability that an error lies between r and -f- r, must be equal to \. Hence we have the limits
the equation:
A_ C

W* = ^
hr

or taking

h^

=
o

r
t

dt

=

4-,

therefore
n

|

e~

l

dt

=-

J

But
hr and

I/ TT

as the value of this integral is
*),

= 0.44311,

when

= 0.47694
h:

we

find the

following relation between r

0.47694

The
ror,

9

integral
is

,

Ie~ t2 dt gives the probability of an er
if

nhr r

which

less

compute

for instance

than n times the probable error and the value of this integral for n

taking therefore

nhr

= 0.23847,

=

we
\,

we

find the probability of

an error, which

is less than one half of the probable error equal to 0.264, or among 1000 observations there ought to be 264 errors, which are smaller than one half the probable error. In the same way we find, taking n successively equal

to |, 2, |, 3, J, 4, |, 5, that ought to occur:

among 1000

observations there

)

On

the computation of this integral see No. 17 of the introduction.

47
688, where the error in less than fr 823,

2r
.

908, 956,

|r
3r

982,
993,

\r
4r

998,
999,

fr
5r,

and comparing with this a large number of errors of obser vations, which actually have been made, we may convince ourselves, that the number of times which errors of a certain
magnitude are met with agrees very nearly with the number
given by this theory.

We
by &,

will

find

now

the value of

h.

Suppose we have a

number of

m

actual errors

A

etc.,

of observation, which we denote the probability that these occur together is:

=
and

^ -AMAA+A
A
C

A

+A"A"+....]

if we further suppose, that these errors were actually committed and hence cannot be altered, the maximum of

W

depend merely on h and that value of ft, which gives the maximum, will be the most probable value of h for these
will

observations.

Denoting now

for the sake of brevity the

of the squares of the errors A?

A

etc.

by [A A]?

sum we have:

*-*.-*"],
and we easily find the following conditional equation for the

maximum

:

hence follows

:

-1h\/2

This square root of the sum of the squares of real errors
of observations divided

by

their

number,

error of these observations.

If this

each observation, it would give the as that of the actual errors. If we denote

mean error had been made in same sum of the squares
is

called the

it

by

f,

or put:

48

we have:

and:

/

r

= 0.47694 = 0.074489

|/

2e

s.

solve the real problem: To find from a system of equations (1), resulting from actual observations, the most probable values of the unknown quantities x, y and z
22.
will

We

now

and

at the

same time
substitute
their

their probable error as well as that of

the single observations.
If
<pGY)

we
etc.

in

the

equation

expressions

(A), (2) instead of according to equation (3), we
y>

find:
A"

-A

2

[A

2

+A

2
+A"

2

+ ...]
be considered as

"gF
if

we suppose

that

all

observations
A"

can

Here A, A , equally good. of observations, but depend

etc. are not the pure errors still on the values of #, y and a.
a?,

But

bability that the

y and z the pro have occurred to as near gether, must be as great as possible, as they become as possible equal to the actual errors of observations, which
as for the

most probable values of
then

remaining

errors

must be expected among a certain number of observations, we see that the values of the unknown quantities must be
derived from the equation:

A 2 -H A
or the

2

+

2
A"

-h

= minimum

sum

tions (1)

of the squares of the residual errors in the equa Hence this method to find must be a minimum.

the most probable values of the unknown quantities from such equations is called the method of least squares.

we first consider the most simple of one unknown quantity are found by the arithmetical mean of all observations
If
value.

case, that the values

direct observations,
is

the most probable This of course follows also from the condition of above.
:

the

minimum given
x
A

For the residual errors
n,

for

any

certain value of

are
??,

=x

i\

==x

l

\

=

x"

w",

etc.

We

get therefore for the

sum

of the squares of the re

sidual errors, if

we denote

49
the the

sum sum

of n -\-ri of w 2 -|- n

-\-n"

-J-...
2

>2

-\-

w"

-{-...

by by

[n]

[n n]

and the number of observations by m: mx* nY 2x[n] -+-

=

[nr>]

As
sum

all

terms of the second

member

are

positive,

the

of the squares will

become a minimum, when:

and the sum of the squares of the residual errors will be:

the

known probable

In order to find the probable error of this result from error of a single observation, we must

solve a problem,

which on account of an application

to

be

made hereafter we will state in a more general form, namely: To find the probable error of a linear function of several quantities a?, x etc., if the probable errors of the single quan tities a;, x etc. are known. If r is the probable error of x and we have the simple
function of x:

X = ax,
<}

it

is

is

For if x evident, that ar is the probable error of X. the most probable value of a?, ax is the most probable
of

and the number of cases, when x lies between the limits x r and a? H-r is equal to the number of cases in which X lies between ar and aa? -+-r. a? Let X now represent a linear function of two variables
value
or take:

X

X=x + x
and
let

and r

a and a represent the the probable errors of

x and x.

most probable values and r As we must take

then for the errors

x and x

respectively

h=

and h

=

c

,,

where

c is

equal to 0.47694,

we have

the probability of any

value of x:

50

and the probability of any value of x

:

hence we have the probability that any two values x and x occur together:

We
X
x

shall find therefore

and x whfch
for

x

the probability of two errors x the equation X=*x-\-x\ if we substitute satisfy in the above expression and denoting this pro

bability

by

FT,

we

get:

W= rrrIf

e

7t

we perform now
unite

the summation of

all

cases, in

which an

x may
or in

with an x to produce X, where of course we oo and -\- oo, must assign to x all values between the limits
other words
if

we

integrate

W

we we

shall

embrace
all

all

cases, in

which

X

between these limits, can be produced or

shall determine the probability of X.

Uniting
of a square,

we

terms containing x and giving them the form easily reduce the integral to the following

form

:

/

"

dx

2

C

-*

if

we put

:

~r*(X
rr

a)-hr

>a
a>

and

as

we have

we

find the probability of

any value of X:

-&&-*-*

51

But

this expression

becomes a maximum, when

X = a -+-

,

hence the most probable value of X is equal to the sum of the most probable values of x and x and the measure of

accuracy for
J/ r 2_j_

X

is

-?=,

hence the probable error of

X

is

r

2

From

this follows in connection

with the formula

proved before, that when:
the probable error of

X

is

equal to
this

Va z r 2

-f-

a2r

2
.

We
Hence
if

may

easily

extend

theorem to any number of

terms, as in case we have three terms, we can first combine two of them, afterwards these with the third one and so on.

we have any linear function: X== ax H- a x -h + ....,
a"x"

and

if r,

r

,

r"

etc.

are the

probable errors of
equal to:

re,

x\

x"

etc.

the probable error of

X

is

From

this

arithmetical

we find immediately mean of m observations

,

the probable error of the each of which has the

probable error r; for as:

we have
r

the

probable error of the mean equal to

j/

m

.

a

or

.

Vm
The probable
vations
is

error of the arithmetical

mean

of

m

obser

therefore to the probable error of a single obser
:

vation as

1 or its measure of precision to the measure Vm of a single observation as h]/m:h. Often the relative accu

racy of two quantities is expressed by their weights, which mean the number of equally accurate observations necessary
in

order to find from their arithmetical mean a value of the same accuracy as that of the given quantity. Therefore if the weight of a single observation is 1, the arithmetical mean
of m observations has the weight m. Hence the weights of two quantities are to each other directly as the squares of

52
their

measures of precision and inversely as the squares of the
*).

probable errors It remains
observation.

still

to find the

If the residual errors

probable error r of a single n x & of the original

=

the most probable value of x were equations after substituting the real errors of observation, the sum of their squares di vided by m would give the square of the mean error of an to No. 20, or this error itself would observation

according

be T/fclJ.
r

m

But

as the arithmetical

mean

of the observations

is

not the true value, but only the one which according to the observations made is the most probable, except in case
that the
sidual
differ

number of observations
less

errors will

is infinitely great, the re not be the real errors of observation and

more or
of

from them.
as

Now

let

x

()

be the most pro

bable value

#

()

-{-

ma y

given by be the true value which
first

x

the arithmetical mean, while
is

unknown.

By

substi

tuting the errors o?

value in the equations
l}

we

get the residual

ri etc. which shall be denoted by A? A w, x etc. while the substitution of the true value would give the have therefore the following $ etc. n errors a? -r-

=

We

equations

:

A

A
and
if

+ = + =
etc.,

<?,

<?

,

we
all

take the

sum

of their squares

observing that the

sum

of

A

is

equal to zero,
[A A] 4-

we
>P

find according to the adopted

notation of sums:

=

[<?<?],

which equation shows that the sum of the squares of the
residual errors

belonging to the arithmetical mean

is

always
error

too small.

As we have
of an

[<)c)]

=W

2
,

when
[A A]

denotes the
[n

observation and further

%]

,

mean we can
"

write

the equation also in the following form:

*)

If therefore

two quantities have the weights p
1

=

^

and p

=

-j^

the weight of their

sum

is

-=--

a 2__ -,^=

pp

53

Although we cannot compute from
lue of
,

this equation the

va

as

2?

is

near as possible,
of

unknown still we shall get this value as if we substitute instead of g the mean error
,

x and
:

as

we have found

this to be equal to

y

m

, 7

we

find

thus

for the

mean

error of an observation and hence the probable

error

:

r- 0.674489
r

-

1

m

Furthermore we find the mean error of the arithmetical

mean

:

and the probable error:
0.674489

Example. On May 21 1861 the difference of longitude between the observatory at Ann Arbor and the Lake Survey
Station
at Detroit

telegraph,

was determined by means of the electric and from 31 stars observed at both stations the

following values were obtained:

Mean

2 m 43 s

.

49

*

54

Here we
errors

find the

[wJ

=1.77,

of the squares of the residual and as the number of observations is 31,

sum

we

find:

s 164 the probable error of a single observation hence the probable error of the mean of all observations
.

==b

Although we cannot expect that
of observations, the

in this case the errors

of observations being so small, will be distributed according to the law given in No. 21, yet we shall find, that this is approximately the case. According
to the theory, the

number

number

of observations being 31, the

num

ber of errors
r, f?*, 2r, fr, 3r ought to be 8, 15, 21, 25, 28, 30 while it actually is according to the above table: 6, 12, 22, 24, 29, 30. The error which stands exactly in the middle of

smaller than |r,

all

er

rors written in the order of their magnitude to be equal to the probable error is 0,18.
23.

and which ought

In the general case,

when

from the observations contain several unknown

the equations (1) derived quantities, the

number of which we

will limit here to three, the most pro bable values of these quantities are again those , which give the least sum of the squares of the residual errors. As this

sum must necessarily be a minimum with respect to x as well as to y and 3, this condition furnishes as many equa tions as there are unknown quantities, which therefore can
be determined by their solution.

The
follows
:

equation of the

minimum with

respect to

x

is

as

ax
or as

...

ax

)

we have according
A

to equations (1)

^-=a,

-

=a etc.

we

get:

+ AV +

A"a"-h...

=

0.

If

we

substitute in this for
if

A?

A

etc.

from (1) and

we adopt

a similar notation of the

their expressions sums as

before, taking:

.

55
aa
-f-

a a

-f-

a" a"

-+-f-

.

.

.

and a 6 4- a

b -+-

a"

b"

.

.

.

= =

[a a]
[a b] etc.

we

get the equation:
[a a]

x -h [ab] y

-f- [ac] z -f- [aw]

and likewise and

a &] x [
[rt

+ [bb]y-+-j_ [^ c ]

[b c] z
[

4-

[6 n]

C]

*

y

-|-

c c] z

4- [ cw j

= 0; =o =o

(4)

(5)
(C)

from the two equations of the minimum with respect to y and z. The solution of these tree equations gives the most probable values of x, y and 3.
In order to solve them

we

multiply the

first

by J

[aa]

and subtract
first

it

from the second, likewise we multiply the
it

by p

and subtract
#,

from the

third.

Thus we obtain

two equations without
[66 ]y
I

which have the form:
1

+ [6c

]+[6i

I

]

=
-

(D)

when we

take

[Ml

]

-[]_ fe^
now
the

,

[6c,]

=[c]

fe|^

which equations explain the adopted notation.
If
tract
it

we

multiply
(JS),

equation (D} by ~p-| and sub

from

we

find:
[cc a l*H-[cw a ]

=

(F),

where we have now:

From

equation (F)

we

find the value of 3,

while the

equations (D) and (^4) give the values of y and x. If we deduce [A 2 ] from the equations (1) we find with the aid of equations (4), (5) and (C) for the sum of the

squares of the residual errors:
[^2]

_

[

ww ]

+

[

fln ]

x

_}_

[

6n ] y
/

_|_

[

cw ]

2<

In order to eliminate here #,
tion
^1
:

and

3,

we

multiply equa

by

and subtract
|
^j

it

from the above equation, which

gives

=
If

[nn]

- Cn + [6m]y -H[cn,]
-

*.

we

then multiply the equation

(/>)

by

-~

and sub-

56
tract
it

from the

last equation,

we

get:

and

if

at last for the

we here substitute minimum of
, ,

the value of z from (F) we find the squares of the errors
:

[an]

Q..P

[cn 2 ]

2

can find the equations for the minimum of the squares of the errors also without the differential calculus. For if

We

we

by ax,
where
If

multiply each of the original equations (1) respectively by, cz and n and add them, we find:
[A A]
[

A]

= =

[

A] *

+

[ft

A] y
6]

+

[<

A]
c] 2

4-

A]

(a),
(ft)

[a a] x

4- [a

y H- [a

4- [a n\

etc.

we now substitute from (6), we find:

in (a) instead of

#

its

value taken

where

Then

substituting in (c) for y of the equations (d), we find:
[A A]

its

value taken from the

first

= j^r 4-

n^f +

tc

A2]

+

[n

A 2 ],

(c)

where now

and
the

if

we

finally substitute in (e) for 3 its value

taken from

first

of these last equations,

we have:

and we

easily see that

we have [Aa]

=

[

WW J-

As the first three terms on the right side of equation (#), which alone contain x, y, and z, have the form of squares,

we

see, that in order to obtain the

of the errors,
[6/\ 1 ]

=

we must
|flA 2
l

and

minimum of the squares the following equations [/\] 0, satisfy 0, which are identical with those we

=

found before.

We

see

also,

that

[w/? 3 ]

is

the

minimum

of

the squares of the errors.

57
24.
will

The theorem
again

serve us

to

for the probable error proved in No. 22 find the probable errors of the un

quantities, as we easily see by the equations A^ and F that the most probable values of .T, y and z can be etc. expressed by linear functions of w, ri,

known

D

n"

For in order to find x from these three equations, we must multiply each by such a coefficient that taking the sum of the three equations the coefficients of y and 3 in the re Therefore if we mul sulting equation become equal to zero.
*

tiply (A}

by

,

(D) by

-j

,

(F) by =4-

and add the
]

three equations,

we
A":

termining

A

get the following two equations for de

and

and we have:

__z|
[aa]

J// ~~^

x<

In order to find y
"

we
:

multiply (D) by

-fLo]J

,

(F) by

-~
r L
C>C

and

2J

adding them we get

and
.

-

At

last

we have:

Developing the quantities

[ftwj]

and [cw 2 ], we easily
(77),

find:

[&n,]=4
[cn 2 ]

[an]-f-[6w]

==^"[aw] -f-

5

[6n]

+[cw]

1

(5 ),

and as we

may change

the letters, the quantities in paren

thesis being of a

symmetrical form,

we

find also:
(0,

[&&,]= .4 [&]
[c c 2 ]

[6 c 2 ]

[a c 2 ]

= = =

+

[& 6] [6 c] -f- [c c]

A"

A"

5 [a 6] -h B
[a c] -f[ ]

yl"

+&

\b 6]
[a

&]

+ +

[6 c]
[ a c]

= =Q

(x),
(A),
*

(^).

)

*)

The two

last

equations
(8).

we may

easily

verify with the aid of the

equations (a), (/) and

58

Now
tions of n,

as [an] as well as

[6%]. and
a" n"

[c

2]

are linear func

we can

we have

[a n]

= an
=

easily
-+-

compute
ri

their probable errors.
-+-

First

a

-h

If therefore r de

notes the probable must be:
r ([an])

error

of one

observation,

that of

[an]

r

J/7?a~4-Va 4~

a"

a"

4-

.

.

=

r

V[aa\.
1

Every term
ively by

in \bn^\ is of the following

form (A
it

-r-6)w.

In order to find the square of this,

we
1>

multiply
b.

success

A an and bn and find for the A (A a a 4- a 4- A a b -+fi)

coefficient of ir\

This therefore must also be the form of the coefficients
of each
error of
r
2

in

the expression for the square of the probable

[&wj or we have:
[6 Wl ])

=

[_A

(A[aa] 41

[aft])

4-

A

[ab] 4- [66]] r

2
,

or:

r([6,])=rYp
we
find immediately
last

],

as

by the equations () and
of each n in
the

(<.).

At
[cn.2 ] is:

the

coefficient

expression of

Aa + Bb +
we
find:
A"(A"aa-\-

Taking

the square of this

B

ab

taking the sum of all single squares, 2 in the expression of (r[cw.2 ]) coefficient of /
:

Now

we

find the

A"(A"[aa]

+ B [ab] +
4-

[ac] )
[6 c])

4- B

1

(A"

[a b]

B

[bb]

4-

which according
[cc 2 ]; hence

to the equations (x), (A)

and

is
(/<)

simply

we

have:
r[cw 2 ]

=

-/-.

K[cca]

We
any
the

find the probable errors of x, y and a without For according to equation (7) we have for difficulty. square of the probable error of x the following ex

can

now

pression

:

A>A>

A A
"

+
[66 l
]"

"

"\

[cc a ]i*

59
Likewise we find:
2
K</)]
=>

2

j|-

aild
It

2

[r(z)]

=r

2

remains
If

still

to

find

observation.

we put

for x,.y

the probable error of a single and z in the original equa

tions (1) any determinate values, we may give to the sum of the squares of the residual errors the following form:

we substitute here for #, y and z the most values resulting from this system of equations, the probable quantities [a A] 5 [^AJ and [ C A2J become equal to zero and
In case that
the sum of the squares of the residual errors resulting from these values of #, y and z is equal to [wwj. But these val ues will be the true values only in case that the number of

observations

is

infinitely

great.

Supposing now, that these

true values were

equations,
real errors

known and were substituted in the above would be the sum of the squares of the [A A] of observation and we should have the following

equation

:

[aa]

[bb,]

[cc 2 ]

where now the quantities little different from zero.

[a

A] 5 [&AJ and [cA2J would be a As all these terms are squares,

we

sum of the squares as found from the most values is to small and in order to come a little probable nearer the true value we may substitute for [a A] etc. their
see that the

mean

errors.

But

as in the equations:

ax 4- by 4-

cz

-f- n

=A

etc.

no quantity on the left side is affected by errors except ft, A must be affected by the same errors and the mean errors
of [a A]
5

[&Ai] and [cA 2 ]

[aw], tion we find:

[6wj] and [cw 2 ].

equal to those we found for Substituting these in the above equa
are

-

-

-3

60

Hence the mean error of an observation is derived from number of equations between several unknown quan tities by dividing the sum of the squares of the residual er
a finite
rors,

resulting
all

number of
quantities

observations

from the condition of the minimum, by the minus the number of unknown

and extracting the square root. Likewise we find for the probable error of an obser
:

vation

0.674489
Note
1.

m

3
all

We
good.

have hitherto always supposed, that

observations, which

we
as

use for the determination of the
equally
If
this
is

unknown

quantities,
if A,

may
etc.

be considered
are the

not the case and

h

,

h"

mea

sures of precision for the single observations, the probability of the errors A,

A

etc.

of single observations
h

is
2

expressed by:
h

-A A 2 e
2
.h"...
1

-7/ 2 A

2

V
Hence
the function

W becomes y/
-(/,
or,

in this case:
2 A +A A 2
+/<"

h.h

2
A"

2

+ ..0
those,

and the most probable values of
the

"orav

y nnd
2
-f-A"

z

will

be

which make

sum
7,242
_|_ 7/2

A

2

2
A"

4-....
the original

a minimum.

In order therefore to find these,
,
h"

we must multiply

etc. and then computing the sums with equations respectively by h, h these new coefficients perform the same operations as before.

Note

2.

If

we have

only one

unknown
-t-

quantity and the original equa

tions have the following form:

= n ax, = n H-o

*,
etc.,

0=w"-f-rt"ar,

we

find

x-=

-

r

[]

with the probable error r r

=
V(aa\

,

where

r

denotes

the probable error of one observation.

25.

This method
is

may be

illustrated
s

example, which

taken from Bessel

by the following determination of the

constant quantity of refraction, in the seventh volume of the ^Koenigsberger Beobachtungen" pag. XXIII etc. But of the

52 equations given there only the following 20 have been
selected, whose weights have been taken as equal and in which the numerical term is a quantity resulting from the

observations

of the stars, while y denotes the correction of

61
the

constant quantity of refraction and x a constant error which may be assumed in each observation. The general form of the equations of condition in this
is

case
to
1,

n x-\-by, as the factor denoted before by a is equal and the equations derived from the single stars are:

=

In order now to find from these the equations for the most probable values of x and y (equations (A) and (/?) in No. 23), we must first compute all the different sums
[a a],
[a 6], [aw], [66]

and

[few].
is

of

unknown
but
if

quantities

In this case, where the number so small, besides one of the coef

ficients is constant

easy;

and equal to one, this computation is very there are more unknown quantities, whose co

efficients

take also the algebraic
.

tion,

be for instance a, 6, c, d it is advisable, to sum of the coefficients of each equa which shall be denoted by s and to compute with these

may

the

sums

[as],

may be used
tations
:

as

[6s], [cs] etc., as then the following equations checks for the correctness of the

compu

[ns]

[a^

= [an] 4- [6w] 4- 4= [a 4- 4- [ac] 4- [ad],
[en]
[rfn],

a]

[a 6]
etc.

62
If

we compute now

the

sums
for

the following two equations bable values of x and y:

example, we find determining the most pro
for our

12.72 4- 20.000 x 4- 3014.80 y 3700.65 4- 3014.80 x 4- 844586.1y

= =

0,
0.

The
quantities

solution of these equations can be

made

in the fol

lowing form, which
:

may

easily be extended to

more unknown
[wn]

[a a]

[a 6]

[an]

4-20.000
1.301030
Ian]
[a

4-3014.80
3.479259
[66]

-12.72
1.104487,
[6n]

20.28

^-

8.09

=12.72

12.19

6]*

= 4- 13.78
41.06
0.025306,,

4-844586.1

3700.65

^~
[*&|J
]

8.15

[66,]

= 4-390134.1

4-454452.0
[few,]

=

-1917.41 [wn 2
1783.24

= 4.04

log*
x

=

= 8.724276,,
0".

1.301030

log [6n,] 3.251210 log [66,] 5.591214

053

log y

y

= 7.659996 = 4- 0.0045708

In case that

we have computed
also

the quantities [as], [bs] etc.

we may compute
as a check.

[6*J and use the equation [66 1 ]

= [6sJ

In the case of 3

use [66 T ]

-}-

[6cJ

= [6*J

unknown

and [ecj

= [csj

quantities and similar equa

we should

tions for a greater number of unknown quantities. In order to compute the probable errors of

x and

y,

we

use besides [66,] also the quantity
[a a,]

=

[a a]

--^-~
error

= H- 9.2384.
of the quantity n for a

Then we

find the

probable

single star:
,.

= 0.67449
|/

L-

"

=0.3195,
:

hence the probable errors of x and y

^V ^,^
~
-

=

d=0".0005116.

We

see therefore, that the determination of

x from

the

above equations is very inaccurate , as the probable error is greater than the resulting value of x; but the probable er-

63
ror of the
is

correction of the

constant quantity of refraction

only
If

|

of the correction

itself.

in

substitute the most probable values of x above equations, we find the residual errors several equations, which have been placed in the table at the side of each equation. Computing the sum

we

the

and y of the
above
of the

squares of these residual errors, we find 4.04 in accordance with [wwj, thus proving the accuracy of the computation by another check.

Note.

On

the

method of

least squares consult:
et seq.

corporum coelestium, pag. 205
liner

Gauss, Theoria motus Gauss, Theoria combinationis obserin

vationum erroribus minimis obnoxiae.
Jahrbucher fur 1834, 1835 und

Encke
1836."

the appendix to the

Ber

E.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODICAL FUNCTIONS FROM GIVEN NUMERICAL VALUES.
26.

Periodical functions

are

frequently used in astro

nomy,

mena

always comprised within certain limits without becoming infinite, only such pe
riodical

as the problem, to find periods in which certain return, often occurs; but as these are

pheno

functions will

the
if

sines

come under consideration as contain and cosines of the variable quantities. Therefore

X

denotes such a function,
it:

we may assume
-+-

the following
...
...

form for

X= a
Now

-{-a, cos a:
-f- 6,

-+-

a 2 cos2.r

a 3 cosSx -h
b a sin

sin ar-f- 6 2 sin

2x-\-

3 a: H-

the case usually occurring is this, that the nume rical values of are given for certain values of x, from

X

which we must find the
is

coefficients, a

especially convenient, if the circumference

problem whose solution is divided in n

equal parts and the values of

X

are given for

#

= x=?,
0,

x=== 2

~

etc

-

to

x

=

(n

1) -~-, as in that case

we can make

use of several lemmas, which greatly facilitate the solution. These lemmas are the following.

64
If

A

is

an aliquot part of the circumference,

nA

being

equal to 2?r, the
sin

sum
sin

of the series
-f- s

A-\-

2.4

mSA -h

... -+-

sin (n

I)

A
of the series

is

the always equal to zero; likewise also
. . .

sum

-|-cos(n 1)^, cos A H- cos 2 A -f- cos 3 A-+is zero except when A is equal either to 2 n or to a mul in which case this sum is equal to w. tiple of 2 TT, The latter case is obvious, as the series then consists

of n terms,

each of which
2?r cos r

is

equal to

1.

We
If

have there
put:

fore to prove only the

two other theorems.
"27t

we now

n

h

i

sin r

=1
n
n
,

r
,

n
i

where we take
r

i

= Vl
r=
2

and
1

.,_!

2
r

cos T

4-

t

2
r

sin r

we have: T=e __, = ^ T = ^p
r 1

9

yj.

J>

1

As we have now
that:
* cos
,

T"

= cos2n-{-i
7T
.

O

f

=

sin

2rc=
0,

1,

it

follows

?

---h
n

t

^-i sin r **
.
>,

=
n

r=0

hence

:

^
>

sin r

=0
side.

(1)

=o

and

this equation is true

without any exception, as there
It follows also,

is

nothing imaginary on the right we have in general:
cos r

that

=0.
n

,

Only when n

= 0,

rthe expression

r_ 1

i

takes

the form

o

~^
it.

and has the value

w, as

we

can easily see by differentiating

From
we
shall

the

make use
-

which equations (1) and (2) several others, can be easily deduced. For we find: of,
-

* r=0
>,

sin r ~

n

cos r ^ n

-

=

4"

^. ~* sin 2
r=0

>

H

=0,

(3)

2n ^

^

-

?^
w

= n =n

in general

(4)

in the exceptional case,

65
finally:

r=. -1

/

=

--

1

^n
*
r
>,

/
I

2?r\
sin r
tt

2

=

V

/

)

=

in

,

^

XT cos
>,

2?r

2r

)

=

=4 =

in general

(o)

in the exceptional case.

27.

We

will

assume now:

X=

cip

cos p x

-f- bp sin

p x,

in

which equation all integral numbers beginning with zero must be successively put for p. If now q denotes a certain
number, we have:

X cos qx = \a
-+-

p cos

(p
( jo

+

7)

a?

H-+-r

/

cos (p
(;?

q}
f/)

x
x
,

\

b p sin

4- 9)

or

bp sin

and
(n

if

we

assign x successively the values

0,

A^ 2 A

to

1) 4,
all

where A

=

/*,

and add the several resulting equa

terms on the right side will be zero according to the equations (1) and (2) with the exception of the sum of the terms of the cosine, in which (p-\-<f) A is equal to 2/c^r,
tions,

which

will receive the factor n.

But

as

A

=
of
a?

p=
of

for the

kn or p kn, hence q remaining terms p-i-q or =-{~q-+-kn. Therefore denoting the value q-i-kn
to the value

=

n

,

we have

have

2H
:

X, which corresponds

rA

by

X rA we
,

XrA

COS q

A=

a-

v

+ A -h
aa

-f-

is

does not contain any coefficients whose index and get: negative, we must take a_ 2

But

as

X

=

[<,-+-

a

lt

~

Here we have to consider two particular cases. For when q a ? a_j etc. hence: 0, we have a_ ? ct/j-fj

=

=

,

=

and when w is an even number and q =^n, a^ q is to be omitted and a unites with a _,y etc., hence we have also in
(J

rt

this case:

5

66

"^XrA

cos^nA

= n [i +3 +
n
w
.r
</)

...],

(8)

As we

:

X sin q x =
-h
find in a similar

-J-

ap sin (p -h
6,,

4-

cos (p

q)

x

sin (p ?) ^ bp cos ( p -h r/)
,,

:r

.r,

way:

2^
^^
If

sin ^

^ = IT t
J

~
b<

i

bn

i

+ ba+ ~
i

b

*"

i ~*~

>2

"

+l

-3-

C9 ^

we

take

portion to the

for n a sufficiently large number in pro convergence of the series, so that we can ne

now

of the equations (6) to (9) all terms glect on the right side the first, we may determine by these equations the except
coefficients of the cosines
efficients

from q

of the sines , gives The larger we only a repetition of the former equations. take M, the more accurate shall we find the values of the coefficients whose index is small, while those of a high in
1

to

q = \n

to q as

= \n

and the co

a larger q

For instance when dex remain always inaccurate. and q we have the equation 4,

=

n=l2

:

2K cos 4 x = G (a

4

H-

8

+

),
;

hence the value of 4 will be incorrect by the quantity 8 but if we had taken w 24, this coefficient would be only

=

incorrect

by a M

.

From

the above

we

find then the following equations:
2

ap

=

n

^? XrA cos rpA,
>.

*"

V ~ X,-A sin rp A,
,-

=o

with these exceptions, that for
L

and
/>

p=\n we

must take

n

instead of the factor
n

always of some advantage to take for n a number divisible by 4, as in this case each quadrant is divided into
It is

parts and therefore the same values of and cosines return only with different signs. As the cosines of angles, which are the complements to 360, are the same, we can then take the sum of the terms, whose

a certain

number of

the sines

indices are the complements to

360

and multiply

it

by the

67
but the terms of the sine, whose indices are the com must be subtracted from each other. If plements to 360
cosine
;

we

denote then the
(n

sum of two such
,

quantities, for instance

X A -+-X

-i)A

by

XA
4-

and the difference
r=$

XA

X

ln

_i

M

by

XA

,

we have:
cip

= =

2 n

*~ X,A cos +
r

^
=

rpA,

2 n

bp

^j X, A ^j

sin r p

A.

Again denoting here the sum or the difference of two terms of the cosine, whose indices are the complements to
180
ft

,

by X,A and
-1-4-

X,.^,
4-

and the sum or difference of two

terms of sines , whose indices are the complements to by X r and X r 4 , we have:
_,
.

180,

h

r=in
ap -=
11

^ X,ACOsrpA,
^j i_

when p

is

an even number,

(10)

with the two exceptional cases mentioned before:
j^ X,-A cos rp J,

when p

is

an odd number,

(11)

&/,

=

2

x?
>j

JTr^sinrp^,

when

/?

is

an even number,

(12)

^,
r=l
If for instance

-X,^ sin

rpA,

when p

is

an odd number.

(13)

n
*0

is

equal to 12,

we

find:

TT
a

~~

-3

~~

--6

~~ -9
-f-

i

i

\

X
++

-f-

X
^

3

cos 30

X
X

6

cos 60

>

,

"2

=
etc.

^
(

^C 4-

++

3

cos GO

+4-

6

cos 60

+
,

>i

=
etc.

ff

\

X30 sin 30 -h^60 sin604-X90
-

(-4-

4-

-4-

j

5*

68
to develop a periodical function up to a of the angle, it is necessary that as many numerical values are known as we wish to determine coef

28.

If

we wish

certain multiple

the given values are perfectly correct, we shall find these coefficients as correct as theory admits, only the less correct, the higher the index of the coefficient is
ficients.

If then

compared
the values
is

to

But in case that the given number of values. it of the function are the result of observations
,

advisable in order to eliminate the errors

of observation

to

use as

many

observations

as

possible,

therefore to use

many more observations than are necessary
coefficients.

for determining the

according to the
see, that this

In this case these equations should be treated method of least squares but one can easily
;

method furnishes the same equations for deter mining the coefficients as those given in No. 27. We see therefore that the values obtained by this method are indeed the most probable values. XA X^ A ... X(H -i)* are given, For if the n values X
()

,

,

we should have
function
itself:

the following equations, supposing that the contains only the sines and cosines of the angle

= X H- +,, = XA + a cos A -f-&isin^4, = XZA-+2 A, cos 2 A
"+

\

~+~

i

-f- 6

1

sin

=
and according
for the

X(-i)A-l-a
to the

-\-a

t

cos(n

1)^4

+

6, sin(n

I) A,

method of

least squares

we should

find

notes the

equations of the minimum, when [cos A] again de sum of all the cosines of A, from A to A n 1,

=

=

the following: na -f[cos^l]a [sin A] a
-j-

[cos

A] a
2

,

-+- [sin -f- [sin -+-

A]

b

t

- pG]
A]
b
,

=

0,

-h[cos^ ]a,
[cos

A

.

cos
]

[XA cos A]
[XA
sin

A sin A] a,

2

[sin^L

6,

A]

= =

0,

(14)

0.

But and (5)

if

we

take into consideration the equations (3), (4)

in

No. 26 we see, that these equations are reduced

to the following:

a,

b

,

= =

ACQB A],
2
n

[XA sin A],

69

which entirely agree with those found
for

in

No.
is

27.

What

is

shown here for the three any number of them.

first

coefficients,

of course true

can also find the probable error of an observation is the sum of the squares For if [v which remain after substituting the of the residual errors,

We

and of a coefficient.

i>]

most probable values in the equations of condition, the pro bable error of one observation is

= 0.67449
n

-3

and that of a

An

example

will

be found in No. 6 of the seventh section.

Note.

Consult Encke

s

Berliner Jahrbuch

fiir

1857 pag. 334 and

seq.

Leverrier gives in the Annales tie 1 Observatoire Imperial, Tome I. another method for determining the coefficients, which is also given by Encke in the

Jahrbuch for 1860

in a different form.

SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY.
FIRST SECTION.
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE AND ITS DIURNAL MOTION.
In spherical astronomy
stars

we

consider the positions of the

projected on the celestial sphere, referring them by spherical co-ordinates to certain great circles of the sphere. Spherical astronomy teaches then the means, to determine the

positions of the stars with respect to these great circles and the positions of these circles themselves with respect to each
other. must therefore first make ourselves acquainted with these great circles, whose planes are the fundamental planes of the several systems of co-ordinates and with the means by which we may reduce the place of a heavenly
,

We

body given

for

one of these fundamental planes to another

system of co-ordinates.

Some of these co-ordinates are independent of the diurnal motion of the sphere, but others are referred to planes which do not participate in this motion. The places of the stars
therefore,
tinually

when

change and

referred to one of the latter planes, must con it will be important to study these chan

ges and the phenomena produced by them. As the stars be sides the diurnal motion common to all have also other, though

more slow motions, on account of which they change
which are independent of the diurnal motion,
ficient,
is
it

also

their positions with respect to those systems of co-ordinates,
is

never suf

to

also

know merely the necessary to know

correspond. either alone or combined with the motion of the sun
as a

We

place of a heavenly body lyt it the time, to which these places must therefore show, how the daily motion
is

used

measure of time.

71

I.

THE SEVERAL SYSTEMS OF GREAT CIRCLES OF THE
CELESTIAL SPHERE.

appear projected on the concave surface of a sphere, which on account of the rotatory motion of the earth on her axis appears to revolve around us in the op
1.

The

stars

posite
at

namely from east to west. on the surface of the earth a any place
direction

If
line

we imagine
drawn par

the axis of the earth, it will generate on account of the rotatory motion of the earth the surface of a cylinder, whose base is the parallel - circle of the place. But as the
allel to

distance

of the

stars

may be regarded
this
line

as infinite

compared

to the diameter of the earth,
itself will

remaining parallel to
sphere always in the

appear to pierce the
axis

celestial

same points as the appear immoveable in the

of the earth.
celestial

These points which

sphere are called the Poles

of the celestial sphere or the Poles of the heavens, and the one corresponding to the North-Pole of the earth, being there
fore visible in the northern

hemisphere of the earth

is

called

the North-Pole of the celestial sphere, while the opposite is If we now imagine a line parallel to called the South-Pole. the equator of the earth, hence vertical to the former, on account of the diurnal motion describe a plane,
it

will

whose

intersection with the celestial sphere coincides with the great circle, whose poles are the Poles of the heavens and which
is

called

the Equator.

different

from 90

"

Any straight line making an angle with the axis of the earth generates the

surface of a cone, which intersects the celestial sphere in two small circles, parallel to the equator, whose distance from
the poles is equal to the angle between the generating line and the axis. Such small circles are called Parallel-circles.

A
the

plane tangent to the surface of the earth at any place

intersects the celestial sphere in a great circle, rates the visible from the invisible hemisphere

which sepa and is called

Horizon: The inclination of the axis to this plane is The straight line tan equal to the .latitude of the place. gent to the meridian of a place generates by the rotation of
earth the
lestial

the

surface of a cone, which intersects the ce sphere in two parallel circles, whose distance from the

72
nearest pole is equal to the latitude of the place and as the plane of the horizon is revolved in such a manner, that it remains

always tangent to this cone, these two parallel circles must include two zones, of which the one around the visible pole remains always above the horizon of the place, while the
other never rises above
it.

All other stars outside of these

zones
circle

rise

or set and

move from

making

in general

east to west in a parallel an oblique angle with the horizon. A

line vertical to the plane of the horizon points to the highest point of the visible hemisphere, which is called the Zenith, while

the point directly opposite below the horizon is called the Na The point of intersection of this line with the celestial dir.

sphere describes on account

whose distance from the pole is equal the place; hence all stars which are
the

of the rotation a small circle, to the co- latitude of
at this

distance

from

As the line pole pass through the zenith of the place. vertical to the horizon as well as the one drawn parallel to
axis

the

the plane of the meridian of the place, this plane intersects the celestial sphere in a great circle, passing through the poles of the heavens and through
are in

of the

earth

the zenith and nadir, which
star passes

is

also called the Meridian.

Every

during a revolution of the The part of the meridian from the visible pole through sphere. the zenith to the invisible pole corresponds to the meridian of

through

this plane twice

the place on the terrestrial sphere, while the other half cor responds to the meridian of a place, whose longitude differs

180
in
its

or

12 hours from that of the former.
first

When
it

a star

passes over the

part of the Meridian,

is

said to be

cond part
stars

upper culmination, while when it passes over the se it is in its lower culmination. Hence only those
visible at their

are

upper culmination, whose distance
is

from the

pole greater than the latitude of the while only those can be seen at their lower culmi place, nation, whose distance from the visible pole is less than the
invisible

latitude.

The
is

arc of the meridian between the pole and the

horizon

called the altitude of the pole and is equal to the latitude of the place, while the arc between the equator and
is

the horizon

complement

called the altitude of the equator. of the other to 90 degrees.

One

is

the

73
2.
lestial

In order to define the position of a star on the ce sphere, we make use of spherical co-ordinates.

We

imagine a great circle

drawn through the

star

and the zenith

to the horizon. If we now take the point of intersection of this great circle with the horizon and count the number of degrees from this point upwards to the star and also the number of degrees of the horizon from this point

and hence vertical

to the meridian, the position of the star is defined.
circle

great passing through the star and the zenith is called the vertical -circle of the star; the arc of this circle between the

The

horizon and the star

is

called the altitude, while the arc
is

between

the vertical -circle and the meridian

the azimuth of the star.

The

latter

angle
etc.

is

reckoned from the point South through
to
is

West, North
of a star
its

from

360.

Instead of the altitude

often used, which is the arc of the vertical circle between the star and the zenith, hence equal to the complement of the altitude. Small circles whose

zenith-distance

plane is parallel to the horizon are called almucantars. Instead of using spherical co-ordinates we may also de fine the position of a star by rectangular co-ordinates, refer

red to a system of axes, of which that of z is vertical to the plane of the horizon, while the axes of y and x are situa ted in its plane, the axis of x being directed to the origin
of the azimuths, and the positive axis of y towards the azi or the point West. Denoting the azimuth by A, the altitude by h, we have:

muth 90

x == cos h cos
Note.

A

,

y

= cos

h sin

A

,

z

=

sin h.

corresponding to
consists in
its

For observing these spherical co-ordinates an instrument perfectly them is used, the altitude- and azimuth -instrument. This
essential parts of a horizontal
it

divided circle,

resting on three

screws, by which

can be levelled with the aid of a
In
its

spirit-level.

This circle

represents

the

plane of the horizon.

centre stands a vertical column,

which therefore points to the zenith, supporting another circle, which is par allel to the column and hence vertical to the horizon. Round the centre of
this

second circle a telescope
vertical

is

moving connected with an index, by which

moves with the

The vertical column, which and the telescope, carries around with it an other index, by which one can read its position on If horizontal circle. then the points of the two circles, corresponding to the zenith and the point
the direction of the telescope can be measured.
circle
"the

the instrument

South, are known, the azimuth and zenith-distance of any star towards which is directed, may be determined.

74
Besides
altitudes.
this

These are

instrument there are others by which one can observe only called altimeters, while instruments, by which azimuths

alone are measured, are called theodolites.

The azimuth and the altitude of a star change on 3. account of the rotation of the earth and are also at the same
instant different for different places on the earth. But as it is necessary for certain to give the places of the purposes

by co-ordinates which are the same for different places and do not depend on the diurnal motion, we must refer the stars to some great circles, which remain fixed in the ce
stars
lestial sphere. If we lay a great circle through the pole and the star, the arc contained between the star and the equator is called the declination and the arc between the star and

the pole the polar-distance of the star. The great circle itself is called the declination -circle of the star. The declination
is

positive,

gative, and the polar -distance are the complements of each other. They correspond to the altitude and the zenith-distance in

when the star is north of the equator and ne when it is south of the equator. The declination

the

system of co-ordinates. arc of the equator between the declination-circle of the star and the meridian, or the angle at the pole measured
first

The
is

by

it,

second co-ordinate and
to

called the hour-angle of the star. It is used as the is reckoned in the direction of the

apparent motion of the sphere from east to west from

360. The

declination -circles

correspond to the meridians on
is
it

the terrestrial globe and it on the meridian of a place,

evident, that when a star is has at the same moment at a

place, whose longitude east is equal to &, the hour -angle k and in general, when at a certain place a star has the hour-

angle

,

it

has at the same instant at another place, whose
t

longitude

is

hour - angle
clination

k (positive -j- k
.

when

east, negative

when west)

the

Instead of using the two spherical co-ordinates, the de and the hour-angle, we may again introduce rectan co-ordinates if we refer the place of the star to three gular

which the positive axis of z is directed to the Northpole, while the axes of x and y are situated in the plane of
axes, of

75
the equator, the positive axis of x being directed to the me ridian or the origin of the hour -angles while the positive axis of y is directed towards the hour-angle 90. Denoting

then the declination by
x
Note.
class

= cos

d,
?,

the hour-angle
y

cos

= cos
class

sin

t,

z

=

by

,

we

have:

sin S.

of instruments,
circle,
is

a second Corresponding to this system of co-ordinates we have which are called parallactic instruments or equatorials.

Here the
horizon,

which

in

the

first

of instruments

is

parallel
is

to

the

vertical parallel to the equator, so that the

column

parallel to

the axis of the earth.

The
If the

circle parallel to this

column represents therefore
corresponding to the

a declination

circle.

points

of the circles,

me

are known, the ridian, being the origin of the hour- angles, and the pole, hour -angle and the declination of a star may be determined by such an in

strument.

4.

In this latter system of co-ordinates one of them,

the declination, does not change while the hour- angle in creases proportional to the time and differs in the same mo

ment

at

different

places

ference

of longitude. ordinate invariable, one has chosen a fixed point of the equator as origin, namely the point in which the equator is intersected

on the earth according to the dif In order to have also the second co

by the great

circle,

which the centre of the sun seen from

the centre of the earth appears to describe This great circle is called the ecliptic and
the equator,

among
its

the stars.

inclination to

about 23 degrees, the obliquity of the of intersection between equator and eclip ecliptic. points tic are called the points of the equinoxes, one that of the
is

which

The

vernal the other that of the autumnal equinox, because day and night are of equal length all over the earth, when the

sun on the 21 st of
those points
*).

March and on the 23 d of September reaches The points of the ecliptic at the distance of

90 degrees from the points of the equinoxes are called sol
stitial points.

The new co-ordinate, which is reckoned in the equator from the point of the vernal equinox, is called the rightascension of the star. It is reckoned from to 360 from
For as the sun is then on the equator, and as equator and horizon each other into equal parts, the sun must remain as long below as

)

divide

above the horizon,

76 west to east or opposite to the direction of the diurnal motion. Instead of using the spherical co-ordinates, declination and right-ascension, we can again introduce rectangular co-ordi
nates, referring the place of the star to three vertical axes, of which the positive axis of z is directed towards the Northpole, while the axes of x and y are situated in the plane of the equator, the positive axis of x being directed towards the origin of the right-ascensions, the positive axis of y to the point, whose right-ascension is 90 Denoting then the right.

ascension by a
x"

= cos S cos

,

we have
,

:

y"

= cos

sin

,

z"

=

sin d.

co-ordinates a and d are constant for any star. In order to find from them the place of a star on the apparent

The

any moment, it is necessary to know the of the point of the vernal equinox with regard to position the meridian of the place at that moment, or the hour-angle of the point of the equinox, which is called the sidereal time,
celestial sphere at

while the time of the revolution of the celestial sphere is called a sidereal day and is divided into 24 sidereal hours.
It is O h sidereal time at

any place or the sidereal day com

mences when the point of the vernal equinox crosses the meridian, it is P when its hour-angle is 15 or P etc. For this reason the equator is divided not only in 360 but also
into

24 hours.

Denoting the sidereal time by 0, we have
<

always:
hence
/

=

=

,

a.

190 20 and the sidereal time 130 20 east.

If therefore for instance the right-ascension of a star is h is 4 , we find t 229 40 or

=

From

the

equation for

t

follows

=a

when

t

=

0.

Therefore every star comes in the meridian or is culminating at the sidereal time equal to its right-ascension expressed in
time.

Hence when
is

the

culminating,
also

known,
it*).

right -ascension of a star which is the sidereal time at that instant is

known by
*)
If

into time, we must multiply by 15 and multiply the remainder of the degrees, minutes and seconds by 4, in order to

The problem to convert an we have to convert an arc

arc into time occurs very often.

convert them into minutes and seconds of time.

77
If the sidereal time at any place
is

longitude sitive or negative
first

stant the sidereal time at another place, is /?, must be -f- &, where k
if

0, at the same in whose difference of
is

to be taken

po

the second place

is

East or

West

of the

place.
Note.

The

of the second class,
ordinates
the star

co-ordinates of the third system can be found by instruments In one case these co if the sidereal time is known.

may be even found by
is

instruments of the

first

class

,

namely when

by

crossing the meridian, for then the right -ascension is determined the time of the meridian -passage and the declination by observing the
if
is

meridian-altitude of the star,

the latitude of the place

is

known.
is

For such

observations a meridian-circle

used.

If

such an instrument

not used for

measuring altitudes but merely for observing the times of the meridian -pas sages of the stars, if it is therefore a mere azimuth -instrument mounted in
If we observe by such an meridian, it is called a transit- instrument. instrument and a good sidereal clock the times of the meridian -passages we But as the get thus the differences of the right -ascensions of the stars.

the

point from which the right-ascensions are reckoned cannot be observed it is more difficult, to find the absolute right-ascensions of the stars.

itself,

5.

Besides these systems of co-ordinates a fourth

is

used, whose fundamental plane is the ecliptic. Great circles which pass through the poles of the ecliptic and therefore are vertical to it, are called circles of latitude and the arc of such a circle between the star and the ecliptic is called
the latitude of the star.
is

It is positive or

negative

if

the star

North or South of the ecliptic. The other co-ordinate, the longitude, is reckoned in the ecliptic and is the arc be tween the circle of latitude of the star and the point of the vernal equinox. It is reckoned from to 360 in the same
direction

as

the right -ascension

or

contrary to the diurnal

Thus we have 239

= 15 = 15

18
h
,

46".

75

4

X

14

h

57m

1 minutes, 15s. 117.

+

4x34-3

seconds and

s.

117

If on the contrary we have to convert a quantity expressed in time into an arc, we must multiply the hours by 15, but divide the minutes and se conds by 4 in order to convert them into degrees and minutes of arc. The

remainders must again be multiplied by 15. Thus we have 15 h 57 m 15 s 117

= 225 -h 14 = 239 18

.

degrees, 15 -f- 3 minutes and 46.75 seconds
75.

46".

78

motion of the
longitude
that,
is

celestial
is

sphere *).

The

circle of latitude

whose

whose

called the colure of the equinoxes and zero, longitude is 90, is the colure of the solstices.

arc of this colure between the equator and the ecliptic, likewise the arc between the pole of the equator and that of the ecliptic is equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic.

The

The
by
ft

longitude shall always be denoted
ecliptic

by

A,

the latitude

and the obliquity of the

by

s.

express again the spherical co-ordinates ft and A by rectangular co-ordinates, referred to three axes vertical to each other, of which the positive axis of z is vertical to
If

we

the ecliptic and directed to the north -pole of it, while the axes of x and y are situated in the plane of the ecliptic, the
axis of x being directed to the point of the vernal th equinox, the positive axis of y to the 90 degree of longitude, we have:

positive

x

"

= cos

ft

cos I

"

,

y

= cos

/3

sin

^,,

z"

=

sin

ft.

These co-ordinates are never found by direct observations, but are only deduced by computation from the other systems
of co-ordinates.
Note.

As

the motion of the sun
it

is

merely apparent and the earth really
to define the

meaning of the circles moves round the sun in a plane, which passes through the centre of the sun and inter sects the celestial sphere in a great circle called the ecliptic. Hence the lon from that of the gitude of the earth seen from the sun differs always 180 sun seen from the earth. The axis of the earth makes an angle of 66-5is

moving round the sun,
introduced above also

expedient,
case.

for

this

The

centre of the earth

with this plane and as
the

sun

it

describes
is

in

linder,

whose base
of the

remains parallel while the earth is revolving round course of a year the surface of an oblique cy the orbit of the earth. But on account of the infinite
it

the

distance

celestial

sphere the axis appears in these different positions
the

to intersect the sphere in

same two

points,

whose distance from the poles

of the ecliptic
allel

to itself

Likewise the equator is carried around the sun par and the line of intersection between the equator and the plane
is

23^

.

ecliptic, although remaining always parallel, changes its position in course of the year by the entire diameter of the earth s orbit. But the intersections of the equator of the earth with the celestial sphere in all the

of the

the

different positions to

which

it

is

carried appear to coincide on account of the

*)

has

30.

The longitudes of the Thus the longitude

stars are often given in signs, each of which 6 signs 15 degrees is 195.

=

79
infinite

whose poles are the poles of intersections between the plane of the equator and that of the ecliptic are directed towards the point of intersection between the two great circles of the equator and the ecliptic.
distance of the stars with the great circle,

of the heavens

and

all

the

lines

II.

THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF
CO-ORDINATES.
In order to find from the azimuth and altitude of
its

6.

a star

declination

axis of z in

the

first

and hour -angle, we must revolve the system of co-ordinates in the plane of
to the positive
(p

x and
side

from the positive side of the axis of x of the axis of z through the angle 90
z

(where

cp

latitude), as the axes of y of both systems have therefore according to formula (la) for coincide. the transformation of co-ordinates, or according to the for

designates the

We

mulae of spherical trigonometry zenith, the pole and the star*):
sin

in the triangle

formed by the

8
t

cos

sin

=

=

sin
<f>

sin k

cos
<p

cos h cos

A

cos 8 cos
Iii

t

=

cos h sin
sin h cos

A
-fy>

cos h sin^P cos A.

order to render the formulae more convenient for lo

garithmic computation,

we

will put:
sin h

cos h cos

A=m
sin

= m cos M
sin

M,
M")

and find then:
sin 8

cos 8 sin cos 8 cos

t

t

=m = cos h = m cos

(<p

sin
(y>

A
M}.

These formulae give the unknown quantities without any For as all parts are found by the sine and co ambiguity. sine, there can be no doubt about the quadrant, in which they
lie,

proper attention is paid to the signs. The auxiliary angles, which are introduced for the transformation of such
if

formulae, have always a geometrical meaning, which- in each case may be easily discovered. For the geometrical con
struction

amounts

to this, that the oblique spherical triangle

*)

The
(f

three sides of this triangle are respectively 90
t,

/?,

90

8 and

90

and the opposite angles

180

A

and the angle

at the star.

80
is

either

addition

divided into two right-angled triangles or by the of a right-angled triangle is transformed into one.

In the present case

we must draw an
to

from the star perpendicular and as we have:
tang h
it

the

arc of a great circle opposite side 90 y,

= cos A cotang

3/,

from the third of the formulae (10) in No. 8 of the introduction, that M is the arc between the zenith and the
follows

perpendicular arc, while m according to the first of the for is the cosine of this perpendicular arc itself, since we have:

mulae (10)

sin h

= cos P cos
11
44".

3/,

if

we denote

We
<p

= 52

the perpendicular arc by P. will suppose, that we have given:
30
16".

0,

A

=16
make

and

A = 202

4

15".

5.

Then we have

to

the following computation:

cos ^4 9.9669481,,

cos h 9.9824139
sin

m m

sin

cos

3/9.9493620. 3/9.4454744

A

9.5749045,,

3/=
sin

7^35*54^61
3/9.9796542,,

<p

3/=1256
cos S sin
t *

10".61

sin (y

3/) 9.9128171

9.5573184,,
9.7294114,.
1

sin

S 9.8825249
_

m
cos
(<p

9.9697078
3/) 9.7597036,,

cos

<?

cos

t

=2

cos S 9.8104999

3 56 2.22

3

= +49 43

46.~00

cos* 9.9189115..

7.

More

frequently occurs the reverse problem, to con
star

vert

the

hour -angle and declination of a
altitude.

into its azi
to

muth and

In this case

we have again according
cos
<p

formula (1) for the transformation of co-ordinates:

A = cos S sin cos h cos A == cos (p sin
<p

sin h

=

sin

sin

8

-+-

cos S cos

t

cos h sin

t

S

-4- sin
y>

cos S cos

t,

which may be reduced
cing an auxiliary angle.

to a

more convenient form by introdu For if we take
:

cos S cos
sin

we have:

cos h sin cos h

= m cos 3/ = m 3/ S h = m cos A = cos cos A =
t

sin

sin

(<p

3/)
t

sin
(<p

in

sin

3/)

81
tang A
tang h
cos = - 3/tang M
sin
(cp
t

or

:

)

=

cos

A
M)
is
*).

tang (cp

When
sin h

the zenith distance alone

to be found, the fol

lowing formulae are convenient.

From
cp cp

the first formula for
2
,

we

find

:

QOS z

or

:

sin

T2

2

= cos = sin^
:

(cp
(cp

8)
2

2 cos
-f-cos

cos 8 sin

$)

cos 8 sin

2
/
.

If

we

take

now

we have

:

sin

j z*

= \ S = YCOS cos m = n f Hn
sin
(cp
cp

)

8,
1

2

,

sin j

*

1

\

or taking

-- sin

t

sin 4 z

= tang A = COS A
it

If sin A. should be greater than cos A, venient to use the following formula:
sin
.T

is

more con

z

=

m
,

sin A

sin ^

t.

In the formula by which n
if

is

the star culminates south of the

found, we must use (p zenith , but ti if the qp
as
will

,

star culminates

north of the zenith,

be afterwards

shown.

Applying Gauss s formulae to the triangle between the star, the zenith and the pole, and designating the angle at the star by /?, we find:
cos
\

z

.

sin 4

(A
(-4

cos j z
sin

.

COSY

T

2

.

sin | (^4 -f-

sin 4 2

.

cos^-

= = cos = ^ p) = cos (A Hp)
p)
sin
7^

t

.

sin

(cp -f(77

8}

,y

.

cos T cos I
sin
-^

$)

sin

Z

.

(9?
(9?

H-

8)
$).

/?)

7

z

.

If the azimuth should be
as
it

reckoned from the point North,
star,

is

done sometimes for the polar
instead of
cos
cos
T

we must
cp)

introduce

180

A

A
sin

in these
{

formulae and obtain now:
t
t
.

z

.

(p-\(

5 z

.

COSTJ

p -f- A)

sin \ z sin
.]

.

sin

A(/>

z

.

cos

15

(p

= cos^ = = cos A) =
A)
-4)

cos^j (8

sin 5
\

.

sin

(S-i-cp")

t

.

sin | (8

cp)

sin

-5

t

.

cos

A

($-4-9?).

*)

As

the azimuth
last

hour angle, these

is always on the same side of the meridian with the formulae leave no doubt as to the quadrant in which it lies.

6

82
Frequently the case occurs, that these computations must be made very often for the same latitude, when it is desirable
to construct tables for facilitating these computations *). In this case the following transformation may be used. had

We

:

(a) (6) (c)

cos h sin

cos h

A = cos S sin cos sin cos A =
t
y>

sin h

sin

y

sin

-f-

cos

cp

cos

cos

t

8

-+- sin cp

cos

cos

/.

If

we

designate

now by A
in

and
to

which substituted zero, we have
#,
:

and d those values of A the above equation make h equal
$
2

(d)
(e)

sin y4

(/)

= .= cos $ cos cos A =
sin
(p o

sin

-f-

cos

9?

cos S

cos

t

sin
90

sin

$
cf

-j- sin 9?

cos $

(i

cos

if.

and subtracting from it further mul equation (rf) after having multiplied it by sin and adding to it equation (c?), equation (/*) by sin tiplying after multiplying it by cos .7, we find:
Multiplying
(/")

now

by cos

<y,

<f

cos

cos

AQ A

cos
sin

95 95

sin ^4

= = cos $ = cos ^
sin

sin

S
cos
sin
t

.

/.

Taking then:
sin
(p
t

cos
cos

9?

cos
sin

f

= y cos B = siny = cos
sin Z?
y,

we
or:

find

from the equation

=

(d) the following:

sin
<?<,

y

sin

(<?

-f-

=y sin ($
-f-

B)

and from

(a):
sin A

=

sin

JB\

(/")

subtracting from the product of equations (6) and the product of the equations (c) and (e) we get:

Then

and likewise adding
(/")

sin (S -+- B} product of the equations (c) and the product of the equations (6) and (e) and that of the

cos h sin

(

A

A

)

= cos

sin

<p

sin (d

^

)

= cos y

to the

equations (a) and (d):
cos h cos (yl
^1
)

= cos $ cos
if

<?

sin

1

t

-+- sin

sin

t>"

+ cos S cos $

cos

2
i

*)

For instance

one has

to

set

an altitude- and azimuth instrument

at objects,

whose place is given by their right ascension and declination. Then one must first compute the hour angle from the right ascension and the side
real time.

83

Hence

the complete system of formulae

is

as follows:

= y cos B B cosy cos = y = cos y cos B = cos cos cos 5 cos = cos A y = A cos A = y
sin
cp

sin

\

t

sin

sin

(1)

fp

sin

t

sin

-4

gp

\

sin

(2)

.B sin
sin

sin sin

n

sin ($ -f-

B)

\

cos h sin (-4

^4

)

= cos y

sin ($ -f-

These formulae by taking
,4 ^4

=u

D
cp

=

B)

)

sin y

,

C

= cos /

and

are changed into the following:
tang tang

B = cotg

cos

A
7i

sin

tang u

= = C tan
>

=

sin

y tang t sin (B -f-

5)

where
is

D

and

C

are the sine

and cosine of an angle
tang
t

; ,

which

found from the following equation
cotang y

=

sin

B

= cotang

*)

:

cp

sin

A

.

These are the formulae given by Gauss in ,,Schumacher s Hulfstafeln herausgegeben von Warnstorff pag. 135." If now the quantities C, B and A are brought into tables whose is f, the computation of the altitude and the azi argument muth from the hour angle and the declination is reduced to
Z>,

(}

the computation of the following simple formulae

:

= Dsin(B tang u = C tang (B 4A=A
sin/i
-\- u.

-h 8)
S)

Such tables for the latitude of the observatory at Altona have been published in WarnstorfFs collection of tables quoted above. It is of course only necessary to extend these tables
from
t

tang A

()

= =
f,

to
sin
(f

t

=6

h
.

For

it

follows

from the equation
1

tang

/,

that

A

()

lies

always in the same qua

t that therefore to the hour angle 12 belongs the azimuth 180 A. Furthermore it follows from the equations

drant as

for B, that this angle

becomes negative, when
is

t

;>

6 h or

^>

90

,

that therefore if the hour angle be used. The quantities
*)

12

h

t

the value

B must

For we have according
cotang
<p

to

the formulae (2)

sin

A

=

sin

B tang

t.

84

C= cosy
are not

s

mt
t

and
t

D = J/sin

2 y>

changed

if

180
lies

instead of

t

is

substituted in these
1

expressions.
tation

When

between 12 h and 24

,

the

compu
to
its

must be carried through with the complement of t 24 h and afterwards instead of the resulting value of A must be taken. complement to
360"

It is

easy to find

iliary angles.

As

r)

the geometrical meaning of the aux represents that value of f), which sub

to zero,

first of the original equations makes it equal the declination of that point, in which the de o clination circle of the star intersects the horizon; likewise is

stituted

in
<y

the

is

Fig. i.

A the azimuth of this more as we have B is the arc S F Fig. 1
In
the
is

=
*

point.

Further
,

J

B -j-

ti

)

of the decli

nation circle extended to the horizon.
right angled
triangle

FOK^

which

formed by the horizon, the and the side FK equator B, we have to the sixth of the formu according

=

lae (10) of the introduction, because the angle at is equal to 90 : cf
sin
(p

= cos B
(f
7

But

as

we have

ulso sin

= D cos #,
C

sin

FK.

we

see, that

D

is

the sine of the angle O

OFK.

therefore

its

cosine.

At

last

we

easily see that

We

and FG equal to u. is equal to A can iind therefore the above formulae from the three

FH

right angled triangles

PFH,
A

OFK
t

and SFG.

The

first tri

angle gives
the second:

:

tang

= tang

sin

P,

tang

cotang y

B = cotang cos = sin B tang = cotg
cp
t

t

sinA
<f>

,

and the third:
sin h

tang u

= y (B = cos y tang (B
sin sin

-+- S)
-+- 8).

may be used for solving the inverse problem, given in No. 6, to find the hour angle
auxiliary
quantities
*) In this figure

The same

P

is

the pole,

Z

the zenith,

OH the

horizon,

A

the

equator, and

S

the star.

85

and the declination of a star from its altitude and azimuth. For we have in the right angled triangle SKL, designating AL by A H and the cosine and sine of LG by #, LK by SLK by C and D: the angle C tang (h B] = tang u
^<,

D
and

sin (h
t

=A
sin

)

=

sin

#

w,

where now:
tang
.

tang A

= cotang cos = y tang
(p

.4

^l

and where D and C are the sine and cosine of an angle which is found by the equation:
cotang y

;-,

=

sin

B tang A.

use therefore for computing the auxiliary quantities the same formulae as before only with this difference, that
in

We
the

these

A

occurs in the place of
tables as before,
into time.

t;

we can

use therefore
azi

also

same

taking as

argument the

muth converted
8.

The cotangent of the angle ; which Gauss denotes can be used to compute the angle at the star in the by .E, triangle between the pole, the zenith and the star. This angle
,

between the
is

vertical circle

and the declination
is

circle,
of.

which
If

called the parallactic angle

often

made use

we

have tables, such as spoken of before,
angle

E, we

find

which give also the the parallactic angle, which shall be de

noted by p, from the following simple formula:

as

is easily seen, if the fifth of the formulae (10) in No. 8 of the introduction is applied to the right angled triangle
1.

SGF

one has no such tables, the following formulae Fig. which are easily deduced from the triangle SP Z can be used:
if
cos h sin cos h cos

But

p p

= cos = cos
(p

sin
<p

t

sin
<p

sin

8 cos

(p

cos

t,

or taking:
cos
cos
sin
t

(f

= N = n cos N,
n sin

the following formulae, which are rithmic computation
:

more convenient
sin
t

for loga

cos h sin

p

cos h cos p

= cos = n cos (-+-N).
(p

86

The
the effect

parallactic

which

angle is used, if we wish to compute small increments of the azimuth and al

titude produce in the

we
nith

have, applying

to the triangle

For declination and the hour angle. between the pole, the ze
and third of the formulae
-h cos /* sin p dA S .dcp -f- cos h cos p. d A
.

and the

star the first

(9) in

No. 11 of the introduction:
dS
cos Sdt

= cos p dh H- cos =
sin/>c?A+

t

dfp
t

sin

sin

and likewise:
dh
cos lid

A=

= cos pdS
sin

cos
sin

pd S

A d(p cos S sin/) dt A sin hdcp -+- cos 8 cospdt.
.

9.

In

order to

convert the right ascension and decli
its

nation of a star into

volve the axis

and longitude, we must re through the angle s equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic in the direction from towards the positive axis of the positive axis of As the and x of the two systems coincide, we find ac axes of cording to the formulae (1 a) in No. 1 of the introduction:
latitude
ofss"

*) in the plane of

z"

y"

z".

y"

"

x"

cos

/? j3

cos A

cos

sin A
sin

= cos S cos = cos 8 a cos a cos 8 p=
sin
sin

e -f- sin

8 sin

e
f
.

sin f

H-

sin

8 cos

These formulae may be also derived from the triangle between the pole of the equator, the pole of the ecliptic and the star, whose three sides are 90 d, 90 ft and s and the opposite angles respectively 90 A, 90 -j- a and the
angle at the star. In order to render these formulae convenient for loga rithmic computation, we introduce the following auxiliary
quantities
:

AT M cos zV = cos o sin a,
TUT
S>

M

sin

N=

sin

8

(&)

by which the three
following:
cos
cos

original equations are
cos A
sin A sin
{3

changed

into the

/3 /?

= cos 8 cos a = Mcos (N = M (N
sin

e)

s ),

or
for

if

we
its

find all quantities

by
cos

their

tangents and substitute

M
*)

value

cos 8 sin

N

See No. 4 of

this Section.

87

we

get as final equations
tang

:

A=
=!

tang
sin

cos

(N

"

e)

tanga
I

tang

ft

= tang (N

e) sin

us a and d without any am original formulae give but if we use the formulae (6) we may be in doubt biguity; However it as to the quadrant in which we must take /,. from the equation: follows

The

cos

ft

cos k

= cos 3 cos a

that I must be taken in that quadrant, which corresponds to the sign of tang I and at the same time satisfies the con
dition, that cos a

and cos
of the

h

must have the same

sign.

As

a check

computation the following equation
e)

may

be used:
cos

(N
cos

N
/t

_ cos

{3

sin h

.

cos S sin

which we

find

by dividing the two equations: Mcos (N e) cos ft sin
cos
sin

a

= = Af cos

.2V.

The geometrical meaning of the auxiliary angles is easily found. A is the angle which the great circle passing through the star and the point of the vernal equinox makes with the
7

equator, and

M
fl

is

the sine of this arc.

Example.

If

we have:
33
29".

=6
.

e

= 23

30

S

=
31".

16
72,

22

35".

45

27

the computation of the formulae (6) and (c) stands as follows: 9 0605604 9 9820131 cos tang
.

tang<?

9.4681562,,
9
._057709_3

cos N
88 72
60
CoS

9

.

0292017,,
17
,

sin

jV

=

a

1 = 359

43".

91

68

45 4 27 31

1".

tang

R Q (#-)!. 4114653

.

- = - 92
.

sin^
13 13
.

S.OS97293*

cos(,Y- )8.5882086 n 9 5590069 cos

N

^

=9

-1^8^37
.

979 1948

.

cos

ft

sin;,

cos S sin a

= 8 .0689241. = 9. 0397224
9
.

0292017*

^^
TT-K

^
,

ITY

88
If we apply Gauss s formulae to the triangle between the pole of the equator, the pole of the ecliptic and the star and denote the angle at the star by 90 E, we find:
sin (45 sin (45

| ft)
4/?)

sin

cos^ (E
sin

cos(45
cos (45

$

ft)

j/5)

= (45 +|J cos [45 (45 -!-) \ (JE-M) = [45 = cos (45 + cos [45 cos
X)

i (E

A)

cos
sin

(45+4-)

sin [45

(e-h<?)]

I (s

)]

sin

sin

$(
?(e

)]

I (JF-|-4)

a)

+

8)].

These formulae are especially convenient, besides ft and A also the angle 90 E.
Note.

if

we wish

to find

Encke has given

in the Berlin

Jahrbuch for 1831

tables,

which

are very convenient for an approximate computation of the longitude and la titude from the right ascension and declination. The formulae on which they are based are deduced by the same transformation of the three fundamental

equations

in

No. 9 as that used in No. 7 of

this

section for equations of a

similar form.

More accurate

tables have been given in the

Jahrbuch

for 1856.

10.

The formulae

for the inverse

problem, to convert

the longitude

and latitude of a
similar.

and declination, are

We
cos /

star into its right ascension get in this case from the

formulae (1) for the transformation of co-ordinates or also

from the same spherical triangle as before:
cos
-d

cos a

cos 8 sin a
sin

= cos = cos S = cos

ft ft ft

sin A cos E

sin

ft ft

sin s

sin A sin e -+- sin

cos

e.

can find these equations also by exchanging in the three original equations in No. 9 ft and I for $ and a and

We

we can deduce from

conversely and taking the angle s negative. In the same the formulae (//) the following:

way

tang tang 8

=-__
cos
(.TV

sn

-he)

tang I
sin

=

tang (N-+-

s)

a

and from
a check:

(r) the following formula,

which may be used
a

as

cos

(N -{cos

s~)

N

_ cos S
cos
ft

sin

sin I

Here
the

is

N

star

the angle, which the great circle passing through and the point of the vernal equinox makes with
s

the ecliptic.

Finally Gauss

equations give in this case:

89
sin (45
\
}

sin (45

3)
?
<?)

cosOE-H) = cos(45 -MA)
sin 4

sin \

(E-\-a]

=

sin (45

+

4-

A) sin

[45"

(e

+/?)]

cos [45

(,#)]
(e
-

cos (45 cos (45

4<?)

cos 4

(_) =

(E

a]

cos (45
sin (45

-h

\

A) sin [45

/?)]

-H A) cos [45

(s-\-ft)].

2Vote. As the sun is always in the ecliptic, the formulae become more of the sun by L, its right simple in this case. If we designate the longitude ascension and declination by A and D, we find: tang L cos e tang A

or

:

= = L = tang tang D
sin I)

sin

sin e

e sin ^4.

the star in the triangle between the the pole of the ecliptic and the star, equator, pole or the angle at the star between its circle of declination and its circle of latitude, is found at the same time with A and /?,
11.

The angle

at

of the

if

Gauss

s

noting

this

equations are used for computing them, as, de But if we 90 E. angle by r\ , we have
>/

=

wish to

find

this
it

angle without computing those formulae,

we can

obtain

from the following equations:
ft ft

cos
cos

sin

77

cos

77

= cos = cos

a.

sin e

e

cos S

-+- sin e sin

sin

a

or:
cos S sin
cos S cos
77

i]

or taking:
cos
sin f sin

= cos A = cos cos = m cos M =m
e

sin e
ft

sin E sin

ft

sin A,

sin

-/If

or:
cos s
sin
sin A

= n cos 2V
=n
sin

N
:

we may
or:

find

it

from the equations
ft

cos cos

sin

rj

ft

cos

77

cos

sin

77

cos S cos

77

= cos a = w cos (M = cos = cos
sin

8)

A sin

n

(2V -f-

/?).

The angle

tj

is
/>

used to find the

effect,
<)

crements of A and

have on a and

which small in and conversely. For

we

get by applying the first and third of the formulae (11) in No. 9 of the introduction to the triangle used before:
dft

cos

ft

o?A

= cos =
sin

77
77

d d8
-*-

cos S sin

77

.

cos $ cos

77

.

da da

sin A
-+-

de
ft

cos A sin

de,

and

also:

dS=
cos $o?

=

cosr]dft-\-cosftsmrj.dh-t-smad
sin rjdft -+- cos/? cos
77
.

c?A

cos

sin

$

.

c/.

90
is always sun on account of the per turbations produced by the planets has generally a small latitude either north or south, which however never exceeds one second of arc. Having therefore

Note.

The

supposition

made above

that the centre of the sun

moving

in the ecliptic is not rigidly true, as the

right ascension and declination by the formulae given in the note No. 10, we must correct them still for this latitude. If we designate it by dB, we have the differential formulae

computed

to

:

= - COS U,. dB y dJj = cos dB,
sin
<M

,

i]

.

or

if
ft
.

we
cos

substitute
77

the

values
77

of sin

r]

and cos

77

from the formulae for
find:

cos

and cos S cos
cos

D dA =

after having taken

cos

A sin e

.

/?=0, we dB,

cos

D...

12.

into

for converting altitudes and azimuths and latitudes may be briefly stated, as they longitudes

The formulae
of.

are not

made use
have
first

We

the co-ordinates with respect to the plane

of the horizon:

= cos A cos A cos y = =
x
sin
z
sin h.

h, h,

If

we

revolve the axis of
(f

x

in the

the angle 90 of the axis of

in the direction

plane of x and z through towards the positive side
co-ordinates:
cos
(jp,

3,

we

find the x y
z

new
z (f -\-

=x
=y.

sin

=

z sin

(p

x cos

cp.

in the plane of x and the plane of the equator, through the angle &, so that the axis of x is directed towards the point of the vernal equinox, we find the following formulae, observing that

If

we then
is

revolve the axis of

x

t/,

which

the positive side of right ascension is

y"

90"

must be directed towards a point whose and that the right ascensions and hour

angles are reckoned in an opposite direction:
x"

y"

z"

= x cos & = y COS =
z
e

-r-

y x

sin
sill

If

we

finally

revolve the axis

of

y"

in the plane of

y"

and

z"

through the angle
of the axis of

in the direction

towards the pos

itive side

a",

we

find:

91

!
y"
"

z

and as we

also have:

= cos = y x = cos p cos I = cos =
y"

-4-

z"

sin s

sin s -+- z

cos

,

"

!

y"

fi

sin k

"

z

sln/3,

we can

express A and

eliminating

x

,

y

,

/? directly as well as

by 4,
a".

ft,

<f

,

and

e

by

a?",

#",

III.

THE DIURNAL MOTION AS A MEASURE OF TIME. SIDEREAL, APPARENT AND MEAN SOLAR TIME.

13.

The

diurnal revolution

of the

celestial

sphere or

rather that of the earth on her axis being perfectly uniform, it serves as a measure of time. The time of an entire revo
lution of the earth

on

its

axis or the time

between two suc

cessive culminations of the same fixed point of the celestial sphere, is called a sidereal day. It is reckoned from the mo

ment the point of the vernal equinox
dian,
h
,

is

when
2h ,

it

is

O h sidereal time.
or
l
h
,

Likewise

crossing the meri h h h it is l , 2 , 3 etc.

sidereal time,
is
l

when
is

3 h etc.

the hour angle of the point of the equinox when the point of the equator whose

right ascension the meridian.

2h

,

3 h etc. or 15

,

30",

45

etc.

is

on

We

shall see hereafter, that the

two points of the equi

noxes are not fixed points of the celestial sphere, but that they are moving though slowly on the ecliptic. This motion
is

rather the result of

tional to the time

two motions, of which one is propor and therefore unites with the diurnal mo

tion of the sphere, while the other is periodical. This latter motion has the effect, that the hour angle of the point of

the vernal equinox does not increase sidereal time is not strictly uniform.

uniformly, hence that But this want of uni

formity is exceedingly small as nineteen years only to =1= 1 s
.

it
.

amounts during a period of

14.

The sun being on
it

the 21 th of

March

at the vernal
si-

equinox

crosses the meridian on that day at nearly O h

92
dereal time.

But

at

it

moves

in the ecliptic

and

is

at the

d point of the autumnal equinox on the 23 of September, hav h it culminates on this day at ing the right ascension I2
,

sidereal time. Thus the time of the culmination nearly 12 of the sun moves in the course of a year through all hours of a sidereal day and on account of this inconvenience the
1

time would not suit the purposes of society, hence the motion of the sun is used as the measure of civil time.
sidereal

The hour angle

of the sun

is

called the apparent solar time

and the time between two successive culminations of the sun
an apparent solar day. It is O h apparent time when the centre of the sun passes over the meridian. But as the right
ascension of the sun does not increase uniformly, this time is also not uniform. There are two causes which produce

sun s right ascension, namely the and the variable motion of the sun obliquity ecliptic in the ecliptic. This annual motion of the sun is only ap parent and produced by the motion of the earth, which ac cording to Kepler s laws moves in an ellipse, whose focus is occupied by the sun, and in such a manner that the line joining the centre of the earth and that of the sun (the ra
this variable increase of the

of the

If

dius vector of the earth) describes equal areas in equal times. we denote the length of the sidereal year, in which the earth
orbit,

performs an entire revolution in her
the areal velocity the ellipse
is

by
,

T

we
the

find for

F

of the earth

2
,

as

area

of

equal to

a*nVl

e

or

if

we take

the semi-

major

axis of the ellipse equal to unity
r/>,

and introduce instead
e

of e the angle of excentricity

given by the equation

=

si

we

find:

If we call the time, when the earth is nearest to the sun or at the perihelion T, we find for any other time t the sector, which the radius vector has described since the time

of the perihelion passage equal to
is

F(t,

T). V

But
e?j/,

this sector

also expressed

by the

definite integral \ Ir 2
o

where

r des-

ignates the radius vector and v the

angle, which the radius

93
vector makes with the major axis, or the true anomaly of the have therefore the following equation: earth.

We

2F(t-T)=j
As we have
integral

r

-

tor the ellipse r

n

,1

IT

=

a
-

(1

e

2 )

H-ficos-^

a cos y = l-+-ecosv
,

2

,

.

*

tnis

would become complicated.
;

We

can however in

troduce another angle for r for as the radius vector at the a a-\-ae, we may ae, at the aphelion perihelion is assume r a(\ icos E) where E is an angle which is equal

=

=

to

zero

at the

equation for

same time as v. For we get the following determining E from the two expressions of r:
cos

h

v = l-j-e
cos
-

-+- e
,

-

cos v

from which we see, that
right side
is

E

has always a real value, as the
=f= 1.

always
cos
1

less

than

By

a simple transformation

we
cos
-

get also
sin

:

E

e
--

= cos v
dv

w

E
for

and

sm v
r,

ecos-h

1

ecos/t

and

differentiating the

two expressions
a cos
r
cp

we

find:

Introducing
integral,
2 F(t

now

the variable
E

E

into the above definite

we
7

find:

J)

=a

2

cos

y
o

1(1

-

e

cos

E} dE

a~ cos ip

(E

e sin

E),

hence taking again the semi -major axis equal to unity and substituting for F its value found before we obtain:

where
is

w

is

the

mean

sidereal daily motion of the earth, that

the daily motion the earth would have if it were perform ing the whole revolution with uniform velocity in the time T.

The

first

member

of the above equation expresses therefore

which such a fictitious earth, moving with uniform This angle is T. would describe in the time t velocity, called the mean anomaly and denoting it by M, we can write
the angle,

the above equation also thus:

94

M= E

e sin

E,
,

and having found from this the auxiliary angle the true anomaly from the equation:
tang

we

get

r mE r= cos- y ----cos
s
-~

.

hi

e

more con venient, to develop the difference between the true and mean Several elegant methods have been anomaly into a series. given for this, whose explanation would lead us too far, but as we need only a few terms for our present purpose, we can M As we have v easily find them in the following way.
in case that the excentricity is small
it is

But

when
where

e

=
,

=

0,

we can
etc.

take

:

v
?
i>"

= M+ v\.e +

\

v\

.e 2

+

l

v>\

.

e

3

4-

.

..
,

designate the

first,

second

etc.

differential
e

coefficient of v with respect to e in case that

we
c s
,

take
]

=

0.

If

we

differentiate the equation sin v

=

-

1

cos

E

written

logarithmically, we find: cos v cos E _ dE
sin*
sin.E
1

e

dy
cosy
v

ecosE
sin
.

1

cosE e ecosE
T

or:

dv=
if

s

mr
.

and
only

we
and
dv -

cosy differentiate also the equation for
e as variable,
sin
sin
vd<p

sinE

^.dE-\-

dy

= a cos y dE-ir

sin

v
dy,

cosy

M,

considering

E

we

find:

dE =

=

v
(2 -f- e cos v)

dy

COS9P

Taking here

e

=

and de
i/

dv

=

sin
- -

v
(2
-f- e

cos v).

0,

we

get

=2

cosy
sin

M.

In order to find also the higher differential coefficients

we

will

put P

= cosy

.,

1

and Q

= 2 -h

e

cos

v.

We

find then
after

denoting the differential coefficients of having taken e by P , () etc. P cos sin 2 J/, v\ cos M, Q
easily,

=
.

P and Q

= =
==

M

=

v"

p"

Q"

= cos J/. = 2
S in

^=

sin

M. Q
^"

H-

sin

2P = 4 sin 2 M. v\ + 2 sin il/=
il/, 2

sin

M. v\
Q"

=

f

sin 3

M -h { sin M,
f
sin

4
.

sin

Jf 2

,

v

"

M.

-h 2

Q

P

+
?

2P"

=V
J/4-

3

sin

3 If

M.

Hence we

get:
(2 e

= 3/-h

1 e ) sin

3

3/4-

e

2

sin 2

[^

e

3

sin 3

J/ 4-

...

95

The
is

0.0167712.

excentricity of the earth s orbit for the year 1850 If we substitute this value for e and multiply

all

terms by 206265 onds of arc, we find:
v

m
sin

order to get

v

M

expressed in sec
05
sin

= M-+-

G918"

.

37

M+

72"

.

52

sin 2

M

-f-

1"

.

3M,

where the periodical part, which is always to be added to the mean anomaly in order to get the true anomaly, is called
is equal to the angular motion of the earth around the sun, we obtain the true longitude of the sun by adding to r the longitude n which the sun has when the earth is at the perihelion and

the equation of the centre. As the apparent angular motion of the sun

M-\-n
the

is

the longitude of the fictitious

mean sun

,

which

is

supposed to move with uniform velocity

in the ecliptic,

or

mean longitude of the sun. Denoting the first by A, the other by L, we have the following expression for the true longitude of the sun:
I

= L -f 69

18".

37

sin

M+

72".

52

sin

2M-+as

1".05

sin

3

or

if

we
rc

and

= 280
A

introduce
21

L

instead of

M

,

we have
56 cos
cos

M= L

M*\

n

41".0:

=

Z-M244". 31 sin

-f-

6805".

67. 82 sin 2L 54sin3
.

+

25. 66
.

L 2Z

90 cos 3 L.

its

longitude,

In order to deduce the right ascension of the sun from we use the formula:
tang

A = tang A

.

cos

e,

which by applying formula (17) is changed into:

in

No. 11 of the introduction
4
-^

A=k

tang

TT

e~ sin 2 1 -f- ^ tang

sin

4^

...

where the periodical part taken with the opposite sign

is cal

led the reduction to the ecliptic. If we substitute in this formula the last formula found
for /

and develop the

sines

we

find after the necessary reductions 15 in order to get the right ascension

and cosines of the complex terms and after dividing by
expressed in seconds

of time:

*)

To

this

the

perturbations

of the

longitude produced by the planets

must be added

as well as the small motions of the point of the equinox.

96

A=L

-f-

86s 53 s n L -596 .64sin2L
.

i

_|_

4348
1

.

15 cos
JS

-h
-

.69 cos 2
.

3 .77 sin 3/i

18

77cos3L
19cos4
82 cos 5

-h
-f-

13

.

23 sin 4
5

L
-h

.

0.16 sin
.

.

L

36

sin 6

L

-f-

.

02 cos 6

L

.01 sin?

.04 cosl L.

the right ascension of the sun does not increase at a uniform rate, the apparent solar time, being equal to the hour angle of the sun, cannot be uniform. Another uni
15.

As

form time has therefore been introduced, the mean solar time, which is regulated by the motion of another fictitious sun, supposed to move with uniform velocity in the equator while
the fictitious

sun used before was moving in the ecliptic. The right ascension of this mean sun is therefore equal to
longitude
,

the

any place

L of the first mean sun. when this mean sun is on

It is

mean noon
,

at

the meridian

hence

the sidereal time is equal to the mean longitude of the sun and the hour angle of this mean sun is the mean time which for astronomical purposes is reckoned from one noon

when

to the next

from O h
to

to

24 h

.

Hansen the mean right ascension L of According sun is for 1850 Jan. O h Paris mean time:
18

the

39

9s. 261,

and as the length of the tropical year that is the time in which the sun makes an entire revolution with respect to the vernal equinox is 365 2422008, the mean daily tropical mo
.

tion of the sun

is:

9AO
its its

59 8. 38 o, 8- 56365. 2422008 motion in 365 days 23 h 59 m 2 706 motion in 366 days 24 2 59 261

-

-

.

555

ta

tim.,
.

= =

.

.

= 57 = 42

294,

59 261.

By

this

we

are enabled to compute the sidereal time for

any other time. In order to find the sidereal time at noon for any other meridian, we have the sidereal time at noon
for Jan.

1850 equal
18 h

to:
"

39

9s

.

261 -h

X 3m

56

.

555,

where k denotes the
positive
*)

difference of longitude

from Paris, taken

when West,

negative

when East*).

Here again the small motion of the vernal equinox must be added.

97

The

relation

from the formula
of the real

between mean and apparent time follows The mean sun is sometimes ahead sometimes behind according to the sign of sun,
for A.

the periodical part of the formula for A.

we compute L for mean noon at a certain place, the L A given by the above formula is the hour angle of the sun at mean noon, as L is the sidereal time at mean noon*). Now we call equation of time the quantity, which must be added to the apparent time in order to get the mean A time. In order therefore to find from the expression for L the equation of time x for apparent noon, we must convert A into mean time and take it with the the hour angle L o But if n is the mean daily motion of the sun opposite sign.
If

value of

and n-t-w the true daily motion on that certain day, w hours of apparent 24 hours of mean time are equal to 24 hence we have: time,
in time

x
or

:

A

L == 24 h

:

24 h

w,

x

= (A-L}~24

24 h
h

w

the equation for A we can easily see how the of time changes in the course of a year. For if we equation L take A , retaining merely the three principal terms,

From

=

we have

the equation:

= 8G.5

sin

L

596.6 sin 2

L

-+-

434.1 cos L,

from which
tion of time

we can
is
,

find the values of L, for

L = 16015
December.
of time
get the
on
is

L = 2733
we

equal to zero,
,

namely L

= 23

which the equa
16
,

L

= 83

26

,

th April, the 14

which correspond of June, the 31 st of August and the 24 th of
to

the 15 th of

Likewise
a

find the dates,

maximum, from 4 maxima:
31s, 3 m 53s,
Febr. 12,

when the equation the differential equation and we
H-6 m
12s,

H-14 m

-

16

IS*

May
solar

14,

July 26*
is

Nov. 18.

The apparent
*)

day
for

the longest,

when

the variation

The above expression

L

A
and

is is

must be found from the

solar tables

only approximate. The true value equal to the mean longitude mi

nus the true right ascension of the sun. The latest solar tables are those of Hansen and Olufsen (Tables du soleil. Copenhagen 1853.) and Leverrier s tables in Annales de 1 Observatoire Imperial Tome IV.
7

98
of time in one day is at its maximum and This occurs about Dec. 23 when the variation is positive. 30 s hence the length of a solar day 24 h O rn 30 s On the Con
of the

equation

,

.

trary the apparent day is the shortest, when the variation of the equation of time is negative and again at its maximum. This happens about the middle of September, when the va
riation
59"

is
s
.

21 s , hence the length of the apparent day 23 h
of these three different times can
it

39

The transformation
treat the several

now be

performed without any difficulty, but
16.

will

be useful, to

problems separately. To convert mean solar time into sidereal time and As the sun on account conversely sidereal into mean time. of its motion from West to East from one vernal equinox to the next loses an entire diurnal revolution compared with the fixed stars, the tropical year must contain exactly one

more
fore
:

sidereal

day than there are mean days.

We

have there

and a mean

= 365.242201 366. 242201 = a mean day 366.242201 day = TTTT^T 060. 242201 3-6-042201
ay
J

mean

^
mean
time,

3 in 55 s .909
sidereal day, Sldereal da

*
.

a sidereal day

+

3 m 56 s 555

sidereal time.

Hence
time and
fy,

if

designates the sidereal time at

(~)

the

sidereal

time,

M

the
:

mean

mean noon, we have

and
24fa -4-

3

50s

.

555

0o H

"24iT~

The

sidereal

time at

mean noon can be computed by
it

the formulae given before, or

can be taken from the astro

nomical almanacs, where

it

is

given for every

mean noon.

To

facilitate the

computation tables have been constructed,
24 h
3

which give the values of
"

55s

.

9Q9

24 h

and
24 h
-4-

3 U1 56 s

.

555

99
for

Such tables are published also in the any value of t. almanacs and in all collections of astronomical tables. Given 1849 Juny 9 14 b 16 36 s 35 Berlin Example.
.

sidereal time.

To

convert

it

time at

According to the Berlin mean noon on that day
5 h 10
"

mean time. Almanac for 1849
into
is
.

the sidereal

48 s 30,

hence

05 sidereal time have elapsed between noon and the given time and this according to the tables or if
9 5 in 48 s
1

.

we perform

the multiplication by 24 h 3 m 55s
24*>

.

909

h in s 63 mean time. If the mean time had equal to 9 4 18 been given, we should convert it into sidereal hours, minutes and seconds and add the result to the sidereal time at mean

is

.

noon
to the

in

order to find the
time.

sidereal

time which corresponds
into

given mean

17.

To convert apparent solar time
into apparent time.

mean time and

mean time
time into

mean time, we
this

In order to convert apparent take simply the equation of time

corresponding to
it

apparent time from an almanac and add

algebraically

to the given time.

According

to the Berlin

Almanac we have noon the following

for

the equation of time at the apparent values:
I.

Diff.
S

II. Diff.

1849 June 8
9

-

1 "20.73
1

10

9.37 57.74

+
.

^+
s
.

s.27.

Therefore

if

the apparent time given
s

is

June 9 9 h 5 m 23 s
.

.

m 4 we find the equation of time equal to l 98, hence mean time equal to 9 4 m 18 .62. In order to convert mean time into apparent time,

60, the

the
is

same equation of time

is

used.

But as

this

sometimes

given for apparent time, we ought to know already the ap parent time in order to interpolate the equation of time. But on account of its small variation, it is sufficient, to take first

an approximate value of the equation of time, find with the approximate apparent time and then interpolate with
a

this this

new
s
.

18

value of the equation 62 mean time is given,

of time.

For instance
take
first

if 9 h

4m

we may

the equation
7*

100
m and then find for 9 h 5 m 18 s .6 l of time equal to apparent I m 4 8 .98, hence the exact ap time the equation of time 5 m 23 s 60. parent time equal to
9"

.

In the Nautical Almanac

we

find

besides the equation

of time for every apparent noon also the quantity

L

A

for

given, which must be added to the mean time in order to find the apparent time. Using then this

every mean noon
quantity, if

we perform
18.

to convert mean time into apparent time, a similar computation as in the first case. To convert apparent time into sidereal time and con

we have

versely sidereal into apparent time. equal to the hour angle of the sun,

As the apparent time is we have only to add the

right ascension of the sun in order to find the sidereal time. According to the Berlin Almanac we have the following right ascensions of the sun for the mean noon
:

1849 JuneS
9

5h 5 m 3Qs,79
9

38. 75
46 .98

+
,

f ^+0s.27.

10

13
s
.

60 apparent time on June 9 is to be Now if converted into sidereal time, we find the right ascension of the sun for this time equal to 5 h 11 "12 s 75, hence the si dereal time equal to 14 h 16 m 36 s 35. In order to convert sidereal time into apparent time we
h
.

9 5 m 23

.

must know the apparent time approximately for interpolating the right ascension of the sun. But if we subtract from the sidereal time the right ascension at noon, we get the number of sidereal hours, minutes, etc. which have elapsed since noon.
These
sidereal hours, minutes, etc. ought to be converted into apparent time. But it is sufficient, to convert them into mean

time.

time and to interpolate the right ascension of the sun for this Subtracting this from the given sidereal time we find
the apparent time. On June 9 we

noon equal
h

to

5 h 9 m 38 s
.

have the right ascension of the sun at h m s 60 sidereal 75, hence 9 6 57
.

.

mean time have elapsed between noon and If we interpolate the given sidereal time 14 h 16 m 36 s 35. for this time the right ascension of the sun, we find again h m 5 h ll m 12 s 75, hence the corresponding apparent time 9 5
. .

time or 9 5 m 28 s 00

23 s 60.
.

101

from the sidereal time the from this with the aid of the corresponding mean time and equation of time the apparent time.
Instead of this
find
Note.

we might

In

order

to

make

these computations for the time

t

of a meri

dian, whose difference of longitude from the meridian of the almanac is k, must interpolate the quantities from positive if West, negative if East, we
the almanac, namely the sidereal time at noon, the equation of time and the
right ascension of the sun for the time
t

-+- k.

IV.

PROBLEMS ARISING FROM THE DIURNAL MOTION.

In consequence of the diurnal motion every star 19. comes twice on a meridian of a place, namely in its upper
culmination, when the sidereal time ascension and in its lower culmination,
is

is

when

equal to its right the sidereal time

The time greater by 12 hours than its right ascension. culmination of a fixed star is therefore immediately of the known. But if the body has a proper motion, we ought to

know

already the time of culmination in order to be able to
for that

compute the right ascension

moment.

By the equation of time at the apparent noon, as given in the almanacs, we find the mean time of the culmination
of the sun for the meridian, for which the ephemeris is pub lished, and the equation of time interpolated for the time k
gives the time of culmination for another meridian, whose difference of longitude is equal to k. The places of the sun, the moon and the planets are given in the almanacs for the mean noon of a certain meridian.
let

Now

f(a) denote the right ascension of the body at noon, expres sed in time, and t the time of culmination, we find the right

ascension at the time of culmination by Newton s formula of interpolation, neglecting the third differences, as follows:
/(a)
-f-

tf

(a

+

)

H
i~~2~/"

()

or a

little

more exact:
/(a) H- tf (a

+ |) + - {-Y /
(
-

(

+

*)

As

this

must be equal to the sidereal time

at that

mo-

102
merit,

we

the sidereal time at

obtain the following equation, where & designates mean noon and where the interval of the
f(ci) is
56s
.

arguments of
4-

assumed

to

be 24 hours:
(

t (24h;>

56)

=/() + //

+ ft H"

^^

f"

(

-h

*),

hence

:

<==

_
56".

_._/M-.!?o
1

._J^3

SG-rCaH-*)]-

/ (+*)

The second member of this equation contains it is true f, but as the second differences are always small, we can in computing t from this formula use for t in the second memher the approximate

The
at

quantity
if

6J

f(a)
for

is

noon

for the meridian

the hour angle of the body which the ephemeris has been

computed;

k
if

is

the

longitude

of

another place,
at this place

again

taken positive be O f(a)
tt

West, the hour angle
k
,

would
this

place but in time of the

hence the time of culmination for first meridian is

24

3

"

56s

.

5G

/

(

-+-

|)

_
2i

f
k.

and the

local time of culmination

t=t

Example.

The

are given for Berlin
1861 July 14.5
15.0
15.5 16.0

following right ascensions of the mean time:

moon

/()
13"

7

5*

.

3
"
Z<

13 34 22 .9
14

V;*

2

21

.

7

1431
at

4.0

? ^^

+4

i k2
;

43.5

and the sidereal time
7s
.

mean noon on July 15

r>

=7

h

33 m
for

9.

To
As

find

the time of the culmination of the

moon

Greenwich.
34 s

.

the difference of longitude in this case is k 53 m the numerator of the formula for t becomes 6 h 54 m 49 s 9, 9,
.

=

*) If the interval of the arguments of / () were 12 hours instead of 24 hours, the first term of the denominator in the above formula would be 12 h l m 58 s 28, and if we start from a value /(), whose argument is midnight, we would have to use H- 12 h l m 58 s 28 instead of
. .
6>

.

103
the
first

terms

of the

denominator

become
.

ll h 33 m 59 s

.

5,

hence the approximate value of t is 0.59775; with this we s 5 and the cor find the correction of the denominator -f- 8 h m 17 s rected value of t equal to 0.59762 or 7 10 .O, hence h 42 s 1. the local time of the culmination equal to 6
16"
.

For the lower culmination we have the following equation, where a again designates the argument nearest to the lower
culmination
Ht (24"
:

3-

56"

.

G)

= 12

H-/(a)

-I-

*/(a-H)

+

^"^

/ (+*),
&,
is
:

hence the formula for a place whose longitude

is

24*3- 56*

.

56-/
is
1

or in case the interval of the arguments
,

2 hours

:

t

=

_
12"
1".

58s

.

+k 3 _/ + ;) _ -i/
12

-i-f(a}-0
(

<

(a

4.

)

lower cul from July 15.5. Hence the numerator becomes 7 h 20 m 50 s .4, the first terms of the denominator become II 33 m 16 0, hence the aproximate value of t is equal to 0.6359 and the corrected value

Example.

If

we wish

to find the time of the

mination at Greenwich on July 15,
1

we

start

s

.

0.63577 or 7 h 37 m 45 8 .l. The lower culmination occurs there fore at 19 h 37 m 45 s 1 Berlin mean time or at 18 h 44 m 10 s .2
.

Greenwich time.
20.

In No.

7^

we found

sin h

=

the following equation
8
-\-

:

sin
y>

sin

cos
,

If the star

is

in the horizon

J^j therefore h equal to zero,
cp

cos $ cos

t.

I*

we

have:

=
hence:

sin
<f

cos

=

sin

-f-

cos

cp

cos S cos
8.

t

Q

.

tang

y tang

By

this

formula

we

find for

any latitude the hour angle
in d.

at rising or setting of a star,

whose declination

This

hour angle taken absolutejjL^alled the semi-upper diurnal arc of the star. If we know the sidereal time at which the star
passes the meridian or its right ascension, we find the time of the rising or setting of the star, by subtracting the ab solute value of t from or adding it to the right ascension.
()

104

From

the

sidereal

time

we can

find the

mean time by

the

method given
Example.
sets at Berlin.

before.

To find the time when Arcturus rises and For the beginning of the year 1861 we have

the following place of Arcturus: a=14 h9m iQs.3

=

-f-

19

54

29".

and further we have:
tf

= 52
10
1".

30

16".

With

this

we

find the semi-diurnal arc:
to

= Ug

3

= ?h 52m 4Qs

.

Hence Arcturus
sidereal time.

rises at 6 h 16 m

39 s and sets at 22 h

l m .39

s

In order to find the time of the rising and setting of a moveable body, we must know its declination at the time of
rising

and setting and therefore we have

-to

make

the

com

In the case of the sun this is simple. putation twice. first take an approximate value of the declination and

We
com

pute with it an approximate value of the hour angle of the sun or of the apparent time of the rising or setting. As the declination of the sun is given in the almanacs for every ap parent noon, one can easily find by interpolation the decli
nation for the time

of the

rising or setting

and repeat the

computation with this. In the case of the moon the computation is a little longer. If we compute the mean time of the upper and lower cul
minations of the moon,

we can

find the

mean time

corres

ponding to any hour angle of the moon. We then find with an approximate value of the declination the hour angle at the time of the rising or setting, find from it an approximate value of the mean time and after having interpolated the de
clination

of the
is

moon
found

for this time repeat the computation.

An
ting

example
Note.

in

No. 14 of the

third section.

may

The equation for the hour angle at the time of the rising or set be put into another form. For if we subtract it from and add it

to unity,

we

find

by dividing the new equations
,

:

2

_ cos =

(90

$)

21.

The above formula

for cos
rising

rious

phenomena, which the

embraces all the va and setting of stars actQ

105
to the equator present cording to their positions with respect on the surface of the earth. at place

any

If d
is

is

which have a northern latitude; negative and the star therefore in this case is greater than 90 f remains a longer time above than below the horizon. On the contrary for stars, whose declination is south, t becomes less than 90, therefore these remain a longer time below
than above the horizon of places in the northern hemisphere. is negative, In the southern hemisphere of the earth, where it is the reverse, as there the upper diurnal arc of the sou
<f<

positive or the for all places

star is north of the equator, cos

<

thern stars
is

90

0, t greater than 12 hours. If we have for any value of J; therefore at the equator of the
is
<y/

=

earth
If
,

all

stars

we have
hence

8

=

remain as long above as below the horizon. for any value of is also equal to 90 0, t
(}

on the equator remain as long above the horizon of any place on the earth as below. Therefore while the sun is north of the equator, the days are longer than the nights in the northern hemisphere of the earth, and the reverse takes place while the sun is
stars

south of the equator.

But when the sun
at
is

is

in the equator,

days and night are equal x places on the equator this
It is

places on the always the case.
all

earth.

At

t is only possible while we Therefore if a star rises or sets d 1. cp tang at a place whose latitude is rjp, tang 3 must be less than If 8 90 we find t == 180 90 ff. cotang y or d

obvious that a value of
<t

have tang

<

=

r/>,

and the star grazes the horizon at the lower culmination. If we have d the star never sets 90 and if the (p , south declination is greater than 90 the star never rf
;>

,

,

rises.

As
limits

the
s

declination of the
-+e,

sun

lies

always between the

those places on the earth, where the sun does not rise or set at least once during the year, have a latitude north or south equal to 90 e or 66^. These

and

The places within places are situated on the polar circles. these circles have the sun at midsummer the longer above and in winter the longer below the horizon, the nearer they are
to the pole.

106
Note.
if

A

point of the equator rises
right
if

when

its

hour angle

is

6h

.

Hence
rise

we

call the

ascension of this point a,

we

find the stars,

which

at the

same

time,

we

lay a great circle through this point

of the sphere, whose right ascensions are
clinations

6h

and

4-O h
tp).

and the points and whose de

are

respectively

(90

<p)

and 4- (90

Likewise we find

the stars, which set at the
the

same time

as this point of the equator, if

we

lay

great
Gh

a

4-6 h and through the points, whose right ascensions are and whose declinations are respectively and 90 (90 90)
circle
<f>.

The
in

point,

which

at the time of the rising of the point
is

was

in the horizon
at

its

lower

culmination,
2<p.

therefore

now

in

its

upper culmination

an

Hence at the latitude of 45 the constellations make equal to a turn of 90 with respect to the horizon from the time of their rising to the time of setting, as the great circle which is rising at the same time with a
altitude

certain
setting.

point

of the equator,

is

vertical

to the horizon,
rise at the

when

this point is

On

the equator the stars,

which

same

time, set also at

the

same

instant.

22.

In

order to find the point of the horizon, where

a star rises or sets,
sin

we must make
sin
y>

=

in the equation:
cos h cos A,

sin h

cos
y>

which was found

in

No.
COS

6,

h equal to zero and obtain:
(l>).

AQ

=
cos
{}

cp

The negative value of A
rising,

is

the azimuth of the star at

its

the

distance

The positive value that at the time of setting. of the star, when rising or setting, from the east

and west points of the horizon is called the amplitude of the star. Denoting it by A n we have: A =90 4- A
hence
:

sin

A

t

= COS d
-

sin

(c),

(p

where A
sets,
tive

is
l

positive,

when

the point

where the

star rises or

on the north of the east or west points, nega when it lies towards south.
lies

The formula
different shape.

(c) for

the amplitude

may

be written in a

For
1

as
4-

we
A A
{

have:
sin
t/j

sin
sin

4-

sin sin

1

when

ifj

= 90

t

sin \p
:

8

y,

we

find

tang

w~ r

8
-

tang

107

For Arcturus we
before:
23.

find with the values of d
^1
/

and

r^,

= 340
sin

given

.9.

If

we

write in the equation:
sin h

=

sin
<f>

S
f,

-{-

cos
<p

cos S cos

t

1

2 shir}/ 2 instead of cos
sin h

we
*2

= cos

get:
9?

(9?

8}

cos

cos S sin \t^

.

this we see, that equal altitudes correspond to As the hour angles on both sides of the meridian. second term of the second member is always negative, h has and the maximum itself is found its maximum value for t

From

equal

=

from the equation:
COS Z

= COS (<JT

S)

((/),

from which we get:
z

=
<p

S or

=S
(f>.

If

we

take therefore in general:
z

=S

y>,

we must take the zenith distances towards south as negative, because for those star, which culminate south of the zenith,
<)

is

less

than
the

(f.
/*

On
nation

contrary

is

a
as

minimum
is

at the

lower culmi

seen, when we introduce instead of , reckoning therefore t from that part 180-|of the meridian, which is below the pole. For then we

or

when

=180,

have

:

sin h

=

sin 1

rp

sin

S

cos
2

rp

cos 3 cos

t

.

or introducing again
sin h

= cos [180

2 sin \t

instead of cos

t
2
.

:

=F

(T

+

8}] -\- 2 cos

y

cos S sin

j*

As

the

second term of the second member

is

always

positive, h is a

culmination.,

minimum when when we have:
cos z

t

equals zero or at the lower
=F
4-

= cos [180

(<F

S)].

As
its
c)

z is

always

less than

90, when

the star

is

visible in

lower culmination, we must use the upper sign, when cp and are positive, and the lower sign for the southern hemi
sphere, so that

we have:

for places in the northern hemisphere, and:
z -f- 8} (180 for places in the southern hemisphere.
<p

=

+

108

The
for

declination of a

Lyrae
d
qp

the latitude of Berlin
is therefore at its

=

is

38 39

,

13 51

hence we have The star a
.

upper culmination at Berlin 13 51 Lyrae south of the zenith, and its zenith distance at the lower cul d is 88 51 mination equal to 180 cp
.

24.
its

A

body reaches

its

greatest altitude at the time of

culmination only if its declination does not change, and in case that this is variable, its altitude is a maximum a little
before or after the culmination.
If

we
cos

differentiate the for

mula

:

cos z

=

sin

cp

sin

-+-

cos
<p

cos

t,

taking

,

d and
zdz

t

sin

=

as variable,
cos 8
<p

we
sin

find:
cos
t]

[sin

cos

y

dS

cos

cp

cos S sin tdt

and from this we obtain or dz 0: d8 -

=

in

the case that z

is

a

maximum

sm

t

=

r

[tang

y

tan g

s
"

cos

*J-

This equation gives the hour angle at the time of the
7

ft

greatest

altitude.

is

the ratio of the change of the decli

the change of the hour angle, or if dt denotes a second of arc, it is the change of the declination in T^ of a

nation to

As this quantity is small for all heavenly bodies, and as we may take the arc itself instead of sin t and take cos t equal to unity, we get for the hour angle corresponding to the greatest altitude:
second of time.
t

= dS [tang
r

,,206265
<p

-j-

tang

8]

~^

(g\

7

V<

where
time and

is
t

the change of the declination in one second of
is

found in seconds of time.

This hour angle

must be added algebraically
If the

to the time of the culmination,

in order to find the time of the greatest altitude.

body

is

culminating south of the zenith and ap7
S>

proaching the north pole, so that
altitude

is

positive, the greatest
is
y>

occurs after the culmination
is

if

the

decreasing, greatest The reverse takes place, before the culmination.

declination

the

positive; but if altitude occurs
if

the

body

culminates between the zenith and the pole.

109
25.
If

we

differentiate the formulae:

cos h sin cos h cos

A = cos 8 sin A = cos 90 sin 8 -f- sin
t,

90

cos

cos

/,

we

find:
sin h

cos A

r-

= cos 3 = cos S = =

[sin cp cos ^4 sin

t

cos

t

sin A],

[cos

^

cos

/

-f- sin cp sin

t

sin .4],

or:

dh

,

cos o

sm p

.

=

cos

90

sin

A,

cos A

-t-

a

cos $ cos p.

(A)

Frequently
coefficient.

For

we make use this we find:
d h
cos
l

also of the second differential

=-cosycos^.
9?

t

dA
,

cos S cos J. cos p

cos A

Likewise

we

have:
t/z
-

c?

2

z

= cos _ cos

~

o

sm p

.

=

cos

cp

cos S cos ^4 cos

~~
S
-+-

9?

sm ^4,
p

Furthermore we find from the second of the formulae
d2
cos /r
c/<

(/&)

:

A=
2

cos h cos o

sm * dp p dt

-f-

cos o cos p

sm

h

dh --dt

But we get

also, differentiating
cp

the formula:
/>,

sin

=
--

sin h sin
-

cos A cos S cos
sin h cos

cos h cos $ sin p

=

dt

[cos A sin 8

8 cos

-

]

at

Hence we have:
cos A
2

^

=
2

-+- [cos

A sin ^

2 cos 8 sin A cos p] cos # sin p,

or, if

we

introduce
2

A

instead of p:
cos
95

d*

cos A

A= -

sin J. [cos A sin

8

-f-

2 cos

9?

cos

vlj.

26.

As we have

:

we

find
sin

have

A

= =

dh -

=

cos

95

sm A,
or

0, or A is a

maximum
is

minimum, when we

or

when

the star

on the meridian.

110

We
The

c

1
-

find also that

is

a

maximum, when

sin

A

= =t

1,

hence when

A=

90 or

= 270.
when
270.

changes therefore most rapidly, crosses the vertical circle, whose azimuth is 90 or This vertical circle is called the prime vertical.
altitude of a star
it

In order to find the time of the

passage of the star

across the prime vertical as well as its altitude at that time, we take in the formulae found in No. 6 A 90 or we con

=

right angled triangle between the and the pole and find:

sider the

star,

the zenith

cos

/

= tang S
tang
rp

.

sin sin

8
(f

^

Finally

we have:
sin

p

COS = cos
t

(f

o

^

If

we have
the

<)

;>
<f>,

cos

would be greater than

unity,

therefore

star

but

culminates

cannot come then in the prime vertical between the zenith and the pole. If S is

negative, cos t become negative; but as in northern latitudes the hour angles of the southern stars while above the horizon are always less than 90, those stars cross the prime vertical

below the horizon. For Arcturus and the latitude of Berlin we
t

find

:

h

= 73 = 25

52

.

1

=4

h

55

28

24

.

9.

Arcturus reaches therefore the prime vertical before its culmination at 9 b 13 m 51 s and after the culmination at 19 h 4 in 47 s
.

If the hour angle is near zero, we do not find t very accurate by its cosine nor h by its sine. But we easily get from the formula for cos t the following:
,

2

sin

(cp

$)
-+-

sin
(y>

S)

and

for

computing the

altitude

cotang h

= tang

we may
t

use the formula:

cos

(p.

27.

As we have:
dA
dt
cos S cos cos h

p

Ill

we

see that this differential coefficient

becomes equal

to zero,

or that the star does not change its azimuth when we have cos p o, or when the vertical circle

=

for an instant,
is

ver

tical to

the declination circle.
cos p

But
-----

as

we have
S

:

=

sin
<p

sin h sin

cos h cos d
(c

V

this

must occur when

sin

=

&

n

! -f . sin d

It

happens therefore

only to circumpolar stars, whose declination is greater than the latitude, at the point where the vertical circle is tangent
to

The star is then at its greatest dis the parallel circle. tance from the meridian and the azimuth at that time is given by the equation:
sm

A=

cos S
-

cosy

and the hour angle by the equation:
cos
t

tang (p h tang o

-

34

6"

For the polar and for the
^

star,

whose declination

for

1861

is

88

-4

= =

latitude of Berlin,
0"

we

find:

88
2

8
9"

=5

52^ 32s

21

reckoned from the north point, A

= 5231

.7.

28. Finally we will find the time, in which the discs of the sun and moon move over a certain great circle.
If /\n
is

two consecutive culminations expressed

the increment of the right ascension between in seconds of time,

we

find the number of sidereal seconds #, in which the body moves through the hour angle t from the following proportion: x: 86400 -|-A: 86400 as we may consider the motion of the sun and moon during the small intervals of time which we here consider, as uni
t

=

form; hence

we have:
1

86400 -4- A

or denoting the second term of the denominator, which is equal to the increment of the right ascension expressed in

time in one second of sidereal time, by A:

112

When

the western limb of the
is
*

body
t

is

on the meridian,

the hour angle of the centre,
cos

R = sin
^

found from the equation:
cos S* cos

-f-

where

R

designates the apparent radius, or from:
sin

R = cos 8 sin \

t.

Hence, as

t

is

small, this

hour angle expressed

in time is:

R
15 cos S

therefore the sidereal time of the semi - diameter passing the

meridian

:

2R

1

~15.cos.Tl-r

When
dt

the upper limb of the
is

depression of the lower limb

body is in the horizon, the equal to 272, and as we have:
hour angles of the up-

= cos d

sin p, the difference of the
is:

per and lower limb in time
15
.

cos d sinp

hence the sidereal time of the diameter rising or setting:

2R_
15 cos S sin p
.

I
1

A

where p

is

found from the equation:
cos

= cos
sin

(p
-

o

If

we imagine two

vertical circles one

through the centre,

the other tangent to the limb, the difference of their azimuths is found from the equation:
sin

^

R = cos

h sin

|

a

or, as

R

is

small, from the equation:

R = cos A

.

a.

But

as

we have dt

=
2R

coshdA~
cos o cos

we

find for the sidereal

p

time in which the diameter passes over a vertical circle:

J^
1

15 cosd.cosp

A
cos
q>

where

=

cos S sin

sin S cos
<f

t

COS

ft

SECOND SECTION.
ON THE CHANGES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANES, TO WHICH THE PLACES OF THE STARS ARE REFERRED.

As

the two poles do not change their place at the sur

face of the earth, the angle between the plane of the hori zon of a place and the axis of the earth or the plane of the equator remains constant. Likewise therefore the pole and

equator of the celestial sphere remain in the same po with respect to the horizon. But as the position of the axis of the earth in space is changed by the attraction
the
sition

of the sun and moon, the great circle of the equator and the poles coincide at different times with different stars, or the

appear to change their position with respect to the equator. Furthermore as the attractions of the planets change the plane of the orbit of the earth, the apparent orbit of the sun among the stars must coincide in the course of years
latter

two planes, and that of the earth s namely equator orbit produce a change of the angle between them or of the obliquity of the ecliptic as well as a change of the points of intersection of the two corresponding great circles. The and latitudes as well as the right ascensions and longitudes declinations of the stars are therefore variable and it is most
stars.

with different
that

Hence

the motion of these

of the

earth s

important to know the changes of these co-ordinates. In order to form a clear idea of the mutual motions of
the equator and ecliptic, we must refer them to a fixed place, for which we take according to Laplace that great circle, with which the ecliptic coincided at the beginning of the year

1750.

Now

of the sun and

Physical Astronomy teaches, that the attraction moon on the excess of matter near the equator

114
of the spheroid of the earth, creates a motion of the axis of earth and hence a motion of the equator of the earth with respect to the fixed ecliptic, by which the points of in tersection have a slow, uniform and retrograde motion on
this

the

fixed plane and at the same time a periodical motion, the depending on the places of the sun and moon and on

position of the the orbit of the

moon s nodes viz. of the points in which moon intersects the ecliptic. The uniform

motion of the equinoxes is called Lunisolar Precession, the other periodical motion is called the Nutation or the Equation of the equinoxes in longitude. Besides this attraction creates
a periodical change of the inclination of the equator to the fixed plane, dependent on the same quantities, which is called the Nutation of obliquity.

the mutual attractions of the planets change the in clinations of the orbits with respect to the fixed ecliptic as
well

As

of position of the line of the nodes, the plane its position with respect the orbit of the earth must change to the plane, with which it coincided in the year 1750 or
as

the

the fixed ecliptic. This change produces therefore a change of the ecliptic with respect to the equator, which is -called the Secular variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic and the

motion of the point of the intersection of the equator with the apparent ecliptic on the latter, which is called the General Precession differs from the motion of the equator on the fixed
ecliptic,

which
this

But
other

called the luni- solar precession*). change of the orbit of the earth has
is

still

an

effect,

For

sun and the moon
is

as by it the position of the orbit of the with respect to the equator of the earth
this

changed, though slowly,

must produce a motion

of

the equator similar to the nutation only of a period of great length , by which the inclination of the equator with respect to the ecliptic as well as the position of the points of inter

These changes on account of their long is changed. can be united with the secular variation of the obli period Hence the quity of the ecliptic and with the precession.
section
*)

The

periodical

terms, the nutation,

are the

same

for the fixed

and

moveable

ecliptic.

115

motion of the equator, indirectly produced by the perturbations
of the planets, changes a little the lunisolar precession as well as the general precession and the angle, which the fixed

and the true

ecliptic

make with

the equator

*).

I.

THE PRECESSION.

1. Laplace has given in .44 of the sixth chapter of the Mecanique Celeste the expressions for these several slow motions of the equator and the ecliptic, which can be applied

to a time of

1200 year before and after the epoch of 1750, secular perturbations of the earth s orbit are taken into consideration so as to be sufficient for such a space of
as

the

time.

Bessel has

the powers of the time which

developed these expressions according to elapsed since 1750 and has

given in the preface to his Tabulae Regiomontanae these ex pressions to the second power. According to this the an nual lunisolar precession at the time 1750 -f- t is:

-^
or the

=

50".

37572

0".

000243589

t

amount of the precession

in the interval of time

from

1750 to 1750

-M:
lt

=

t.

50".

37572

2
t
0".

0001 2 17945.

the arc of the fixed ecliptic between the points of intersection with the equator at the beginning of the year 1750 and at the time 1750 -M.
is

This therefore

Furthermore the annual general precession

is

:

= ^j
to

50".

21129

+

0".

0002442966

t

and the general precession 1750 -M:

in the interval of time

from 1750

l=t
and

50".

21 129

-M

2
0".

0001221483,

this is the arc of the

apparent ecliptic between the points

of intersection with the equator at the beginning of the year 1750 and at the time 1750 -1- t.

*)

In

the
2
t

expressions developed
.

in

series they

change only the terms

dependent on

116
Finally
ecliptic
is

the

angle between

the

equator and the fixed
0000098423
ecliptic at the time

at the time
o

1750-f-:
28
18".

= 23

4-

t*

0".

and the angle between the equator and the

1750-M
tation),
e

(if

we

which

= 23

neglect as before the periodical terms of is called the mean obliquity of the ecliptic, 2 z 00000272295 *), t 48368 28 18".0
0".

nu
is
:

0".

so that

we have:
dt

d
dt

f
(}

=

0".

48368

0".

0000054459

t.

the n Fig. 2 represent the equator and and let A A ecliptic both for the beginning of the year 1750, and E E represent the equator and the obliquity of the ecliptic
let

Now

AA

EE

1

for

1750-M;
t

then the arc

BD

the equator has retrograded on
in

of the ecliptic, through which it, is the lunisolar precession

years, equal to /,. Further are ively the inclination of the true ecliptic
ecliptic

and A BE respect and of the fixed If of 1750 against the equator, equal to s and
.

BCE

*) Bessel has changed a little the numerical values of the expressions given in the Mecanique Celeste, as he recomputed the secular perturbations of the earth with a more correct value of the mass of Venus and determined
the term of the lunisolar precession
/,,

which

is

multiplied by
obliquity

t,

from more

recent observations.
as

The

secular

variation

of the

of the ecliptic

deduced from
it

the

latest observations differs
is

from the value given above,

as

is

0".4645.

But the above value
77,

retained for the computation of the

quantities

n

and

to the fixed plane, as

which determine the position of the ecliptic with respect it must be combined for this purpose with the value of

dt

,

based on the same values of the masses.

The terms

multiplied by t~,

are based on which depend on the perturbations produced the values of the masses adopted by Laplace and need a more accurate de

by the planets,

termination.

Peters gives in his work ,,Numerus constans nutationis" other values com These are, reduced to the year puted with the latest values of the masses. 1750 and to Bessel s value of the lunisolar precession as follows:
l
t

I

s

= = 50V214S4 -h = 23 28 17
t

50".37572

t"-

0".0001084 0".0001134

2
z

t

.9 -4- 0".00000735
0".4738
t

f2
0".00000140
2
t
.

= 23
s

28

17".9

But as Bessel

values are generally used,

they have been retained.

117
Fig. 2.

then S represents a star and to the fixed and to the true

SL and SL

are
is

drawn

vertical

the longitude ecliptic, of the star for 1750 and CL the longitude of the star for 1750-M. If further D denotes the same point of the true
ecliptic

DL

which
the

in the fixed ecliptic

was denoted by D, the arc

general precession, being the arc of the true ?. ecliptic between the equinox of 1750 and that of 1750 This portion of the precession is the same for all stars, and in
is

CD

+

add to

order to find the complete precession in longitude, we must it D L DL; which portion on account of the slow

change of the obliquity

true

position respect to the fixed ecliptic, which is given by the secular perturbations and may also be deduced from the expressions given before. For if we denote by // the

computing

this

portion

is much less than we must know the

the other.

For

of the

ecliptic

with

fixed

longitude of the ascending node of the true ecliptic on the ecliptic (or that point of intersection of the two great
circles

out from which the true ecliptic has a north latitude) and if we reckon this angle from the fixed equi nox of the year 1750, we have and 180 -- // /, - // CIS 180 /, as the longitudes are reckoned in the
setting

=

BE

=
is

direction from

B

towards

D

and as

E

the descending node

of the true ecliptic, hence If 180 //. the inclination of the true ecliptic or the angle we have according to Napier s formulae:

DE

we denote
by
n,

EEC

118
. sin frr II-}j

tang 4

7t

.

4-tJi
j

(

tang ^

7t

.

cos

I,-*-

I

\

j/7-f-

= =

sin --t

.

l

l
-

-

tang

*-f-*o ,

l

cos

t

l

s

j

^

tang

-

,

the same point of the equator which in the year is the arc of the equator, through which the point of intersection with the ecliptic has moved on the equator from west to east during the time t. If we denote
is

As 5

1750 was

at

Z>,

BC

this arc,

by

a,

which is the Planetary Precession during the time we find from the same triangle:
tang Y a
.

,

cos

-

-

= tang

T

-

(lt

/)

cos

-

-

From these equations we can develop a, as well as n // into a series progressing according to the powers of and
t.

From

the last equation, after introducing:
o

+T

(

o)

instead of

-

-

and taking instead of the sines and tangents of the small a and e the arcs themselves, we find: /, angles
/,
/,

B

206265

or

if

we

substitute for

/,,

/

and

s
2
,

their expressions,
,

which

are of the following form A,-f- A we obtain:
co

Kt

-\-

K

2
t

and

So
t.

(

cos

8

o

206265

cos fo

2

or if

we

substitute the numerical values:

d

= = dt
a
"

0.17926
0.17926

1
t

0".0002660393,
0".0005320786.

t

.

In addition

we have:
l l

tang

\n+
I
-

}

= tang --+2
-

.

sin

,J ~
S
2

,

and
tang
T}

7T

2

=

(

tang
j

L

P
-~^~

2
)

tang

h tang
as before
]

cos
j

/,

I

^

or proceeding in a similar
tang
\

way

:

iJT+lft
2

+ Oj =";; + ^|^
2

7T

==a 2

sine

+

2
(

o)

+a

2

sin f o cos

o

(e

)

206265

119
Substituting here also for
e
:

and a the expression

_ r j 2 and at j

-\-

a f%

we

find
sin e
7?

n 4- 4

(/

-h

= arc tang

2062bo-h .cos
7i

_

cos7Z

=

t

\

a? sin

2

H-

2
?7

-f-

-- \aa sin

f

?

-f-

rj

v/

-

206265

or substituting the numerical values:

77=171
7t

=

36 10

*.5".21
a
*
0".

t.Q".

48892

0000030715

^=
rf<

0".

48892

^.0".

0000061430.

2.

The mutual changes
easily

sitions of the stars are referred,

of the planes, to which the po having thus been determined,

we can
the
stars

find

the

themselves.
star

resulting changes of the places of If A and ft denote the longitude and
to

latitude

of a

referred

the ecliptic of 1750

-+-

,

the

co-ordinates of the star with respect to this plane, if we take the ascending node of the ecliptic on the fixed ecliptic of 1750 as origin of the longitudes, are as follows:
cos
ft

cos (A

77

/),

cos

ft

sin (h

77

J),

sin

ft.

If further

L and B

are the longitude

and

latitude of the

star referred to the fixed ecliptic of 1750, the three co-ordi

nates with respect to this plane and the same origin as be
fore are:
cos

B cos (L

77),

cos

B sin (L

77),

sin

B.

the fundamental planes of these two systems of co ordinates make the angle n with each other, we find by the

As

formulae
cos
cos
ft ft

(1 a) of the introduction the following
77 77
sin
I) /)

cos (A
sin (1

ft

= = =

equations

:

cos

B cos (L cos B sin (L cos B sin (L

77)

77) cos
77) sin

n -+- sin B sin n n -f- sin B cos n.

(A)

we differentiate these equations, taking L and B as constant, we find by the differential formulae (11) in No. 9 90 of the introduction, as we have in this case a ft,
If

6=90
d
(I

B, c=7r,
77
/)

4 = 90-f-L
flH

77,
ft

5 = 90
77

=

(I
dll

II

I}:

=

+ n tang
(A

sin (A
(/I

/)
/)

dft

=

H- tang ft cos
-J-

77

dn
77
I)

n cos

77

/)

c/77

sin (7

dn.

120
Dividing by dt and substituting
coefficient
<///,

t

instead of n in the

of we obtain from these the following for mulae for the annual changes of the longitudes and latitudes
of the stars:
dl
dt

=

di
t

dt

,

-f-

tang B cos (/ \
f
. I

/.

II

dn
I

\d7t

dt

t\ )

dt

dS
-

=
//
d
1

sin

/

dt

\

n

dn
I

\
t]

dn

dt

J dt
MO".

or, as

we have
ZT-f-

+
_ ~

d

^t =

171 36
36
10"

10"

42, taking:

^--+dt

1= 171
dl
dt

+

t

39".79

= M,

d^
dt

where the numerical values

for
dt

and
dt

as

given in the

preceding No. must be substituted.

Let L and B again denote the longitude and latitude of a star, referred to the fixed ecliptic and the equinox of 1750, then the longitude reckoned from the point of inter section of the equator of 1750-fwith the fixed ecliptic, is
equal to L + /,, when /, is the lunisolar precession during the interval from 1750 to 1750 -f- 1. Hence the co-ordinates

of the star with respect to the plane of the fixed ecliptic and the origin of the longitudes adopted last are:
cos

B cos (L -fstar,

/,),

cos

B sin (L -+the

/,)

and

sin

B.

If

now a and
of the

8 denote the right ascension and decli
referred to

equator and the true equinox at the time 1750-f-, the right ascension reckoned from the origin adopted before, is equal to have -+- a.
nation

We

therefore

the

co-ordinates

of the

star

with respect to the
and sin
8.

plane of the equator and this origin as follows:
cos cos
(

-f- a),

cos S sin (a

-f-

)

c

,

As the angle between the two planes of co-ordinates we find from the formulae (1) of the introduction:
cos 8 cos
(

is

-f- a)

cos

sin (a -\- a)

= cos B cos {L = cos B (L
sin sin

-\- /,)

-+-

/,)

cos e
sin

sin
-f- sin

sin

S= cos B

(L

-f-

/,)

B sin e B cos s

(C)
.

_
I

UNIVEF
-^kJ"-*.

1

r*.

_

we differentiate these equations, taking L and B as constant, we find from the differential formulae (11) of the introduction, as we have in the triangle between the pole of
If

the ecliptic,
b

= 90
d
(a

that

4-

)

dS

= 4= cos (a 4[cos f

B, c

=

of the
,

A

= 90
t

equator and the star a

(L -h 0,

5 = 90

= 90

<)

,

sin e
e-

a) sin

tang sin (a 4- )] dl 4~ sin (a 4- a) ds

^

cos (a 4- a) tar
.

find therefore for the annual variations of the right ascensions and declinations of the stars the following for

We
:

mulae

da
-.-

=

da

h
4-

[cos
(
1
.

4- sm
dl, e
--

tang o

sm

a]
~

dl -

-

a

sm

- de ---

\ ?

tang o cos

,

rfe

1

sm

,

or
its

neglecting the last term of each equation on account of being very small *)
:

da
,

=
cos

da -at
sin

at

r

[cos

-f- sin e

t)

tang o

sm

.

dl,
1
,

dt

~= dt
d If

,

we

take here:
cos
rfJ,

rfa

= m.

dt
8

dt

rf<

we

find simply:
cfa

--

-

= m 4= n cos

n tang o sin

,

,

where the numerical values of
tuting the numerical values of

m
g
,

and
-

w,

obtained by substi
/tt
,
<Y

w

*

and

are:

t

m
n

= =

46"

.

20" .

02824 406442

0"

.

0"

.

0003086450 0000970204

t

t.

or

in

In order to find the precession in longitude and latitude right ascension and declination in the interval from

*)

The numerical
t.

value

of the coefficient

a sin

,

is

only

0.0000022471

122

1750

-M
t
.

to

1750-M
can find

integral

of the

equations

and
the

We
time
are

would be necessary to take the (D) between the limits t however this quantity to the terms of
,

it

(JB) or

second order inclusively from the
-

differential

coefficient

at the

and from the

interval of time.
/"(

For
)

if

and

/"(Y)

two functions, whose difference
:

f(f)

is

required, (in our case therefore the precession during the time t ), we take
(

+ =
*)

*(*

)

= A*.
2
/"

*,

Then we have:
/(O =/(* /(*0=/(*

- A*) =/(*) - A*/ GO + A* + A*) =/(*) + A */ IA*
4

(*),

(*) -f-

2
/"

CO,

where

/"

(a?)

and

f"

coefficient of f(x).

(x) denote the first and second differential From this we find:

/(O -/(O

=

2

A*/(aO

= -O
(

during the inter only necessary to compute the dif ferential coefficient for the time exactly at the middle and
val

Hence

in order to find the precession
t
,

of time

it

is

it by the interval of time. By this process only terms of the third order are neglected. For instance if we wish to find the precession in lon gitude and latitude in the time from 1750 to 1850 for a

to multiply

star,

whose place

for the year
A

1750
/?

is:

= 2100

,

=
-

-+-

34

we

find the following values of
=50".

,

and
dt

dt

M
9

for 1800:

dt

22350,

^=0". 48861, dt

M= 172

20".

find the following place for 1800, com puting the precession from 1750 to 1800 only approximately: /l 210 42 .l, 5 -f-33 59 .8

With

these

we

=

/

=

from the formulae (5) we find then the annual variations for 1800:

^= dt
in longitude

-t-

50".

48122,

^=
dt

-0".

30447,

hence the precession

in the interval
1

from 1750

to
45.

1850:

+

24

8".

12 and

in latitude

30".

123
If

we wish

to find the precession in right ascension

and

declination from 1750 to 1850 for a star, sion and declination for 1750 is:

whose

right ascen

= 220
we have
for

1

24",

^

= + 20

21

15"

1800:

m

=

46".

04367, n

=

20".

05957,

and the approximate place of the
== 220 35
.

star at that time:
8
.

8,

<?

= -j-20
sin

6

hence

we have according
tang
sin

to

formulae (D):

9

.

56444
81340.
37784,,

n tang

a 9
9

.

tang 8 sin a
cos a

=

.

n=l. 30232
therefore the
to

= 9. 88042,,
precession in
8

= + 46 da = + 41 dt - = 15 at
m

a

=

4

.

78806 04367
25561

.

.

.

2314

the interval

of time from 1750

1850
in right ascension 1
45".

56 and

in

declination

25

23".

14.

its

In the catalogues of stars we find usually for every star annual precession in right ascension and declination
for the
its

riatio annua) given
sides this

variation in

(vaepoch of the catalogue and be one hundred years (variatio sae-

t, denotes the epoch of the catalogue, the precession of a star according to the above rules equals:

cularis).

If then

(

t

t

variatio

annua

-f-

~

n

A(J(J
)

OAr

r"

variatio saecularis

(*

*)

If

we

differentiate the

two formulae:
-+-

da

=m

n tang o sin a,

dS d<

-=cos,
and denoting the
ri,

taking

quantities as variable variations of and n by and

all

annual

m

m
~*

we

find:

d a
dt 2
-77^

*

==

n2

.

.

^7

Sin
"

**"

tang

^

-------

mn

tan S ^ cos a H-

m

-f-

n tang 8 sin n,

= -- sm a
.

2

tang 8

sin

a

-f-

n cos a,

where

number 206265, and multiplying these 100 we find the secular variation in right asequations by
signifies the

w

124
cension and
declination.

For the
:

star

used before we find

from

this the secular variation
in

right ascension

in declination

= =

-f-

0".

-f-

0".

0286, 2654.

3.

used
pole.

if

The differential formulae given above cannot be we wish to compute the precession of stars near the

Let
star,

In this case the exact formulae must be employed. A and ft denote the longitude and the latitude of a
ecliptic

and the equinox of 1750 -+- /, longitude and latitude L and #, referred to the "fixed ecliptic of 1750, from the following equations, which easily follow from the equations (.4) in No. 2:
referred to the

we

find

from these

the

cos

cos

B cos {L B sin (L

77)

77)
sin

= cos = cos B = cos

/9

cos (A
sin (A sin (A

II
77
77

I)

/?
/?

/)
f)

cos
sin

n n

sin

/?

sin

n
7t.

+

sin

ft

cos

to find now the longitude and latitude A referred to the ecliptic and the equinox of 1750 -\-t\ we get these from L and B by the following equations, in which 77 , n and / denote the values of 77, n and / for the

If

we wish

and

ft

,

time

t

:

cos cos

/?

cos (A
sin (A

77

/ ) I )

= cos B cos (L

77

)
)

$

77
sin

/?

=

cos

B

sin

(L
(7L

77

cos
)

n

1

-f- sin

B

sin

n
.

cos 73 sin

77

sin

n

-+- sin

B

COSTT

If
find A

we

eliminate

L and B from

of

/,

and /? expressed directly by 77 and n for the times t and f

these equations, we can and the values A and
/ .

and declination If a and 8 are the right ascension and decli are similar. nation of a star for 1750 -f- f, we find from them the longi tude and latitude L and J5, referred to the fixed ecliptic of

The exact formulae

for the right ascension

1750, by the following equations*):
cos cos

B cos {L -+B sin (L -h

Z,)
/,)

sin 73

= cos cos (a = cos 8 = cos $
sin
(

-f-+-

a)
)

cos s

-+- sin

S sin
8 cos
.

sin (a -+- a) sin

-+- sin

If

we wish
and
S

to

know now
1750 4f

nation a

for

the right ascension and decli we find these from L and 7? ,

*)

These equations are

easily

deduced from the equations (C)

in

No.

2.

125

by the following equations, in which for the time t values of /,, a and cos B cos (X 4- Z cos 8 cos (a 4- )
1

l
fl
:

a and

denote the

cos

<?

sin

(

4sin

= = cos $ = cos B
)

,)
,)

Z? sin

(Z 4-

/

cos s
sin e

sin

sin

(L 4-

Z

,)

4-

sin

B sin s B cos s

.

If

we

eliminate

equations and observe
cos

L and 1? from that we have:
4)

the

two

systems of
cos cos

B sin L =

cos S cos (a

sin

Z,

4- cos 8 sin (a 4Z,

)

Z,

cos 7? cos

L=

4- sin $
cos $ cos
(

sin s cos
Z
/

4-

)

cos
sin
)

4- cos $ sin
e sin
Z,

(

4-

a) cos e sin

Z,

sin

B=
1

4~
cos $ cos (a 4-

$ sin

sin e -+- sin

<?

cos

e,

we

easily find the following equations: cos S cos (a 4- ) cos $ cos (a 4- a) cos (Z

=

,

/,)

cos $ sin (a 4- a) sin
cos $ sin

(Z

,

Z,)

cos

e,,

(

4-

)

cos $ cos (a 4- a) sin (Z 4- cos #sin( 4- fi) [cos (Z
,

=

sin

$ sin

(Z

,

Z,)

sin e
,

Z,)
Z,)

cos e cos e

cos e

4-sin

sin e

]

4- sin$[cos(Z
sin

,

Z,)sine
(Z/
/

cose

cose sine

]

S

cos S cos

(

4- a) sin

Z ) (

sin e

4- cos

<?sin(4-)[cos(Z

Z,)cose
Z,)sine

sinf
sin

o

sine

cose

]

4-

sin

<?[cos(Z

,

4-cos

cose

,,].

If
/
,

we imagine
90
z

/,,

and 90

a spherical triangle, whose three sides are -f- z whilst the angles opposite those
1

sides are respectively 0, and 180 the coefficients of the above equations,

g

,

we can
/
;

express
/,
()

containing

and

e H

by 0,
(

^

and
)

s

and we
(a

find:
a) [cos

cos 5 cos

4-

= cos 8 cos

4-

cos 2 cos z
sin 2 cos 2

sin 2 sin

z]
]

cos S sin (a 4- a) [cos
cos 5 sin (a 4- a

4- cos 2
]

sin 2

)

=

sin

8 sin

cos z

cos 8 cos (a

cos $ sin (a
sin

4- a) 4- a)

[cos

cos 2 sin z 4- sin 2 cos z
sin z sin 2

1

] ]

[cos

cos z cos 2

sin 5

= cos 8 cos (a 4cos 8 sin (a 4-

S

sin (9 sin 2
a) sin
)

cos 2
6>

sin

sin 2

4-

sin

8 cos

<9.

Multiplying the first of these equations by sin * the second by cos z and subtracting the first, then multiplying the first by cos * the second by sin z and adding the pro
, ,

ducts

we
(

cos S sin

cos 8 cos

(

get: 4- a 4sin

z)
2
)

= cos 8 4- a 4= cos S cos (a 4- a 4S = cos ^ cos (a 4- a 4sin
(

2)

2) cos
2) sin

sin

^ sin

6>

(a),

4-

sin

# cos 0.

126

These formulae give a and if expressed by #, a, a and the auxiliary quantities z, z and Q. These latter quanti ties may be found by applying Gauss s formulae to the spheri
,

cal triangle considered before, as
sin
4-

we have:
l ) (
I,}

cos \

1

(z

sin \

sin ^ (2 sin

cos cos ^

^
-|

(2

cos

(2 -f- 2)

= = cos + = ^ = cos ^
~)

sin

-

(l\

sin

^

(e

-f- c ()

)

2)

-j

(f {
(//
(7/

sin \ (e\

)

2)

sin

I,)
li)

cos ^ (V cos i
(e

-+-

)

s

)

As we may always
and
sin f (Y

take here instead of sin

\

(z

z)

and the corresponding co ) the arc itself sines equal to unity, we find the following simple formulae for computing these three auxiliary quantities:
tang

= cos 4 + tang - = c - cotangj-i/ - iT,v-^.r i u 9 = tang + +| tang
4-

(z

-f

z)

(e

o)

\ (l
,

l
t

t

)

l ) (

*)

i

.

.)

4-

.}

(e

e

)

sin

(

.2).

The formulae () can be rendered more convenient

for

computation by the introduction of an auxiliary angle or we may use instead of them a different system of formulae de
rived

from Gauss
(a)
if

mulae

we

For we arrive at the for equations. apply the three fundamental formulae of
s

sides are 90 rV, spherical trigonometry to a triangle, whose and 0, whilst the angles opposite the two first sides 90 If we a -j- z a -f- z and 180 are respectively

+

.

now apply
we
find:
cos cos

to the

same
c,

triangle

Gauss

s

formulae and denote

the third angle

by

a -+-a-+-z by

A and
J
4-

a -\-a

z

by A,

(90

4- S ) cos
-I-

(X -I| (4

(90

S

)

sin

sin 4 (90

4- 5 ) cos $ (A

sin

| (90
it

+

<?

)

sin

(4

+ = cos = =
c)

c)

= cos
sin

[90
[90

-h H- 0] cos 4- 8 0] sin
<?

4

%A 4
(ft)

c) c)

[90
4-

-f-

<?

+ 0] cos

.4

sin

[90

4- S

0] sin ^ A.

As

is

even more accurate to find the difference

A

A

instead of the quantity A itself, we multiply the first of the subtract equations (a) by cos A , the second by sin A and

them, then we multiply the first equation by sin A, the cond by cos A and add the products. We find thus:
cos
<?

se

sin
1

(A

cos S cos

(A

A A) = cos 8 = cos S cos 8 cos A A)
1

sin

sin

[tang S -f- tang
sin

cos A] cos
^L],

[tang S -+ tang

hence

:

1

sin ^4 sin

[tang S -f- tang ^

<9

cos 4]

coi

4 sin

[teng

* -H tang *

cos 4]

127

and from Gauss
cos
4-

s
c.
.

equations
sin
1

we
)

find:
sin

\

(S

COS

T}

C

.

COS ? (S

S)

= } = COS 4
+
tang |

cos ^ (A -h

1

COS Y (A -

If

we put

therefore:
p

=

sin (9 [tang

d

cos

.4]

we

have:
tang
(^4

A)

= -p
1

sin J.

1

p cos

^

and:

the formulae (A), (5) and (C) we are enabled to compute rigorously the right ascension and declination of a star for the time 1750 -+- t , when the right ascension and decli

By

nation for the time 1750

are given. Example. The right ascension and declination of a Ursae minoris at the beginning of the year 1755 is:
-+t

= 10

55
59

44".

955
12.

and
If

#=87
we wish
I,

41".

compute from this the place referred to the equator and the equinox of 1850, we have first:
to
a
o

= 4 8756 = 8897 = 23 28 0002
11".
0".

/

,

18".

e

= 23 = = 23 28
1

56".

3541
0984.

15".2656
18".

With
I

this
(z

we
-)

find
36

H-

=o

from the formulae (A):
34".

314

J

(z

z)=

10".

6286

hence:
z
2

=
=0

36 36
31

23".

685
943

44".

and:
therefore:
If

=
we compute then

45".

600
Q

A=a + a + z = ll
the values of

32

9".

530.

A

A and

d from

the formulae (#) and (C),
log/;

we

find:

= 9,4214471
J-

and

:

A
hence:

A=4

4

17".

710,

(?

S)

=

1

5

26".

780

4 =153G
and
at last:
S

27".

240
917
680.

= = 88

16<>

12

56".

30 34

.

128

As the point of intersection of the equator and the has an annual retrograde motion of 2 on the lat ecliptic the pole of the ecliptic describes in the course of time ter,
4.
50".

a small
is

circle

around the pole of the

ecliptic,

whose radius

The pole of the equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic*). coincides therefore with different points of the ce equator lestial sphere or different stars will be in its neigbourhood
at different times.

At

present the extreme star in the

tail

of the

Lesser Bear

Ursae minoris) is of all the bright stars nearest to the north-pole and is called therefore the pole-star. This will approach still star, whose declination is at present 88f nearer to te pole, until its right ascension, which at present Then the declination will reach is 17, has increased to 90. its maximum 89 32 and begin to decrease, because the pre cession in declination of stars whose right ascension lies in
(
,

the second quadrant, is negative. In order to find the place of the pole for any time , we must consider the spherical triangle between the pole of the ecliptic at a certain time t and the poles of the equator

P and P at the times t and t. If we denote the right ascen sion and declination of the pole at the time t referred to the and the equator and the equinox at the time t (n by a and
<?,

obliquity of the ecliptic at the times we have the sides P P J, 90 -{- a and the angle at angle at P

f

=

=

and
,

t

90"

EP=
E
t 1
;

by

s

EP

=

and
s
,

?,

the

ral precession in the interval of

time

equal to the gene we have there
tri

fore

according to the fundamental formulae of spherical
:

gonometry

cos 8 sin

cos 8 cos a
sin

= = S=

sin e cos e
sin e sin
I

cos

I

cos e sin

sin e sin e

cos

I

-+-

cos

cos

.

as

we wish

This computation does not require any great accuracy, to find the place of the pole only approximately
ecliptic
is

and although the variation of the obliquity of the
for

short intervals of time

may

take

s

=

proportional to the time,
:

we

and get simply
tang a

=

cos e

tang ^

I

*) This radius

is

strictly

speaking not constant, but equal to the actually

existing obliquity of the ecliptic.

129

and:
cos o

=

sin

sin

I

cos

a

found by means of a tangent, we find nev ertheless the value of a without ambiguity, as it must satisfy the condition, that cos a and cos I have the same sign.

Though a

is

If we wish to find for instance the place of the pole for the year 14000 but referred to the equinox of 1850, we have the general precession for 12150 years equal to about 174,

hence we have:

= 27316
right ascension
a

and d

= H-43

7

.

This agrees nearly with the place of a Lyrae, whose

and declination for 1850

is:

=

277"

58 and

= + 38

39

.

Hence about

On

the year 14000 this star will be the pole-star. account of the change of the declination by the pre

cession stars will rise above the horizon of a place, which before were always invisible, while other stars now for in stance visible at a place in the northern hemisphere, will move so far south of the equator that they will no longer rise at
this place.

Likewise

stars,

which now always remain above

the horizon of the place, will begin to rise and set, while other stars will move so far north of the equator that they

become circumpolar

stars.

The precession changes

therefore

essentially the aspect of the celestial sphere at any place on the earth after long intervals of time.

The

latest tables

dereal year,

that

is,

the

of the sun give the length of the si time, in which the sun describes

exactly 360 of the celestial sphere or in which it returns to same fixed star, equal to 365 days 6 hours 9 minutes and As the points of the 9 s 35 or to 365.2563582 mean days.
.

in

equinoxes have a retrograde motion, opposite to the direction which the sun is moving, the time in which the sun re

turns to the same equinox or the tropical year must be shorter than the sidereal year by the time in which the sun moves

through the small arc equal to the annual precession. But we have for 1850 /= 2235 and as the mean motion of
50".

the sun

is

59

8".

33,

we

find for this time

hence the length of the tropical

0.014154 of a day, year equal to 365.242204
9

130
days.

As

the precession
0".

is

variable and the annual increase
is

amounts to and the annual change equal

0002442966, the tropical year
to

also variable
If

0.000000068848 of a day.

express the decimals in hours, minutes and seconds, find the length of the tropical year equal to:

we

we

365 days 5& 48

46

.

42

.

00595

(t

1800).

II.

THE NUTATION.

we have neglected the periodical change with respect to the ecliptic, which, as was equator stated before, consists of a periodical motion of the point of intersection of the equator and the ecliptic on the latter as
5.

Thus

far

of the

well as in a periodical change of the obliquity of the ecliptic. The point in which the equator would intersect the ecliptic,
there were no nutation, but only the slow changes consid ered before were taking place, is called the mean equinox and the obliquity of the ecliptic, which would then occur,
if

the

which the equator
is

The point however, in obliquity of the ecliptic. intersects the ecliptic at any time really called the apparent equinox while the actual angle between
mean
is

the equator and the ecliptic at any time
obliquity of the ecliptic.

called the apparent

The expressions
to

for

the

equinoxes and the nutation
the latest determinations

equation of the points of the of the obliquity are according of Peters in his work entitled
:

,,Numerus constans

nutationis"

AA

=
-

17".

1".

Ae

=

sin (0 4P) 4- 0".0677 sin (([ -0897 cos 2 Jl 2231 cos $1 40886 cos 2 ([ 5509 cos 2 4-h 4- 0".0093cos(04-P),
0"
.

2405 2692 1279

sin

sin

O+ 2 O

0".

2073 sin 2 2041 sin 2 ( 0213 sin P)
0"
.

O

0".

(0 4- P)
(A)

9".

0"

0"

.

0" .

where
orbit,

$1 is the longitude of the ascending node of the moon s and (L are the longitudes of the sun and of the

moon and P and P
the

are the longitudes of the perihelion of

sun and of the perigee of the moon.

The

expressions

131
given above are true for 1800, little variable with the time and

but the coefficients

are a

we have
0". 0".

for 1900:

AA
-h

17" .

2577

sin

1"

.

0".

2693 1275

sin 2
sin
sin

D O
(O

-+-

2073 sin 2 ft 2041 sin 2 (C
0".0213

P)
)

sin

A

= -h
H-

4-

0".

0677

((CP
-h

9".

0"

.

2240 cos 41 5506 cos 2

0".

0" .

0896 cos 2 SI 0885 cos 2 (

-h

0"

.

0092 cos

(0

-h P).

In order to find the changes of the right ascensions
declinations of the stars, arising from this,

and

we must

observe,

that

we have
da
,

:

da
()

and

:

But we have according to the differential formulae in No. 11 of Section I, if we substitute instead of cos ft sin 7; 8 and and cos ft cos i] their expressions in terms of
:
<*,

rf

--TJ

a/.

rfa 7C/

= =
=

<*<?

cos

-f-

sm

e

tang o sin a

aA

y

rf^

cos a tang o

--

= cos a sm = sm
,

e

</

from which we find by
(
(

differentiating:
a -h cotang
e cos

d 32 /
r*

)

sin

2
[-5-

sin 2

a tang
sin

-f- sin

2

tang$

2
]

= (-~\ =
J

sin

[cos

a2
H-

cotang s tang
sin 2

a

-+-

tang 8* cos

2]

[% sin 2

a tang ^ 2 ]
-f-

f

f

-

= = (v / =
--;,

2

sin f

2

sin

J

a [cotang

tang S sin

]

,

J

sin e cos

a [cotang
2

-h

sin

a tang

S]

c?

2

)

cos a

tang

$.

If

we

substitute

these

and introduce instead of
fore

A A and A

expressions in the equations (a) their values given be

the mean obliquity by the equations (4) and take for of the ecliptic at the beginning of the year 1800 23 27 2, we find the terms of the first order as follows

=
:

54".

9*

132

=
-+-

15".

8148 sinO
1 1

[6".

0" .

"

1

.

642 sin 20 -

902 sin 2O +

[0".

[0".

8650 sin sin a -h 0825 sin 2Q sin 5054 sin 20 sin

O

9".

+0".

2231 cos cos a] tang 5 0807 cos2^ cosaj tang S

O

+0".

5509 cos20 cos] tan- (V

-

0".1872sin2([-[0".0813sin2((sin+0".0886cos2([cos]tang^
-

0".0195sin(04-P)
[0".

4-h
<?

[0".

0085 sin (0 + P) sin 0621 4- 0".0270 sin
0509
sin

+

0".

0093 cos
sin
<?]

tang S] sin

[0"

.11734-0".

a tang
9".

(0+P) cos P) (0 P),
((

]

tang S

(B]

(?=
H-

G".

8650 5054 0813

sin

0".OS25
0"
.

sin 2 sin 2

O cos a 4^ cos a
cos

2231 cos

O

sin

a

0".0897
0"
.

cos 2 f} sin
sin
([

4-

0".

sin 2 ([

cos a H-

0"

.

5509 cos 2 0886 cos 2
0" .

(C)

sin

0"
.

4-

0".

4-

0" .

0085 sin (0 H- P) cos a -40270 cos sin ) 0509 cos a sin (0 P).

0093 cos

(0

4- P)

sin

((TP

for 1800; for 1900 they are but the change is only of some amount for different, the first terms depending on the moon s node. These are

These expressions are true

a

little

for 1900:
in

a

a:
:

-

15".8321

sin^ -[6".S683 sin

} sin a+9".2240

cos

inS

6^8683 sin

O cos a 4-

O cos a] tang S
are

9".

2240 cos 1 sin a.

Of
AC.
If

the terms

of the
arise

second

order

only

those

of

any amount, which

from the greatest terms in
2231 cos
sin

AA

and

we

put for the sake of brevity:

and

- sin s A A =

Ae

=

9"

.

6"

.8650

O= ft =

cos
b sin

}

$1

,

these terms give in right ascension:
a

= -4[

sin 2

a [tang S 2

-+- ^]

-+

tang

cos a cotang s

2 cotang e sin a tang S-\- tang d cos 2 a 4- 1 cos 2 a]

-

sin 2

ft

2 tang $ sin 2 a 4-

-^r-

tangdcosacotge 4-

-~

sin2 a! cos

2i")

and

in declination:
a a

o
[tango^ sin 2

o

cosz(
/

j

.".:*.-.

tango

sin

4
sin 2

cotang

e

a 4- 2 cotang

s cos a]

U

-

4

--

o

cos2J

-tango"

sin

a cotang

e

cos

Those terms which

are independent of

<O

change merely

133
the

mean
~

place of the stars and therefore
part,
f
-

may be

neglected.

Another
sin 2

namely:
cotang e sin a sin 2 ,Q
-f-

cotang s cos a cos 2 ,Q

J

tang

and
cotang
s sin

2

")

cos a -f-

cotang

E sin

a cos

can be united with the similar terms multiplied by sin 2O and cos 2 of the first order, which then become equal to in right ascension

H

:

and
-h

in declination
(/>)
.

0"

0822 sin

2 f\ cos

0"

.

0896 cos 2

^

sin

.

The remaining terms
in right ascension H0".

of the second order are as follows:
2
<?

-

0001 535 [tang
0001 60
[tang

-f-

]

sin 2

2
<?

0".

-+- j]

cos 2

H cos 2 O 2
sin

and

in declination
0"

(^)

.

.

[0"

0000768 tang 8 sin 2 a sin 2 000023 -f000080 cos 2
0"
.

O
a] tang
s
.

8 cos 2

O

01 only when the declination is 88 10 and as the others equal 0".01 only when the declination is 89 26 , they are even in the immediate neighbourhood of the pole of little influence and can be ne glected except for stars very near the pole.
as

But

the

first

terms amount to

6.

We

sions (E)

shall hereafter use the changes of the expres and (C) produced by a change of the constant of
is,

nutation, that

of the coefficient of cos ,Q in the nutation
different for the in

of obliquity.

These are

terms of the lunar

and solar nutation.
given by theory
plied
all

For

the formula of the nutation as

terms of the lunar nutation are multi

which depends on the moments of in on the mass and the mean motion of the moon, while the terms of the solar nutation are mul tiplied by a similar factor, which is the same function of the moments of inertia of the earth and of the mass and mean motion of the sun. But as it is impossible to compute the

by

a factor

N

ertia of the earth as well as

moments of
and
JV

inertia

must be determined from observations.

of the earth, the numerical values of Now the co-

N

134
of the nutation of obliquity, which is If we take multiplied by sinO, is equal to 0. 765428 IV this equal to 2231 (1-H), where 2231 is the value of the constant of nutation as it follows from the observations,
efficient
.
9". 9".

of the term

while

9".

2231

i

is

its

correction,

we have
2231(1

therefore:

0.765428

N=

9".

+ 0.

tities
(50".

N

But the lunisolar precession depends on the same quan N and N and the value determined from observations 36354 for 1800) gives the following equation between and IV
:

17 .469345

= N-t- 0. 991988 JV,
(1

from which we get
Therefore
9".

in

N=

connection with the former equation:
5.

516287

2 16687

i).

if

2231

(1 -+- i)

we take we must
and

the

constant of nutation equal to multiply all terms of the lunar

nutation
1

by 2. 16687
j

1 -f- i
i.

terms of the solar nutation by 2235 i dv, we have: Taking therefore
all
9".

=

d^ ;

_ ~t

1.8702

sin

-4- 0.2981 sin

2

n+ 0.0225 2O -0.0221 2 (1+0.0073 sin(([-P 0.0300 (Q P) + 0.0050 (Q P)
sin

sin

)j
i

sin

sin

-+-

</A*=[cosO

0.0097 cos 2^-1-0.0096 cos 2 ([

0.1294 cos

2Q
5:
]

0.0022 cos (0-hP)] dv

and from

this

we

find in the

same way
} sin

as in

No.

^.~_
dv

a)_

_i.7t56sinO
-+-

[0.7445 sin

H-1 0000 cos

O cos

tang

0.0206 sin 2^ 0.0203 sin 2 (L

+ [0.0090 sin 2^ snuH-0.0097 cos2~} cosa] tang
[0.0088 sin 2 ([sin

-h 0.0067 sin (((

P

)

-h [0.0029 sin (([

-+0.0096cos2 ) sin a

P

([ cos]tang<?
}

tang 8

-4-0.2735 sin20-f-[0.1187sin20sina+0.1294cos20 cosa] tang<? 0.0275 sin (0 P) sin P) [0.01 19 sin (0 jtangc?

4- 0.0046 sin (0

-f-

P) H- [0.0020 sin (Q +P) sin a HH- 0.0022 cos (0-hP) cosa] tang 8
sin

^~^=
dv
-i-

0.7445 sin

O cos a -hi. 0000 cos O
0.0097 cos

a

0.0090 sin 2^^ cos a 0.0088 sin 2 ([ cos a

2O sin a
(

+

0.0096 cos 2

sin

-hO.0029 sin ((I

P ) cos a

0.1294 cos 2 0sin H-0.1187sin20cos 0.01 19 sin (0 P)cos

-h 0.0020 sin (0 H- P ) sin

0.0022 cos (0 -h P) sin

.

In order to compute the nutation in right ascension 7. and declination it is most convenient to find the values of A^ and A* from the formulae (4) and (AJ and to compute

135
the numerical values of the differential coefficients -^L -A etc. Cl A d

But the labor of computing formulae (J?) and (C) has been of tables. First the greatly reduced by the construction
terms
:

-15".82sinO

=

c

and

1".

16 sin 2

Q=g

have been brought in tables whose arguments are ft and 2 0. The several terms of the nutation in right ascension
multiplied by tang 5 are of the following form:
a cos
ft

cos a

-+- b sin ft sin

a

=A

[h

cos

ft

cos a

-+- sin ft sin a].

any expression of this form the following form:
a:

Now

may be reduced

to

cos

[ft

a-\-y],

develop the latter expression and compare it the former, we find the following equations for determin with

For

if

we

ing

x and

y:

A h cos ft == x [cos ft cos y A sin ft = x [sin ft cos y -+from which we find:

sin

ft ft

sin y]

cos

sin #]

x*=A*[l(l
and:
(1
ft)

^
sin

2
)

cos cos

2

/?

]

ft

ff

where x and t/ are always real. If we have now tables for x and ?/, whose argument is /9, we find the term of the nu
tation in right ascension, multiplied by tang d x cos [ft -\- y a]

by computing:

while

:

( c ),

For

gives the term of the nutation in declination depending cos as these terms have the form:

fi.

A

[

h cos

ft

sin

-f- sin ft

cos a]
)

,

we

find taking it equal to x sin (fi--y (6) for determining x and y. Such tables have been computed
in the collection of tables

the same equations

ven
fore.

by Nicolai and are gi by Warnstorff, mentioned be

These give besides the quantity c the quantities log b with the argument O, and with these we find the terms of the right ascension depending on cos 1 and sin O by computing:
and

B

c

b

tang S cos (ft

-f-

B

a)

136

and the corresponding terms of the decimation by computing:

-

b sin

GO

+B

a)

(<0

This part of the nutation together with the small terms

P , is the lunar nutation. depending on 2O, 2 ([ and d A second table gives the quantities #, log f and F with the argument 20, by which we find the terms depending on

2O, which
and

for right ascension are: g

/tang S

cos [2

Q

-+-

F

a]
( e)

for declination:

This part of the nutation together with the small terms

depending on 0-f-P and

P

is

the solar nutation.

No

separate tables have

been computed for the small

and For these may terms depending on 2 (L , 2 -f- P. be found from the tables of the solar nutation, using instead of 20 as argument successively 2d, 180-f-2,O (because these terms have the opposite sign) and 0-f-P, and multiplying
the values obtained according to the equations (e) respectively 6 i , as these fractions express approximately the by | , 3 ~ and
ratio

O

of the

coefficients of these

terms to that of the solar

nutation.

The form
is

of the terms multiplied by

(I

P and

P

different, but analogous to the annual precession in right ascension and declination; they are therefore obtained by multiplying the annual precession in right ascension and de

cimation by

ji^ sin

(<L

P

)

and

^

sin

(0

P).

If we 8. we can render

consider only the largest term of the nutation its effect very plain. have then:
A>1

A

= =

We

17".

25 sin

O,

-f-

9".22cosl,

or rather according to theory: 05 cos 2 sineA*

Ae

= =

10".

f. sin

O,

10".

05 cos

e. cos Jl-

Now

the

pole

of the

equator on account of the luni-

solar precession describes a small circle, whose radius is , about the pole of the ecliptic. If we imagine now a plane

tangent to the mean pole at any time and in it a system of axes at right angles to each other so that the axis of x is tangent to the circle of latitude, we find the co-ordinates of

137
sin s A^? the apparent pole (affected by nutation) y therefore according to the expressions and we have above the following equation:
2
?/

=

X=&B
given

=e

2
.

cos 2

2

C

~-^r x* COS
2

,

where

C=

10".

05.

the

The apparent pole describes mean pole, whose semi-major
axis
is

whose semi-conjugate
is

C

therefore an ellipse around axis is C cos e 22, and 86. This ellipse cos 2 e

=

=

9".

6".

In order to find the place of the pole on the circumference of this ellipse, we imagine a circle described about its centre with the semi-major axis

called the ellipse of nutation.

Then it as radius. must move through
revolution of the

is
it

moon

obvious, that a radius of this circle in a time equal to the period of the s nodes with uniform and retrograde

motion*), so that it coincides with the side of the major axis nearest to the ecliptic, when the ascending node of the moon s
orbit

coincides with the vernal equinox.

If

we now

let fall

from the extremity of this radius a line perpendicular to the major axis, the point, in which this line intersects the cir cumference of the ellipse, gives us the place of the pole.

*)

As

the motion of the

moon

s

nodes on the

ecliptic is retrograde.

THIRD SECTION.
CORRECTIONS OF THE OBSERVATIONS ARISING FROM THE POSITION OF THE OBSERVER ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH AND FROM CERTAIN PROPERTIES OF THE LIGHT.

The astronomical

tables

and ephemerides give always the

places of the heavenly bodies as they appear from the centre For stars at an infinite distance this place of the earth. agrees with the place observed from any point on the surface

of the earth.
ratio

But when the distance of the body has a
radius
centre

finite

to

the

of the

seen from the

the place of the body must differ from the place seen from
earth,

any point on the surface. If we wish therefore to compare any observed place with such tables, we must have means by which we can reduce the observed place to the place

which we should have seen from the centre of the

earth.

observed place conversely with respect to the horizon in connection for instance with its known position with respect to the equator for the com putation of other quantities, we must use the apparent place seen from the place of observation, and hence we must
if

And

we wish

to

employ the

convert the place seen from the centre , which is taken from the ephemeris, into the apparent place. The angle at the object between the two lines drawn from
the centre of the earth to the
face
is

body and

to the place at the sur

need therefore called the parallax of the body. which we can find the parallax of a body at any means, by time and at any place on the surface of the earth.

We

Our
the

earth

is

surrounded by an atmosphere, which has

therefore do not property of refracting the light. see the heavenly bodies in their true places but in the di rection which the ray of light after being refracted in the

We

139
of atmosphere has at the moment, when it reaches the eye The angle between this direction and that, the observer. in which the star would be seen if there was no atmosphere,
is

called the refraction. In order therefore to find servations the true places of the heavenly bodies,

from ob we must

have means to determine the refraction for any part of the sphere and any state of the atmosphere. If the earth had no proper motion or if the velocity of

were infinitely greater than that of the earth, the latter would have no effect upon the apparent place of a star. But
light

as the velocity of the light has a finite ratio to the velocity of the earth, an observer on the earth sees all stars a little

is

ahead of their true places in the direction in which the earth This small change of the places of the stars moving. caused by the velocities of the earth and of light, is called
the

In order therefore to find the true places of the heavenly bodies from observations, we must have means, to correct the observed places for aberration.
aberration.

I.

THE PARALLAX.

1.

that

is

on

its

The earth is no perfect sphere, but an oblate spheroid a spheroid generated by the revolution of an ellipse conjugate axis. If a denotes the semi -major axis, b

the semi -minor axis of such a spheroid, and a is their dif ference expressed in parts of the semi-major axis, we have:

a_b
a

_

l

_b_
a

the excentricity of the generating ellipse or of the ellipse, in which a plane passing through the minor axis intersects the surface of the spheroid, also expressed in
If then
is

parts of the semi-major axis,

we have:

therefore:

= V\
=1

e

2

and
likewise
:

^l
a
2

e

=

]/%

.

140

The

ratio "

is

for

the

earth according to BesseFs in;

vestigations:

g^g
1
^ ^

/

and expressed

in toises:
a

= 3272077. 14

6=3201139.33

log a log b

= 6. 5148235 = 6. 5133693.
toise as unit
s

However
but the

in

astronomy we de not use the
orbit.

we denote then by 71 the angle at the sun subtended by the equatoreal radius of the earth and by R the semi -major axis of the earth s orbit or the mean distance of the earth from the sun,
semi- major axis of the earth
If

we

have:
a
"

=R

sin

n

= 2^265
to:
8".

The angle n
sun
is

or the equatoreal horizontal parallax of the

according to

Encke equal

57116.

angle at the sun subtended by the radius of a on the equator of the earth when the sun at this place place
It is the
is

rising or setting.

In order to compute the parallax of a body for any place at the surface of the earth, we must refer the place on the spheroidal earth to the centre by co-ordinates. As the
Fig. 3.

first

co-ordinate

we

use

the sidereal time or the
angle,

which a plane pas

sing through the place of observation and the minor
axis *)

makes with the

plane passing through the

same axis and the point of the vernal equinox. If then OA C Fig. 3 repre
sents the plane through
*)

This plane

is

the plane of the

meridian,

as

it

passes through the

poles and the zenith of the place of observation.

141
the axis and the place of observation, we must further know distance A o from the centre of the earth and the

the

=

angle

AOC,

which

is

called the geocentric latitude.

But these

always be computed from the latitude which the horizon of A makes with the axis of the earth or which the normal line AN at the of
place
observation makes with the equator) of the spheroid.

quantities can (or the angle

ANC

and from the two axes

For

if

x and

y are

the

co-ordinates of

A

with respect

to the centre 0, the axes of the abscissae

OC

and OB, we have the

and ordinates beinofollowing equation^ as A is a point

of an ellipse, whose semi -major and semi -minor axes are a

and 6:
fl>H

v6 1
,

-ra*6.
the geocentric latitude

Now we
by
and
</)

have

also, if

we denote
y

:

also

:

tang
is

y

=

because the latitude y
at

A

dy the angle between the normal line and the axis of the abscissae. As we have then from

the differential equation of the ellipse:
x
1
a"

dy
r/

we

find the following equation
}

between
tang
<p

and
r/>

:

tang
Ill

tp

=
we

(a).

order to compute Q

have:
COS
<p

and as we obtain from the equation of the

ellipse:

we

find:

_ _=a
1/1

cos

y
90)

-h tang y tang y

cos y cos (y

If therefore the latitude

y of

a place

is

given,
(f>

we

can

compute by these formulae the geocentric
radius
o.

latitude

and the

142

For the co-ordinates x and y we

easily get the following

formulae, which will be used afterwards:

_
J/cVs

a cos

cp

y

2

-Kl
90

)

sin
7>

2

a cos

and
y x tang y

= x -j tang =
6
90

2

...

.r

(I

*) tang

^

9?

develop y in a series of the multiples of y, for progressing according to the sines we obtain by the formula (16) in No. 11 of the introduction:

From

the

formula (a)

we can

or taking
a a-+b
b

_ ~
2

we

find:
sin 4

y

etc.

If we compute the numerical values of the coefficients from the values of the two axes given above and multiply

them by 206265
(p

in order to find
11
30".

them

in seconds,

we

get:
(<?),

=

y)

65 sin 2

yH-1".

16 sin

49?...

from which we find for instance for the latitude of Berlin .== 30
52"

16".

<f

= 52

19

8".

3.

y>

Although
elegant series,

Q

itself

we

cannot be developed into an equally For we get can find one for log *).

from formula

(6):

cos

2
o>

1

H

2
17

tang
2
c//

o>

L
If

J
its

we

substitute here for cos
a4
a*
-f- 6
4

value

tang

y

2

*)
tables,

Encke

in

the Berliner Jahrbuch
9?

fur

from which the values of

and log Q

may

1852 pag 326. He gives also be found for any latitude.

143

we

find:
a 4 cos
2
a>

sin 4- b* -

2

cp

+

6

a2

-f- 6
2

-

-+-

2

(a

6
2

2
)

cos 2
j

ip
2

=
hence
:

(a

4-

6

2
)

2

H2

(a

6

2
)

+2
4- 2

(a
(a

4-

6 ) (

2

2

6
6)

2
)

cos 2

?

(a -h

6)

4-

2

(a
2

6)

4-

b) (a

cos 2

y

_h ,^

-6

2

(o+ft)
If

r./a
L
^"*"("

6\ 6

2

~~r) Va -h It/

_a +2a

i
T-

-+-

b

cos 2 OP T

HI P
_\

write this formula in a logarithmic form and de the logarithms of the square roots velop according to for mula (15) in No. 11 of the introduction into series progress

we

ing according to the cosines of the multiples of 2
log hyp ?

y-,

we

find

:

= log hyp

a a +6 2
j ft

+
,

U
|

2
.

a2

b) - -a ^
6
2

cos 2

62

y
cos49P

a

6\;

6

2

\

3

-

etc.

or using

common

logarithms and denoting the quantity
a
b

a-\-b

by H, we get:

= log (a +
}

;;")

+ u\ (j

^"

n2

)

etc.

where hence

M
:

denotes the modulus

of the

common

logarithms,

log

if =9. 6377843.

If
ficients
log q

we compute
and take a

=

again the numerical values of the coef
1,

=

we

find:
y>

9

and from

9992747 4-0.0007271 cos 2 y 0.0000018 cos 4 (F) this we get for instance for the latitude of Berlin:
.

log

=

9. 9990880.

144
If

we know

therefore the

latitude

of a place,

we can

compute from the two series (C) and (F) the geocentric la titude and the distance of the place from the centre of the earth and these two quantities in connection with the sidereal
time define the position of the place with respect to the centre If we now imagine a system of the earth at any moment. of rectangular axes passing through the centre of the earth,
the axis of z being vertical to the plane of the equator, whilst the axes of x and y are situated in the plane of the equator

x is directed towards the point the positive axis of y to the point equinox, whose right ascension is 90", we can express the position of the place with respect to the centre by the following three co-ordinates
so that the positive
axis of

of the vernal

:

x

y
2

= o cos = $ cos y =
sin
(>

90

cos
sin
(6?).

cp

3.

The plane

in

which the

lines

drawn from the centre

of the earth and from the place of observation to the centre of the heavenly body are situated, passes through the ze nith of the place, if we consider the earth as spherical, and
intersects therefore

the

celestial

sphere in a vertical

circle.

that the parallax affects only the altitude of the heavenly bodies while their azimuth remains unchanged. If A (Fig. 3) then represents the place of observation, Z

Hence

it

follows

its

zenith,

S the heavenly body and
is

the centre of the

and Z AS the apparent zenith distance z seen from the place at the surface. Denoting then the par z by p we have: allax or the angle at S equal to z C sin z j sin p -^i

earth, centre of the earth

ZOS

the

true zenith distance z as seen from the

=

,

of the body from the earth, where A a very small angle except in the case and as p is always of the moon, we can always take the arc itself instead of

denotes the

distance

the sine and have

:

X = -f sin z a
Hence

.

206265.

the parallax is proportional to the sine of the ap zenith distance. It is zero at the zenith, has its maxparent

145

imum

in

the altitude of the object.
/>

the horizon and has always the effect to decrease The maximum value for z 90

=

= 4 206265
u

is

called the horizontal parallax

and the quantity

=
/>

-

206265,
s

where a

is

the

radius of the earth

equator,

is

called the

horizontal equatoreal parallax.

Here the earth has been supposed
as
it

to be a sphere;

but

a spheroid, the plane of the lines drawn from really the centre of the earth and from the place of observation to
is

the

object does
tlie

not pass
in

point, the earth to the place intersects the celestial sphere. Hence the parallax changes a little the azimuth of an object and

but through

which the

through the zenith of the place, line from the centre of

the rigorous expression of the parallax in altitude differs a from the expression given before.

little

If we imagine three axes of co-ordinates at right angles with each other, of which the positive axis of z is directed towards the zenith of the place, whilst the axes of x and y
in the horizon, so that the positive axis of x directed towards the south, the positive axis of y towards the west, the co-ordinates of the body with respect to these

are situated

is

axes

are

:

A sin z cos A A sin z sin A and A cos z where A denotes the distance of the object from the place and z and A are the zenith distance and azimuth seen from
,

,

the place.

the same object with respect to a system of axes parallel to the others but passing through the
centre of the earth are:

The co-ordinates of

A sin z cos A, A sin z sin A and A cos z, where A denotes the distance of the object from the centre and z and A are the zenith distance and the azimuth seen from the centre. Now as the co-ordinates of the centre of
the earth with respect to the
g sin
(9?
9? ),

first

system are:
^ cos
(90
y>~)

and

we have

the following three equations:
10

146

A A A
or
:

sin z cos sin 2 sin

A A

r

cos z

A A A
If

sin z sin

(A

sin 2 cos (.4

cose

= A cos A g =A = A cos cos A) = Q =A = A cos Q
sin z sin z sin .4
2
(>

sin

(9?

95 )

(90

9?

)>

sin (9?

9?

) sin -4
(9?
</>

.4)

sin 2 z

sin

)

cos

yl

(a)

cos((f>

9? )-

we

multiply the

second by cos

|(X

4), the equation by sin (4 and add the two products, we find: A)
first

A

cos 2

= A cos

2

o cos

1

(9?

cp ).

Then

putting:
tang y

= cos COS

4-

(A
\^*

-+-

A)
r^ tang
^*-)
(<f>

..

^-r,
l

9? ),

/7N (o)

we
or:

find:

A A A
M A

sin 2

cos 2

=A = A cos
2)
(>

sin 2 2

^ cos o cos

(cp

cp )
gp )

tang y

(95

sin (2

cos r (2

\

2)

= cos =A Q

(cp

cp )

cos

r

,,
y>)

cos (2

7)

(cp

( \

and besides if we multiply the first equation by sin the second by cos J ( z) and add the products cos [| (2 H- z) cos (cf y] cp )
:
1 ,

| (

ss),

cos y

If

we

divide the equations (a), (6) and (c)

by

A

and put:

s equator equal to unity, so the horizontal equatoreal parallax, we obtain by the p aid of formulae (12) and (13) in No. 11 of the introduction:

taking the radius of the earth
that
is

cos
,

sin

A sin A tang 4 A sin ^ cos { (A -f- 4)
(cp
9? )
1

-(95
90 )

(-4

-4)
,

(y
.

9? )

-

*.)

We

have:

Substituting here for tang
(

the series

8 rr-y)-4-|{Sp-- 9P ) ~K

we can

easily

deduce the expression given above.

147
sin
(>

p

cos

(9?

y
-

]

sm

cos y cos/

^2
2

y
.

)

4- 4

I

)\ Sfsmpcos (p- 9?-

\

cos y

/

)

sin 0/ 2 (2

.

y) H-

.

.

.

.

iyp

A

= log hyp A
(

cos

(z

y)

V

cos

y

/

)

cos 2

(c

y)

...

We
sin

p

((fj

have therefore neglecting quantities of the order of which have little influence on the quantity ; (f/)
:

y=

(99

9? )

cos

A

hence the parallax in azimuth

is:

rigorous very small:
/

or

its

expression, which
o sin p sin
Al 1

must be used when
(9?

z is

cp)

.

tang (A

4) = -

sin

Sln Z

_
sin 2

cos

^

Furthermore as:
cos
(9?

tp)

_

cos 4

cos y
is

cos

1

Jr

(A

A)

sin

y

always nearly equal tance is:
2

to unity,
sin sin [z
it

the parallax in zenith dis
cos A}

z

=
z)

()

p

(<p

9? )

,

and the rigorous equations for
- sin (z

are:
(y
9? )

=
(>

sin

p

sin [z

cos A]

cos (z

2)

=1

(>sinpcos[2

(cp

cos
<f>)

-4].

Hence
azimuth
is

if the object is on the meridian, the parallax in zero and the parallax in zenith distance is z 2 sin p sin [2 9? )](95
:
<)

4.

In a similar

way we

obtain the expressions for the

parallax in right ascension and declination. The co-ordinates of a body with respect to the earth s centre and the plane of the equator are:

A cos

8 cos a,

A

cos

sin

a and

A sin

8.

co-ordinates as they appear from the place at the surface with respect to the same plane are:

The apparent
A

cos 8 cos

,

A

cos 8 sin

and

A

sin

8

.

10*

148
Since the co-ordinates of the place at the surface with re spect to the centre referred to the same fundamental plane are:
cos
^>

cp

cos 0,

(>

cos

cp

sin

and
(>

sin

cp

we have
and 8
:

the following three equations for determining

A

?

A A A

cos

cos

cos d sin
sin $

= A cos 8 cos a =A a =A $
cos
sin sin
(
)

o cos
o cos

y
9?

cos
sin
.

(a)

Q sin

y

by

the second If we multiply the first equation by sin , cos a and subtract one from the other, we find:

A

cos S sin

=

cos
(>

sin
<p

(0

).

But
cond by

if

we

multiply the

first

equation by
find:
cos
(>

cos

,

the se

sin

a and add them,

We

A cos cos ( a) have therefore:
.

= A cos $
Q cos
gp

we

cp

cos

(0

).

,

_
A
cos

sin (a
90

6>)

cos
(>

cos

(

)

o cos
(f>

.

\ cos ^ o A
o cos
1
-

sin

(a

6>)

90

~

A cos
or developing a
?-

o

cos (a

0)

a in a series ,
sin (,

we

find

:

C

S

A

cos d

- 8) +

}

rin 2
^ VAcosd/

(

- 0)

excepting the moon it is sufficiently accu only the first term of the series. Taking then the radius of the earth s equator as the unit of o and writing

In

all

cases

rate

to

take

in

n as factor (where 11 is the equatoreal sun) in order to use the same unit in the numerator as in the denominator, namely the semi -major axis of the earth s orbit, we get:
the numerator sin

parallax

of the

a

,

a

=o
-

sin 7t cos
<p

.

sin (a -

0}
j
.

A

cos o

(JB)

where a

is the east hour angle of the object. The parallax therefore increases the right ascensions of the stars when east of the meridian and diminishes them on the west side of the

meridian.

If the
is

object
zero.

is

on the meridian,

its

parallax in

right ascension

149
In order to find a similar formula for 6
write in the formula for:
#,

we

will

A

cos S cos

(

)

now
1

2sin|(a
COS
(

2
)

instead of
a),

and obtain:
A
If
cos

= A cos S

cos
(>

cos
<p

(0

)

-+-

2

A

cos $ sin

2
-JS-

(

)

.

we here multiply and divide the last term by cos and make use of the formula: sin A cos S sin ( ) ) Q cos

\

(a

)

=

<p

(6>

we

easily find:

A

cos

y

= A cos - f cos y
,?

C 5

-*
j*

,gffl
/?

.

()
;-

Introducing now the auxiliary quantities the following equations: by
/?

and

given

= cos cos y = sin

y

sin

y>

<p

cos [0
cos V/-J -I (a

I

(
)

H-

)]
,

(c)

we

find

from

(6):

A

cos 8

= A cos $ =

()f3

cos /

and from the third of the equations (a): A sin S A sin ^ /3 sin y. From these two equations we easily deduce the following: A sin (S S~) $) g ft sin (y cos (y A cos (S A S), 8)
1

= =

f>ft

or:

tang

(

S)

=
No.
3

}

or according to formula (12) in
S

J

1

of the introduction:
$)
etc.
((7)

S

=

s

sin (y

8}

^

sin 2 (y

If

we

introduce here instead

write

again p sin n instead unit in the numerator as in the denominator, only the first term of the series:
~,
o,

value sm9P and sm y of o in order to have the same
of
ft

its

we

find,

taking

(}

sin

n sin cp A

sin (y

8)

siny

150
second of the formulae (c) and write instead of|( 4-), ( a) equal to unity we have the following approximate formulae for computing the parallax in right ascension and declination
If

we

further

take

in

the

cos

i

:

!

sin

7f(>cos<jp

(0
cos d

a)

A
tang
cp

tang y

cos

(0
>

a)

s

O
sin/
its

*)

A
If the

object

has a visible disc,
distance.
7)

apparent diameter

must change with the
A

But we have:
sin (8

sin (8

=A

y)

as the semi -diameters, as long as they are as the distances, we have: inversely
.

and

small,

vary

-.

sin (o

y)

Example. 1844 Sept. 3 De Vice s comet was observed at 20 h 41 m 38 s sidereal time and its right ascension and declination were found as follows
at

Rome

:

=
?==_
The logarithm
time 9.27969 and
of
its

2

35

55".

5

IS

43 21

.6.

distance from the earth

was

at that

we have
y>

Rome: = 4142 .5
for

and
log ?

=

9. 99936.
is

The computation
follows
:

of the parallax

then performed as

*)

If the object

is

on the meridian, we

find

:

S

8

=

^ A

sin (y
is

(?)

=$

A

sin [z

(<p

y )],

hence the parallax

in declination

equal to

the parallax in altitude.

151
in arc

310 24 5
.

2

35.9
11
.

a

52

4

tangy
cos (0
sin(6>

9.94999
9
.

a)
)

78749

~

9. 89765,
J.

y

y= 55 28 6 S= 18 43.4, =+7412.0
.

n^cosy A
sec 8

O^O u
i

,_

sin(y
/i

5)
.
i

9798327

_n 9
>

sm<p

0.02362
1
.

A
log

log (a

a)

44703
99

_ =
5=

cosec y

.

08413
54316/j
34".

t

^

a

a

=+
28" .

27".

5

93

the parallax increases the geocentric right ascen and diminishes the geocentric decli sion of the comet

Thus

nation

34".

9.

Hence
a
<?

the place

of the comet corrected for
5

parallax

is:

= =

2

35

27".

IS

42 46

.7.

In order to find the parallax of a body for co-ordinates referred to the plane of the ecliptic, it is necessary to know the co-ordinates of the place of observation with respect to
the earth s centre referred to

But

if

we
I

convert

and y
first

into longitude

cording to No. 9 of the

same fundamental plane. and latitude ac section and if the values thus
the
I
I

found are

and

6,

these co-ordinates are:
Q COS
(>

b COS

cos b sin
sin b
(>

and we have the following three equations, where A //, are the apparent, A, /?, A the true longitude and latitude:
,

A

A A

cos cos

/? /?

cos A
sin A

A
from which we

sin

ft

= A cos = A cos =A
nQ
^

ft

cos A
sin 1
(>

^ cos
sin 6,

b cos

I I

ft
ft

$ cos b sin

sin

finally

obtain similar equations as
cos b sin
(I

before,

namely

:

-,

,,

A)
ft

A
tang
b

cos

^(i-i)
7t
,

()

sin b

sin (y

ft)

A

sin

y

& and
in

are the right ascension and declination of that point, ff which the radius of the earth intersects the celestial sphere,

152
b are therefore the longitude and latitude of the same If we consider the earth as a sphere, this point is point.
/

and

the

zenith
is

and the longitude of the point of the
the
zenith
is

ecliptic

which
its

at

also called the

nonagesimal, since

distance

from the points of the
is

ecliptic

which are

rising

and setting
5.

90.
equatoreal parallax of the
,

As

the horizontal

moon

or the angle

whose

sine

is

A

being the distance of the

moon from
it

the earth, is always between 54 and 61 minutes, not sufficiently accurate to use only the first term of the series found for the parallax in right ascension and de cimation and we must either compute some of the higher terms or use the rigorous formulae.
is

If we wish to find the parallax of the moon in right ascension and declination for Greenwich for 1848 April 10

10 h mean time,
a

we have
fn
7>

for this time:
.

= 43 2O = + 16 27
17m

25
9

= 115 = 169
3.

50
15

3"

.

75

22".

6>=llh

QS .02

0".30

and the horizontal equatoreal parallax and the radius of the

moon:

p = 56 R= 15

57".5
31".

We

have further for Greenwich:
9,

= 51 17 4 log ? = 9. 9991 134.
25".
<)

If into the

we
two

introduce the horizontal parallax p of the moon rt series found for a and j in No. 4, as

we have

sin

p

=

,

we

find

:

_ = _ 206265 P

cos o

zijpi:

sin

(

_a

)

K
,

/

cos

,

A>

cosy

sin

p\
I

i

A

sin

o
.

V

cos d

/
,

(^e/

;-(-...

i

and:
d
si

s d

=

-i^nnz 206265-

f>smop

smp
y

.

.

sin

sm(y

8)

153

where we must use the rigorous formula
auxiliary angle y:
tang y

for

computing the

= tang sy
first

.

^

cos 4 r
cos[<9

(

<p

-.
(

)

i

-t-a)]

If

we compute

these formulae,
term:

we

find for
45".

a

a

:

from the

29

71

second
third

1 1

.

47

hence a

a

=

~~

-_0
29

.

03
21

57".

and

for S

r):

from the

first

term:

36

34".

21
91

second
third

20

.

-_0
S

.

12

hence

-~3Q

r5c) 72l~

The apparent
is

right ascension
20
54
5

and declination of the moon

therefore:

= 115
Finally
If

6".

= 15
20.

50

27".

G6.

we

find the apparent semi -diameter:

# = 15

40".

mulae,

we prefer we must

to

compute the parallax from the rigorous for
:

computation.

We

render them more convenient for logarithmic had the rigorous formula for tang ( a)
C
(>

tang (-

- = ,--?
)

S

?!

~

>

1

cos

*?,?.
(p

?.<

sm p

cos (a

0) sec a

().

Further from the two equations: o sin A sin 8 A [sin S
and:

A

cos

cos (a

a)

= =A
(>

1

(p

sin p]

[cos

8

o cos

y sinp
(

cos (a
sec d
(9)

&}]

we

find:
>

tang

__ [sin?
1

g sin?/
cos
cp

sin/?] cos
/?

)

sin

sec 8 cos (a

Since

we

have:

A _ A

cos S cos cos $
(>

(
/>

a)

cos

95

sin

cos (a

(9)

we

find in addition:
.

sin /i

,

= -1

(>

cos
cos
(p

cos
.

(

a) sec
5

<?

-6>)

smp

sm

sec o cos (a

R

(c).

If

we

introduce in (a),

(6)

and
;

(c) the

following aux

iliary quantities:
cos

A=

Sin
?-

^

C

S

^

cos
-

_^-

~-^

cos S

and:
sin

(7= $ sin p

sin

y

,

154

we find the following formulae which are convenient for log arithmic computation
:

tang

(

- a) =
_ sin

*)
cos o sin

A2
)

^ (8

C) cos % ($ H- (7) cos (a cos 8 sin ^ A 2

and:
.

f

.4*

If

data used before,

we compute the values a a, 8 and K with we find almost exactly as before:
a

the

= 29 = 4-15 R = 15

57".21

50
40".

27".

68

21.

We
;

can find similar formulae for the exact computation

of the parallax in longitude and latitude and we can deduce them immediately from the above formulae by substituting /t I and b in and cp , /, ft ) ft, , , , place of ,
<5
<)

6>

.

II.

THE REFRACTION.

The rays of light from the stars do not come to us through a vacuum but through the atmosphere of the earth. While in a medium of uniform density, the light moves in a straight line, but when it enters a medium of a different den If the me sity, the ray is bent from its original direction. like our atmosphere, consists of an infinite number of dium,
6.

But density, the ray describes a curve. of the earth sees the object in the at the surface direction of the tangent of this curve at the point where it
strata

of different

an observer

meets the eye and from

this

observed direction or the ap

parent place of the star he must find the true place or the direction, which the ray of light would have, if it had

undergone no
rections
is

refraction.

The angle between

these two di

of light appear too high on account of refraction. will consider the earth as a sphere, as the effect

called the refraction and as the curve of the ray turns its concave side to the observer, the stars

We

of the

spheroidal form of the earth upon the refraction

is

155
exceedingly small. The atmosphere we shall consider as con of an infinitely small thickness, sisting of concentric strata
taken
within which the density and hence the refractive power is In order to determine then the change as uniform.
of the direction of the ray of light on account of the refraction at the surface of each stratum, we must know the laws

governing the refraction
follows
1)
:

of the light.

These laws are as

media

If a ray of light meets the surface separating two of different density, and we imagine a tangent plane

at the point where the ray meets the surface, and if we draw the normal and lay a plane through it and through the ray

of light, the ray after on in the same plane.

its

refraction

will continue to

move

2) If

we imagine

the

normal

produced beyond the

surface, the sine of the angle between this part of the nor mal and the ray of light before entering the medium (the angle of incidence) has always a constant ratio to the sine

of the angle between the normal and the refracted ray of light (the angle of refraction), as long as the density of the

two media

is

the same.

This ratio

is

called

the

index of

refraction or refractive index.
is given for two media two media B and (7, the index of refraction for the two media A and C is the compound ratio of the indices between A and B and between B and C.

3) If the index of refraction
also

A and B and

that for

4) If

/LI

is

the index

of refraction for two media

if

the light passes from the medium A into the medium #, the index for the same media if the light passes from the

medium B

into the
let

medium A

is
f*

Fig. 4 be a place at the surface of the earth, C the centre of the earth, S the real place of a star, CJ the normal at the point J where the ray of light SJ meets the first stratum of the If we know then

Now

atmosphere.

the density of this first stratum, we find the direction of the ray of light after the refraction according to the laws of refraction and thus find a new of incidence for the

second stratum.

If

we now

angle consider the n th stratum taking

156

CJV as the line from the
centre

of the

earth

to

the point in which the ray of light meets this

stratum, and denoting the angle of incidence by ,
the

by

/",

angle of refraction the index of re

fraction for the

vacuum
stratum

and the (n

th

l)

by

/*,

the same for the

w th stratum by #.+

we
/*.

have
sin

*)
i lt
:

:

sin/n

=

[i

n+

\

.

If further

N

is

the point in

the w-f-l th stratum, the lines JVC and JV

we have in C by r n and
:

which the ray of light meets the triangle JVC JV denoting
,

and combining

this

r+i r, sin/ sin i,,+i formula with the one found before
:

=

r n+l

:

we

r n sin

i n fi n

=

get

:

r n +i sin

i

n+

i

/t a+ i.

into the index of refraction

Therefore as the product of the distance from the centre and the sine of the angle of in
is

cidence

constant for

all

denote this product by y and ral law of refraction:
r
.

strata of the atmosphere, we may we have therefore as the gene

ft

.

sin

i

=

y,

(a)

where

r,

u and

i

belong

to the

same point of the atmosphere.

For the stratum nearest
or the angle between of light and the normal

to the surface of the earth the angle i the last tangent at the curve of the ray
is

tance z of the star.
earth

If

we

equal to the apparent zenith dis therefore denote the radius of the
for the stratum nearest

by

a,

and the index of refraction

to the surface of the earth

by

//,

we can determine
(6)

/ from

the following equation:
aju,

sin 2

==/.

*)

nominators.

These indices are fractions whose numerators are greater than the de For a stratum at the surface of the earth for instance we have AA
f) t

^=1.000294

or nearly equal to

-

157
If

we now assume,
is

which the density

that the thickness of the strata, within uniform, is infinitely small, the path

of the light through the atmosphere will be a curve whose equation we can find. Using polar co-ordinates and denoting the angle, which any r makes with the radius CO by 0, we
easily find:

r^-tehgt. dr

(c)

The
true

curve meets the eye
zenith distance
rection

direction of the last tangent at the point where the is the apparent zenith distance, but the
is

the angle,

SJ of the ray of light This c, it is true, has its vertex at a point different from the one occupied by the eye of the observer; but as the height of the atmosphere is small compared with the dis
mal.

which the original di produced makes with the nor

tance of the heavenly bodies and the refraction itself is a small angle, the angle f differs very little from the true ze
nith

the

Even in the case of distance seen from the point 0. where this difference is the greatest, it does not moon, amount to a second of arc, when the moon is in the horizon.

We

may

therefore

consider the angle

as the

true zenith

distance.

If we now draw a tangent to the ray at the point JV, to which the variable quantities i, r and // belong and if we denote the angle between it and the normal CO by we have:

= +
*

,

.

(rf)

Differentiating the general equation (a) written in a log arithmic form, we find: dr da h cotang i.di-\- -----

=

r

fi

and from this formula in connection with the equations and (rf) we get: .dp .,.,
rf

(c)

=

tang

i

,

f

1

or eliminating tang
tang

i

by

the equation:
sin
i

i

= -===
V1

=
2
i
()

y

sin

yVV

2

2

/

and substituting

for y its value a u

sin a;

we

find:

158

=

The

integral of this

and

=

equation taken between the limits
If

gives then the refraction.

we

put:

we can

write the equation in the following form:

I/

s z

z

(l

i

2

)-}-(2s /

s

2

)sin2

2

we must know how s The latter quantity depends on the density depends upon and we know from Physics, that the quantity 2 1, which is called the refractive power, is proportional to the density.
In order to integrate this formula
.

If

we

introduce

now

as a

new
i

variable quantity the density p,

given by the equation:
^2

_ = co
we
)

,

where

c is a constant quantity,

obtain:

^(1

sin.

do
c
.

-(l V
or taking:

l-i-c^J
co
1

^-Wc?.?
co
c(>

*

2

)sin~

;

2,

hence-

4-

-^=2a(l V

a

A

P \ 5-1
o /

-^
The
coefficient

sn

is

the square of the ratio of the index of refraction for a stratum whose radius is r to the index for the stratum at

But as we have u 1 at the limits of the atmosphere, and the index of the stratum at the sur
the surface of the earth.
face
is
/u
(}

=

=^ oojy

,

the ratio
IU.Q

is,

always contained between

narrow

limits.

Hence

as a

is

always a small quantity, we

may

take instead of the variable factor

159
its

mean value between
1

the
a.
1

two extreme -

limits 1

and

1

2

or the constant value
If

we put

for brevity

^-

=

?,

where

w

is

a function

of
in

s,

to be defined hereafter,

and

if

we change

the sign of

dC

,

order that the formula will give afterwards the quantity, which is to be added to the apparent place in order to find
the true place,

we

get:
(1 z
2

s) sin

zdw
s
2

2

aw

4- (2s

)sinz

2

or as s

of 5
is

always a small quantity, since the greatest value supposing the height of the atmosphere to be 46 miles
is
sin
I

only 0.0115:

zdw

a

]/ cosz

*

2
2

aw -j- 2s sin z 2
2 aw]

a

s sin z [cos z
2

-hs 2

sin z
2

2

*&

[cos*

2aw>H-2ssins

p

shall see afterwards, so small, that it can always be neglected. In order to find the refraction from the above equation we must integrate it with and 5 respect to s between the limits 5 J5T,
is

where already the second term, as we

=

=

where
If

H

denotes the height of the atmosphere.
put:

we now

w

= F(s)
a?,

and introduce the new variable quantity lowing equation:

given by the

fol

or taking:
aF(s)
*

= x -h

(p (is),

we have according

to

Lagrange

s

theorem:

2 1.2

dx

1.2.3
hence

5

rfar

160

In order to find from this the refraction,
tiply each

we must mul

term by !--

-

.

=
J/cos.?
2

4-2*

sins

2

and integrate be-

tween the

limits given above.
it

But

in

order to perform these

integrations, or to find the

is

necessary to express w as a function of s law, according to which the density of the

atmosphere decreases with the elevation above the surface. Let p and r be the atmospheric pressure and the 7. temperature at the surface of the earth, p and T the same quantities at the elevation x above the surface, m the ex
(} ()

pansion of atmospheric air for one degree of Fahrenheit thermometer; then we have the following equation:
1

s

-f-

WT

Po-

()

For
p
()

if

we

take

first
(}

a volume of air under the pressure
{)

temperature T and of the density o and change the pressure to p, while the temperature remains the same,
the density according to Mariotte
s

at the

law

will
r,

change to

.
(>

Po

If then also the temperature increases to
sity will be:

the resulting den

p

1

-h

mr

from which we get the equation above.
or the quotient
:

Hence

the quantity

the atmospheric pressure divided by ~7f^j^~T ) the density and reduced to a certain fixed temperature, is

Now if we denote by l the height of a column of air of the uniform density o and of the temperature T O , which corresponds to the atmospheric pressure p in we have, denoting the force of gravity at the
always a constant quantity.
()

surface of the earth

by

:
</

/

is

sity

the height which the atmosphere would have if the den and temperature were uniformly the same at any elevation

161
as at the surface of the earth,

perature of 8

Reaumur
1

= 10

and

if

we

Celsius

= 50

take for T O the tem

Fahrenheit,

we

have according to Bessel:

=4226.05

toises,

equal to the mean height of the barometer at the surface of the sea multiplied by the density of mercury relatively to that of air.
If

we ascend now

in

the

atmosphere through dr, the

decrease of the pressure is equal to the small column of air Qdr multiplied by the force of gravity at the distance r, hence we have: 2
,

dp

=

a

,

g

^-.Q. dr,
(/?)

and dividing

this equation

by the equation

and putting

also reckoning the temperature

that r

from the temperature r means the temperature minus 50 Fahrenheit we
d?
Po

,

so

find:

= _/* (!_,)
^o

and from the equation

() we

have:
10).

(y)

-?Po

= (l+mr)(l

If we eliminate p from these two equations, we find 1 w and hence the density expressed by s and l-^-mr. The latter quantity is itself a function of s; but as we do not know the law according to which the temperature decreases with the elevation, we are obliged to adopt an hypothesis and to try whether the refractions computed according to it are in

conformity with the observations.

Thus the various

theories

of refraction differ from each other by the hypothesis made in regard to the decrease of the temperature in the atmo
sphere.
If

we

take the temperature as constant,

we have:

-- =
Po

1

w,

hence -?Po

=d
,

(1

w\
of the equation (7)
:

and we

find,

combining
1

this

with the
a

first

d(lw) =
w
hence
1

L
a

ds,

w=

T
11

162
as the constant quantity which ought to be This tegral is in this case equal to zero.

added

to the in

hypothesis was but is represents so little the true state adopted by Newton, of the atmosphere that the refractions computed according to it differ considerably from the observed refractions.
as

\-\-mr an exponential expression e h We find then by the combi arrive at BesseFs form. we
If

we

take for

nation of the two equations
d(l
w) -

(? ):

and integrating
1

w

is

equal to

LT-r J*and determining the constant quantity so that = we unity when
-T
5

=

\~

a

a

h~]

0,

find:

instead of

which we can use the approximate expression -*-=A ..
1 lv

:

=

hl

e

(SI

/
=

"

Bessel determines the constant quantity h is such a man ner that the computed refractions agree as nearly as possible

with the values derived from observations.

But the decrease
as

h of the temperature resulting from the formula 1 -\-rnr e for this value of h do not at all agree with the decrease

as
as

observed

near the surface

of the

earth.

For we

find

=

=hm

for s

=

0,

and as we have

also

ds

=

for s
a

=

0,

we

find:

dr_
dr
at the

1

hm

surface of the
s

earth.
is
.

Now
we

as

m
dr

for one degree of

Fahrenheit

thermometer

0020243 and as h according
find

to Bessel is

116865.8

toises,

~=~^
"2ot

.

There
to

would be therefore a decrease of the temperature equal
1

Fahrenheit

if

we ascend 237
1

show

that a decrease of

toises, whilst the observations takes place already for a change

of elevation equal to 47 toises. Ivory therefore in his theory assumes also an exponential expression for 1-f-mr, but determines it so that it represents

163
the observed decrease of the temperature the earth. He takes:
1

at the surface of

w
s,

= e~

"

,

where u

is

a function of

and further:

1H- WT

=1

/(l_

e

)

Then we

easily get from the equations
a
-

(;

):

ds = (lf)du +

2fe"du,

and

-

.9

=

(1

/) u

-f-

2/(l

e

").

(*0

Taking

r

=a

o

we

find

from these two equations
l

:

dr

f
in order to

and we see that we must take f equal to -equal to
- - --

make
at

which value represents the observations

the surface of the earth.

Several other hypotheses have been adopted by Laplace, Young, Lubbock and others. Here however we shall confine
ourselves to

those of Bessel and Ivory,

as

the refractions

computed from their theories are more frequently used, and the other theories may be treated in a similar manner.
8.

If

we

put in equation (d)
h
1

:

~

f

hi,

we have

for Bessel s hypothesis:

we have

therefore

:

sin 2

2

.

and we

find

:

tfF(*)^(^
hence as:

sin z

\

L

&

dx"

11

164

and the general term of the

differential

d

becomes:

to put for n successively all integral numbers with zero. All these terms must then be integrated beginning between the limits s and s H, instead of which we

where we have

=

=

can use also without any sensible error the limits and as eP* is exceedingly small for 5 H. As we have x

when

5

=

and x

=

GO

when

5

= =

=

oo,

GO

we must

different terms with respect to

x between

integrate the the limits and co.

All the integrals which here occur can be reduced to the functions denoted by ifj in No. 1 8 of the introduction and if

we apply formula

(8) of that No., we find the general term of the expression for the refraction:

(!), ___(,,_ 1)
.

y;(n

I)

...

or denoting the refraction by

<)

,

we

find:

etc.

and as we have

:

we can

write this in the following form
*/3

:

9.

In Ivory

s

hypothesis

w

=

.F (it)

=

we have
1

:

e~

"

,

165

and taking

=

:

If

we
:

introduce here the

new

variable #,

given by the

equation

the

differential

expression

for

the

refraction

according to

equation (g) in

No. 6 becomes:
,
,

a
1

/

l/

cosz 2 H--

P
where
x

=u
l

-

(1

e-)

/M

+ 2/(l

e

).

Taking again:
F(^)
<p

Or)

= =

e~ x

a/9
-

.

bin 2

a

(1

- e-*) +/* - 2/(l - e),
(/&):

we

find

from the formula

rfa:

1.2

c/^r

2

.

.

As
e

the third term
"

may be
[2e

already neglected,

we have:

-,+ !M^:: J = e
t
3?

+ -5/1 s n z
i

*_.

.]+ / ( 1 _ I)e--2/t2e- -- e-].
--

If

we

multiply these terms by *

2
I/
a;

and

!--,/cos s 2 -)- 2 sin, -----^
the limits

integrate we find again according to the formulae (9) of the introduction:

them with respect

to

x between

and 10)

in

and GO, No. 8

(0

where

7*=

cotang

2

l--

The higher terms
term
is

so

are complicated, but already the next small on account of the numerical values of a/3

166

and /* that it can be neglected. For we have for the horizon, where the term is the greatest, putting 2 /*/?=</
*

(<(XG

If

we

divide each term

by y -^ and integrate

it

between
/"Q)?

the limits s and oc

we

find, applying the formulae for

jT()

etc.

given in
a ~2

No. 16 of the introduction:

1

J/f

^f*

~ *f9 ^ ~ + y
1)

2

(1

-2

J/2

+3

|/3)]

and

if

we

substitute

here

the

numerical values, which are

given in

which
only
also
to

0".

find that the greatest value of this term, 10, occurs in the horizon, is 11. The next term gives 18. In the differential equation (#) in No. 6 we have
2".

No.

we

neglected the second term, as it is small and amounts about half a second in the horizon. As the sign of
latter

the

term
1".

is

negative,
if

greater

than

5

we shall we compute the

not commit an error
horizontal refraction

from formula
10.

(/).

formula

(K)

The numerical computation of the refraction from or (/) can be made without any difficulty, as the

values of the functions

can be taken from the tables or ip can be computed by the methods given in No. 17 of the in

troduction.
at the tem According to Bessel the constant quantity of 50 Fahrenheit and for the height of the baro perature meter of 29 6 English inches reduced to the normal tem
.

,

perature,

is

and

/*

= 4994, = 116865. 8
57".

hence log
toises.

-,-"

= 1.759785
ct

1

As we have
according

toises, we find, if we take to Bessel for a the radius of curvature for Green
/
()

= 4226.05
:

wich

to

3269805
^

toises
.

= 745

747, hence log

--

[/2

/?

=3

.

347295

If

we wish
distance

to

compute

for instance the refraction for the
in this case log

zenith
etc.

80, we have

7\

= 0.53210

and we

find:

167

log

9.90691

9.81382 9.72073 9.62763

9.53454
9.44145
9.34836
9.2553
9.162 9.069

The
thesis
in

horizontal rows

give
if

the

terms within the paren

formula

(&)
1

and
/

we

multiply their

sum by

the

constant quantity

_^ a

^ 2/?,

we

find 3 14". 91 exactly in con-

tables. foimity with BesseFs Far more simple is the computation of Ivory In this case we have:
log a p

s

formula.

= 9.333826,

log

r 1

Ct

^2/?

= 3.354594, /= = 0-690613 = 8.999757
15".

*.

If
(/),

we now compute
log I\

the refraction according to formula

we have:
=0.540098
log

T2

log

y, (1)

== 9.142394 log

y (2)

32, whilst and with this the terms independent of f give 3 The refraction is 0".12. the terms multiplied by f give therefore 315".2Q or nearly the same as BesseFs value. The refractions according to the two formulae continue to agree and represent the observed refractions about as far as to the horizon BesseFs refractions are too But nearer well.
86"

those great, while

computed by Ivory

s

theory are too small.

It is therefore best, to determine the refraction for such great zenith distances from observations and to compute tables from

those observed values, as Bessel has done. find the horizontal refraction according to Bessel,

We

as

we have

in this case:

and substituting here the numerical values we get 36

5".

168

According
SZ
1

to Ivory
V/7f
"[/I

we
U

find the horizontal refraction:
"

= -a = 33

+ ^ 0/2
50",

1}

~ /(2

1/2

~ l)]
is

58",

whilst the observations give 34 the mean of the two.

a value

which

nearly

As long

as the zenith distance

is

necessary to use the rigorous formulae (/e) convenient, to develop them into series.

not too great, it is not and (/), but it is more
If

we

substitute in

formula

(/)

for

i/^(l)

and

i//(2)

the

series
-

found in No. 17
1 -4-

of the introduction and observe that
find: *)

-

sins 2

=

cote: s

2
,

we

105 n \

/15

105 a

1575 n

or

if

we

substitute the numerical values:
3

^-=[1.759845] tang^- [8.821943] tang2

+ [6.383727] tangz

5

-

[4.180257] tang^

7
,

where the figures enclosed in brackets are logarithms. Furthermore the terms multiplied by f give:
75
7

1785
"

9

46305
"

M

j

or

(^,)
5

j

[5.506187] tangs;

-

7

[3.714510] tang2 -f[1.901468]tang2 -[9.018568]tang2

9

n
|

find from the series da 211". 39 and the on f equal to hence the refraction part depending 02, equal to 211". 37 in conformity with the rigorous formula.
0".

For 75

we

=

*
)

For we get
P 2/3v- (l)

:

/

= tang.r

tangz

3

5

-f-

tangz

tangz

7

105

H-

pi
2* J/27

tang

z

V

(2)

= tang

1

^

**

1
2

z

^

tang a

3

-h

^

tangz^

g^ 3

1 tang z

105
Ivory gives in the Phil. Transactions for 1823 another series, used for all zenith distances.

which can be

169
11.

The above formulae

give the refraction for any ze

nith distance but only for a certain density of the air,

namely

Fahren that, which occurs when the temperature is 50 heit and the height of the barometer 29 6 English inches. The refraction which belongs to this normal state of the
.

atmosphere is called the mean refraction. In order to find from this the refraction for any other temperature r and height
of the barometer
6,

we must examine, how

the refraction

is

changed, when
of the

density of the atmosphere or the stand meteorological instruments , upon which it depends,
the

Let s be the expansion of air for one degree changes. of Fahrenheit s thermometer, for which Bessel deduced the following value:

= 0.0020243

from astronomical observations. If we take now a volume of air at the temperature of 50 as unit, the same volume at the temperature r will be 1-M (r 50), hence the density of the air when the thermometer is r is to the density when the thermometer is 50 as 1 1 H-s(r 50). We know further from Mariotte s law, that the density of the air when the
:

barometer
as

is

b is to the density

when

the barometer

is

29.6

6:29.6.

If

we

therefore
is r

denote the density of the air
is

when
have
:

the thermometer

and the barometer

b

the density in the normal state of the atmosphere
b

by p, and we by y
(}

,

1

4-

8

(r

50)

and as the quantity a which occurs in the formulae for the refraction may be considered as being proportional to the
density, at least for so small changes of the density as we take into consideration, we should deduce also the true re fraction from the mean refraction by the formula:
* ^
6

,,_
if

2976
50)

1 -f- e (r

did occur only as a factor, as the a in the quantity 1 divisor can be considered as constant on account of the small-

ness of a.

But a occurs

"

also in the factor of
1

cr

,

which

170
shall

be denoted by
it
/

Z and

the temperature, as
is

T

upon

=

the quantity ft varies also with depends on / or when the temperature
i

[i

+

e

(

r

50)]

if

we

denote the height of an atmosphere of uniform density

at

fraction

the temperature T by /. find therefore the true re from the following formula:

We

SJ

=

-.

-f-iH-(T

=
oO;

so + rr29.6
1

d ~d-r

(-50)

+

;

-- d
is

1

H (6-2
d6

J.G),

()

but as the influence of the last two terms
take for the sake of convenience:
*

small

we may
( ^

,_ ~~

U?*_
[l-f. a
<T

/_1V +
+"

"

50)]

V29.6/

But if we develop this we find, neglecting the squares and higher powers as well as the products of p and q:

the formulae (m) and (w) the equations for determining p and q: lowing

Thus we obtain from

fol

if

we

take in the second

member dz

instead of d~z

.

1

OQ
(r

f

+

-^-.

aO)

The moisture
observed
first,

diminishes also the

sphere and hence the
this

refractive power, but, as
is

density of the atmo Laplace has

decrease

by

greater moisture and quantity a therefore is hardly changed by as the effect upon the quantities p and q is very small, we shall pay no regard to the moisture in computing the re
"the

the

refractive

almost entirely compensated The power of aqueous vapour.

fraction.

we must In order to obtain the expressions for p and rl 7 /I 7 - and but we shall defind the differential coefficients ,
</,

dt

db

duce these values only for Ivory s theory, as the deduction from BesseFs formula is very similar. According to formula (/)

we

have:
~

ft?

(1)

+1

}/2

y (2)

+/ Q],

171
a

takinoC>

C J T1

^= L
~2
:

From
(1

this

we

obtain:

i

^ ~ a)
.

^

4- |/2/?/

[|/2

y (2) - v CD] y

as f does not

stand of change with the temperature and the

the barometer.

Now we have ^(1) = e~ T

*

fe~

2

dt,

where

T^cotg z

|/-|-,

t~

#2

c? ^,

where T2
and

= cotg &Vfti
2

and as

^
dl
i

=2 T, ./,(!)(/?)
2

1

^=
dl
2
.

^02)- 1,
-*r
3 )].

the last but one term in
d
4-j-

becomes:
) -4-

Vzp

[(i

()

X) (ir,

y a) - 1 r,

A 1/2

(T 2

2

v (2)

The

factor

consists

having the factor pression of oz.

2

is

of two terms, the first of which equal to the factor of A in the ex
A.

We

therefore embrace this in the latter term

by writing

/

2f

instead of

There remains then only

the following term

and as we find

differentiating it:

the complete expression for
.

dZ

becomes:

rf^ff

8z(\-a) -

dZi-jf.

a

+ dl ]/2/3. A T
.

[1/2 y, (2)

-

y, (I)]

-I-

-

/2

~

4- (1-A-

As we have:
b

we

rf

find:

29.6 = - ^-g - /;

e (r

- 50),

172

and likewise:
p
finally

+

dft

=
/9

-2o

-2-e(T
*o

50) 9

hencc

dl

=_

E (r

_ 50)

.

P
rfa

we have:

*-&
We
--

hence

T=^ + f=
</>l

dB

6

29.6
29; 6
-2.<T-50).

find therefore:

%p

.

I [1/2
"

y

(2)

-

y, (I)]

2 A [)/2
cc

I

y, (2)

-y

(1)]

(ry)

where instead of
If
852".

its
/"

value

f

has been substituted.

we compute from 79 we find:

this

p and q

for 5

= 87,

8z being

log 7\ log (I,

= 0.013175,
2

.//(I)
2

log(T2
^a.g
hence
:

=

i/;(2)
19".71,

= 8.605021, ^ = 9.081 168 log T = 0.163690, TO 1^)^2 = 9.191771,, and with 36, S*.p =
log
[tf2
V<2)

(1)]

i

/0

2

this

185".

0.2173. P the zenith distance is not too great, we can find p and q also by the series given in No. 10. For differentiating

=

When

the coefficients of
i

-

Ct

in (/j)

and

(/ 2 )

with respect to a and

/?,

we

easily find the following series:

qSz

=

-f-

p ^ 2 ==

+

[7.90399] tang z -h [7.9014G] tang z^ 7 3.54 172] tang z [7.90399] tang z [8.91567] tang 2*

+ +

[5.G6533] tang z
.

:>

.

.

1

5 [6.70990] tang z

4-

[4

567 12] tangs

7

...,

where the coefficients are again logarithms. For ^ 75 for instance we find from this 0.0020 and 0.0188. For the complete computation of the true refraction 12. from formula (m^), we must know the height of the baro meter reduced to the normal temperature. If we take the length of the column of mercury at the temperature 50 as unit and denote the expansion of mercury from the freezing

=

=

p=

173
to the boiling point equal to Oo.o

by

</,

the stand of the barois

meter observed at the temperature

*)

to the stand,

would have been observed
as
1

if

the temperature

which had been 50

-+-

g

(t

50)

:

1,

or the length of the column of
is:

mer

cury reduced to the temperature 50
180

If further s

is

the

180 H- 7 U 50) expansion of the scale of the baro

if

meter from the freezing to the boiling point, s being 0.0018782 the scale is of brass, we have taking again the length of
as unit:

the scale at the temperature 50

Hence the height b, of the barometer observed at the temperature , is reduced to 50, taking account of the ex pansion of the mercury and the scale, by the formula:
*
180 4s (t

50)
50)

The normal length of an English inch
ferred
to

is

however not

re

the temperature 50 but to the temperature 62; hence the stand of the barometer observed at the temperature

50

is

measured on a scale which

is

too small,
^,

we must

there
get:

fore divide the value 6 50

by

1-f50)
50)

so that finally
180

we

180-f-s(* 180 q(t

+

180~4-~12s-

If the scale

thermometer is mal temperature of the French inch

divided according to Paris lines and the one of Reaumur, we should get, as the nor
is

50Fahr.

=

is

13

R. and

we have

8"Reaum.:

80

-4- s (t

8) 8)

80 80

80H-7(*

+ 5*

mula

This embraces every thing necessary for computing for If we denote by f the temperature according to (m^).
The temperature
is

*)

t

is

observed at a thermometer attached to the baro

meter, which

called the interior thermometer, whilst the other
is

thermometer

used for observing the temperature of the atmosphere thermometer.

called the exterior

174
thermometer, by r the same according to Reau (f} and b the height of the barometer thermometer, by b in English inches and Paris lines and if we put: expressed
Fahrenheit
s

mur

s

(l)

3

_

6(0
1

180

~~
s-

_^_
80480 4- q
(r

80
.v

""2976

80 4-1 2,

333728 804-5

_ 180 4- s(f
180 4- q (/
7

50) __ 50)

8)

~~
1

1_
4B
.

_1
50)
1

(/-

4-f

e (r

8)

and give have
:

to the
Sz

mean
z
.

refraction the form

dz

aismgz, we
(A}

hence log Sz

= a tang (B = log a 4- log tang
/+"

.

T^+"

2

4-

(1

4-;>)

log y 4- (1 4- 7) (log

B 4- log T).
G, 1 -\-p

If

we have

then tables, from which

we

take log

T and log ; and any zenith distance, and log 5, log of the barometer and any height of the interior for any stand the computation of the true re and exterior
1-f-g for

by

thermometer, This any zenith distance is rendered very easy. has been adopted form, which perhaps is the most convenient, Bessel for his tables of refraction in his work Tabulae
fraction for

Regiomontanae.

The hypothesis which 13. deducing the formulae of refraction, namely that the atmosphere con sists of concentric strata, whose density diminishes with the
above the surface according to a certain law, can never represent the true state of the atmosphere on account of several causes which continually disturb the state of equi The values of the refraction as found by theory librium.
elevation

we have made

in

must therefore generally deviate from the observed values and represent only the mean of a large number of them, as
of the atmosphere. Bessel they are true only for a mean state has compared the refractions given by his tables with the observations and has thus determined the probable error of
the
refraction
for observations
to

made

at different zenith dis

tances.
to

According

the

table

given

in

the introduction

Tab. Reg. pag. LXIII these probable errors are at 450=1=0". 27, at 81"==1", at 85 7, at 89 30 ==20". in the neighbourhood of the hor that thus
the

+

1".

We

see,

especially

izon

we can

many

from a great only expect, that a mean obtained made at very different states of the atobservations

175

mosphere may be considered as
fraction.

free

from the

effect of re

distances not exceeding 80 it is almost in what hypothesis we adopt for the decrease of the different, density of the atmosphere with the elevation above the sur face of the earth and the real advantage of a theory which is founded upon the true law consists only in this, that the
zenith
refractions

For

very near the horizon as well as the coefficients l-\-p and l-{-q are found with greater accuracy, hence the reduction of the mean refraction to the true refraction can

be made more accurately. Even the simple hypothesis, adopted by Cassini, of an atmosphere of uniform density, when the
light is refracted once at the upper limit, represents the mean refractions for zenith distances not exceeding 80 quite well.

In

this

case

we have simply according
sin
i

to

the formulae in

No.

6:

or as

we have now

i

= f-+-fizi
Sz

= ^0 sin/,
1)

= (X,

tang/,
"

and since we have
/

also, as is easily seen, sin

f=

sin z,

where

is

the height of the atmosphere,

we

J^ = =
2
I

get:
2

(,,.

,/
I/

-l)tang z (l?-- z ,). V a cos J
the value
distances

If
for

we

take

now
at

for

/<

1

57".

717,

we

find

the

refraction

the zenith

45, 75

and 80

the values

57".57, 211". 37, 314". 14, whilst according to Ivory are 57". 45, 21T.37 and 315". 20. But beyond this the they error increases very rapidly and the horizontal refraction is

only about 19

.

if

The equation (/) in No. 6 can be integrated very we adopt the following relation between s and r:

easily,

For
tion
:

if

we

^

introduce a

new

variable, given

by the equa

176
the equation

(/")

becomes simply: dw_ ;== _
(2m
1)

Vlw*
limits

therefore

if

we

integrate and substitute the
"

w=

sin z

and

w

=

(1

2 a)
i

sin

ss,

we

find:
2
/

- 1

2m
or:

2
1

arc sin

(12 a)
<>,

1
"

sin [2

(2 m

I

)

Sz]

=

(1

2 a)

sin z

,

for

which we may

write for brevity: sin [z If sin z NSz].

=

formula for refraction by which the This is Simpson may be refractions for zenith distances not exceeding 85 M and N are suitably if the coefficients represented very well, determined.
s

the last equation the identical equation sin* and also subtract it, we easily find two equa sin s the other: tions from which we obtain dividing one by
If

=

we add

to

N
or

tang (A .Sz)
s

B tang

[z

A.Sz],

which

is

Bradley

formula for refraction.

14.
fraction,

see them on account of it, when they really the horizon. The stars rise therefore earlier and are beneath set later on account of the refraction.

As the we can

altitude of the stars is increased

by the

re

We

have in general:
cos z

=
is

sin

(f

sin

-+ cos

cos S cos
y>

t

(r)

from which follows:
sin

zdz

= cos

cos S sin
<p

t

.

dt

hence

if

the object

in the horizon:
_ ______ cos y cos S sin t

___

As
to

in this case

dz

35

,

we

find

for

is the horizontal refraction or equal the variation of the hour angle at the

rising or setting:
cos
<p

cos S sin

t

177
In No. 20 of the first section we found and the latitude of Berlin:
t

for

Arcturus

=

7 h 42 m
cp

40 s

and as we have
Arcturus

<?=

19 54 .5,

= 52

30

.

3,

we

find:

rises

A/o=437s. therefore so much

much

later.

at the rising or setting
in the last

can compute also with regard to refraction, if formula (r) z have then 90 35

We

and sets so directly the hour angle
earlier

=

we
:

take

.

We
8

C0

st=

cos

~

sin
(p

(p

sin

COS

COS

-Z-g

and adding

1

to

both members

,

we
cos

find the following

con

venient formula:
i

_

I/

cos

^s

(f

~t~

d

~+~ z)

TJ-

(cp -+-

S

2)

COS

Cp

COS S
1,

If
ilar

we

subtract both

members from

we
d

obtain a

sim

formula:

sm|

*

=

i / sin i (z -jI/

cp

<?)

sin

4-

(z 2V
()

-+-

--"-

OP)

cos

y

cos

In the case of the
sides

moon we must

take into account be

the refraction her parallax, which increases the zenith distance and hence makes the time of rising later, that of
setting
earlier.

The method of computing them has been
in

No. 20 of the first section and shall here given already be explained by an example. only For 1861 July 15 we have the following declinations and horizontal parallaxes of the moon for Greenwich mean
time.
9
July 15

Oh

15 17 19
21

32.1

P 59 13
.

12h 16
Oh
12

51.5 55.6

59 15
59 14

42.0

59 13

required to find the time of setting for Greenwich. According to No. 19 of the first section, where the mean time
It is

of the upper and lower culmination was found, Lnnai- time Mean time 6hl6
12-27.5.
"^

we

have:

12

178
If

we
51
.

take
5

now an approximate
find with
cp

t

=k

-17

we
.

= 51
.

value of the declination
.

28 6 and

= 89

35

.

8,

h

21 m .5 and the
If

mean time corresponding

to this lunar

time 10 h 48 m

we

of the moon,

we

interpolate for this time the declination find -17 38 2 and repeating with this
to

the former computation, we find the hour angle equal 4 h 22 m .9, hence the mean time of setting 10 h 49 m .6.
15.

The

effect of the

atmosphere on the

light

produces

For as the sun sets later besides the refraction the twilight. for the higher strata of the atmosphere than for an observer
at after

the surface of the earth, these strata are still illuminated sunset and the light reflected from them causes the

According to the observations the sun ceases to any portions of the atmosphere which are above Thus the horizon when he is about 18 below the horizon.
twilight.

illuminate

the moment, when the sun reaches the zenith distance 108 is the beginning of the morning or the end of the evening
twilight.

If

we

denote the zenith distance of the sun at the be
90"

-+- c, ginning or end of twilight by at the time of rising or setting and

by by
(t

t tt

the hour angle

T the duration of

twilight,

we

have:
sin c

=
(*

sin

cp

sin

-\-

cos

cp

cos S cos

H-

r)

hell e =

COS

+ T) = cf

>***

**
(p

COS

COS

or putting

H= 90
sin

+-i

*

(<

-4-

*)

=

/ sin

f (H Hhc)
cos
cp

cosTf (H
cos

~c)

I/

from which we can find T
call

after

having computed

t ti .

the point of the heavenly sphere, which If we at the time of sunset was at the zenith and by Z that point

Z

end of twilight, we easily see that in the triangle between these two points and the pole the angle at the pole is equal to T and we have:

which

is

at the zenith at the

cos

ZZ

=

sin

y

2

-+-

cos
<p

2

cos r.

between those two points and the sun S, ZS 90-hc, Z S=90, we have also call ing the angle at the sun S: cos c cos S cos ZZ

But

as

we have

=

in the triangle

=

179

and thus we

find:
1

cos c

.

cos
2

S

2 COS

Q5

where

S, as is easily seen, is the difference of the parallactic angles of the sun at the time of sunset and at the end of

The equation shows, that T is a minimum, when S is zero, or when at the end of twilight the point, which was at the zenith at sunset, lies in the vertical circle of the sun. The two parallactic angles are therefore in that
twilight.

the angle

case equal. The duration
the equation:

of the shortest twilight

is

thus give.n by

sin

4-

r

=
cos
9?

and as we have:
sin
. . sin o
,

cos

p

9? -j-

sin c sin

S
,

cos c cos o

we

find:
sin

S

=

tang ^ c sin

95,

from which equation we find the declination which the sun has on the day when the shortest twilight occurs. If we denote the two azimuths of the sun at the time of sunset and when it reaches the zenith distance 90-(-c by

A

and A\ we have:
cos
cos
95 (f

sin
sin

A A

= S sinp = cos S sinp
cos

.

sin

A = sin A
From

Hence we have

of the shortest twilight or the two azimuths are then the supplements
at

the

time

of each other to 180.
the

two equations:
sin c

and
follows also:

= =

sin
y>

sin

S -f- cos
y>

cos 8 cos

(t

+- 1]

sin

9?

sin

S

-f-

cos

9?

cos S cos

t

sm
If

(t

-f-

%

T) sin 4

r

= cos V cos
4-

c

sin

4^

c
>

cos
y>

we

take

c=18

we

find

for

the latitude

</>=81

sin|r=l, hence the duration of the shortest twilight for that latitude is 12 hours. This occurs, when the declination of the sun is 9 , the sun therefore is then in the horizon
at

noon and 18

below

at midnight.

But we cannot speak
12*

180

any more of the shortest twilight, as the sun only when has this certain declination fulfills the two conditions, that

it

it

comes in the horizon and reaches also a depression of 18 below the horizon; for if the south declination is greater the sun remains below the horizon and if the south decli below the horizon. nation is less it never descends 18 At still greater latitudes there is no case when we can speak of the shortest twilight in the above sense and hence the formula for sin ^ T becomes impossible.
Consult: on refraction: Laplace Mecanique Celeste Livre X. Fundamenta Astronomiae pag. 2G et seq. -- Ivory in Philosophical Bruhns in his work: Die Astronomische Transactions for 1823 and 1838.
Note.

Bessel

Strahlenhrechung has given a compilation of

all

the different theories.

III.

THE ABERRATION.
of the
earth in

16.

As

the

velocity

her orbit round

the sun has a

finite

ratio to the velocity of light,

we do

not

see the stars on account of the
direction, in

motion of the earth
but

in the
little

which they

really are,

we
t

see

them a
is

displaced in the direction,

towards which the earth

We

will distinguish

two moments of time

the ray of light able object (fixed star) strikes in succes sion the object-glass and the eye-piece of

moving. and t at which coming from an unmove-

a telescope (or the lense and the nerve of the eye). The positions of the objectglass and of the eye-piece in space at the

time
t

t shall be a and 6, and a and b Fig. 5. Then the

at the time
line

a b re

presents light, whilst a b or a b\ both being parallel on account of the infinite distance of the
fixed
stars,

the

real

direction

of the ray of

gives

us the direction of the

The apparent place, which is observed. between the two directions b a and angle
ba
is

called

the

annual aberration of the

fixed stars.

181

Let
in

#, #, z

be the rectangular co-ordinates of the eye
,

piece b at the time

referred to a certain unmoveable point

space; then:
x
-f-

^ (J
/

t),

y

+^ a?
(

and

a -f-

(*

-

)

ai

the

are the co-ordinates of the eye-piece at the time , since during t we may consider the motion of the earth interval t
If the relative

to be linear.

with respect to the eye-piece are denoted by co-ordinates of the object-glass at the time ,
enters
it,

co-ordinates of the object-glass the i] and f , ,

when

the light

?;, , y take as the plane of the x and # the plane of the equator and the other two planes vertical to it, so that the plane of the x, z passes through the equinoctial, the plane of #, z through the solstitial points if we further denote by

are

x

-f-

-f-

ss

-f- ?.

If

we now

;

and the right ascension and declination of that point in which the real direction of the ray of light intersects the ce lestial sphere and by u the velocity of light, then will the
()

latter

in

the time

t

t

describe a space
:

whose projections
(t
t)

on the three co-ordinate axes are
a
(t
/)

cos

cos

,

{u (t

t)

cos

<?sin

,

t

u

sin 8.

Denoting length of the telescope by / and a and the right ascension and declination of the point by towards which the telescope is directed, we have for the co
further
the
<)

ordinates of the object-glass with respect to the eye -piece, which are observed:
I

=

I

cos

cos

n.

.

//

=

I

cos

sin

,

=

/

sin d

.

direction of the ray of light is given the co-ordinates of the object-glass at the time t:
true
I I I

Now

the

by

cos
cos
sin
<T

cos a -+
sin

.r,

a -\-y, -h z, at the time
t
:

and by the co-ordinates of the eye-piece

182

We

have therefore the following equation

if

we

denote

u,

cos

cos a

cos
,

<?

sin

= L cos 8 = L cos
<?

cos

>

a
sin

a

-~

,

u
{

sin

8= L sin 8
-^
}

We
u,

easily derive
cos 8 cos (a

from these equations the following:
a)

= cos 8

-\

sin

a

-f-

-

cos

ft

at

at

[

,

L
p

cos 8 sin (a

a)

= =

1
/u

(dy
dt
1

dx
cos
sin

dt

sec o
u,

*(dy
)

or

r :

. ,

tang (a

)

H
1
,

!
;W

cos \dt -7-3
i
\ (
rf<

~

dx
dt

sm
:

.

* sec o

^ sm a -^
1

rf;r
,

-+-

-

cos

(/^

We

velop of the introduction, we find, if we substitute in the formula for tang ((V ) the value derived #) instead of tang|(

If we de find a similar equation for tang (d ^). both equations into series applying formula (14) in No. 11

from a
a
a

a and omit the terms of the third order:

=

1

\dx sm a
.

{

dy fdt

)

cos

(

sec o

^

|rf<

dx

<

o

=

c^
-

sm

.

o cos
s>

p

(

dt

a H

.

,

e,

.

e

sin o sin

a
dt

o

cos o
(a)

dt

ang ^
1

(dx
(dt
.

2

cos o cos a H-

s

dy cos
dt
.

9
()

sm a

.

c?z

.

_

-\-

sin o

fi

dt
)

^(dx sin X -)
I

^ o cos

a

dt

dy + dt sm o

.

sm
dt

.

</^

cos o

(

If

we now

the sun

by co-ordinates

refer the place of the earth to the centre of a?, y in the plane of the ecliptic,

taking the line from the centre of the sun to the point of the vernal equinox as the positive axis of x, and the pos itive axis of y perpendicular to it or directed to the point
of the

summer

solstice

and denoting the geocentric longitude

183
of the

sun by
:

O,

its

distance from the
*

earth

by R, we

have

*)

y

= =

.Ecos,

R

sin

Q-

refer these co-ordinates to the plane of the equa tor, retaining as the axis of x the line towards the point of

If

we

of y z to be turned through the angle of the ecliptic, we get:
y
z

the vernal equinox and imagining the axis of y in the plane g, equal to the obliquity

= =

R sin Q cos e. R sin O sir
>

and from this we find, since according to the formulae in No. 14 of the first section we have the longitude of the sun
v -h 7i or equal to the true anomaly plus the longitude of the perihelion: * dx dR dv __ =s co sin0

=

_

^_H_*
cos e

_

dy
at
f-

= =

sm (0
sm ()

dR-at

_^ R cos (O cos e

dv
dt

dz -dt

sin s

dR---

dt

R cos CO

dv
sin e
_

dt

But we have
of the
first

also according to the formulae in

No. 14

section:

dv

=

-

-K

D

dE

and as we have also

dE = ~

H

d

M
- in

we

find

:

dv
~d~t

_a ~

2

cos

y

dM
~dt

R^

Further follows from the equation
nection with the last:

R=
-

.

^
-

con-

dR
and from
this

~=
.

a tang y

sm v

dM

we
-

get:

dx
-rdt

=

a

dM(
{

_
QO

sin

a* cosy
-^

_.

cosy
a 7 cosy
it
</^

dt

(

R

sin

fp

sm v

cos

CO

hence observing that:

^

=
a

1 -f- sin

fp

cos v and ()

^
s

v

=

TT,

-r
As

dt

= cos

dM ~y
rf

I

sm

.

O + sm

__

9

sm ^J
is

*)

the heliocentric longitude of the earth

180

-+

Q.

184

and

--- -

= dz =
dt
r/i!

"

cos

cosy
a
sin s

dt

[cos

O H-f-

sin

or

cos n]

(fi)

dM
dt
,

r
I

cos CO

sin

cp

cos

TT

|.

If

we

cosy substitute these

the

constant terms

expressions in the formulae (a), dependent on n give in the expressions constant terms which change merely

for the aberration

also

the
If
in

mean places we introduce
which the

of the stars and therefore can be neglected. the number k of seconds, also instead of
/.<

light traverses the

semi-major axis of the earth

s

orbit, so that

we

have:

we
,

find,

1 ___ k a p taking only the terms of the

first

order:
a] sec o

k

dM I

cos

cosy
S

dt
at
[cos

Q O

cos

s

cos a

-f-

8

=

sm ^

M sm

-f-

cos

(sin

sin

dcoss

cos

<?sin

e)

y

cos a sin ^sinQl-

The constant

quantity
*-

is

called

cos
--

y

dt

the

constant

of aberration, and since
tion
A-,

denotes the

mean

sidereal

mo

we

of the sun in a second of time, which is the unit of are able to compute it, if besides the time in which

the light traverses the semi -major axis of the earth s orbit is known. Delambre determined this time from the eclipses of Jupiter s satellites and thus found for the constant of
aberration the

value

20".

255.

Struve determined this con

stant latterly from the observations of the apparent places of

the fixed stars

and found

20".

4451 and as we have

J

=

dt

== 0.041 0670 and cos
this for the time in

== 9.999939 we

find

from

axis of the earth s orbit

which the light traverses the semi-major 497 78*).
s
.

have therefore the following formulae for the an nual aberration of the fixed stars in right ascension and de
clination
:

We

*)

According

to

Hansen the length of
1),
8".

the sidereal year

is

365 days 6

hours

35 seconds or 3(55.2563582 days, 193. daily sidereal motion of the sun is 59

minutes and

hence the mean

185
n

a
8

= = 4-

20"

.

4451

[cos

cos E cos a
[sin

-+- sin

sin

]

sec S
s]

20".

4451 cos

sin

S cos

cos S sin

(A)

20"

.

4451

sin

cos

sin

&

The terms of the second order are so small, that they can be neglected nearly in every case. find these terms of the right ascension by introducing the values of the dif ferential coefficients (6) into the second term of the formulae

We

(a), as follows: &2 /dJl\ 2 { a f-r

2
sec<?

J

[cos20sin2(H-cos

2 )

2 sin 2
s
2

cos 2

cose],

where

the

small

term multiplied by sin 2 a sin
2 cos e

has been
-~ sin
7
]

omitted.

For we
2

find setting aside the constant factor:
sin
2
]

2 sin 2 a [cos

2 sin 2

cos

2

[cos

from which the above expression can be easily deduced. If we substitute the numerical values taking s 23 28 we

=

,

obtain

:

-h

0"

.

000932!) sec S 2 sin 2

cos 2
sin 2

0"

.

0009295

sec S* cos 2

As
the

these terms

amount
star

to
is

declination

of the

of a second of time only if 85.]", they can always be ne
T(
r>

glected except for stars very near the pole. The terms of the second order in declination,
glect all terms not multiplied

if

we ne
2
)

by tang

r?,

are:
-h cos
f
2
)

-I

~

C ^~~T

\~Jl )

tan g S t cos -

O

( cos

2

(

1

sin
sin 2

H- 2 sin 2

a cos

t-].

find the term multiplied the constant factor:
sin
2

For we

by tang
^
sin 2

J,

setting aside
cos

sin

a2

-+-

cos

2

cos

2

cos

2

-f-

sin 2

express here the squares of the sines and cosines by the sines and cosines of twice the angle and omit the constant terms 1 -f- cos 2 as well as the term cos 2 a sin 2
if

and

we

we

easily

deduce the above expression.

Substituting again
cos 2

the numerical values
-h
[0".

we

find:

-

0".

0000402 0004665 cos 2 a] tang 0004648 tang S sin 2 sin 2 0.
0".

As

these

terms also do not amount to
is

:

fj g
,

of a second

of arc while the declination

less

than 87 6

they are taken

into account only for stars very near the pole. In the formulae (A) for the aberration it

that

,

S and

is assumed, be referred to the apparent equinox and

186
the apparent obliquity of the ecliptic. But in com the aberration of a star for any long period it is con puting to venient, to neglect the nutation and to refer a, 3 and In the mean obliquity. the mean equinox and to take for
that
is

however the values of the aberration found in that way must be corrected. We find the expressions of these corrections by differentiating the formulae (A) with respect and and taking da, dS, dO and de equal to to a, (J,
this case

the nutation for these
to

Of course it is only ne quantities. take the largest terms of the nutation and omitcessary which ing in the correction of the right ascension all terms, and in declination all ti are not multiplied by sec tang
.

terms which are not multiplied by sin d tang #, we easily such see, since the increments dQ and ds do not produce any take the following: terms, that we need only
.

da

=

[6".

867

sin sin

ft

sin

-f-

9".

dS=

.

[6"

867

ft cos a -h

9"

.

223 cos ft cos ] tang 223 cos ft sin a].

S.

Taking here
substitute these
tions (A):

6".867

=&

and

9".

223

=

,

we

find, if

we

quantities

into the differentials of the

equa

a

a

= tang
== tang S

sec

<5

10".

2225

/

(&-{-

cose) sin 2 a cos

(Q 4- ft)
(0
ft)

}
\

-\-(b

a cos

)

sin 2

a cos a
sin

sin

<?5"

.

11

12

/
I
/

(0 ft) (b 4- a cos e)cos 2 a cos (0 -f- ft)
(b cos

a) cos2

\

(&cose-Ha)sin2sinCQ-4-n)
-+- (b
-J- (b

I
(
i

a cose) cos 2 a cos (O
cos
a) sin 2

O)
ft)

a

sin

(0

}

or if

we
a

substitute the numerical values:

a

= tang S
== tang S

sec S

.

I

0".0007597 sin

2 a cos

) }
(

+

(0 + ft)

,

sin

8

.

/

(0 -H ft) cos (0 0".0000790 sin 2 ft) sin (0 _j_ 0".0001449 cos 2 ft) 0".0003798 cos 2 a cos (0 -i-ft) - 0".0003847 sin 2 sin (04-H) - 0".0000395 cos 2 a cos (0 ft) 0".0000725 sin 2 a sin (0 ft) - 0".0000395 cos (04- ft)
0".0007693

cos 2 a sin

\
<

>

J (

\

0".000379Scos(0

ft)

187

While the decimation
than
T 5Q

is

less than
e)

85|, a
is

a

is

less

of a second of time and

of a second of arc

only for declinations

greater than T J 5 exceeding 85 6
.

Hence
(c)

these terms as well as those given
(d)

and

can be

neglected except

by the equations in the case of stars

very the pole.
if

The equations for the aberration are much more simple, we take the ecliptic instead of the equator as the funda
For then neglecting again the constant terms
dx
-7-

mental plane.

we

find:

at

=H

a
sin

cosy
a
"cos/
*=<>

_ M W ddt -r~

>

Tt

dy s

080 77

dM

and

if

we

write K and

substitute these expressions in the formulae (a) and p in place of a and #, we find for the aberration

of the fixed stars in longitude and latitude:
A
ft

A
/?

= =+

20".

445 1 cos
4451

(/I

20".

sin (A

O) sec ft, 0) sin ft

which formulae are not changed
stead of the

if

we

use the apparent in

The

equinox. terms of the second order are:
in longitude: in latitude
:

mean

= 4=

0".

0".

0010133 0005067

sin 2

cos 2

(0 (0

/I)

sec

2

/2

,

A)

tang
f
.

ft,

where the numerical factor 0.0010133
Example.
turus
:

is

equal to

i?

^ 4^5 !!!
for

.

On

the

first

of April 1849

we have

Arc-

=14h8m48s
fi

= 23

= 212
find:
S

12 .0,

= 4- 19
18".

58

.

1,

= 1137 .2

27 this

.

4.

With

we

- =8
,

= 4/?

88,
65,

9".

and as
A

=

202"

= 4- 30
23".

50

,

we

find also:
A I

= 4-

41,

188
17.

In

ration

in

order to simplify the computation of the aber right ascension and declination, tables have been

constructed, the most convenient of which are those given Gauss. lie takes:
445 445 cos
20"
.

by

20".

= a (Q O cos = a cos (Q
sin

sin

-|-f-

A\
A).

e

and thus has simply:

=
$
<?=

((

sec S cos
sin

(04-4

)

,

=
table

a
1

0".

(0 -f- A sin # sin (0 + A 222 sine cos (O
8 sin

a)
a)
#).

20".

10"

.

445 cos cos sin 222 sin e cos (0 -ft>

t

<?)

From
The
iirst

these

formulae
gives

the

tables

have been computed.

A and

longitude of the sun, and in right ascension and the
clination
is

log a, the argument being the with these values the aberration

first

easily computed. found from another table, the angles and 8 being used as arguments. Such tables were first pub successively lished by Gauss in the Monatliche Correspondenz Band XVII pag. 312, but the constant there used was that of Delambre 255. Latterly they have been recomputed by Nicolai with the value 4451 and have been published in Warn-

The second and

part of the aberration in de third part is

0-M

20".

20".

storff s collection of tables.

For the preceding example we find from those A = \ 1 log o = 1.2748
,

tables:

and with

this
a

=

-f-18".

88
2".

and the first part of the aberration in declination 15. For the second and third part we find 3".47 and 4".03, if we enter the second table with the arguments 31 35 and -8 21. We have therefore:
3 -$=-9". 65.
1

18.

The maximum and minimum

of aberration in lon
is

gitude takes place, when the longitude of the star ther equal to the longitude of the sun or greater by while the maximum and minimum in latitude occurs,
the star
is
90"

ei

180, when
Very

ahead of the sun or follows

90"

after.

similar to the
for

formulae for the annual aberration are those
is

the

annual parallax of the stars (that

for the angle

189

which

lines

at the fixed star) only the occur at different times.

drawn from the sun and from the earth subtend maxima and minima in this case For if & be the distance of the
/:

fixed

star

as seen

spect to

from the sun, and ft its longitude and latitude from the sun, the co-ordinates of the star with re the sun are
:

x

&

cos

ft

cos

A,

y

= A cos

ft

sin /,

r

=A

sin

ft.

But the co-ordinates of the
of the earth are:

star referred to the centre

x == A sin A cos ft cos A y A cos ft sin A /? and as the co-ordinates of the sun with to the earth are: respect
,
,

=

X=RcosQ
where the semi-major
axis

and

r=/2sinQ
earth
s

of the

orbit is the unit,

we

have:

A
A

cos

1

ft /?

cos

ti

cos

sin A
sin
ft

A

= A cos = A cos =A
sin sin (A

/^

cos

/I

-f-

# cos

O
Q

ft
/9,

sin A -j- It sin

from which we easily deduce:
A A

=
=
I

*

u
ft ft
;

Q) sec ft Q)
sin
ft

.

206265,
206265.

cos

-^

(/I

.

or as
-^

206265

is

equal to the annual parallax n:

K
P

=

nR

Sin

(I

l3=

nR cos (A

Q) Q)

sec
sin

^
/?.

Hence we
the aberration,

see that the formulae are similar to those of

only the
after

maximum and minimum
when
the
the star
is

allax in longitude occurs,

90

sun or follows
in

90"

it,

while the

maximum
is

of the par ahead of the and minimum

latitude

occurs,
is

when

longitude

equal to that of

the sun or

For the
A A

right

greater ascensions
:

by 180.
and declinations we have the

following equations
cos cos

cos a
sin

A sin from which we find
a
$

= A cos S cos a = A cos S a 8 =A 8
sin sin

R cos Q R sin Q cos e sin e,+ -+- R sin
-+-

-f-

a

= ^=

in a similar
sin

R [cos T* R [cos nR cos
TT

way
sin

as before:
s

a
sin

Q cos
sin

cos

]

sec S
(Z>)

sin
sin

8
.

cos S] sin

S cos

190
19.

The
is

wise an aberration which

rotation of the earth on her axis produces like is called the diurnal aberration.

smaller than the annual aberration, the velocity of the rotation of the earth on the axis is smaller than the velocity of her orbital motion.

But

this

much

since

much

three rectangular axes, one of which coin cides with the axis of rotation, whilst the two others are sit of the equator so that the positive axis uated in the
If

we imagine

plane

centre towards the point of the th vernal equinox and the axis of y towards the 90 degree of the co-ordinates of a place at the surface right ascension, of the earth are according to No. 2 of this section as follows

of

x

is

directed from the

:

z

y
z

= q cos =Q

gcosy
90
.

cos
sin

0,
,

sin (f

We

have therefore:
dx
-

dt

dy 2-

= =

o cos

(f

sin

-j-

()

COS

(p

COS

0.

we

substitute these expressions in formula (a) in No. 16, find omitting the terms of the second order: easily If

we

a
8

a

=
fi
ft

P cos

dt
cos

y

cos

(&

a) sec

#,

8= --dt
the

y

sin

(0

a) sin

8.

If

now T be

number of

of a point year, the angular motion on the axis is T times faster than the angular motion of the
earth in
its

sidereal days in a sidereal caused by the rotation

orbit

and we have: d& __ T
dt

dM
dt

Thus

as

we

have:
-

p
I

=k =k

sin TT

where n is the parallax of the sun, k the number of seconds in which the light traverses the semi-major axis of the earth s
orbit,

the constant of diurnal aberration is:
k
.
.

sin 7t

.

dt

T,

191
or as

we have:
jk.
^"=20".445,

7r==S".5712
0".3H3.

and 7

7

=3G6.2G

is,

take instead of the geocentric latitude simply the latitude , we find the diurnal aberration in right ascension and declination as follows:
if
</

Hence

we

<f

a
S 8

= =

0".

31 13 cos

y

cos (0
sin

a)sceS,
)

0".

3113 cosy

(0

sin 5.

The when the

diurnal

aberration in

declination

is

therefore

zero,,

stars are
is

right ascension

on the meridian, whilst the aberration then at its maximum and equals:
0".

in

3113. cos
y>

sec

8.

have found the following formulae for the an nual aberration of the fixed stars in longitude and latitude
20.
:

We

A
ft

= k cos (I (1 p=+k
A
sin

Q) 0)
20".

sec p,
sin/9,

where now k denotes the constant

445.

If

we now imagine

a tangent plane to the celestial sphere at the mean place of the star and in it two rectangular axes of co-ordinates, the axes of x and y being the lines of intersection of the parallel
circle

and of the

circle

of latitude with the plane and

if

we

refer the apparent place of the star affected with aberration to the mean place by the co-ordinates:
x

=

(A

K} cos

/9

and y
2

=

/?

/? *),

we

easily find

by squaring the above equations:
^
2

=P

sin/?

x l sin/5 2

.

This
axis is fore

of an ellipse, whose semi -major k and whose semi-minor axis is k sin ft. see there
is

the

equation

We

on account of the annual aberration de scribe round their mean place an ellipse, whose semi -major axis is 445 and whose semi -minor axis is equal to the
that the
stars
20".

maximum
in

of the aberration in latitude.
ft

Now
is

if

the star

is

the

ecliptic,

and hence the minor axis

zero.

Such

stars
line,

describe therefore in the
20".

course of a year a straight

star

445 on each side of the mean place. If the moving is at the pole of the ecliptic, ft equals 90 and the mi-

*) For as the distances from the origin are very small we can suppose that the tangent plane coincides with that small part of the celestial sphere.

192
nor axis

therefore

Such a star describes equal to the major axis. the course of a year about its mean place a 445. circle whose radius is
is

in

20".

In order to

find

the

any

time in this ellipse,

place which the star occupies at we imagine round the centre of the
is

the major axis of the el Then it is obvious, that the radius must move in the lipse. course of a year over the area of the circle with uniform velocity so that it coincides with the west side of the ma
ellipse a circle,

whose diameter

jor axis,

when the longitude of the sun is equal to the of the star, and with the south part of the minor longitude axis, when the longitude of the sun exceeds the longitude of
the star

by 90.

If

we draw

then the radius corresponding

any time and let fall a perpendicular line from the ex tremity of the radius on the major axis, the point, in which
to
this intersects the ellipse, will

be the place of the

star.

two

If the star has also a parallax ;r, the expressions for the rectangular co-ordinates become:
x
.

k cos

y

=

(A

-+-

k sin (A

0) Q)
k
TC

n
sin
ft

sin (A

0)
cos (A

n

0)

sin

/?

or, taking:

= a cos y = H- a
x

= a cos A =a A
sin
(A

A

)

sin (/

A)

sin

/3.

Hence

also

in

this

case the

star

describes round
axis
is Ftf
2

its

mean place an

ellipse,

whose semi-major
is

-h77

2

and

whose semi -minor

axis

sin

ft

V k?-\-

^>

The

effect of the diurnal aberration is similar.

The

stars

describe on account of it day round their mean places an ellipse, whose sem-imajor axis is 3113 cosy sin 8. 3113 cos (f and whose semi-minor axis is If the star is in the equator, this ellipse is changed into a
in the

course

of a sidereal

0".

0".

straight line, while a star exactly at the pole of the heavens describes a circle.
21.

If the

body have a proper motion
then for such the

moon and
fixed

the planets, stars is not the

like the sun, the aberration of the

complete

aberration.

a body changes

its place during the time in

For as such which a ray of

193
light travels

from
if

the ray,
stars,

even

to the earth, the observed direction of corrected for the aberration of the fixed
it

does not give the true geocentric place of the object will suppose, that the light, at the time of observation. of the telescope at the time , which reaches the object-glass

We

the planet at the time T. Let then P Fig. 5 be the place of the planet at the time T, p its place at the time f, A the place of the object-glass at the time T, a and b the

has

left

places of the object-glass and the eye-piece at the time t and when the light , finally a and b their places at the time Then is: reaches the eye -piece.

AP the direction towards the place of the body at the time r, ap that towards the true place at the time , 2) a b and a b the direction towards the apparent place at the time t or t\ the difference of the two being in
1)

3)

definitely small, b a the direction towards the

same apparent place cor

rected for the aberration of the fixed stars.

Now

as P, a, b

1

are situated in a straight line,

we have:

Pa

:

ab

=

t

T

:

t

t.

Furthermore as the interval t - - T is always so small, that we can suppose, that the earth during the same is mo
ving in a straight line and with a uniform velocity, the points -4, a, a are also situated in a straight line, so that A a and

a a are also proportional
it

to the times

t

T and

t

t.

Hence

follows that

AP

is

parallel

to

6 a

place of the planet at the time t is at the time T. But the interval between these two times

or that the apparent equal to the true place
is

the time, in which the light from the planet reaches the eye or is equal to the distance of the planet multiplied by 497 s 8, that is, by the time in which the light traverses the
.

semi-major axis of the earth s orbit, which is taken as the unit. It follows then that we can use three methods, for com
puting the true place of a planet from any time t.
I.

its

apparent place at
time the time in

We

subtract from the observed

which the
ical

light

find the time

T

from the planet reaches the earth; thus we and the true place at the time T is ident
t.

with the apparent place at the time

13

194
II.

We

the reduction
the

can compute from the distance of the planet of time t T and from the daily motion of

planet in right ascension and declination compute the reduction of the observed apparent place to the time T. III. can consider the observed place corrected for

We

the aberration

as the true place at the time T, but as seen from the place which the earth occupies This last method is used when the distance at the time t.

of the fixed stars

of the body

is

not known, for instance in computing the orbit

of a newly discovered planet or comet. Since the time in which the light traverses the semis major axis of the earth s orbit is 497 8 and the mean daily motion of the sun is 59 19, we find the aberration of
.

8".

the sun in longitude according to rule II. equal to 45, by which quantity we observe the longitude always too small. On account of the change of the distance and the velocity
20" .

of the sun this value varies a

little

in

the course of a year

but only by some
22.

tenths of a second.

The

the general case,

aberration for a moveable body, being in fact may also be deduced from the fundamental

equations (a) in No. 16.

For

it

is

evident, that in this case

we need

of the absolute velocity of only the earth its relative velocity with respect to the moveable body, since this combined with the motion of the light again
substitute

instead

the angle by which the telescope must be in clined to the real direction of the rays of light emanating from the body in order that the latter always appear in

determines

the axis of the telescope noth withstanding the -motion of the If therefore earth and the proper motion of the body. ?/ ,

and

L,

be the co-ordinates of the body with respect to the
in (a)
if
,

system of axes used there, we must substitute

-j.

dy_d_n
dt

dz_d
dt

.

d

dx
f
dt

djj

an(j dz^
dt

fi

dt

dt

dt

A

h

distance of the

body from the
?/,
,

co-ordinates

,

A

cos 8 cos

etc.

earth, we find the heliocentric since the geocentric co-ordinates are f, from the formulae
:

rj

x cos a f = A cos = A cos 8 y =A 8 H-f-

,

sin

-f-

,

(/)

sin

z,

195

from which
[

we

easily

deduce the following:
(dy
r-;

(dx \dt

dg\ sm dt)
.

drj\

I

\dt
dri\
I

dtJ

r-

I

cos a

=A
I

da
cos o

dt
~ d^\ cos o J dt/

(dx
\</<

dg\
1

sm

.

.

o cos

a

-+-

(dy
[

c///

W

d//

... sin o sin a -f- (dz
Vrf*

dS = A dt
-r~

Hence

the formulae (a) change into:
a
A d

a
X d

=

A da ^ e? * d8
ft

,

,

dt

or as

equals the time in which the light traverses the dis

tance A,

we

find, if

we denote

this

by

t

T:

which formulae show, that the apparent place is equal to the place at the time T and therefore correspond to the rules I and II of the preceding number. But we also find the aberration for this case by adding
true
to

the

second
dt

member
cos a
J

of the

first

formula (a) the term
to the second

fi

[_dt

^

sin a

sec 8

and a similar term

member

of the

second equation.
1
-\
fi

We
cos a
~|

get therefore, if

we

denote the aberration of the fixed stars by
,

Da

and Dd:

a
8

= Da =D

[~c?!

sm a
sin

.

dr]

sec o

.

\_dt

dt
cos
-j-

J
sin

S

-i

d

sin

fi

[_dt

dt

a +-

- cos

dt

8 J

.

member
the

differentiating the equations (/*), taking in the second 8 as variable and ? only the geocentric quantities A? co-ordinates of the earth as constant, and denoting the

But

partial differential coefficients

by (-^) and (V), we

find the
:

second members of the above equations respectively equal to A (da\ A /^^\
/u,

\dt

/

/LI

\dt

/

We

therefore have:

and S

DS = S-t-T).
13

196

which formulae correspond

to the third rule of the preceding

No.

For since

and

are the differential coefficients

of a and cV, if the heliocentric place of the planet is changed whilst the place of the earth remains the same, the second members of the two equations give the places of the planet
at the time
T,

buf

as
t.

seen from the place which the earth

occupies at the time

Note.
axis

The motion of
the

the earth round the sun and the rotation on the

only causes which produce a motion of the points on the surface of the earth in space, as the sun itself has a motion, of which the earth as well as the whole solar system participates. This motion consists
are not

of a progressive motion, as we shall see hereafter, and also of a periodical one caused by the attractions of the planets. For if we consider the sun

and one planet, they both describe round their common centre of gravity The first mo ellipses, which are inversely as the masses of the two bodies. tion which at present and undoubtedly for long ages may be considered as
line, produces only a permanent and hence impercep change of the places of the stars and the aberration caused by the second motion is so small that it always can be neglected. For if a and a are the radii of the orbits of two planets which are here considered as cir

going on in a straight
tible

cular,

r and T
be as

their times

of revolution,

then the angular velocities of the
velocities as

two

will

:

-7

,

hence their linear

ar

:

a r or as j/a

:

J/a,

since according to the third law of Kepler the squares of the periodic times of two planets are as the cubes of their semi- major axes. The constant

of aberration for a planet, the semi -major axis of whose orbit
i **
O/\"

is

a,

taking

the radius

of the

earth

s

orbit

as

unit,

is

therefore -

-

~ya

and hence the

constant of aberration caused by the motion of the sun round their
centre of gravity
is

common

equal to

m

20 .45
.

~

;

r^~

,

where

m

is

the

mass of the planet

W*

In the case of Jupiter we have expressed in parts of the mass of the sun. TOTO an d a 5.20, hence the constant of aberration caused by the at traction of Jupiter is only 0".OOS6.

=

=

The perturbations of the earth caused by the planets produce also changes of the aberration, which however are so small, that they can be neglected.
Compare on p. XVII

aberration:
et

The
etc.

introduction

to

Bessel

s

Tabulae Regiop.

montanae

seq.

;

also Wolfers,

Tabulae Reductionum

XVIII

etc.

Gauss, Theoria motus pag. G8

FOURTH SECTION.
ON THE METHODS BY WHICH THE PLACES OF THE STARS AND THE VALUES OF THE CONSTANT QUANTITIES NECESSARY FOR THEIR REDUCTION ARE DETERMINED BY OBSERVATIONS.

The

chief problem of spherical astronomy

is

the deter

mination of the places of the stars with respect to the fun damental planes and especially the equator, as their longitudes

by observations, but, the of the ecliptic being known, are computed from their obliquity When the observations right ascensions and declinations.

and

latitudes are never determined

made in such a way as to give immediately the places of the stars with respect to the equator and the vernal equi nox, they are called absolute determinations, whilst relative
are

determinations are such, which give merely the differences of the right ascensions and declinations of stars from those of other stars, which have been determined before.
observations give us the apparent places of the stars, the places affected with refraction *) and aberration and is, referred to the equator and the apparent equinox at the time
that

The

of

observation.

It

is

therefore

necessary to reduce these

places to

places by adding the corrections which have been treated in the two last sections. But the expressions of each of these corrections contain a constant quantity, whose

mean

numerical value must at the same time be determined by sim ilar observations as those by which we find the places of
the
values of these constant quantities given in chapters are those derived from the latest de terminations, but they are still liable to small corrections by future observations.
stars.

The

the last two

*)

In the

case

of observations

of the sun,

the

moon and

the planets

these places are affected also with parallax.

198
If

times

we observe we ought to

the places of the fixed stars at different find only such differences as can be as

cribed to any such errors of the constant quantities and to errors of observation. However, comparing the places de termined at different epochs we find greater or less differences

which cannot be explained by such
effect

errors

of proper motions

of the

stars.

and must be the These motions are

partly without any law and peculiar to the different stars, partly they are merely of a parallactic character and caused

by the progressive motion of the

solar system, that is, by So far these proper mo a proper motion of the sun itself. tions with a few exceptions can be considered as uniform
in a great circle. They must necessarily be taken into account in order to reduce the mean places

and as going on

of the stars from one epoch to the other.

The methods

for

computing the various corrections which

must be applied to the places of the stars have been given in the two last sections; but as these computations must be

made

so very frequently for the reductions of stars,

still

other

methods are used, which make the reduction of the appa
rent places of stars to their mean places at the beginning of the year as short and easy as possible and which shall be

given now.

I.

ON THE REDUCTION OF THE MEAN PLACES OF STARS TO APPARENT PLACES AND VICE VERSA.
1.

mean place of a star for the be year and we wish to find the apparent for any given day of another year, we must first reduce place the given place to the mean place at the beginning of this
If

we know

the

ginning of a certain

by applying the precession and if necessary the proper motion and then add the precession and the proper motion from the beginning of the year to the given day as Now in well as the nutation and aberration for this day.
other year

order to
easy,

make

tables

the computation of these three last corrections have been constructed for all of them, which

199
have for argument the day of the year. Such tables have been given by Bessel in his work Tabulae Regiornontanae" *). and d be the mean right ascension and declination Let of a star at the beginning of a year, whilst a and $ designate
the apparent right ascension and declination at the time r, reckoned from the beginning of the year and expressed in
If then w und .- designate the proper parts of a Julian year. motion of the star in right ascension and declination, which is considered to be proportional to the time, we have ac cording to the formulae (/)) in No. 2, (#) and (C) in No. 5
(

of the second section and (A) in No. 16 of the third section
the following expression:
a

= 4- T [m-f-w tang
[15".8148
9".2231

sin a] -+6".8650

T ft
]

-+

tang S sin

sin

ft ft

tang 8 cos a cos ft 4- [OM902 -h 0".OS22 tang S sin 4- 0".OS96 tang S cos a cos 2 ft

]

sin 2

-

[1".

1642

0".5509

-f- 0".5054 tang S sin a] sin 2 tang S cos a cos 2

Q
P)

Q

H-

and:
S

[0".1173 [0".0195

44-

0".0509

tang S sin a] sin

(

0".0085

tang 5 sin

a] sin

(0 4-P)

0".0093

20".4451
20".4451

tang 8 cos a cos (0 4- P) cos s sec 5 cos a cos
sec
sin

sin

8= 4- rn cos
6".8650
0".0822

-f-

Tp!
}

cos a sin

H-

9".2231

sin

a cos

O
cos cos

-f-

cos a sin 2 ft cos a sin 2

0".OS96

sin

0".5054

4-0".5509 sin

a cos 2 J~) a cos 2

-hO".0509cosasin(0

-

P)

0".0085

cos a sin
[sin

(0 4- P) -+- 0".0093 sin
8 cos
cos 8 sin
e]

(0 4- P)

-h

20".4451
20".4451

a

sin

-

cos a sin S sin

0.

The terms of the nutation, which depend on twice the P of the longitude of the moon 2d and on the anomaly (L moon have been omitted here, as they have a short period on account of the rapid motion of the moon and therefore
are
better

tabulated separately.

Moreover these terms are

only small and on account of their short period are nearly eliminated in the mean of many observations of a star. Hence
*)

For a few

stars

it

is

which the most convenient formulae

necessary to add also the annual parallax, for shall be given hereafter.

200
they are only taken into account for stars in the neighbour

hood of the pole, for which also the terms depending on the square and the product of nutation and aberration *) become These terms are brought in tables, whose argu significant. ments are ([, 0, O-hO and O O.

Now

in order to construct

tables for the above expres

sions for a

a and d
6".S650
0".OS22

,

we

put:

Q".5054
0".0509 0".0085

= nz = = ni = ni =

15".S148
0".1902
1".1642

ni,
z
3

0".1173 0".0195

ni 4

= = = m = mil =
mi mi mi 2
l

h h
fi
l

2

z

3

/ 3
/*

4

.

Then we can
n
a =[r
i

write the formulae also in this way:
2
}
i2

sin

ft

-+- i l sin

sin 2
1

-+4

i3

-

sin

[9".2231

cos

O
s

sin (0 (0 -f- P)J

P)
[/

-+-

w tang

<?

sin a]

0".0896

cos 2

O

-f- 0".5509

cos 2

H-0".0093cos(0+P)] tangtfcosa
20".

4451 cos
sin

cos
.

.

cos a sec $

20".4451

sin

a sec S

P)

7*

4 s

and:
S

S=[r

isin^-Mi
cos

sin

2~}

e

2

+

[9".2231

D
E

sin20-K 3 sm(0 P) 4 sin (0 -|- P)] n cos
z

0".0896

cos

2^ +

0".5509

cos

20
sin a

20".

4451 cos
sin

cos
.

[tang e

4cos S

0".0093

cos
]

(0-f-P)]

sin

sin

20".4451

sin

S cos a

If

we
{

introduce therefore the following notation

:

A=r
,B

=

sin

H -Hi
1

9".223

a sin20-Hi 3 sin(0 P) cosO -I- 0".0896 cos 2^ 0".5509 cos 20
l

sin 2 i~}

/4

sin

0".0093

(0-f-P) cos(0H-P)

C ==
/>=

20".4451

cos

cos

20".4451sin0

^==

7/sin^-h^,sin2O

A2

= tang $ = tang S cos = 8 cos d= $ a
a
ft
w<

sin20H- A 3 sin(0
a!

P)

A4

s

-f-

n

sin

n

c

sec

sec

sin

= cos = = tang cos # d = S cos
n
b

sin
e

c

sin

#

sin

a

sin

a,

*)

section and

These terms are given by the formulae (E) in No. 5 of the second (c), (d) and (e) in No. 16 of the third section.

201

we have

simply:

Aa

-+-

Bb

-f-

-

Cc Cc

-+-

Dd -+- r^ -f-

where the quantities a, 6, c, d, a , 6 , c , d depend only on the place of the star and the obliquity of the ecliptic, while and and thus being mere A, B, (7, D depend only on

H

functions

of the time

may

be tabulated with the time for

argument.

The numerical
those for 1800 and
i=0.34223
i,

values given in the above formulae are

we have
iz

for this
i

epoch:
3

A=0.0572

h

t

=0.00410 =0.0016

=0.02519 A 2 =0.0041

A3

= 0.0005
E

=0.00254

i

4

= 0.00042
=0.0000.

A4

We

see therefore that the quantity

never amounts to

it may always be neglected except when the greatest accuracy should be required. As several of the coefficients in the above formulae a and S for a are variable (according to No. 5 of the

more than a small part of a second, hence

second section) and likewise the values of
for the year 1900:

m

and

w,

we have

i=0.34256 A=0.0488

i,

hl

=0.00410 =0.0014

*

= 0.02520
=0.0035

i

3

=0.00253

z

4

=0.00042

hz

7*3=0.0005.

The values of the quantities A, B, C, D, E from the year 1750 to 1850 have been published by Bessel in his work But as he has used there a dif ,,Tabulae Regiomontanae".
ferent value

of the constants

of nutation and of aberration

and
in

also neglected the terms multiplied

the values given by

order to
:

P and 0-f-P, by him require the following corrections make them correspond to the formulae given
For 1750:

above

dA

0.0090
0.2456

sin

^ 4- 0.0001
H- 0.0025

sin

2^ + O.OOlo sin 20
P)
0.0004 sin

dB=

cosO

+ 0.0019

(0 cos2O
sin

+ 0.0290 cos 2
-0.0093
cos

(0+P)
(0 -HP)

= dE =
dC
(/>=

0.1744 cos
0.1 901 sin

0.006 sin

O + 0.001

sin 2

O

For 1850 the value of

dB=

0.2465 cosiH-0.0019cos

dB becomes: 2^ -H0.0291cos20 0.0093 cos(0-f-P).

202
values of the quantities A, B etc. for the years 1850 1860 have been computed by Zech according to BesseFs formulae, and for the years 1860 to 1880 they have been given by Wolfers in his work Tabulae Reductionum Observationum Astronomicarum", where they have been computed from the formulae given above. The values for each

The

to

year

are published in
2.

all

astronomical almanacs.
all

The arguments of

these

tables are the days of

the year, the beginning of which is taken at the time, when the mean longitude of the sun is equal to 280. Hence the tables are referred to that meridian, for which the beginning of the civil year occurs when the sun has that mean longi
tude.

But as the sun performs an entire revolution in 365 and a fraction of a day, it is evident, that in every days

year the tables are referred to a different meridian.

Therefore if we denote the difference of longitude between Paris and that place, for which at the beginning of the year the mean longitude of the sun is 280, by &, which we take-

when the place is east of Paris, and if further we de note by d the difference of longitude between any other place and Paris, taking it positive, when this place is west of Paris
positive,

we suppose we must add to the
and
if

both k and d to be expressed in time, time of the second place for which we

wish to find the quantities A^ B, C, D, E from the tables, the quantity k-i-d and for the time thus corrected we must take the values from the tables. The quantity k is found

from

:

where L

is the mean longitude of the sun at the beginning of the year for the meridian of Paris, while a is the mean This quantity is 33. tropical motion of the sun or 59
8".

given in the Tabulae Regiomontanae" and in Wolfers" Tables for every year and expressed in parts of a day and the con
stant quantities A, B, C, D, E are given for the beginning of the fictitious year or for 18 h 40 m sidereal time of that me ridian, for which the sun at the beginning of the year has the longitude 280 and then for the same time of every tenth

203
these values for any sidereal day*). If now we wish to have for instance for the time of culmination other sidereal time, we must add to the , of a star whose right ascension is
the quantity: argument k-+-d
a =
~

=

24 h

24~

Furthermore as on that day, on which the right ascension two of the sun is equal to the right ascension of the star, of the star occur, we must after this day add culminations
a unit to the
is

always the

datum of the day, so that the complete argument datum plus the quantity:
i

from the beginning of the year to the while when the right ascension of the sun is equal to time,

where we have
afterwards

=

k -h d

-+-

a

-+-

1,

we

take

i

=

,

1

.

Now
at

the

the day, denoted in the tables by Jan. 0, is that, m of which the h sidereal time 18 40 year begins, the

commencement of the days being always reckoned from noon. Hence the culmination of stars, whose right ascension is
on that day, which in the tables is denoted by 0, but already on the day preceding and therefore for such stars we must add 1 to the datum of the day reck 1 from the beginning oned from noon or we must take i to the day when the right ascension of the sun of the
<

18 h 40 m does not

fall

=

is

year 2. equal to a and afterwards i will find for instance the correction of the mean Lyrae for April 1861 and for the time of culmi place of have for the beginning of the year: nation for Berlin. m 46".062 logn= 1.30220 =23"27 ^= + 38 39 a== 2783

=

We

We

30"

23"

22"

=

and from

this

we

find:

*)

We

have therefore to use for computing the tables:

=
366 242201
.

Mean

longitude of the sun
in

= 280

-1-

-

obb
all

.

where n must be taken
to 37.

succession equal to
the
true

integral

numbers from
I.

With

this

we

find

longitude according to

No.

14.

We

have also:

^=33

15

25".9

1920

29"

53(t

1800)

204

= .4797 = 9.04973 log = 9.25409 log d =
log a log 6
c
1
1

0.10309,,

= 0.44889 = 9.99569 = 9.98106 log log d = 8.94233
log a log b
c
1

and besides we have:
log
fi

= 9.4425

log/*

= 9.4564.

Further we have according to Wolfers Tabulae Reductionum

and we get according
March 31
April

to the formulae (A)

10

+ +

Is
1

.

203

.541

-

19".

85

19 .09

20

+1.871

30

+2

.

185

-17.79 - 15 .97.
0.031,

Now we have A = + 0.1 24, d=

^|^

m

=

0.005,
li

and as here i is equal to 1, because a is less than 18 40 m and in March and April the right ascension of the sun is less than 18 h 40 m the argument in this case is
,

the

datum

We

+

1.088.
:

find therefore at the time of culmination for Berlin March 31 1.239 -19". 79

+

April

10

20

30

+1 +1 +2

.577 .906 .219

18 .98
17 .62

15 .76.

we

subtract these corrections from the apparent place, find the mean place at the beginning of the year.
3.

If

we

This method of reducing the mean place to the ap parent place and vice versa is especially convenient in case, that we wish to compute an ephemeris for any greater length of time, for instance if we have to reduce many observations
of the

same
is

star.

But

in

case that the reduction for only

one day

greater of the constant quantities a, 6, c, etc. The precession and nutation in right ascension are equal to

wanted, the following method may be used with convenience, as it does not require the computation
:

Am

-{-A n

sin

a tang 8

+ B tang S cos a + E
B sin a.

and

in declination:

An cos

a

205
Therefore
if

we

put:

An = gcosG B = g sin G
Am-i-

E=f,
)

the terms for the right ascension become:

f-t-gsm(G-\r

tang 8

and those

for the declination:

g cos (G

-f- a).

Further the aberration in right ascension
Csec $ cos a
-f-

is:

D sec

sin

and

in declination:
(7

sin

sin

a

-f-

D sin $ cos a -f- C tang c cos S.
t

Hence

if

we

C

=

put:
h sin //

D = h cos /T
h sin (H-\- a) sec #

= C tang

,

the aberration in right ascension becomes:

and

in declination:
h cos (H-+- a) sin $
-f- i

cos

$.

Therefore the complete formulae for the reduction to the

apparent place are:
a
S
A cos (//+) sin^-f-t cos^H-r//. gcos(G H- a) Here again for the quantities /*, g, h^ i, G and // tables
is

8=

a=/4- g sin (G +

a) tang 8-+- h sin

+

(H -\- a)

sec S -\-

r/ii

may be computed, whose argument
always published in mean noon.
for
all

the time.

They

are

almanacs for every tenth day and for

If we wish to find for instance the reduction of a Lyrae 1861 April 10 at 17 h 15 m mean time, this being the time of culmination of a Lyrae on that day, we take from the

Berlin Jahrbuch for this time:
/==+26".98
<7=+12".20

hence

G
g
sin

-\-

a

= 262

=3443
6

A== + 18".98
7/-h
g sin (G
h sin
-f-

= 1656
a)

#=247

3

i=

7".58

cos(G-j-a)

9.13813,

1.0S222*

1.08636

(G
h

+

tang S

__M9.30L"a68846~

)

9.99586 a 9.98515

(H-+- a)
i

cos

(#-}-)

cos^
h cos (H-+- a)
sin

9.89260

1.27830
9.41016

_0^!967_
1.26345

sin (IT -f- a)

8

9.79564

g

sin

(G

+ a) tang = sec ^=+
r^
=-f-

/=-|-26".98
9".67

;cos$=
^ cos (G -+h cos (#-f- a) sin r j
)

6".25

Q".Q8

= 8= =

5".92

1".68

11".46

^=

18".98.

206
4.

The formulae (A) and

(J5)

for the reduction to the

apparent place do not contain the daily aberration nor the annual parallax. For as the daily aberration depends upon the latitude of the place, it cannot be included in general tables however for meridian observations the daily aberration in declination is equal to zero and the expression for the
;

aberration in right ascension being of the same form as that of the correction for the error of collimation, which must be

added

to the observations, as

we

shall see hereafter,

it

may

always be united with the latter correction. The annual parallax has been determined only for very few stars, but for those it must be computed, when the great Now the formulae for the annual est accuracy is required.
in that case

parallax are according to No. 18 of the third chapter:
a
8

a 8

= =

7i

[cos

sin

a
sin d

sin

cos

cos a] sec d

7t
TT

[cos s sin

sin e cos 8] sin
a.

cos

sin

8 cos

Therefore

if

we

put:
cos
sin

cos a

sin

a sin 8 cos

cos 8 sin e cos a sin

=k K = k cos K = L 8 = cos L,
sin

a

I

sin

I

we have

simply:
a $ a
8

= 7tk = nl

cos CAT-}cos

0)

sec 8

(L 4-0).

But the cases
parallax amounts reduced.

in

which

this correction

are rare, for instance

when

observations of
1"

must be applied Centauri whose

to nearly

or those of Polaris are to be

II.

DETERMINATION OF THE RIGHT ASCENSIONS AND DECLINATIONS OF THE STARS AND OF THE OBLIQUITY OF THE ECLIPTIC.
5.

If

we observe

the difference

of the time of culmi

nation of the stars, these are equal to the difference of their need there apparent right ascensions expressed in time. fore for these observations only a good clock, that is, one

We

which

for

equal arcs of the equator passing across the me-

207
ridian
* always an equal number of seconds ) and an altitude instrument, mounted firmly in the plane of the me This in its essential parts ridian, that is, a meridian -circle.

gives

lying on two firm Y- pieces, which carries a vertical circle and a telescope. Attached to the Y-pieces are verniers or microscopes, which give the arc
consists

of a horizontal

axis,

passed over by the telescope by means of the simultaneous motion of the telescope and the circle round the horizontal axis. In order to examine the uniform rate of the clock without

knowing the places of the time is observed in which
ridian

stars themselves,

the interval of

different stars return to the

me

or to a wire stretched in the focus of the telescope so that it is always in the plane of the meridian when the
is

telescope

turned

round the

axis **).

Now

the

time

between two successive culminations of the same star is equal to 24 h -f-/\, where &a is the variation of the apparent
during those 24 hours. Therefore if the observations were right and the instrument at both times exactly in the
place

plane of the meridian, a condition which we here always as sume to be fulfilled, the intervals between two culminations

measured by a perfectly regulated clock would also be found h equal to 24 -|-/\. But on account of the errors of single
observations, we can only assume, that the arithmetical mean of the interval found from several stars minus the mean of
all

that this

On the contrary if we find, not equal to 24 hours but to 24 h a , we call a the daily rate of the clock and we must correct all observations on account of it. In case that for
A
is

equal to 24 hours.

arithmetical

mean

is

a certain time
difference 24
sible
h

all

the different stars give so nearly the same a, that we can ascribe the deviations to pos

errors of observation, we take the rate of the clock during this time as constant and equal to the arithmetical mean
*

It is not necessary to ) of time are observed.

know

the error of the clock, as only intervals

**)

the

daily

Usually there is a cross of wires, one wire being placed parallel to motion of the stars. This is effected by letting a star near the
until the star

equator run along the wire and by turning the cross by a screw attached to
the apparatus for this purpose
field
,

during

its

passage through the

does not leave the wire.

208
of
all

single a

and we multiply the observed differences of

right ascensions

by

^
l

,

in order to correct

them

~ii
if

for the rate of the clock.

But

we

see that the rate of the

increasing or decreasing with the time and the ob servations are sufficiently numerous, we may assume the
is

clock

hourly rate of the clock at the time t as being of the form a~i-b(t T), where a is the rate at the time T. Multiplying this by dt and integrating it between the limits t and 24-f-f,

we
star,

find

the rate between two successive culminations of a whose time of culmination is equal to:
,

24aH-24&(12-M
If

T}

=

u.

of b for every found from the several stars, we obtain a number of equations, from which we can find the values of a and b by the method of least squares. - t we find then The rate during the time by means of
coefficient
star

we compute

therefore the

and then take u equal

to the rate

-

t"

the formula:
t /
i
/"

a(t"-t )

-h

b(t"-t )

|^P-

-

i
,

Fj
t"

and we must correct every interval of time t accord ing to this. In case that already the differences of the right ascen sions of a number of stars are known, the difference of the
apparent place of each star and of the time U observed by the clock, gives the error of the clock A #, which ought to be found the same (at least within the limits of the errors
of observation) from
exactly regulated.
all

the
if it

different

stars,

if

the clock

is

has a rate equal to a at the time T, each star gives an equation of the following form:

But

=U
Now
stars,
it

a

-f-

AZ7

+a

(t

T) -+

|-

(t

T)

2

and from a great number of
is

stars

we may

find

A

U<>

a and b *).

in order to observe the time of culmination of the

necessary to rectify the meridian circle in such

*)

As we suppose
least

that the

right ascensions themselves

are not

known
be

yet,

at

not with accuracy, the

error

of the

clock

U

would

also

erroneous.

209
a way, that the intersection of the cross wires is in the plane of the meridian in every position of the telescope or that at least the deviation from the meridian is known*).
If the
line

of the

of collimation, that is, the line from the centre object-glass to the wire-cross is vertical to the axis

of the pivots (the axis of revolution of the instrument), it describes when the telescope is turned a plane, which in tersects the celestial sphere in a great circle. If besides the
axis

of the pivots

is

horizontal,
circle

this
if

same time a
to the

vertical

and

great circle is at the the axis is directed also

West and East points, the line of collimation must always move in the plane of the meridian. Hence the instru

ment requires those three adjustments. As will be shown in No. 1 of the last section, we can always examine with the aid of a spirit-level, whether the axis of the pivots is horizontal and we may also correct any
error of this kind, since one of the Y-pieces can be raised or lowered by adjusting screws. The position of the line of collimation with respect to the axis can be examined by re

versing the
or
this
still

whole instrument and directing the telescope in each position of the instrument to a distant terrestrial object
better to a

small telescope

(collimator)

purpose
that
its

in front of the telescope of the
line

placed for meridian circle

so

of collimation

coincides

with that of the

meridian
this

circle.

For

if
it

there

is

a wire-cross at the focus of

small telescope,

can be seen in the telescope of the

meridian circle like any object at an infinitely great distance, since the rays coming from the focus of the collimator after

by its object glass are parallel. Now if the which the line of collimation makes with the axis of angle, the meridian circle, differs by x from a right angle, the angles which the lines of collimation of the two telescopes make
their refraction

with each other in both positions of the meridian circle, will differ by 2x or the wire of the collimator as seen in the
*)

The complete methods
its

for rectifying the meridian circle
for

and for de

termining of them,
these
the stars.

errors

as

well

as

correcting the

observations on account

are

given in the seventh section.

Here
the

determinations can be

made without

it is only shown, that knowledge of the places of

14

210
telescope of the

meridian circle will appear to have moved Therefore if we move the through an angle equal to 2x. wires of the meridian telescope by the adjusting screws in a
plane vertical to the line of collimation through the angle a?, the line of collimation will be vertical to the axis and the

wire of the collimator will remain unchanged with respect to the wires of the telescope in both positions of the in

strument or to speak more correctly it will in both positions be at the same distance from the middle wire of the teles
If this should not be exactly the case, the operation cope. of reversing the instrument and moving the wires of the tele

scope must be repeated.

When
limation

describes

these corrections have been made, the line of col a vertical circle. At last in order to di

make use

rect the horizontal axis exactly from East to West, we must of the observations of stars, but a knowledge of

The circumpolar stars, for in their place is not required. stance the pole-star, describe an entire circle above the hori Therefore if the zon, except at places near the equator.
telescope moves in a vertical circle which is at least near the meridian, the line of collimation intersects the parallel
star can therefore be seen in the one entire revolution. If we observe scope twice during the time of the passage of the star over the wire at

circle twice,

and the

tele

now
first

above and then below the pole and the telescope is accu rately in the plane of the meridian, the interval between the where j\a designates the two observations will be 12 h -f&>

of the apparent right ascension of the star in 12 on the contrary, the interval will be greater or less hours than 1 2 h -|- /\ , if the plane of the telescope is East or West
variation
;

of the meridian.

Now

as

one of the Y-pieces admits always

of a motion in the

direction from

move
actly

this until the interval

North to South, w e can between two observations is ex
r

12 h -f-A
is

and when

this

has been accomplished the

exactly in the plane of the meridian or the axis telescope is directed from East to West *).

*) As the complete adjustment of an instrument would be impracticable on account of the continuous change of the errors, it is always only approx-

211

We
if

cessive culminations with each other, as these

can also compare the intervals between three suc must be equal
is

accurately in the plane of the meridian. If the intervals are unequal, the telescope is on that side of the meridian, on which the star remains the shortest time.
the instrument

now we observe with an instrument thus adjusted the of stars, we find the differences of the ap ascensions and we must apply to these the re parent right
If

times

of transit

apparent place with the opposite sign in the differences of the mean right ascensions referred to the beginning of the year. But the computation
ductions
to

the

order

to

find

corrections requires already an of the right ascension and declina approximate knowledge tion, which however can always be taken from former cata

of the

formulae

for

these

observed object has a visible disc, we can only one limb and as such objects have also a proper observe motion, we must compute the time of its semi-diameter pass
meridian according to No. 28 of the first and we must add this time to the observed time if we have observed the first limb or substract it from it, if we have observed the second limb. In case of the sun hav ing been observed, where both limbs are usually taken, we
ing across the
section,

logues. If the

can simply take the arithmetical mean of both times of ob
servation.

The time
still

of culmination of a

star

may be determined
observing
is

at

by which the
is

another
star

method,
arrives

namely by
at

the

time,

of the meridian.

equal For these observations a circle

altitudes

on both sides
required,

which round

attached to a vertical column admitting of a motion its axis in order that the circle may be brought into

the plane

of any vertical circle. If we observe with such an instrument the time, when a star arrives at equal alti tudes on both sides of the meridian, the arithmetical mean of both times is the clock-time of the culmination of the star.
It
is

evident,

that

it

is

not necessary to

know

the altitude

imatcly adjusted and the observations are corrected for the remaining errors, which have been determined by the above methods or by similar ones, which
will

be given in the

last section.

14*

212
of the
star
itself,

but

it

is

essential,

that

the telescope in

both

observations

horizon.
this is

has exactly the same inclination to the If there is a difference of the two inclinations and
easily

known, we can

compute the error of the clock-

time of culmination produced by it; for if the zenith distance on the West side has been observed too great, the star has

been observed
-

in

an

hour

angle

which

is

too

great

by

cos

tp

sin

A

,

hence

we must

subtract

from the
A
-*

arithmetical

mean

of both times the correction
is

rection

always
the

required

on
is

although

mean

refraction

sm A account of refraction; for the same for both observa
cp

^ cos

.

Such

a cor-

tions, yet the different state of the atmosphere, as indicated by the thermometer and barometer, will produce a slight

difference of the refraction, whose effect can be computed In case of the sun being observed by the above formula. the change of the declination during the interval of both

observations will also

make

a correction necessary.
-^

We
to

see from the formula

= cos
(f>

sin A^ that

it is

best

bourhood of the prime then the most rapid.

observe the zenith distances of the stars in the neigh vertical, because their changes are
It
is

also

desirable,

to

make

these

observations at a place not too far from the equator, because then cos (f is also equal to 1, and to observe stars near the

determination of absolute right ascensions depends upon such observations, it may be made with ad vantage by this method at a place near the equator. If we bring the stars at the time, when they cross 6.
equator.
the

As

the vertical wire

of the meridian
circle

circle,

on the horizontal

wire

and read the

by a vernier or
for

differences

of these readings

a microscope, the different stars give us the
altitudes*),

differences of their apparent meridian know the zenith point of the circle
*)

and
this

if

we

and subtract

from

In the

seventh

section

the corrections will be given,

which must be

applied to

readings in order to free them from the errors of the in strument, for instance the errors of division of the circle, or errors pro duced by the action of the force of gravity upon different parts of the in
these

strument.

213

we find the apparent zenith distances of the This point can be easily determined by observing the images of the wires reflected from an artificial horizon. For if we turn the telescope towards the nadir, and place a basin
all

readings,
"

stars.

with mercury under the object glas and reflect light from the outside of the eye-piece towards the mercury, we see in the light field besides the wires also their reflected images.

Therefore if we turn the telescope until the reflected image of the horizontal wire coincides with the wire itself, the line

must be directed exactly to the nadir, hence the reading of the circle the nadir point or by by adding 180 the zenith point of the circle. The apparent zenith distances must first be corrected
of collimation
find

we

refraction and if the sun, the moon or the planets have been observed, also for parallax by adding to them the re fraction computed according to formula A in No. 12 of the third section and by subtracting p sin ss, where p is the
for

horizontal parallax *). If the object has a visible disc, we must add to or substract from the zenith distance of the
limb, corrected for refraction and parallax, the radius of the disc or if in case of observations of the sun, the lower as well as the upper limb has been observed, we must take the

arithmetical

mean
is

of both corrected observations.

Since in this

case these observations are

made

at a little distance

from the

meridian,

necessary to apply a small correction (whose expression will be given in the seventh section) be cause the horizontal wire represents a great circle on the
it

still

celestial

sphere

and therefore

differs

from the

parallel

of

the sun.

When
are

the zenith distances
the decimations
section,

at

the time of culmination

known,
first
is

of the
vation

are found according to No. 23 if the latitude of the place of obser

But the latter can always easily be deter mined by observing the zenith distances of any circumpolar star in its upper and lower culmination, as- the arithmet
known.
ical

mean
is

of these zenith distances corrected for refraction

-r-|A<?

equal to the co- latitude of the place, where

A<?

*)

In the case of the

moon

the rigorous formula

must be used.

214
denotes
the

the

variation

of the

interval

of time.

We

may

apparent declination during also determine the latitude
star
in
its

by observing any circumpolar
rizon.

culmination as well direct as reflected from an

upper and lower artificial ho
alti

For then

the arithmetical
is

mean of
at

the corrected

tudes minus

equal to flected observations cannot be

|A^

the latitude.

made

But as the re the same time as the

direct observations, usually also several observations are taken

before and after the time
first

of culmination, we must reduce each observation to the meridian by the method given in the seventh section.

the

place of observation is in the neighbourhood of equator, the method of determining the latitude by cir
If the
stars
it

cumpolar
determine

cannot be used.

by observations of
the
latitude

At such a place the sun as will be

we must
shown
find
in

the next number.

When

has been determined

we

from

the zenith distances corrected for refraction the apparent de cimations of the stars, which are converted into mean decli

nations for the beginning of the year by applying the reduc
tion to the apparent declination with the opposite sign.
7.

If

of the sun,

A and D be we have:
sin

the

right ascension

and declination

A

tang

= tang D,

hence the observation of the declination of the sun gives us
either the obliquity of the ecliptic,
is

known

,

ecliptic is
tial

when the right ascension or the right ascension , when the obliquity of the known from other observations. But the differen
equa

equation (which we get by differentiating the above tion written in a logarithmic form)
cotang

A

.<lA-\-

2de =-. sm 2e

2dD = sm 7777;
2Z>

shows, that it is best, to determine the obliquity of the ecliptic by observations in the neighbourhood of the solstices and the
right ascension If equinoxes.

by observations

in

we determine

the

the neighbourhood of the declination of the sun ex

actly at the time,, when the right ascension is equal to 90 or 270 we find immediately by subtracting the latitude of But even if we only the sun the obliquity of the ecliptic.

215
.

observe the declination in the neighbourhood of the solstice and know approximately the position of the equinox, we can

compute the obliquity of the mula or better by developing
If

ecliptic either by the it in a series.

above for

we denote by D
the

latitude of the sun,

the observed declination, by B the declination of the sun corrected for

which would have been observed, if the centre sun had been in the ecliptic, will be according to the formulae in the Note to No. 11 of the first Section:
the latitude,

of the

ff-^ -B^D. cos/)
Moreover
stitial

if

x

is

the

distance

of the sun from the sol

we have
and
as

point expressed the following equation:
cos x tang e

in right

ascension or equal to 90
tang D,

A^

x

is

a small quantity,

we can

develop

&

into a rap

find according to formula (18) idly converging series, for we in No. 11 of the introduction:

=
solstitial

2 /)-+- tang ^ x

.

sin 2

D -f- ^ tang

4-

x* sin 4

D H-

.

.

.

(A)

the obliquity of the ecliptic easily of the sun in the neighbourhood of the from an observation
find

Thus we can
points.

It

is

evident,

that the

aberration,

as

it

merely the apparent place in the ecliptic, upon the result, nor is the value of e changed, if A and D are reduced to another equinox by applying the affected precession. But if A and D are the apparent places, with nutation, the value of g, which we deduce from them, will
affects

has no

in

fluence whatever

be also the apparent obliquity of the ecliptic
nutation.

,

affected with

On

the 19 th of

June 1843 the declination of the sun was

observed at Koenigsberg and after being corrected for re 57. At fraction and parallax was found equal to -+- 23 26 time the right ascension of the sun was 5 h 48 m 50 s 54. the same 247 21".90 O h ll m 9 s 46 Hence we have in this case x
8".

.

=

.

=

and as the latitude of the sun was equal
Z>

to
7".

-4-0".

70,

we

have:

I.

term of the series

II.

term of the series

= -4-2326 = +1 29 = + = 23 27

87

.

23

.

04
14.

37".

216
the apparent obliquity of the ecliptic on the 19 th of June 1843, as deduced from this one observation. If we

This

is

compute now the nutation according
of the
((

hence the mean obliquity on that day according to that one ob servation is 23 27 09.
,

=

second section, taking ft 272" 37 4, 350 17 and P 280" 14 we find A -+.

=

=

to the formulae in

=

= 87

No. 5
,

0".05,

37".

same value only in a more circuitous correcting A and D for nutation according to the for mulae in No. 5 and 7 of the second section and computing
should find the

We

way by

the formula (A) with these corrected values.
in longitude is equal

As

the nutation

A

=

to

-f-

17".

18,
26

we
7".

find face

=

s -f- 1 25,
.

H-0".39,

therefore:
Corrected
I.

D = 23
=23

48
57

term

-h

1

29
77

.

II.

term

4^0 04
.

Mean

obliquity

27 37

7o~9^

In order to free the result from accidental errors of ob
servation, the decimation of the sun is observed on as many days as possible in the neighbourhood of the solstices and

the arithmetical

mean taken of

all

single observations.

But

any constant errors, with which x and D are affected, will not If we denote the value of the be eliminated in this way.
obliquity

of the

ecliptic

which has been computed from x

and

D
,

by

according to the above method by , its true value the errors of x and by dx and dD, each observation

D

gives an equation of the following form:

=
which
is

-j-

V

5

tang

j?

sin 2 e

dx -+-

^T sin Z

^~ dD, U

easily

deduced from the

differential equation given

is expressed in seconds of time. have for instance for the above example:
s

before and in which

dx

We

dD, equal to a second of 21 in the obliquity of time, produces only an error of If we assume then a certain value the ecliptic. , taking
37".

= 23

27

09

-f-

0.212 dx

-f-

1.001

from which we

see, that

an error in

aj,

0".

=

-r-e/fi

and

e ()

e

=n, we
v
tang x sin

find

from each observation
sin 2 e
sin2Z>

an equation of the following form:

=

n

-f-

as

s

dx

dD.

,

217
applying to them the method of least squares, we can find de as a function of dx and e?D, hence if we should afterwards be obliged to alter the right ascensions or the de

By

dx sun by the constant quantities dA and dD, we can easily compute the effect, which these al terations have upon the value of the obliquity of the ecliptic.
clinations of the

=

Hence we may assume,

that the most probable value of the of the ecliptic, deduced from observations in the obliquity neighbourhood of a certain solstice, is of the following form:
e

-i-adD-+- bdx,

where the

Now
made

if

always nearly equal to unity. there are no constant errors in D and #, or if dD
to zero,

coefficient of (ID is

and dx are equal
in

we ought

to find

from observations

neighbourhood of the next solstice nearly the same value of , the difference being equal to the secular
the
0".

variation during the interval of time, which amounts to 23. But since accidental errors committed in taking the single zenith distances or accidental errors of the refraction are

not entirely eliminated in the arithmetical mean of all ob servations made in the neighbourhood of the same solstice, we can only expect to arrive at an accurate value of the
obliquity of the ecliptic by reducing the values derived from a great many solstices to the same epoch and in this case we may determine at the same time the secular varia tion. If we have found from observations the mean obliquity

mean

of the
that
to
e (}

equal to e and if we suppose, value of the obliquity at the time t is equal -\-ds and that the annual variation is A^-f-^ 5 we should
ecliptic

at

the time

t

the true

have the equation
in case that the

:

=

-h

tie

(A e

+

ar)

(t

*

)

observed value were right. Hence if we take o e A (t o n, determination of the mean obliquity of the ecliptic at every the time of a solstice gives an equation of the following form
:

O

=
t

:

=

n -f-

ds

-f-

x

(t

}

and

there have been several such determinations made, we can find from all equations the most probable values of de
if

and x according to the method of least squares. In this way Bessel found from his own observations and those of Brad-

218
ley the

mean

year 1800 equal to 23 27
0".457.

obliquity of the ecliptic for the beginning of the 54". 80 and the annual variation
s

Peters comparing Struve
23
27

observations with those

of Bradley found:
54".

22

0".4G45 (t

1800)

a value which

now
for

generally

is

considered as more exact.
in

If a constant error has

been committed

observing the

instance the altitude of the pole is only approximately known, the values of the obliquity derived from summer or winter solstices will show constant differences.
,

declinations

if

Since

we have D

rection

z -4and if we denote by d the cor cp which must be applied to the altitude of the pole,
<f

=

by

s

value deduced from observations, tion from a summer solstice:

the true value of the obliquity of the ecliptic, by e the we have the following equa

= +
e

Cfd<f>,

and

for a winter solstice:
*,

=

e"

rt

rfy

hence we have:

where
time.

e

s
t

is

the
the

secular variation during the interval of

This
if

latitude,

correction which must be applied to the a constant error has been committed in observ
is

ing the

zenith

distances.

We

can find in this

way an ap

proximate value of the latitude by observing the zenith dis tance of the sun on the days of the summer and winter sol
stice.

For

if z

and

z"

are those zenith

distances corrected

for

parallax and nutation, taken negative if the sun culminates on the north side of the zenith, we have:
refraction,
9*

= -2
[

~

<>

If then the obliquity of the ecliptic be known, the 8. absolute right ascension of a star and hence from the dif ferences of right ascensions that of all stars may be found

with the utmost accuracy. For this purpose a bright star is selected, which can be observed in the daylight as well as

by night and which

is in the neighbourhood of the equator, a Canis minoris (Procyon) or a Aquilae (Altair). for instance

219
If then the transit of the star is observed at the time
,

that

T, the rate of the clock, is equal to the difference of the right ascensions of the star and the sun at the time of culmination of the
latter.

of the

sun at the time T, the interval

t

corrected for

If

now

also

the

true

declination of the sun

has been determined at the time of culmination, we find the right ascension of the sun from the following equation
:

sin

A

tang

e

= tang
D --h
e

Z>,

and we have therefore:
a

= arc

.

sin

tang
tang

/

T,

where
itude

strictly the

time

T must
-J-

also be corrected for the lat

of the sun by adding

cos

A

sec d sin
shall

s

p.
this

be in error, also obtain an erroneous value oft
If
s

now D and

we

on

account

rors of observation in

t

T.

T, independently of er In order to estimate the effect

of any such errors,
the preceding

we

use the differential equation found in

No.

:

and consequently we obtain from each observation an equa
tion of the following form:

= arcsin tang D H.

/

T-

2 tang

A

tangs

sm2f

ds

,

-\

2 ---tang

sin 2 Z)

A
<ID.

(A)

easily see from this equation, that it is best to make these observations in the neighbourhood of the equinox, be cause then the coefficients of ds and dD arrive at their min

We

imum,
eral
in
s

or 2.3.

that of ds being zero and that of being cotang s Moreover we see that it is possible to combine sev observations in such a way, that the effect of an error

dD

as well as of

any constant error

in I) is eliminated.

For

if in

the equation sin

A = --^?
tang
s

we

take the

ande A always J
is

acute, have, when the right ascension of the sun the following equation:

we

180

4

,

=180
where
i

arc sin

^

v

^-f.

f_I" -+.

_"
"6"</

tang

sin 2 e

sin 2

D
star

and T

are

again the times

of transit of the

220 and the sun, and
if

wo combine

this equation

with the former,

we

find:
7
7

(

)]

H-

i

arc sin

arc sin

-f-

180

tang

e

tang

e
-1
<*..

- tang
sm
If
2
e

()

now

the acute angle

A

= A,

then

we have

also

D

= D.
in

If therefore the difference of right ascensions of the sun and the star be observed at the times when the sun has the right

ascensions

A and
will

180

A, the coefficients of

dD

and ds

be equal to zero and the constant errors in the declination and the obliquity will thus have no effect
equation
(I?)

on the right ascension of the

star.

This

it

is

true will never

be attained with the utmost rigour, as it will never exactly happen, that, when the sun at one culmination has the right
ascension A^ the right ascension 180 But respond to another culmination.
equal
to

A
if

shall exactly cor

A

180

-A,

the remaining

errors

be only nearly dependent on dD

and ds

be always exceedingly small. Therefore for the determination of the absolute right
will

ascension of a star, the difference of right ascensions of the sun and the star should be observed in the neighbourhood of But if one observation the vernal and autumnal equinoxes.

has been made after the vernal equinox, the second must be

made as much before the autumnal equinox and vice versa. If we combine any two such observations, the effect of any
constant errors in

D

and

6

is

eliminated and the result

is

only affected with casual errors,

which may have been com

mitted in observing the times of transit or the declinations. These can only be got rid of in a mass of observations and

hence
vations

it

is necessary to combine not only two such obser but as great a number as possible of observations
\7

taken before and after the

ernal

and autumnal equinox,

in

which case it is not necessary to confine the observations to be an Let the immediate neighbourhood of the equinox. value and -+- d a the true value of the approximate right ascension and put:

=

.

an

arc sin

tang/) ---tangs

(t

i

)

=

n.

221

Then each observation
form
:

gives an equation of the following
tang A
2 tang A -.

= n-ha4If

-2

da

sin 2 e

sin 2

D

rfZ).

we

treat

then

all

method of

least squares,

we can

those equations according to the find the most probable val

ues of da, ds and dD or at least da as a function of de, and dD, so that, if these should be found from other observations

and

and dD makes the sum of the residual minimum. In case that the number of observations is very great and the observations are well distributed about the equinoxes, the coefficients of ds and dD in the final
errors a

get that correction nate values of de

their values be substituted in the expression for da, we da which in connection with these determi

equation for da will always be very small. If the observations extend to a great distance from the equinoxes and the observed declinations lie between the lim
its

=p

it
Z>,

may

not be accurate to take d D for the entire
in case that the circle-

range

2D

as constant, for instance,

readings are affected with errors dependent on the zenith dis tance, or if the constant of refraction should need a correc
tion.

Although even

in this case these errors

have no

effect

upon the result, if the observations are distributed symmet rically around the equinoxes, yet the resulting value of dD
or the term dependent on

dD

in the final expression of
it

da

would have no meaning.
vide the

In this case

is

necessary to di

observations according to the zenith distance into groups, within which it is allowable to consider the error dD as constant and to treat those several groups according to the method of least squares. Since we have D z p, (p

=

if

the object is south of the zenith, we may take instead of dD in the above equation dk tang z fifty, where
dcf>

dk denotes the correction of the constant of refraction and fifty the correction which must be applied to the circleBut for determining the values of these quantities, readings. there are generally other and better methods used.
*

Bessel observed in 1828
of the sun
>

March 24
15
27" .

at

Koenigsberg the

declination

s

centre,

corrected for refraction and
24

parallax

:

=+

1

222

and the

interval between the transit of the sun and the star a Canis minoris, corrected for the rate of the clock:
t

r=?h
0".19,

19

"

29*. 86.
-4-0".

As
ing.

the latitude of the sun
is

was

21, the correction
is

of the declination

whilst that of the time

noth

Now

the values

D

and T referring

to the sun,

need

not be corrected for aberration, since this merely changes the place of the sun in the ecliptic, but for the star we find

according to formula (A) in No. 16 of the third section, as the longitude of the sun is 3 10 and the approximate place of the star a 112 46 and d -+- 5 37

=

=
s
"

:

a

1

ft

=
19
1

.

42.
,

This being subtracted from the time
t

we

find:

T=l^
Z)

=+

29 s 44
.

15

27".

05,

both being referred to the apparent equinox at the time of the observation. If we take now for the mean obliquity on that

day 23 27
to find
as:

35".

05,

we must add

to

it

the nutation in order

the

apparent obliquity at the time of observation.
.8,

But

^ = 27713
we A*

O=

l

14

,

(1

=
5

283"

56

,

P = 280

14

=

find
-+-

by

the

formula

in

No.
27

of the second section

1".72,

hence:

= 23
this

36".

77.

and with

we
arc sin

find:

A

=

-^-^ = 2
tang
e

"

53

57" .

44

=

0"

1 1

35 s 83.
.

Hence
nox
is:

the right ascension referred to the apparent equi
a

=

l\>

31

5S

.

27
.

10 and sub and proper motion from the begin precession tracting s ning of the year to March 24 equal to -f-0 .71 (since the annual variation is -}-3 s .146) and computing the coefficients of dD and de, we find according to this observation the mean right ascension of a Canis minoris for 1843.0 ,

and adding the nutation
the

in right ascension -4- 1 s

a

=

7

1

31"

3 s .46 -h 0. 1539

dD

0.

0092 de,

where

dD

and de are expressed

in

seconds of arc.

223

On
served
:

the 20 th of September
Z)

of the same year Bessel ob
16
17"

= +l
4h

29".

22

/

T

5. 82.

and

n = 267
find

As on

that day the latitude of the sun

was B
41
,

=

0".

56,
,

41

.

9,

0=178

39

,

(1= 135

P=28014

we

the
S

corrections

dependent on
is
-j-0".27,

B

equal to
is

and -J-0 .01; furthermore the aberration
nutation
obliquity

=

0".51

0\l56, the

of the

was

obliquity on that day
Z>

hence, as the mean

23"

27
h

34".

t

= -t-l 16 73 r = 4 17 m 5.27 = 23 27
29".

82,

we

find:

e

35".

36 11 45 s get h hence the right ascension of the sun equal to 48 in 14 s therefore a 7 h 31 ni 9 s 24 and as the nutation was -(-1 s the precession and proper motion equal to -f-2 s .27, we
this

From

we

A

=2

09.

56

22".

=

0"

.

49,
51,

=

H

.

.

.

11, find

according to this observation the

mean

right ascension for
.0094 de.

1843.0
a

=7

31

5s

.

86

0. 1539

dD -h

Taking the arithmetical
find:

mean of both determinations we
4 S .66*).

= 7h 31
a result which
is

from the constant errors in D and s. We might have deduced the mean right ascension by T and t the reductions to the apparent subtracting from
free
Z>,

place, neglecting for the sun the terms ration. Then using the mean obliquity

dependent on aber for each day, we

would have found immediately the
to the
9.

right ascension referred

mean equinox

for the

beginning of the year.

the right ascension of one star has been thus the right ascensions of all stars, whose differen determined, ces of right ascension have been observed, are known also

When

and can be collected

in a catalogue together

with the decli-

*)

According
errors

to Bessel s

Tabulae Regiomontanae
observations

is

a
so

=

7 h 31 1U 4 8

.

81.

As

the arithmetical

mean

of both

agrees
solar

nearly with this,
If

the .casual

on both days must have been also nearly equal.
observed
declinations

we
the

compare

the

two

with the

tables

we

find

errors of the declinations equal to

+

7".

67 and

8".

24.

224
nations.

Thus the

right

ascensions given in the catalogues

can have a constant difference on ac count of the errors committed in the determination of the absolute right ascension. This can be determined by com a large number of stars, contained in the several ca paring
Similar talogues, after reducing them to the same epoch. differences may occur in the decimations and can be deter

of different observers

mined
tain

riable, as

same way. But since these errors may be va was stated before, one must form zones of a cer number of degrees and determine the difference for these
in the

several zones.

In order to facilitate the relative determination of the places of stars as well as of planets and comets, the appa
are therefore called standard stars, are in the astronomical almanacs for the time of culmina given tion for every tenth day of the year. Thus in order to find

some great accuracy and
rent places of

stars,

which have been determined with

the right ascension and

declination

of an

unknown

object,
stars,

one compares

it

with one or several of these standard

determining according to the methods given before the dif ference of right ascension and declination. In case that the declination of the unknown object differs little from the stan

any errors of the instrument will have nearly the upon both observations and hence their difference will be nearly free from those errors. If the unknown object whose difference of right ascen sion and declination is to be determined, should be very near
star,

dard

same

effect

the star, one can use for the observation instead of a meri dian instrument a telescope furnished with a micrometer (which
this advantage, that the observation

be described in the seventh section). This method has can be repeated as often as one pleases and that it is not necessary to wait for the
will

culmination of the object, which moreover might happen at
daylight and thus frustrate the observation of a faint object. This method is therefore always used, if one wishes to ob
places of stars very near each other or For this purpose it planets and comets. is necessary to have a large number of stars determined, so as to be able to find under all circumstances stars, by which

serve the

relative

the places of

new

225
Therefore on the object can be micrometrically determined. this account as well as in general for an extensive knowledge
of the fixed
stars,

large collections of observations of stars

down
are
sible

to the ninth

and tenth magnitude have been made and

still

added to. In order to seize as many stars as pos and at the same time to facilitate the reduction of the

mean places, the observer takes every day only which form a narrow zone of a few degrees in such stars, declination and observes the clock -times of transit and the circle - readings for every star. Such observations are called
stars to their

therefore
for

A table is then computed observations of zones. every zone, by which the mean place of every star for a certain epoch can be easily deduced from the observed

place and since such tables can be easily recomputed, when ever more accurate means for their computation, for instance

more accurate places of the stars, on which they are based, are available, the arangement of these observations in zones
is

of great advantage. If now t be the

observed transit of a star
z the circle -reading,

over the

wire of the instrument,
to apply corrections to

it is necessary both in order to find the mean right

star for a certain epoch. the error of the clock, the deviation of the wire from the meridian, the reduction to the apparent

ascension and declination of the

We

must apply

to

t

place with opposite sign, and the precession in the interval between the time of observation and the epoch, whilst we

must apply

to z the polar point of the circle, the errors of flexure and division, the refraction and, as before, the reduction to the apparent place with opposite sign and the

precession.

Bessel has introduced a very convenient form

for tabulating these corrections. First a table is constructed, which gives for every tenth minute of the clock -time t oc for

curring in the zone the declination

the values k and d of these corrections

D

corresponding to the middle

of the

zone, and besides another table, which gives the variations of these corrections for a variation of the declination equal
to

100 minutes. The mean right ascension and declination of any star for the assumed epoch is then found by the for

mulae

:

15

226

where Z denotes the circle-reading corresponding
of the zone.
If

to the

middle

we denote by u and
by
e

ri

the error of the clock and
e

its

variation in one hour,

and

the deviation of the wire

from the meridian corresponding to the position Z and its variation for 100 minutes, by P the polar point, by o and the refraction and the errors of division and flexure, by and and s their variations for 100 minutes, at last by A
.<?

(>

&d
that

the

reductions to the apparent place and

if

we assume,
we have:

that the divisions increase in the direction of declination and

we

take as epoch the beginning of the year,

But according
A

to the

formulae in No. 3

we have:
)

= ~ -h p
(sin

sin

(

G
)

-+-

a) tang
*

D + -^ sin
$ln

(

// -+,a,, g

sec D,

C+
2

D
/>

H
J

&

= g cos
-h
7i

L lo

cosZ>

la
/<

cos
)

^100

(6r

-h a) -h

cos (ff-\I>

sin Z)

H-

z

cos

Z>

cos (H-{- a) cos

100

i

sin Z)

100

I

hence we find:
~-^

1

~s\\\(G-{-a}tgD
1

-^-si
i

la
cos

D~
(>

1QO

,

+ la sin(ff
.9

*

tang 1*
,

cos

D
D

,

d=
d

= =F

P4(/

90
r

=F

H-

*

cos
)

(G -h
Z>

a)
-j-

h cos (f/-fi

)

sin

D

?

cos Z),

4-

.s

[A cos

(//-h

cos

100

sin

100

].

The
circle

error

of the

clock

and the

polar

point

of the

determined by any known stars, which occur in the zone, or by the standard stars, if any of them have been observed before and after observing the zone-stars and if the O errors of the instrument, as well as the polar point and
are

the rate of the clock can either be considered as constant or

be interpolated from those observations.

The

values of

A,

1

227
k\ d and d are then tabulated for every tenth minute of the clock time t and may thus be easily interpolated for any

other value of

t.

ITT.

ON THE METHODS OF DETERMINING THE MOST PROBABLE VALUES OF THE CONSTANTS USED FOR THE REDUCTION OF THE PLACES OF THE STARS.
A.
Determination of the constant of refraction.

10. It was shown in No. 6, how the apparent zenith distances of stars are determined by observations which first must be cleared from refraction, in order to obtain the true

zenith distances.

If the zenith distance of a circumpolar star

be observed

at its

upper and lower culmination and corrected

for refraction as well as for the small variations of the aber

ration, nutation and precession in the interval between the two observations, the arithmetical mean of the two corrected zenith distances is equal to the complement of the latitude. Now if a set of such observations of different stars is made, all should give the same value for the latitude or at least only

such differences as may be attributed to errors of observation and casual errors of the refraction as mentioned in No. 13 of
the third section, provided that the adopted formula for the refraction and especially the adopted value of the constant

of refraction

is

true.

Hence

if

there are

they must enable us
tables

to correct the constants

any differences, on which the

of refraction, which are used for the reduction, are
f

based.

Denoting by z and

the

observed zenith

distances at

the upper and lower culmination, by r and o the refraction, we have for any north latitude the equations
:

S

(f

180

8
y>

= = +

z =t= r
(>,

where south zenith distances must be taken negative and where the upper or lower sign must be used, if the star at its upper
culmination be north
or

south of the zenith.

From

these

equations

we

find

:

15*

228
If another star be observed at both culminations

and the
able,

zenith
find

and z be found, we should be from the following two equations
distances
:

to

90.
and

-,_+! +

=

and of that constant which in o (/, r and But the values thus found would be on account of the errors of observation only approximate besides equation (/) in No. 9 of the third section shows, that
the values of
r
cp
,

occurs as factor.

;

the refraction

is

but that

it

contains
it

not strictly proportional to the constant some other constants, the correct values
r<

of which

is

desirable

to

determine

from

observations.
/",

which de pends on the decrease of temperature with the elevation above the surface of the earth, which however shall here be ne
Ivory
s

formula contains besides a the constant

glected, since its influence, which is always small, is felt only in the immediate neighbourhood of the horizon; but besides
this, like
all
e.

coefficient

for

other formulae for the refraction, it contains the the expansion of air by heat, which it is

also best to determine in this case
tions.

by astronomical observa

since the atmosphere has always a certain degree moisture and the expansion of the air depends on its state of

For

of moisture, therefore if we determine this coefficient from a large number of observed refractions, we shall obtain a value, which corresponds to a mean state of the atmosphere,
this value will give in observations as near as possible that value which would have been obtained, if the actual

and the refractions computed with

the

mean of

a

great

many

moisture

had been taken

of the atmosphere at the time of each observation into account. Now denoting the mean and

the true refraction by R and # , formula (12) of the third section:

we have according
50)]~
A
,

to

the

R
where

= R[B
/I

.

A

1

H- q and

=
da

T]

A
[l

4-f(r

1

-i-p.
-

From
7

this

we

get:

dR =
or taking:

dR
.

A(r-50)
--

da

R

de

,

1

-f- K

(T

50)

229
a H- da
r>7

a

(1
f

,

s -{^

de

=

e (I

+

i)

*J\rj

j..;

7**
But according
section

J7<^56)*

to the formula (/) in

No. 9 of the third

we have:
(I

a) sins

2

The second term of
becomes significant only and if we put:

the second

member

of this equation

for zenith distances greater than

80

da

\

y
:

we can

take the values of y from the following table
y 60.5 43.2 29.5 19.0 14.8

^

We

have therefore:

If we assume therefore, that the values of the refraction, which have been used for computing formula (a), are erro neous and that the corrections are do and dr, we get:

f(l

if

we denote by

m
for

and u the values of
If

-

-h
e

-

for the

1

(T

50)

upper and lower culmination.
imate value
r/--

we

also

(f

,

the

true

value being

assume an approx -f- d ff r/

=

r/>

()

and take:

we

obtain, combining the result of the
star,

upper and lower cul

mination of each

an equation of the following form:

+ dy

(6).

230

Now
the

the observations of the several stars will not have

same weight, since the accidental errors of observation

are the greater the nearer the star is to the horizon. Hence the probable error of an observation will generally increase with the zenith distance of the star. In case that the values

of d y, k and i were already known and were substituted in the equations, the quantities n would be the real errors of observation and hence the probable error of one observation

might be determined.
this

But

since these values are

unknown,

can only approximately be found from the deviations of If then the single observations from their arithmetical mean.

w and w

probable errors of an observation at the upper and lower culmination, all equations of the same star must be divided by Vw 1 -+- w ~ in order to give to the equations
are the
o*f

able

the several stars their true weight. In case that the prob errors should be found very different when the equa

tions have been solved, the

whole calculation may be repeated. Also stars culminating south of the zenith can be used for the for determining the correction i of the coefficient of air. For such stars we have according to the expansion
notation which

we used
d (?

before, taking the zenith distances

positive

:

?>o

<?o

-+-

<?)

=

~

-H

r

+

r

k

(l-t-

)

mri,

or taking:
>,.

= +
~

r

H- S

<f>

,

= n 4- d (8
If also
in this

y) -h

r(l +

)

k

mri.

(c)

several stars

equations of the by corresponding weights and deduce the for the minimum from all equations of the same equations and star, we can eliminate the unknown quantities d ( J
case

we

multiply the

their

</)

/e,

so that each star gives finally an equation of the form: Mi. (d)

=N

But
cumpolar
the
find

a similar equation can be deduced from every cirstar observed at the times of both culminations, if

Hence we equations (6) are treated in a similar way. a number of equations of the form (d) equal to the number of observed stars, from which the most probable value

231
of
the
i

can be deduced

*).

By

this

method Bessel determined

quantity i and thus the coefficient of the expansion of air for a mean state of the moisture of the atmosphere from observations made at Koenigsberg. (Consult Bessel, Astrono-

mische Beobachtungen, Siebente Abtheihmg, pag. X) and the by him is the one which was given before na 0.0020243 for one degree Fahrenheit, mely
value found
If

we

substitute

the

most probable value of

i

in

the

equations (6) or rather in the equations of the minimum, de duced for each star, we find from the combination of these equations corresponding to the several stars, the most prob able values of dy and A-**).
If
it

quantity f into account,
the
dR

should be desirable, to take the correction of the it would be necessary to add to dR
-

term
h

-

df

or,

taking f-\-d f=f(I -j-/i), the term

f

=R

df

x

h,

where the values of x can be taken from the

following table:

B.

Determination of the constants of aberration and nutation and of the annual parallaxes of stars.

11.

The

aberration, nutation

and annual parallax are

the periodical terms contained in the expression for the ap parent places of the stars, hence their constants must be de termined by observing the apparent places of the stars at
different

times.

Aberration and parallax have the period of

*) As a change of temperature has the greatest effect upon low stars, it is not necessary to take for this purpose stars whose meridian altitude is greater than 60.

The equations given in the example in No. 25 of the introduction are which would have been obtained by giving all observations the same weight and taking the arithmetical mean of all equations of the same star. For the form of the equations after the correction of i has been applied, is
**)

those,

n H- d(f -f- a k. But Bessel has referred all observations to the polar point not, as has been assumed here, to the zenith point of the circle, hence the
coefficient a differs

=

from the

coefficient of

k in the above equations.

232
a year and therefore

may be determined from

observations

But the principal term of nutation year. has a period of 18 years and 219 days, the time in which
the

made during one

moon

s

nodes perform an entire revolution.

Hence

the

constant of nutation can be determined only by observations distribued over a long series of years.

Since the apparent right ascensions of the pole-star are very much changed by aberration and nutation on account of the large factors sec d and tang t) , their observations afford
the best means for determining these constants; for the same reason the parallax of the pole-star can be determined in this

way with

great advantage.
cos

Putting:
cos a
sin

a

=a A = a cos
sin

-4,

the formulae
in

for

aberration-

and parallax

in right ascension
2
<p

No. 16 and 18 of the
a
a

=

third section, can be thus written:
-h
(fc
),

-t-

ka

sin

(0 -+- A) sec S -+- n a cos (0 -t- A) sec

where k and n are the constant of aberration and the parallax and (/e 2 ) denotes the terms of the second order. If scvcnil
</

observations are taken at the times

when

sin

(0 -+- A)

=

=t= 1

and hence the maximum of aberration occurs, an approxi mate value of k can be found by comparing the right ascen sions observed at both times after reducing them to the same mean equinox. But in order to obtain a more accurate value, the most probable value must be determined from a great many observations. Now the mean right ascension a and the assumed value of the constant k be erroneous by /\a and and &H-A&. If then -f-A A&, the true values being denotes that value of the apparent right ascension, which has been computed from with the value k of the constant of aberration (the computed precession and nutation being supposed to be the true values) and to which the small terms dependent on the square of k and on the product of aber ration and nutation have also been added, since the effect of a change of k upon them is very small, and if further a
c<

denotes the observed apparent right ascension,
a

we
-+-

have:
d,

=

-f-

AH- A&sin (0 -+

A)

sec S -+-

n a cos (0

A) sec

hence, taking:

233
every observation of the right ascension of Polaris leads to an equation of the following form:

=

-f-

-f-

Ak

.

a sin

(0 -f- A)

sec

4-

TT

cos

(0 -h 4) sec

tf,

and from all these equations the most probable values of A/ and TT can be determined according to the method of
least squares.

A?

Should these observations embrace a long period of years, in the constant of nutation, that is, the coefficient of cos the expression for the nutation of the obliquity can be deter mined at the same time. If we denote by i\v the correction
<H

of this

coefficient,
-

we must add

to the

above equation the
has been given in

term

--

A r,

where the expression

for

,

No. 6 of the second section. The complete equation for de termining the aberration, parallax and nutation from the ob servation of an apparent right ascension is therefore:

=n

-+-

A-f- A&

sin

(0H-4)

sec d

+ na cos (0-K4) sec

(
""

-{-

A*

.

If for this

purpose the observations made

at

different

observatories are used, the probable errors of the observations of the several observers must be determined and the cor

this case also the

responding weight be given to the different equations. In correction A** may not be the same for

the observations of the several observatories, as the observed right ascensions may have a constant difference. Hence this
difference

must be determined and be applied

to the obser

etc. must be elim quantities A, A by the observations of each observatory. In this way von Lindenau determined the following va lues of the constants from right ascensions of Polaris ob served by Bradley, Maskelyne, Pond, Bessel and himself in

vations or the

unknown

inated separately

the course of 60 years k 448C

:

=
at

20".

v

=

8".

97707

TT

=

0".

1444,

Peters found later from

observations

made by Struve
to

andPreuss

Dorpat during the years 1822
20".

1838 the

fol

lowing values:
k ==

4255

v

=

9".

236 1

TT

=

0".

1724.

For the determination of these constants by declina
tions those of Polaris are also very suitable, as their accuracy

234
can be greatly increased by taking several zenith distances at every culmination of the star. If we introduce in this
case the following auxiliary quantities:
sin

a sin 8 cos

e

cos S sin cos
sin

e.

S

= =

l>

sin

B
B,

b cos

the aberration in declination

is equal to &6 sin (O -|- #), the parallax equal to 71 b cos (O-h#). Then denoting by f) that value of the apparent declination which has been computed

from the mean declination with the constants of aberration and nutation k and v (the computed precession being taken as accurate) and to which the small terms dependent on the square of k and on the product of aberration and nutation have also been added further denoting the observed apparent declination by and taking # d n, every observation of
;
<)

=

a declination leads to an equation of the following form:

=
and

n -+-

AS

-f-

&kb

sin

(0 + 7?)

7 J5

1

-\-

nb

cos

(Q H- B}

H<lr

A",

embrace a sufficiently long most probable values of /^o, A#, 71 and &v can be determined according to the method of least squares *). It was by such observations that Bradley discovered the aber
in case that the observations

period, the

ration.

He
;>

observed

at

Kew

since the year 1725 principally

Draconis besides 22 other stars, .passing nearly the zenith of the place, and discovered a periodical through change of the zenith distance, which could not be explained
as being the effect of parallax, for the determination of which these observations were really intended. The true explanation of this change as the effect of the motion of the earth com

the star

bined with that of light was not given by him until later. for these observations, was a zenith sector, that is, a sector of very large radius, with

The instrument, which he used

which he could observe the zenith distances of stars a little over 12 degrees on each side of the zenith. The star y Dra conis, being near the north pole of the ecliptic, was espe cially suitable for determining the parallax and thus also the

*) If the stars have also proper motions, the terms

p(tt

)

and y(t

O

must be added

to the equations for right ascensions

p and

q are the proper motions in

and declinations, where right ascension and declination.

235

we have a 90 270, d and the maximum and minimum of the aberration and parallax in declination are equal to == k and =t= 7i.
aberration, as for this pole
,

=

=

hence

6=1

and

5=90

By
The

similar observations he discovered also the nutation.

observations embrace the time from the 19 th of

August

1727 to the 3 d of September 1747, hence an entire period of the nutation. Busch found from their discussion the constant
of aberration equal to Lundahl found the following 23. values from the declinations of Polaris observed at Dorpat by
20".

Struve and Preuss:
/,-

=

20".

5508

r

=

9".

21 04

n

=

0".

1473.

The
Constans
minations

the second section

value of the constant of nutation given in No. 5 of is taken from Peters s pamphlet ^Numerus
Nutationis".

made by

was derived from the three deter Peters, Busch and Lundahl, the probable
It

errors of the single results being taken into account. But the value of the constant of aberration given in

of the third section

No. 16 o has not been deduced from the values

given above, but has been determined by Struve from the transits of stars across the prime vertical. For if an instru

ment
a star

is
is

placed exactly in the plane of the prime vertical arid observed on the wire on the east and west side*),

the interval of time divided by 2 is equal to the hour angle of the star at the transit across the prime vertical. If we de

note this by , we get from the right angled triangle between the zenith, the pole and the star:
tang

= tang y cos
find:

*,

hence

we

see

that

the

declinations of the stars can be de
Differentiating the formula

termined by such observations.
in a logarithmic form,

we

dd

.

sin 2

in t has the less influence the or the nearer to the zenith the star passes across the prime vertical. Hence if the zenith distance is very small, the declination of such a star can be determined this

and thus we see that an error
smaller
t

is

by

*)

See No. 26 of the seventh section.

236

method very
in
this

case

accurately. quite similar

The equations
to

for

each star are

again preferable to the pole of the ecliptic.

those given before and it is select for these observations stars near

method Struve found the 445 J, a value which un But his observations embrace too is exact. doubtedly very short a period for determining the constant of nutation, which however as well as the parallax might also be found by this method with a great degree of accuracy.

By

this

constant of aberration equal to

20".

The constant

of aberration

may

also be

computed from

the velocity of light and that of the earth according to No. 16 The mean daily motion of the earth of the third section.

has

been determined with great accuracy and
8".

is

equal to

light moves through a distance equal to the semi-diameter of the earth s orbit, was first determined by Olav Koemer from the eclipses of the For he found in the year 1675, that satellites of Jupiter. which took place about opposition were ob those eclipses served 8 13 s earlier and those about conjunction as much

59

193.

The time

in

which the

later

Now as the difference than an average occurrence *). of the distances of Jupiter from the earth at both times is equal to the diameter of the earth s orbit, Rorner soon found
explanation, that the light does not move with an velocity and traverses the diameter of the earth s

the true
infinite

orbit in

16

111

26 s

.

If therefore

ning or the end of an eclipse

the time of the begin computed from the tables, then
it

T be

must be added

to

it

in

order to render

conformable to

the observations, the term
4-

AA

where
verses

K

is

the

the number of seconds, in which the light tra semi -diameter of the earth s orbit and A is the

distance of the satellite from the earth, the semi -major axis If then 2 is of the earth s orbit being taken as the unit.

the time of the eclipse thus corrected, T the observed time, every eclipse gives an equation of the form:

*)

At the opposition the earth stands between Jupiter and the
it

sun, whilst

at conjunction the sun

between Jupiter and the earth.

237

and from a large number of such equations the most prob
able value of

dK

can be determined.

However

the observa

tions of the beginning and the end of an eclipse are always a little uncertain, since the satellites lose their light only gradually and as thus the errors of observation greatly de

pend upon the quality of the telescope, it is best, to com only such observations which have been made with the same instrument and also to treat the observations of Delambre found the beginning and of the end separately.
bine
a large number of observed eclipses of aberration equal to 20". 255, a value which according to Struve s determination is too small.

by a careful discussion of
the

constant

12.
still

The annual

parallax

of a

star

can be determined

by another method, if the change of the place of the star relatively to that of another star, which has no parallax,
be observed. This method
is

even preferable to the former,

because the relative places of two stars near each other can be measured with great accuracy by means of a micrometer
(as will

be

shown

in the seventh section)

and because the

upon the places of both stars is so nearly equal, that any errors in the adopted values of the constants can have no influence on the difference of the

effect of the small corrections

mean

It is true, this method gives places *). strictly only the difference of the parallaxes of both stars. But since is

may be
faint

taken for granted, that very faint stars are at a great distance, the parallaxes thus found, when one or several such
stars

have been chosen as comparison stars, can be
difference

considered as nearly correct.
If the

of right ascension and

declination of

both stars has
the

been observed, each observation freed from

small corrections gives two equations of the following form, taking the differences at the time t n equal to

and

<y

o

cV

and denoting

a

()

(

)

and

<)

r)

*)

In this case, when the stars are near each other,

it is

preferable, not

compute the mean place of each star, but to free only the difference of the apparent places from refraction, aberration, precession and nutation. The formulae necessary for this purpose will be given in VIII and IX of the
to

seventh section.

238
(<$

d)

by n and w and the

errors of the adopted place
4- 4) sec

A

and

&:
H-tfa
cos

by

lQ

Usually however instead of the difference of the right and declinations of both stars their distance is observed and besides the angle of position, that is, the angle
ascensions

which the declination
circle

circle of

one star makes with the great

passing through both stars. If then a and 8 be the true right ascension and declination of one star, and
their values not freed

<5

the right as cension and declination of the comparison star, we find the changes of the differences of the right ascensions and decli nations produced by parallax as follows:
a"

from parallax,

and

8"

d
d

("

)

=a
S

("

8)

8

R [cos Q sin a sin R [cos e sin a sin -h 7t R sin S cos a cos 0.
TT
TT

= =

cos E cos a] sec
sin e cos S] sin

If then the true distance

and the true angle of position
("

be denoted by

A and
A

P,
sin

we have: P = cos S

)

AcosP=<T

S

hence:
dA A rfP
If

= P cos = cos Pcosdd
sin

8d(a"
(a"

a)

+ cos P

</

(S"

5)
S).

a^

smPd

(S"

we

substitute

here the expressions given before and

take
?

:

M= M= m cos = A w 3/ =
cos
sin
w*
[

sin

a sin
cos
[sin

P -f- sin S cos a cos P, cos sin P -f- sin $ sin

P] cos f

cos S cos

P sin

e,

j\I

a cos

P

sin S cos a

sin

P]

,

sin

A

[

(cos

a cos P-f-

sin

S sin a

sin

P) cos

e -+- cos

#

sin

P sin

f],

we

easily find:

dA

dP = 7tR m
f

= n R m cos (0
cos

M)
J/
).

(0

Therefore
distance

if

</A

denotes the correction
,

of the adopted

at the

time

d(/

the

correction

of the

adopted

value of the proper motion in the direction towards the other star, we find from the observed distances equations of the

form

:

= v+

</Ao

-H

(t

<o)

d? -+-7tRm cos

(0

M)

.

239

and from the angles of position equations of the form: -f- dP 4- (t } dq -i-TiR m cos (0 which must be solved according to the method of least squares. By this method Bessel first determined the parallax of 61

=

O

M

,

Cygni.
C.

Determination of the constant of precession and of the proper motions

of

the .stars.

13.

We

find the

change of the right ascension and de
t
,

clination of a star
if

we compute
da
d
T-

by the precession during the interval the annual variations:
1

=

in -f-

n tg o sin

a

= cos
dl

dl,
c

da - - --

f-

sm

dl.
E

~

tg o sin a

= n cos a = sm

e

cos

for the

time

and then multiply them by
a
is

t

t.

Now

since the numerical value of

known from

the theory of

the

secular perturbations of the planets,
(

we may determine

the lunisolar precession

either

from the right ascensions

or from the declinations, comparing the difference of the values found by observations at the time t and t with the above formula. Then if the places of the stars were fixed we should
find
stars

nearly the same value of the precession from different and the more exactly, the greater the interval is between

the observations, as any errors of observation would have the less influence. But since not only different stars but also

ascensions and declinations of the same star give values for the constant of precession, we must at tribute these differences to proper motions of the stars. As
the right
different

they are like the precession proportional to the time, they cannot be separated from it and the difficulty is still increased

by the

fact, that the proper motions, partly at least, follow

law depending on the places of the stars. Hence eliminate the proper motions only by comparing a number of stars distributed over all parts of the heavens large

a certain

we can

and excluding all those, which on account of their large proper motion give a very different value for the precession. The large number will compensate any errors of observation

240
entirely

and the

effect

of the

proper motions as

much

as

the proper motions are proportional to the time, possible. the uncertainty of the value of the precession arising from them remains the same, however great the interval between the

As

two compared catalogues of

stars

may

be, but

it

will

be

most important, that the catalogues are very correct and con tain a large number of stars in common and that the inter
is long enough so as to make any uncertainty arising from errors of observation sufficiently small. If then m and M O are the two values of m and n employed in comparing

val

()

the two catalogues, if further places of a star for the times
alogues, and

,

t

and a and are the mean and t\ given in the two cat
c)
<)

A

alogues for a

ct

and /\d the constant differences of the cat and and if we take:
r)

-+-

O

4- w

()

tg

<?

sin

)

(t

/)

a

=v

(t

and
every star gives two equations of the form:
-ft
t

dm

-+-

dn

tg

sin

,

and
Q

= v ,,
t t

Therefore
in v

if

and

v

like

consider the proper motions embraced casual errors of observation, we may find

we

the most probable values of the unknown quantities from a large number of equations by the method of least squares. This supposition would be justified, if the proper motions

were not following a law depending on the places of the stars. But as it is very difficult, if not impossible, to introduce in the above equations a term expressing this law, a matter which shall be more fully considered afterwards, hardly any thing better can be substituted in place of that supposition,
provided that a large number of stars distributed over all then get from the right parts of the heavens be used.

We

ascensions a determination
tions a determination of n
;

of

m
it

and n, from the declina
is

but

the absolute

right ascensions, which
.
,

evident, that an error of is constant for every
i

catalogue, remains united with

T

,i

dm
7

and

as

dm

^ =cos

dl,
-

da

241
there remains also in

it

any error of the value of

---

arising

from incorrect values of the masses of the planets. But the from the right ascensions is dl sin determination of dn
(

independent of any such constant error, and besides the con stant difference of the declination may be determined. But
nations
since the supposition, that the latter is constant for all decli is not allowable , it is better to divide the stars in ,

zones of several degrees for instance of 10 of declination and to solve the equations for the stars of each zone sep
arately, and hence to determine the mean difference /\J for each zone. In this way Bessel in his work Fundamenta Astro-

nomiae determined the value of this constant from more than 2000 stars, whose places had been deduced for 1755 and 1800 from Bradley s and Piazzi s observations. He found for 1750 the value 340499, which he afterwards changed
50".

according to the observations made at Koenigsberg 37572. (Compare Astron. Nachr. No. 92.)
50".

into

14.
at

The

differences of the places of the stars observed

two

different

epochs and the precession

in the

same

in

terval of time, which has been computed with the value of the constant determined as before, are then taken as the proper

motions of the

In general they may be accounted for stars. within the limits of possible errors of observation by the sup position, that the single stars are moving on a great circle

Halley first discovered in the year 1713 the proper motion of the stars Sirius, Aldebaran and Arcturus*). Since then the proper motions of a great many stars have been recognized with certainty and it is inferred,
that all stars are subject to such, although for most stars these motions have not yet been determined, since they are small and are still confounded with errors of observation. The

with uniform velocity.

in right ascension

greatest proper motions have 61 Cygni (whose annual change and declination amounts to 1 and 2),
5". 3".

a Centauri (whose annual motion in the direction of the two
in declination *) The last mentioned star has a proper motion of and has therefore changed its place since the time of Hipparchus more than one degree.
2"

16

242
co-ordinates
is 7".0 and 8) and 1830 Groombridge (which 2 in right ascension and 7 in declination). elder Herschel first discovered a law in the direction
0".
5".

moves

5".

The

of the proper motions of the stars, when comparing, a great many of them he observed, that in general the stars move from a point in the neighbourhood of the star A Herculis.

Hence he suggested
v

the hypothesis that the proper motions of the stars are partly at least only apparent and caused by a motion of the entire solar system towards that point of the
,

heavens

a hypothesis

,

which

is

well confirmed

by

later in

vestigations on

this subject.

The proper motions
two motions,

of the fixed

stars are therefore the result of

first

of the

mo

tion peculiar to each star, by which they really change their place according to a law hitherto unknown, and secondly of

the apparent or parallactic motion which is the effect of the on account of the motion motion of the solar system.

Now

peculiar to each star, stars in the same region of the celestial sphere may change their places in any direction whatever,

but the direction of the parallactic motion is at once de termined by the place of the star relatively to that towards

which the solar system

is

moving, and can be

easily calcu

and lated, if the right ascension and declination If we compare the direction, point are known.
for

A

D

of that

computed

any star, with the direction, which is really observed, we can etablish for each star the equation between the difference

of the computed and the observed direction and changes of the right ascension and declination A and D; and since those
liar

portions of these differences, which are caused by the pecu motions of the stars, follow no law and can therefore
like casual errors of observation, we can find from a large number of such equations the most probable values of dA and dD by the method of least squares. It is evident that the direction of the .parallactic portion

be treated

of the proper motion of a star coincides with the great circle, drawn through the star and the point towards which the solar system is moving, because the star, supposing of course
that the sun
is

moving

in a straight line,

is

always seen in

the plane parsing through it and the straight line described if we denote the motion of the sun during by the sun.

Now

243
the time

divided by the distance of the star by a, and then denote the right ascension and declination of the star
t t

at the

two epochs

t

and

t

by

,

8 and
star

the ratio

of the distances of the

d , and finally , from the sun at the

same epochs by Q, we have the following equations:
Q cos 8 cos a cos S sin a ()
1

sin
(>

= = S =

cos S cos cos S sin
sin

ft

a cos

A cos D
A
cos

a sin a sin
Z),

D

S

from which we easily deduce:
cos S

= cos S

a cos

D cos

(

^4),

therefore

:

cos S (a

a)

= a cos D

sin

(
/>

^1)

$

3=

a [cos $sin

sin

$cos

/) cos (

yl)].

spherical triangle between the pole of the equator, the star and the point, whose right ascen sion and declination are A and P, denoting the distance of
also in the

But we have

the star from that point
sin
sin

A A

P = cos D sin cos P = sin cos
sin
Z>

by

A
(

and the angle
A)
cos
/>

at the star

by P:

$

sin

S cos

(

A).

denote the angle, which the direction of the motion of the star makes with the declination circle, proper by /?, we have:
if

Now

we

cos S (a

a)

hence

we

see, that

p

=

1

80

P

or that the star
it

on a great

circle

passing through

right ascension and declination is A ing from the latter point. From the third of the differential formulae (11) in of the introduction, we have:
sin

is moving and the point whose and D, so that it is mov

No. 9

A
S cos

H

cos/
.

sin

A

[sin

D

cos S sin

D cos (a

A)} dA.

hence

:

sin
-

A

cosD 8 cos D cos S sin D cos (a A)] dA. 2 [sin sin A Therefore if p be the observed angle, which the direction of the proper motion makes with the declination circle, reck.

5

16*

244

oned from the north part of
so that:

it

through east from
(

to

360

cos 8

a)

and

if

further p be

the value

of. \

80

P computed

accord

ing to the formulae (#) with the approximate values D, we have for each star an equation of the form:
(

A and

A)

--

[sin

cosD

cos

sin

D cos (a
.

A)] dA,

or:
cos 8 sin (a
sin

A)

A

dD

sin

A

[sin

<?cos

D

cos 8 sin

D cos

(

A}} dA,

and from a large number of such equations the most prob able values of dA and dD can be deduced.
In this way Argelander determined the direction of the motion of the solar system *). Bessel in his work ^Fundamenta Astronomiae" had already derived the proper motions
tions
all

of a large number of stars with those of Piazzi.

by comparing Bradley

s

observa

stars, which in the 1800 exhibited a proper motion greater than and deter mined their proper motions more accurately by comparing Bradley s observations with his own made at the observatory at Abo**). For determining the direction of the motion of the solar system he used then 390 stars, whose annual pro 1 These were divi per motion amounted to more than ded into three classes according to the magnitude of the pro per motions and the corrections dA and dD determined sep From those three results which arately from each class. with each other, he finally deduced the follow well agreed ing values of A and D, referred to the equator and the equi nox of 1800:
5"

Argelander selected from those interval of 45 years from 1755 and

0"

.

.

,

-4

= 259
DLX

51

.

8 and

D = -+

32

29

.

1

,

*)

Compare Astronom. Nachrichten No. 363.
Argelander,
stellarum

**)

fixarum positiones mediae ineunte anno

1830.

Helsingforsiae 1835.

245

and these agree well with the values adopted by Herschel. Lundahl determined the position of this point from 147 other
stars,

by comparing Bradley
.

s

places with

Pond
.

s

Catalogue

of 1112 stars and found:

From

the

4 = 252 24 4 and D 4- 14 26 1. mean of both determinations, taking
.4

into ac

count their probable errors, Argelander found:

= 257

59

.

7 and

D = + 28

49

.

7.

were made by O. v. Struve and more recently by Galloway. Struve comparing 400 stars which had been observed at Dorpat with Bradley s catalogue, found
Similar investigations
:

4 = 261

23 and

D = -f-37

36

.

Galloway used for his investigations the southern stars, and comparing the observations made by Johnson on St. Helena and by Henderson at the Cape of Good Hope with
those of Lacaille, found:

A = 260

1

and

D = 4- 34 D = + 39

23

.

Another extensive investigation was made who found from a very large number of stars:

by Madler,

4 = 261

38

.

8 and

53

.

9

these values agree well with each other, it seems that the point towards which the solar system is moving, is

Since

all

now known

with great accuracy, at least as far as able considering the difficulties of the problem.
15.

it is

attain

We

parallactic

therefore assume, that the direction of the proper motion of a star, computed by means of

may

the formula:
cos
sin

D sin (a
cos
/>,

4)
4)

with a mean value

D cos 8 of A and

D sin $ cos (a
is

nearly correct.

If now,

besides, the amount of this portion of the proper motion were known for every star, we should be able to compute for every star the annual change of the right ascension and de
this

caused by this parallactic motion, and could add the equations given in No. 13 for determining the constant of precession. The amount of this parallactic mo
clination,

to

tion

hence

must necessarily depend on the distance of the star, if the latter were known, we could determine the par-

246
allactic

motion

corresponding

to

a

certain

distance.

For

since those equations are transformed into the following:

= v -h dm
and

H- dn

tg

8

sin

-h
l\

~ -

COS 0Q
Z)
)

sin (

A)

O^^ -f-dn,, cos
sin

-h

-#

sin

(

where S

$ cos

(

= g cos A) = g G,
Cr
,

sin

we
that

could find,
is,

to the

if A were known, from these equations A;, the motion of the sun as seen from a distance equal adopted unit and expressed in seconds, and besides

we

should find the values of
stars

dm

and dn
v.

t)

free

from

this

parallactic proper motion of the

stars.

Now

since the dis

tances of the
for

are

unknown, O.

Struve substituted

A hypothetical values of the mean distances of the dif ferent classes of stars, which had been deduced by W. v.
Struve in his work, Etudes de FAstronomie stellaire from the number of stars in the several classes *). Struve then com

pared 400 stars which had been observed by W. v. Struve and Preuss at Dorpat with Bradley s observations and, at first neglecting the motion of the solar system, he found for the
corrections of the constant of precession from the right as censions and declinations two contradicting results, one being

But taking the proper motion the other negative. of the sun into account he found the corrections -f-l".16
positive,

from the right ascensions and and hence, taking into account
the value
50".

4-0".

66 from the declinations

of the constant

their probable errors, he found of precession for 1790 equal to

23449 or greater than Bessel had found it by 0.01343. Further he found for the motion of the sun, as seen from a
point
the distance of the stars of the first magnitude, from the right ascensions and 0".357 from the decli But although these values of the constant of pre nations. cession and of the motion of the solar system are apparently of great weight, it must not be overlooked, that they are
at
0".321

based on the hypothetical

ratio

of the distances of stars of

*)

According

to this, the distance of a star of the first

1,

that of the stars of the second
fifth

the fourth 3.76, the

magnitude being 1.71, that of the third 2.57, 5.44, the sixth 7.86 and the seventh 11.34.
magnitude
is

247
different magnitudes.
of,

that

the

cannot be entirely approved number of stars used for this determination,
Besides
it

which are nearly
If
it

all double stars, is so very small. should be desirable for a more correct determina

tion of the constant of precession, to take the motion of the solar system into account, it may be better, not to introduce the ratios of the distances of stars of different magnitude

according to any adopted hypothesis, but rather to divide
the
stars

proper

classes according to their magnitude or their motions, and to determine for each class a value of
into

and the correction of the constant of precession.
values of
for

The
values
will

a

thus found can be considered as
classes

mean

these different

and the values of

m

and n

then be independent at least of a portion of the parallactic motion, which will be the greater, the more nearly equal the
distances

of the stars

of the

same

class

are

*).

Even

the

corrections of

A and D might

be found in this way, since the

equations in this case would be, taking

=a
(

:

= ^-4- dm
= v -i-dn
from

n

-+-

dn tang d

sin

~

cos

cos o
-f- [cos

A) ad A

D - sin DdD]
-+-

cos

g cos (G

D) adD

cos

D sin$

sin

(

A) ad A

-hags m(G-D)

which the most probable values of a, ad A, adD, and dn can be determined for each class. In case, that Struve s ratio of the distances be adopted, the un

dm

(t

()

known

quantity a after multiplying the factor by

would

*) The author has undertaken this investigation already many years ago The proper motions were deduced from a without being able to finish it. of Henderson s observations made at Edinborough with those of comparison

Bradley.

The
for

following

mean

values were found for the annual parallactic
0".06S9S5 =t=

motions of stars of several classes:

32 75
71

stars of

magnitude

4.3.
4.

0.010964
0.006584 0.006925
0.002446.

0".069715=t=

4.5.
5.

0".046Sll=t=
0".029043
0".3

284
Stars,

whose annual proper motion exceeds
this investigation.

of arc,

were excluded

in

making

248
be the same for
all

classes.

Airy

s

pamphlet

in the

(Compare on this subject also Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical

Society Vol.
16.

XXVIII.)
present

At

we always assume

that the proper

mo

tions of the stars are proportional to the time and take place on a fixed great circle. But the proper motions in right as

cension and declination are variable on account of the change

of the fundamental plane to which they are referred, and it is necessary to take this into account, at least for stars very

near the pole.

The
ferred
to

formulae, which express the polar co-ordinates re the equinox at the time t by means of the co
referred to another equinox at the time No. 3 of the second section:
(
,

ordinates

are ac

cording to
cos

sin

-j-f-

a
a
sin

2

cos S cos

(

z)

= S = cos S cos 8 = cos S cos
)

cos

sin (a -f-

a

-+- z)

(a
(

-+-

a +a

z)

cos
sin
-+-

sin sin

S

sin

-f-

-f- z)

S cos 0,

where a denotes the precession produced by the planets dur and 3, z and are auxiliary quantities ing the time t obtained by means of the formulae (yl) of the same No. Since the proper motions are so small, that their squares and products may be neglected, we obtain by the first and third formulae (11) in No. 9 of the introduction, remembering that the formulae above are derived from a triangle the sides of 8 and S and the angles of which # 90 which are 90 a are a -f- a -+- z, 1 80 a -t- z and c
, ,
:

cos $

AS A

= cos =

c

&

sin

sin

(

4- a
A<*

z)

A

sin c

&d -+-

cos S cos c

or if sin c and cos c be expressed in terms of the other parts of the triangle:

fa

=A = =A =A

[cos

-h sin

tang S cos (

-ha

2

)]

+ cos-o sin
+ sin

S1D

^-~t a
cos o

~

z>

}
(a)

A<9

A

sin

sin

(

+a

z

)

-h

-.

cos o

cos S [cos

tang S cos

(

+

a

)]

and
A

in the
[cos

same manner:
sin

tang 8 cos (a H- a 4- z)}

cos

a

sin

s>

cos o
(6)

A0

sin (9 sin (a -f-

a -|-z)

H

^.cosS [cos coso

si

249
Example. The mean right ascension and declination of Polaris for the beginning of the year 1755 is:
a

= 10
in

55

44".

955

8

= 4- 87

59

41"

*12.

By

application

of the precession the

was computed

No. 3 of the second section
12
9 17

place of Polaris for 1850 Jan. 1,
680.

and found to be:

=16
But

56".

S

= -4-88

30

34".

in Bessel s

= 16
The

Tabulae Regiomontanae
19".

15

530

8

= 4-88

this place is:
34".

30

898.

and S between these two values of arises from the proper motion of Polaris, which thus amounts to -{- 2 613 in right ascension and to 4-0". 218 in de The annual clination in the interval from 1755 to 1850. motion of Polaris referred to the equator of 1850 is proper
difference
22".

therefore

:

A
If
tion

=

4-1".

501 189

A

<?

=

4-0".

002295.

we wish

to find

from

this, for

example, the proper
it

mo

of Polaris referred to

the equator of 1755,
(6).

must be

computed by means of the formulae

But we have:

=

31

45".

600

a-\-a

+ z=ll
:

32

9".

530

and with

this

we

obtain
1".

A

= 4-

10836

A<?

=

-hO".

005063.

proper

In the case of a few stars the assumption of an uniform motion does not satisfy the observations made at

different epochs, since there would remain greater errors, than can be attributed to errors of observation. Bessel first

discovered this variability of the proper motions in the case
of Sirius and Procyon, comparing their places with those of stars in their neighbourhood, and he accounted for it by the
attraction of large the neighbourhood

but invisible bodies
of those stars.

of great masses in

on
tral

this hypothesis, Peters at

Basing his investigations Altona has determined by means

of the right ascensions of Sirius its orbit round such a cen body and has deduced the following formula, which ex presses the correction to be applied to the right ascension

of this star:
q

= Os

.

127 4-

.

00050

(t

1800) 4- 0* 171 sin ( M 4- 77
.

44

) ,

250

where the angle u

is

M

found by means of the equation:
(*

7

.

1865

1791 431)
.

=u

.

7994

sin u

and where 7. 1865
central body.

is

the

mean motion

of Sirius round the

By
this

according
Sirius

to

the application of the correction computed formula the observed right ascensions of

Safford at Cambridge agree well with each other. has recently shown, that the declinations of Sirius exhibit the same periodical change, and that the following correction must be applied to the observed declination:
,?

=

-f-0".56-hO".0202(*

1

800)

-r-

1".

47

sin w

4-0".

51 cos

M,

where u
Of

is

the same as in the formula above

*).

*)

great interest in regard to this matter

is

the discovery,

made

re

cently by A. Clarke of Boston, of a faint

companion of

Sirius at a distance

of about 8 seconds.

FIFTH SECTION.
DETERMINATION OF THE POSITION OF THE FIXED GREAT CIRCLES OF THE CELESTIAL SPHERE WITH RESPECT TO THE HORIZON OF A PLACE.
has been already shown in No. 5 and 6 of the prece ding section, how the position of the fixed great circles of the celestial sphere can be determined by means of a merid
It

ian

instrument.

For

if

so that the line of collimation
is

the instrument has been adjusted describes a vertical circle, it

brought in the plane of the meridian (i. e. the vertical circle of the pole of the equator is determined) by observing the circumpolar stars above and below the pole, since the in

terval

between the observations must be equal to 12 h of sidereal time -f- A where A is the variation of the apparent place in the interval of time. Further the observation of the zenith
9

distances of a star at both culminations gives the co-latitude, since this is equal to the arithmetical mean of the two zenith

distances corrected for refraction -h| A^, where

A^

is

the varia

tion of the apparent declination during the interval between If the culmination of a star, whose right the observations.

known, be observed, the apparent right ascension equal to the hour angle of the vernal equinox or to the sidereal time at that moment. If a similar obser vation is made at another place at the same instant, the dif ference of both times is equal to the difference of the hour
ascension
is

of the star

is

angles of the vernal equinox at both places or to their dif ference of longitude, and it remains only to be shown, by what means the determinations of the time at both places
are

made simultaneously or by which at least the difference of the time of observation at both places becomes known.
These methods, which are the most accurate as well as

the most simple, are used,

when

the observer can

employ a firmly

252

mounted meridian instrument. But the position of the zenith with respect to the pole and the vernal equinox may also be determined by observing the co-ordinates of stars, whose places are known, with respect to the horizon, and thus va rious methods have been invented, by which travellers or seamen can make these determinations with more or less ad vantage according to circumstances and which may be used on all occasions, when the means necessary for employing the methods given before are not at hand.

We have the following formulae expressing the relations between the altitude and azimuth of a star, its right ascen sion and declination and the sidereal time and the latitude
:

= cotangvl =
sin h

sin
<p

sin

8

-+-

cos
<f

cos S cos

(0

a)
a),

cos

a>

tang S
)

sm (0

~- -t- sin d cote (0
if

These equations show, that
time

the latitude

is

known, the

may be determined by

the observation of an altitude or

azimuth of a star, whose right ascension and declination are known, and conversely the latitude can be determined, if the time is known, therefore by the observations of two altitudes or azimuths both the latitude and the time can be determined. The observations used for this purpose must be freed from refraction and diurnal parallax (if the observed object is not a fixed star) and the places of the stars must be
apparent places.
tions

The instruments used

for

these

observa

are

altitude

and azimuth instruments, which must be

is

corrected so that the line of collimation, when the telescope turned round the axis, describes a vertical circle (see

No. 12 of the seventh section), or, if only altitudes are taken, reflecting circles are used, by which the angle between the star and its image reflected from an artificial horizon, one half of which is equal to the altitude, can be measured. When an alti tude and azimuth instrument is used, the zenith point of the circle is determined by means of an artificial horizon, or the star is observed first in one position of the instrument, and again
after
if
it

has been turned 180

round

its

vertical axis.

For

and

f

are

the

circle -readings

in those

two

positions,
-

corresponding to the times

&

and

/,

and

if

-r^

and -

a

are

253
the differential coefficients of the zenith distance
(I,

25) cor

responding to the time

=

,

assuming that

in the first

tance

position the divisions increase in the direction of zenith dis and denoting the zenith point by Z, then the circlereadings reduced to the arithmetical mean of both times are:
*

+Z=$+
.

-

(0

- 0) - 1

\

(0

- &,)

>

Hence the zenith distance metical mean of the times is:

z

(}

corresponding to the arith

Finally in
reflected

case that the
artificial

object
is

is

observed direct arid
since the first
a -r-Z:
2
-6>)

from an

horizon,

we have,
then
z
-

member

of the second equation

180"

90-* =

J

(5

)H-I

j^

a

9

*).

In order to observe the azimuth by such an instrument, the reading of the circle corresponding to the meridian or
the zero of the azimuth must be determined, and this be sub tracted from or added to all circle -readings, if the divisions G
increase or decrease in the direction of the azimuth.

I.

METHODS OF FINDING THE ZERO OF THE AZIMUTH AND THE TRUE BEARING OF AN OBJECT.

muth
its

The simplest method of finding the zero of the azi consists in observing the time, when a star arrives at greatest altitude above the horizon, and for this purpose
1.

one observes the sun with an altitude and azimuth instrument,
*) It is supposed here, that exactly the same point of the circle cor For the sake of examining this, a responds to the zenith in both positions.

whose bubble changes its position, as soon any fixed line of the circle changes its position with respect to the vertical line. Such a level indicates therefore any change of the zenith point and affords at the same time a means for measuring it. (See No. 13 of the se
spirit level is fastened to the circle,

as

venth section.)

254

and assumes that the sun
ceases to

is

change
it

its

altitude.

on the meridian as soon as it This method is used at sea

to find approximately the

cessarily

is

of apparent noon, but ne because the altitude of the sun, very uncertain,
is

moment

slowly. that of observing the greatest dis tance of the circumpolar stars from the meridian. According to No. 27 of the first section we have for the hour angle of

being at

its

maximum, changes very

Another method

the star at that time:
cos
t

tang -

(f

J tang o
circle

or tang ^
is

t

2

m(d = -.^-r sm
s

<p)

(o -+-

^
cp)

>

and the motion of the
since

star
is

then vertical to the horizon,

the

vertical
if

Therefore

tangent to the parallel circle. one observes such a star with an azimuth in

strument, whose line of collimatiou describes a vertical circle, the telescope must in general be moved in a horizontal as well as a vertical direction in order to keep the star on the
vertical

wire-cross, and only at the time of the greatest distance the If the reading of motion alone will be sufficient.

the azimuth circle

a

,

a in this position of the instrument and when the same observation is made on the other side of the
is

meridian,

^~-

is

the reading of the circle corresponding to
It is best to
its

the zero of the azimuth.

use the pole-star for

these observations on account of

slow motion.

third method for determining the zero of the azimuth is that of taking corresponding altitudes. For as equal hour angles on both sides of the meridian belong to equal altitudes, it fol

A

lows, that if a star has been observed at two different times at the same altitude, then two vertical circles equally distant from the meridian are determined by this. Therefore if we

observe a star at the wire -cross of an azimuth instrument, read the circle and then wait, until the star after the cul mination is seen again at the wire-cross, then if the altitude
of the telescope has not been changed but merely its azimuth, the arithmetical mean of the two readings of the circle is
the zero of the azimuth.
in the time

If the sun, whose declination changes between the two observations, is observed, a cor rection must be applied to the arithmetical mean of the two

readings.

For, differentiating the equation:

255
sin

8

=

sin

90

sin h

cos

cp

cos h cos A,

taking only

A and

8 as variable, cos dS _
cos
(p

we have:
dS
cos
9?

cos h sin -4

sin

denotes the change of the declination in the time between the two observations, we must subtract
if

Therefore

A^

from the arithmetical mean of the two readings:
2 cos if
(p

cos h sin

A

2 cos
<f>

sin

t

the divisions increase in the direction of the azimuth.

The fourth method is identical with that given in No. 5 of the fourth section for adjusting a meridian circle. For if we observe the times at which a circumpolar star arrives at the
same azimuth above and below the pole, the plane of the telescope coincides with the meridian, if the interval between the observations is 12 h of sidereal time -f-A, where A is the change of the apparent place in the interval of the two times. But if this is not the case, the azimuth of the telescope is
found in the following way. If the azimuth be reckoned from the north point instead of the south point, we have for
the first observation:
cos h sin
cos h cos

A = cos 8 sin A = cos sin S
t

rp

sin
<p

cos 8 cos

,

and for the second observation below the pole:
cos h sin cos h cos

A = cos

A

= cos

S sin
rp

t

sin

S

sin
<p

cos 8 cos

t

.

Adding the

first

the second equation

the third and subtracting from the fourth, and then dividing the

equation to

two resulting equations we
tang

easily find:
i_ _JLl_>
sin
<p

A = cotang ^ (t
t

t)

L

.

In case that
time,

t

is

A

as well as

90
\

nearly equal to 12 hours of sidereal are small angles, and since (*
(p

then

I (7i -+-/& )

and

(h

h ) are nearly equal to

and 90

d,

we

get:
cos

cp

tang 8

not necessary for applying any of .these methods to know the latitude of the place or the time, or at least they need be only very approximately known. But in case they
2. It is

256
are correctly

known, any observation of a

star,

whose place

with an azimuth instrument, gives the zero of is known, the azimuth, if the circle -reading is compared with the azi

muth computed from the two equations:
cos h sin cos h cos
7

A

A=

= cos

sin

t
V>

cos

cp

sin o -+ sin

I

(p

cos o cos

^

(fl)
t

In
it

case that a set of such observations has been made,

not necessary to compute the azimuth for each obser vation by means of these formulae, but we can arrive at the same result by a shorter method. Let 0, (~j\ etc., be the
is
0"

be several times of observation, whose number is w, let the arithmetical mean of all times and A the azimuth cor
l}

responding to the time

,

then

we

have:

A
and since

= A* +
t

(&-ej + $
etc.
6>

2
-6>

d

(6>

)

,

S

@

-h

(")

-f- etc.

=
n

0,
2
)

we

find:

-...
,

d\A [(0 -0

-t-(0
2

-

?

)

-K.."|

-rf?

_
n

_
di*
7

n L~ 2 2 sinj- (0-- 0J

J

where
tities

-2 2 sin

\{S

2 sin

|(6>

of ^
in

(#

# o )2

denotes the sum of all the quan These have been introduced instead ) on account of the small difference and because
@,,)

&

2

.

all

collections

of astronomical

tables

,

for

instance

in

5,Wariistorff

s Hulfstafeln",

convenient tables are given, from

which we can take the quantity 2 sin 2 \ t expressed in sec onds of arc, the argument being t expressed in time. Now we have accordin to No. 25 of the first section:

d A --dr
l

-----

cos

cp

sin

r

AQ

cos A
if

[cos A

r

sin o -f- a cos
y>

.

,

cos

A

a \.

Therefore

we add
v

to the arithmetical

mean of all read
2
) -

ings of the circle the correction:
cos
(p

sin

A

,

cos

[cos h

sin

2 + o cos
.

(f

cos ,d t ]

-,

^2 -

sin|(6>

6>

find the value 4 19 which we must compare with the muth computed by means of the formulae (a) for t=&

we

azi
a.

()

257
Differentiating the equation (a) or using the differential formulae given in No. 8 of the first section, we find:

dA =
hence we
see,

cos
-

cos p r-

sin

dt

cos h

tang A sin

yJ
d<p-\

p
-.

.

cos h

dS,

that

it

is

especially advisable to observe the

pole-star near the time of its greatest distance from the me 90 and A is nearly 180, ridian, because we have then p

=

Then an error of the time except very high has no influence and an error of the assumed latitude only a very small influence on the computed azimuth and hence
in
latitudes.

on the determination of the zero of the azimuth.
If the zero of the azimuth has been determined, we 3. can find the bearing of any terrestrial object*). This can also be determined, though with less accuracy, by measuring the distance of the object from any celestial body, if the time, the latitude and the altitude of the object above the horizon

are

known.

For
servation

if
is

the hour angle of the star at the time of the ob known, w e can compute according to No. 7 of
r

the

first

section

its

altitude h

then in the triangle formed by the
terrestrial object:
cos

and azimuth a, and we have star, the zenith and the
Hcos
(a

A

=

sin A sin

H

-f-

cos h cos

A}

where H and A are the altitude and the azimuth of the object and A is the observed distance**). We find therefore a A from the equation
cos
cos (a

A

sin h sin

H
,

A)

cos h cos

H

(A)

hence also the azimuth of the object A^ since a is known. The equation (^4) may be changed into another form

more convenient
For
if

for logarithmic computation.

For we have:

*)

this

a correction
is

object,

the

telescope

is necessary, dependent on the distance of the See No. 12 of fastened to one end of the axis.

the seventh section.

To the computed value of h the refraction must be added, and observed, the parallax must be subtracted from it. Likewise is apparent altitude of the object, which is found by observation.
**)
is

if

the the

sun

H

17

258
A)==
,

1 -+-

cos fa

N

cos (//-h

/<)

-f-

cos

cos h cos //

TT

~A
A

and

:

1

cos fa

A)

A

.

= cos(H cos
(A (A -h //H;

A)
=

h cos

^ H

cos

hence

:

/ tang 4 (a
.

jl)

A

^

= cos
sin

44-

- ^4- A)
=7
7i

sin

T-TT

A]

cos

j (A 4r7zi/~T~r (// -h A

H

A)

7Q A\

or taking:

tang

4-

(a

Ay

=

sin OS

JJ) sin OS
A

70

,

.

cos
is

cos (S

T^"

(*)

A)

If the terrestrial object

in the horizon, therefore

#=0,

we have

simply:
tang
,V (

AY
get:

= tang ^ (A 4-

/O tang

4 (A

/<)

Differentiating the formula for cos A? taking a

A and

&

as variable,

we

cos A cos 77 sin

(17

^4)

and from

I.

No. 8:
da
S = coscos cos p A
.

at.

Hence we see, that the star must not be taken too far from the horizon, in order that cos h may not be too small and errors of the time and distance may not have too great an influence on A. If two distances of a star from a terrestrial object have been observed, the hour angle and declination of the latter can be determined and also its altitude and azimuth.
For
the
if

we

denote the hour angle and the declination of
7),

object

by T and

the

we have
and the

in the spherical triangle

same for the star by t and J, formed by the pole, the star
cos

terrestrial object: sin d sin cbs A

=

L>

-r-

cos

D cos

(t

J ).

1

tions,

Then, if A is the interval of time between both observa which in case of the sun being observed must be ex pressed in apparent time, we have for the second distance
the equation:
cos

A

A

=

sin

sin

D -h cos S cos D cos
we
r

(t

T-+-

/).

From

these equations

can find

D

and

t

T, as will

259
be shown for similar equations in No. 14 of this section. If then the hour angle t at the time of the first observation be

computed, we can find T and /), and then by means of the formulae in I. No. 7 A and H.

II.

METHODS OF FINDING THE TIME OR THE LATITUDE BY AN
OBSERVATION OF A SINGLE ALTITUDE.
4.

If the altitude of a star,

observed and the latitude of the place hour angle by means of the equation:
cos
t

whose place is known, is is known, we find the
sin

=

sin h

sin
<p

a?

8

cos

cos o

In order to render this formula convenient for logarith

mic computation, we proceed in the same way as in the pre ceding No. and we find, introducing the zenith distance in
stead of the altitude:
i

p.

,2

__

sin

?( z
(z

<P

cos \

H-

(p

H-

8) cos

4^

(gp

H- 8

z)

or:
cos
\,

~
<S

sn
cos
-f-

~
z}

.

where

S

=

(*S

(z -+-

<p

$)

The sign of is not determined by this formula, but t must be taken positive or negative, accordingly as the altitude is taken on the west or on the east side of the meridian.
If the right ascension of the star is
real time of the observation
,

we

find the side

from the equation:
is

0=*-ho,
but
if

the sun

was observed, the computed hour angle

the

apparent solar time. Dr. Westphal observed in 1822, Oct. 29, at Example. Abutidsch in Egypt the altitude of the lower limb of the sun:
h

=

33"

42

18".

7

at the

clock-time 20 16 m 20 s
1

.

altitude must first be freed from refraction and pa but as the meteorological instruments have not been rallax; observed, only the mean refraction equal to 1 26".4 can be used, which is to be subtracted from the observed altitude.

The

17*

260

Adding

meter of the sun 16
centre of the sun:

also the parallax in altitude 9 and the semi-dia we find for the altitude of the 7,
6".
8".

h

= 33
13

57

7".

9.

Now

the latitude

of Abutidsch

is

27 5

0"

and the de

clination of the sun was on that day: 38
11".

1

hence we have:
,S

y

= -f-7
s
s

39

50".

5,

<?

=

-h48"

23

1".

and the computation

is

made

as follows:
cos

m(S m(S

9.1250385
y>)

S
z)

9.9146991 9.9G92707

8)

9.8736752 8.9987137

cos (S

9.8839698
2

tang 4

*

9.1147439
t *

t

= = =

tang

4-*

9.5573719

19

50
41

37".

98

39
2s

15
"

.96
.

38

45 s

06.
"

h apparent time of the observation is 21 21 m 8s 14 9, and since the equation of time is 16 7, the mean time is 21 h 5 m 6 s 2. The chronometer was therefore 48 in 46 s 2

Hence

the

s

.

.

.

.

too fast,

or

-f-

48

"

46 s 2 must be added to the time of the
.

chronometer

in order to get

mean

time.

Since the declination and the equation of time are va riable, we ought to know already the true time, in order to
interpolate, for

computing

,

the values of the declination, and

afterwards the value of the equation of time, corresponding to the true time. But at first we can only use an approx imate value for the declination and the equation of time, and

when

the true time

is

approximately known,

it

is

necessary,

to interpolate these values with greater accuracy

and

to re

peat the computation. The correction which must be applied to the clock-time, in order to get the true time, is called the error of the clock*
whilst the
ferent times
time.
Its

difference
is

of the errors of the clock at two dif

called the rate of the clock in the interval of sign is always taken so, that the positive sign

designates, that the clock is losing, and the negative sign, that the clock is gaining. If the interval between both times

261
is
h equal to 24

/

and

/\

u

is

the rate of the clock in this
it

24 hours, considering time, means of the formula: form, by 24 A u AM ~~
find the rate for 24
7

wo

to

be uni

~^T_

24

Differentiating the original equation:
sin h

=

sin
<f

sin

8 H- cos

cos $ cos
<p

,

we

find according to

I.

No. 8:
cos

dh

=
cos

Adcp

cos 8 sin

p

dt<

or since:
sin
7>

= cos
<f>

sin -A

we

get:
cos
(p

sm

clh
^4

cos

y tang

A
A

The value
the nearer
is

of the coefficients

of

dh and
d([>

is

the less,

tangent hence an error of the latitude has no influence on the hour angle and thus on the time found, if the altitude is
infinity,

A

is =t=

90. In

this case the value of the

taken on the prime vertical.

Since then also sin

A

is

a

max

imum, and hence the

coefficient of

dh

is

a

minimum, an error

of the altitude has then also the least influence on the time.
Therefore, in order to find the time by the observation of an altitude, it is always advisable, to take this as near as possible
to the

prime

vertical.

Since the coefficient of
it

dh can

also be written
cos o sin/?

evident, that one must avoid taking stars of great de clination and that it is best to observe equatoreal stars.
is

If
for the

we compute
s

the values of the differential coefficients
first

above example, we find

by means of the formula
25 8
.

m^ =
dt

8

*

S

n(
:

^ = -48"

cos h

and then

= -h 1.5013 dh -h 0.9966

cly

or dl expressed in seconds of time: dt -i- 0.1001 dh -t- 0.0664

dtp.

Therefore
arc,
s
.

if

the
t

error of the altitude be one second of

the

error

of
to

would be

s
.

10,

whilst an error of the

latitude

equal

1"

produces an error of the time equal to

07.

262
Besides
the less

we

advisable to
<^,

see from the differential equation, that it is find the time by an altitude, the less

the value of cos
the pole,

and hence, the
cp

less the latitude

is.

Near

where cos

is

very small, the method cannot be

used

at

all.

In case that several altitudes or zenith distances have 5. been taken, it is not necessary, to compute the error of the clock from each observation, unless it is desirable to know how far they agree with each other, but the error of the clock may be found immediately from the arithmetical mean of
all zenith distances. However, since the zenith distances do not increase proportionally to the time, it is necessary, either

apply to the arithmetical mean a correction, as was done in No. 2, in order to find from this corrected zenith distance the hour angle corresponding to the arithmetical mean of the
to

clock-times, or to apply a correction to the hour angle com puted from the arithmetical mean of all zenith distances.
r etc. be the clock-times, at which the zenith whose number be n, are taken let T be the arith distances, metical mean of all, and Z the zenith distance belonging to
r,
,
r",

Let

;

the time 7 , then

1

we have

:

etc.,

where
since r

t

is

the hour
T-t- r

angle corresponding to the time 7
T-j-..

T

,

or

T-f-r"

.=0:

.-_...

_ ^z
(it*

_

,.

n

n

If

we

substitute here the expression for
section, -h z -h 42"

2

found

in

No. 25

of the
/j

first

we
. .

finally get

:

=:

z

.

cos^cosw
sin

??.

^Z

cos^l cos p

^2sin^(r
n

TV
.

With

this

corrected

zenith

distance

we ought

to

com

pute the hour angle and from this the true time, which com pared with T gives the error of the clock. But if we com-

263
the uncorrected arithmetical mean pute the hour angle with of the zenith distances, we must apply to it the correction:
dt cos

dz

-cos (p cos -^

sin

Z

A

cos
/>

2 2 sin \

(r

7 )2
1

n

or
the

if

we

substitute for
section,

^ dz
A
t

its

value according to No. 25 of
7

first

we

find this correction expressed in time:
JfJ^sin
;

cos p cos

[

(r

T

2
)
, .

15 sin

n

where

A and p

are found
sin

by means of the formulae:
sin
.

A=
p

t

smZ
sin
t

cos o

2

and

sin

= smZ cos

if.

These,
cos p
;

it

is

true,

but

we can

do not determine the sign of cos A and easily establish a rule by which we may

always decide about the sign of the correction (). If the hour angles are not reckoned in the usual way, to 180", the cor but on both sides of the meridian from
0"

rection

is

always

to

be applied to the absolute value of

,

and
cos

its

A

of the product sign will depend only upon the sign if cos p and cos A cos p, which is positive or negative,

have the same or opposite signs.
/
sin
1
<K

Now we
sm
,

have:
cos
~

cos p

=

sin OP

I

cos z
sin
y>

o

v

/sin
I

OP

\
)

V

\sm

o
-ja-

/
?

sm
/
sin
-

s~

---==:

z cos o

sm z
$\
}
,

.

cos o
(p

sin

cos A =

(f

I

cos z

\

sm
(p

(p/
-

sm z
if
<)

=
is

z sin ^ /cos sin o ^ \ sm o
I
;

\
/

--

cos

sin z cos

(p

Therefore,
n

<?

y, cos
...

p

always positive,
sin

and cos

A

.

.

.,>

is

positive,

if

cos z
j

>-

.

,

sm<p

negative, if cos

sin o
i

siny
sin
(p

and

if

<)

>

y, cos

A

is is

always negative,
negative, if cos z
...
.

and cos p

sin 8

r,

positive,

it

cos z

^ sm (p
<

sin o

i,

Therefore

if

we

take the fraction
sin o
sin
.r,

and

sin

d 7 sm ^,

if

264
the

two cosines have the same sign and the correction
is
;

(a) is

greater than this fraction but they have opposite signs and the correction (a) is positive, if cos z is less than this fraction. For stars of south declination cos A

negative, if cos z

and cos p are always
tion
is

positive,

hence the sign of the correc
f!i

always negative*). Dr. Westphal took on the 29 of October not only one zenith distance of the sun but in succession, eight namely:
True zenith distance of

Chronometer -time

the centre of the sun

r
3m 2
1

T
32"

2 sin {

(rT)
51

2

20 h 16 m 20 s
17 21

56
55

2

52".

1

24".

52 51 .5

31 31
31

12 .43

18
19

21
21
21-

42 51 .0
32
12

4 .52

50.5
.

0.52
.

20
21

22 50
2 48

29
1

46

23 23 25

49.4
.

31

4.52
12
.

22
23

9

2

31

43
74
52.

54 55

52 48
27

.

4
2

3

33

24

.

20 h 19 ra 51 s .9

50".

10".

Now
55 27
hence we

50".

arithmetical mean of the zenith distances 2 and the declination of the sun -- 13 38 14". find the hour angle:

the

is

7,

2h35 M3s.
to

18.

which have
:

value

the

correction

must be applied.

But we

sin

p

=
32

9.

8307 9,
is

sin

A

= 9 .86881,
s
.

hence, as the declination
8".

south, the correction is:
55
in time.

in arc or

the
is

With the corrected hour angle mean time 21 h 8 m 38 .70, hence
s
:

2 h 35 m 12 s .63 the

we

find

error of the clock

equal to

-f_

48m

46s.

8.

6.

If an altitude of a star
find

is

we can

the latitude of the place.
sin h

taken and the time known, For we have again
cos 8 cos
y>

the equation:

=

sin

90

sin

8

-f-

cos

t.

*)

Warnstorff

s

Hulfstafeln pag. 122,

265

Taking now:
sin S

cos

cos

t

=M = Af

sin

N,

coslV,

we

find

:

sin h

= M cos (y
sin h

xV),

and hence:
sin

Ar

.

(H)

The formula
negative value of

leaves
if

it

doubtful, whether the

positive or

N must

be taken, but it is always easy to decide this in another way. For if in

Fig. 6 we draw an arc S Q perpendic ular to the meridian, we easily see that JY 90 F Q or equal to the distance of

=

Q from
(f

the equator, hence that Z Q is the cosine of the N, whilst

=

M

arc

S

Q.

intersects
zenith,
is

the

Therefore as long as S Q meridian south of the

we must

t 90, the perpendicular arc below the pole, hence its distance from the equator is and the zenith distance of Q equal to N Therefore
^>
^>

be taken, the zenith. In case that
to

when

take the positive value JV, but tp (p the point of intersection lies north of
is

N

90"

.

in

</

this

case

the
is

the cosine
If the

negative value to be taken.
is

N

(f

of the angle found by

altitude

taken on the meridian,

we

find

(f

by

means of the simple equation
9p

= d==
C\
I

z

,

where the upper or lower sign must be taken,

if

the star

passes across the meridian south or north of the zenith. case that the star culminates below the pole, we have:

In

Dr. Westphal in 1822 October 19 at Benisuef in Egypt took the altitude of the centre of the sun at 23 h l m 10 s mean time and found for it 49 17 8. The decimation at that - 10 12 m Os time was 1, the equation of time --15 .O,
22".
-

16".

hence the hour angle of the sun 23 h 16 m 10

s

=

10 n 57

30".0.

We

find therefore:

266
tang cos
<5

t

= 9. 2552942,, = 9 9920078
.

sin
sin

N= 10 23 iV= 9. 2561063,, S= 9^2483695,,
"070077368

23".

67

sin A

iV
<p

hence
<p

= 39 = 29

9

.

8796788
29
6
54".

51
84.

30

.

errors of h and
tion for sin h

In order to enable us to estimate the effect, which any t can have on we differentiate the equa
<p,

and find according to I. No. 8 O sQvAdh cos ip tang A dt. dtp
.

:

= 180.

Here the

coefficients are at a

minimum, when A
=t= 1
,

=

or

The

secant of

A

is

then

hence errors of the

altitude are then at least not increased and since tang A is then equal to zero, errors of the time have no influenze at all. Therefore in order to find the latitude as correct as

possible

by

altitudes,
it

they must be taken on the meridian or

at least as near

as possible.

For the example we have A
find:

=

1640
c//,

.l,

hence we

=
dy>

1.044 JA

+ 0. 2616
we

or

if

dt be expressed in seconds of time: 1.044 dA 4-3. 924 rf*. ety=
If several altitudes are taken, corresponding to the
cos S

find according to

No. 5

the altitude

arithmetical

mean of the
T
7
)

times by means of the formula:
//=--7i4-/* 4-/i"4-... --

n

h
cos
is

cosy

^2sin4(r
cos^lcosp
n

2

H

1.

If the altitude

can deduce the latitude from
solving the triangle.
rive at a

taken very near the meridian, we it in an easier way than by
altitudes of the stars ar

For since the

the meridian and hence change very in the neighbourhood of the meridian, we have only slowly to add a small correction to an altitude taken near the merid
ian, in order to find the

maximum on

meridian altitude.

But

this in

con

nection with the declination gives immediately the latitude. This method of finding the latitude is called that by

circum-meridian altitudes.

267

From:
cos z

=

sin
<p

sin 8 -f- cos
<p

cos S cos

t,

we

get:
cos
2

= cos (y
cos
~

$)

2 cos

90

cos

sin ^

2
2

and from

this

according to the formula (19) in No. 11 of
OP

the introduction:
-

=
<p

o

a

2 cos

-h

,

rr-^

.

r-

sin

sin(p

\t
6:
2
<

*

-

2

cosy
sin(y>

2

cos S*
2

.

cotang (5?

S) sin I

fi

r

.

o)

tf)

or denoting 3

-?^
6
.

by J
sin

4-

6

a
.

cotang (y
()

Therefore
imate
2 sin |

if

we compute

rp

and

b with

an approx
| f
2

value

of

(fy,

and take the

values

of 2 sin

and

tables, the computation for the latitude is ex ceedingly simple. Such tables are given for instance in WarnstorfFs Hulfstafeln , where for greater convenience also the

^ from

If the value of y logarithms of those quantities are given. should differ considerably from the assumed value, it is ne
cessary, to repeat the computation, at least that of the first term. Stars culminating near the zenith must not be used
for this

method, since for these the correction becomes large on account of the small divisor (p d.

Westphal
distance

in

1822 October 3

at

Cairo took the zenith O
1

of the centre of the sun
34".

at

2

2s

.

7

mean time

and found 34 1 2. The declination of the sun being -3 48 the equation of time --10 m 48 s 6, and hence 2, the hour angle -+- 12 n 5r s .3, we find from the tables:
51".
.

log 2 sin

4^

t~

4 we have log Taking (f the first term of the correction is
,

= 30

= 2.51 105

log 2 sin 4

t*

= 9.4060.
47
,

6

= 0.1 9006
22".

8

the

and then second

+

0".

91, therefore

we have:
Correction
?

8 12

21".

56

+

<?=

30

43".

00

change of 1 in the assumed value of gives in this case only a change of 30 in the computed value of y , and
(f>

A

p=
0".

30

4

21".44.

the true value, found

by repeating the computation,
(/

is:

==30
if

4

21".

54.

The formula
south
of the

(^4)

is

true, if the star passes the

meridian

zenith.

But

the

declination

is

greater than

268
the latitude

and thence the
ti

star passes the meridian north of

the zenith, we must use in this case:

y instead of
cos
.

r/>

J,

and we get

=
<p

d

v

cos
z -+-

(f

cos S

-T-TVsm(d

2 sin y)

^-

r

re

2

-

cos 8 2
2

sin (d

^

cotang (8

* y) 2 sin It

.

y)

Finally, if the
tion,

star be observed near its lower culmina
t

we

have, reckoning
cos z

= cos (180

from the lower culmination:
<?)

(f

4- 2 cos
y>

cos 8 sin

^

t*

and hence

:

CO - 180-4-,- --

If the latitude of a place is determined by this method, of course not only a single zenith distance but a number of

them are taken
meridian.

in

succession in

the

neighbourhood of the

Then

found for
tiplied

the values of 2 sin \ 2 and 2 sin \ t 4 must be each t and the arithmetical means of all be mul

way,

is

by the constant factors. The correction, found in this to be added to the arithmetical mean of the zenith
*).

distances

The reduction to the meridian can other form. For from the equation:
cos z

also be

made
1

in

an

cos

((p

8)

=

2 cos

y

cos 8 sin \

t

follows

:

sm

.

<f>

z ip -- -h sm^^
<?

.

~
8

-----

z

=

cos

(f

cos o sin

2

\

t

.

Now
we
find:

if

we

take the reduction to the meridian:

hence

:

COS
;

sin

((f

--8
(f>

COS 8
-+-

s

-

-

sin

1 .r)

an equation which may be written
sin la:
----.

Now

it

^ sm ^r s~T~~i N sin ((p o-\- \.r) o) \x 5111(9has been proved in No. 10 of the introduction, that
o-

x=

cos

-rp

is

in this
sin
--

way:
8)
"

cos 8

t

-(g>

*) In case that the snn

observed, the change of the declination must

be taken into account.

See the following No.

269
a

=Vcosa,

neglecting terms
first

of the fourth

order.

If

we

apply this and take as a from the equation:
.
.

approximation for x the value
_.

t= sin
we
find
:

coso>

cos
v

;
(<p

-2sm

4

2
/

(72),

d)

3
/
i

_

sin
j.
(<P

^)

sin

(cp

S

-+-

-^

x)

or

if

we

find

ber

instead

x from this equation, write in the second num of x, and denote the new value of x by
:
,

I

=I

-

sin (y

r- 7

sin (tp

8} d

H-

7-

,

j-v

sec

%

T

.

j

|)

This second approximation is in most cases already suf But if this should not be the case, we com ficiently correct.
pute (f- from rected value:
,

then

by means of

(5),

and find the cor

With the data used

sin

coscc

(99

= 8 47 log | = 2.701 11 = 9.74620 = 0.25293 = 2.70024, log I
I
22".

before,

we

find:

3) S-+- i |)
(y>

hence
8.

8
If

22".

47 and

ff

= 30

4

21".

53.

we

must take the change of

take circum-meridian altitudes of the sun, we its declination into account, hence
the computation for each hour angle with But in order to render the reduction
in the following

we ought

to

make

a different decimation.

more convenient, we can proceed

way:

We
Now

have:
<p

= +8
z
,

^

COS -

OP

COS $
o)

/
sm(y>

2sin,U 2

.

if

D

is

the declination of the sun at noon,

we can

declination corresponding to any hour angle t express by .D-|-/?f, where ft is the change of the declination in one hour and t is expressed in parts of an hour. Then we

the

have:
sin
(<p

270
If

we
ftt

take now:
COS
-.

sin (90
?/

7*: 2 sm
d)

(f

COS

..

2

*

=

COS
.-

OP

COS

-f-

A-

8^

2 sin |

(/

+

-

)

,

(4)

sm(r/>

5)

we must

find

from the following equation:

or since:
sin a
.

2

sin b

1

=

sin (a -f(tp

/>)

sin (a
t

/>)

,

P
2

sin

8)
sin

cosy cos

we have:

~^

sin
(<p

8)

-20G265

cos

y.

cos

3600~xl5

where the numerical factor has been added, because we take sin (-}-?/) and the unit of t is one hour, whilst the unit I,

=
,

of sin

t

is

the

radius

or rather unity.
in
,

If

we denote
in

the

change of the declination
of arc by
(

48 hours expressed
or
if

seconds

we have
ft

fi

=
.

we wish

to express y in
:

seconds of time,

=

We

have therefore

and then we find the latitude from each by means of the formula:

single observation

The quantity y taken negative.
For
pression
:

is

the hour angle of the greatest altitude,
for
this

in

I.

No. 24 we found

the

following ex

= dS
where
t

,

,,,206265
90

[tang

tang

tf]

^
c

is

expressed

in

seconds of time and

is

the change

of the declination in one second of time.
to

But

this is

equal

~

--

,

hence the hour angle

at the time of the greatest
is
:

altitude,

expressed in seconds of time,

*)

To

this

there ought to be added

still

the second term dependent

on

271
u 720
,

206265

which formula
posite sign.

is

the
t

same
is

as that for y taken with the op

the hour angle of the sun, reck -+- // the time of the culmination but from the time oned not from

Hence

of the greatest altitude. Therefore if circum-meridian altitudes of a heavenly body have been taken, whose declination is variable, it is not ne
cessary to use for their reduction the declination correspond ing to each observation, but we can use for all the declina
tion at the time of culmination, if

so

that they are

we compute the hour angles not reckoned from the time of the culmi

Then the nation but from the time of the greatest altitude. is as easy as in the former case, when the de computation clination is supposed not to change.
For
with this
the observation

= 100-^
we
get:
^

made at Cairo (No. 7) we have 3 48 3.4458,, and D = 57,
38".

:

= + ys.6,

hence
first

t

+y = 13 m
00.

s

.

9

and hence we find for the
meridian:

term of the reduction to the

=-8
to this -f-

35".

On
must add

account of the second term multiplied by sin

~

4

30"4 21".54. and we finally find cp 0".91, In case that only one altitude has been observed, it is of course easier to interpolate the declination of the sun for the time of the observation but if several altitudes have been taken, the method of reduction just given is more convenient.
;

=

we

the polar distance of the pole-star is very always in the neighbourhood of the meridian, and hence its altitude taken at any time may be used with ad vantage for finding the latitude; but the method given in
9.

Since
is

small,

it

No.
is

not applicable to this case, as the series given there In converging only as long as the hour angle is small.
7
is

this case, the polar distance

being small, it is convenient to the expression for the correction which is to be ap develop plied to the observed altitude according to the powers of
this

quantity.

272
7

Fig

If we draw (Fig. 7) an arc of a great circle from the place of the star per

pendicular to the meridian,

and denote the arc of the meridian between the point
of intersection with this arc

and the pole by a?, the arc between the same point and the zenith by z where y is a small quantity, we have */,
:

90
<p

=

z

y

+

x, x,
:

or

9?=
tang x
.

DO

z-t-y

and we have

in the right

angled triangle

cos (z

y)

= tang p cos cos = cos
2 u
t

t

(a)

We

get immediately from the
x

first
3

= tang p cos
x

equation:
3
t
,

^

tang p

cos

and higher powers of tang terms of the same order: ing again
neglecting the
fifth

p, or neglect

= p cos
1

t

+

3

p

3

cos

t

sin

z
t
.

(6)

If

we develop
sin

the second equation (a),
cos u
z

we

find:
z,

y

= cotang
fifth

h

"2

sin

2

A

y

.

cotang

or neglecting the
sin

y

= cotang
u

and higher powers of
1 5

u:
z.

z (\ u

-+-

,

3

T w

1

)

+2
sin
t
:

sin

2

\y cotang

But we get from the equation

=p
4

sin u sin
t

= sinp
|

p

3

sin

t

cos

t,

hence substituting this value in the equation above we again neglecting terms of the fifth order:
3/~ TP
2

find,

sin

2
if

cotg2

^p

sin*

2

(4 cos*

2

Ssin^cotgz-h^cotgz.^

2
.

(c)

This formula, it is true, contains still y in the second 1 member, but on account of the term | cotang z y being very small, it is sufficient, to substitute in this term for y the
.

value computed by means of the obtain
:

first

term alone.
3 p cos

Thus we
2

=
<f>

90"

z

p cos

t

-+-

p* sin

2
t

cotang z
1 t

}

t

sin

t

~f~

+
Since
it

Ti^
{/>*

4
i

n

t* (5 sin

4 cos* 2 ) cotang z
.

sin f*

3 cotang 2

(A}

would be very inconvenient

to

compute

this

273
formula for every observation
lished in the Nautical
,

tables

are every

year pub

Almanac and other astronomical alma

nacs, which render the computation very easy. They embrace the largest terms of the above expression, which are always sufficient, unless the greatest accuracy should be required.
If

neglect the terms dependent on the third and fourth of p, we have simply: *) power
if

we

= 90

z

p cos

t

+|p

2

sin

2
t

cotang

z.

thus a certain value of the right ascension and polar distance by and p M the apparent values at the time of the observation being

If

we denote

=
we
tp

H- A

,

p

= PO
I

4-

A;>

find substituting these values:

= 90
.

z

p

tt

cos cos

t
/

-h

p

2

cotang
/

z sin

2
/

where

t
()

=
find

Ap

p sin

A,
tables.

We
term

now

in

the
*

Almanac three

The

first

p cos gives the term alone is variable. The
|

the argument being 0, since this , second table gives the value of the

p^

cotang z sin
third
table

nally the

the arguments being z and &. gives the term dependent on
,

2

Fi

6>,

A

and
the

&p
<Ap

cos

p

sin

t

A

,

arguments being the sidereal time and the days of the

year.

Tables of a different construction have been published by Petersen in Warnstorff s Hulfstafeln pag. 73 and these embrace all terms and can be used while the polar distance
of the pole-star is between the limits 1 20 and Let 40 again be a certain value of p, for which Petersen takes 1 30 then the formula (A) can p be written in
1"

.

p

(]

=

,

easily

this

way:
The term multiplied by y/ is at its maximum, when t 54 44 and if we take 140 is then only 0".G5. The terms multiplied ^

*)
its

value,
1

=

=

,

by p
easily

are

still

less,

unless

z

should
as the

be

very

small.

These terms can be

embraced
2

in

the
2
t

tables,
z.

first

may

be united with

p

cos

/,

the

other with 4j

sin

cotang

18

274

<r,

= 90

2

z
7>o

[p

cos

/

+ \p
[4;J

*

cos /sin/ 2 ]

I

PoVo
4

f

.,

1

)#

J

cos

/sin/"

H

;V

^

cotang.z

2

sin/

2

-h^-, P O

sin

2
/

(5 sin/

2

4 cos/

2

)]

f

*

-

3 cotang z

.

Po"

If

we

put now:

A
P
p
2
^/>

cos

/

-+-

3 p
4

sin
4

2
/

-f4
/

-j^Po

sin * 3

2

-*

J p
4

sin

cotang c

=

&

sin
4

2
2

4 cos/ 2 ) ==/?,
.

^ /I

/9

cotang

s

3

=

//,

we

obtain:
tp

= 90

~

Aa

y-\-A*{3 cotang

,~

-+- u.

Now
which give

four tables have been constructed, the first two of and ft, the argument being t a third table gives
,

the value of the small quantity ; the arguments being p and t and finally a fourth table gives the quantity /, which is likewise very small, the arguments being y A^ ft cotang 2
,

=

Oh These tables have been computed from t 6h to t Therefore if t 90, the hour angle must be reckoned from the lower culmination, so that in this case

and 90

=

z.

=

.

>

we

have:

= 90
<p

z

-h

Aa

-h y

+A

1

ft

cotang

z -f-

ft.

Example.

In 1847 Oct. 12 the altitude of Polaris was

taken with a small altitude and azimuth instrument at the

observatory of the late Dr. Hulsmann at Diisseldorf and it 55 30". 8, which was at 18 h 48 S .8 sidereal time h
1

22"

=

50"

is

already corrected for refraction.
to

According on that day is:

the Berlin Jahrbuch the place of Polaris
5

= lh5m3is.7
7".

j

= 88
17s.
1

29

52".

4.

Hence we have:
;
,

=

1

30

6,

/=l?h
log

17

= 259

19

1C".

5,

and:

A = 0.0006108

and we obtain by means of the tables or the formulae:

275
therefore
:

Aa = +
y!
2
/

3cotangz

= ^=
<j>

16
1

42".

26

-t-

24

.

33

-+-

.

02
61
41.

sum
hence:

= 4- 18
=51
13

6".

37".

10.
latitude

Gauss has also published a method for finding the from the arithmetical mean of several zenith distan

long before or after the culmination, which is convenient for the pole-star. especially If an approximate value (f of the latitude (p is known,
ces,

taken

()

and
is

&

is

the sidereal time,

at

observed,

we can compute from
tang x

which the zenith distance z () and the value of (f
(}

the zenith distance

by means of the formulae:

= cos

t

cotang S
sin

cos.r

UP O

f

N

-f- x)

and then we obtain:

hence

:

uV

"

sm

:

o

cos

(90

cos;r

sin

#

again the arc between the pole and the point in which an arc drawn through the star, and perpendicular to the me ridian intersects the latter and since the length of this arc
is

is
P

always between the limits
,i
i

=t=

90
cos
(<p

t),

we can
r)

take in case
..

ot the pole-star

sin

-,-,

cos x

as well as

-f-

sin

equal to unity,
is

./,

if

the latitude

is

known

within a few seconds and d(f

there

fore a small quantity.

If

time

another^ zenith distance has been taken at the sidereal we have: ,
tang x
cos
-;

cos

t

tang
.

=

sin

o"

,sm(<f>

n

-i-x)

and:

d(f>

18*

276
or,
if

Z

denotes the arithmetical
*

mean of both observed

ze

nith distances equal to

(X
.

-{- 3, ):

^~

M/d + d\
\dcp
7

/ ) da) /

where

:

yl

= cos 8 x
sin
sin

cos
.

(OP O -f- a:)

sm
cos (9^0
sin
.

f^\
-f-

$

x}

cosr

or:

A
1?

= cotang = cotang
y

cotang

($>$

-+- .r)

,

^

.

cotang

(9^0

H~ ^

)

and

finally, if

we
eos

find

from the original equation:
sin $ -f- cos
(f>

=

sin

(p (}

cos ^ cos

/

we

obtain also:

iCd-hB)=

cos

QD

sin

8

sin

cp

cos

(5

r
sin

Z
i (

sin

Z
Z.

cos 4

(<+/).

(^/)

In case of the pole -star
dy>

we have
-h
)

=

simply:
(e)

If several zenith distances have been observed,
to

compute
:

for each sidereal time separately

we ought and we should

then obtain

-i
[

+ +
f

+...
-fc?

+

,,--,]-

w

^

d

j-

/

J

where Z again denotes the arithmetical mean .of all observed zenith distances. But the following way of proceeding is more
simple. If

we denote by

()

the arithmetical

mean
%

of

all

sidereal

times and put:
i}

=

r,

6>

=T

etc.

the zenith distance corresponding to and then denote by we obtain in the same way as in No. 5 of this section: ,

sn
n

Now

if

T

is

taken from the following equation:

277
the zenith distances z and z
are
:

at the times

#

T and @

-f-7

*=c.

d dt

hence

:

and we obtain according
d<f

to the
"

formula

(/")

simply:

=
if

,

the values

of
.

A and B

corresponding to z

are

denoted

by A .and

B

Therefore

if

several zenith distances of a star have been

observed, we take the mean of the observed clock-times and subtract from it each clock-time without regard to the sign.
tities

These differences converted into sidereal time give the quan r, for which we find from the tables the quantities 2 sin \ T -. From the same tables we find the argument T
corresponding to the arithmetical mean of
all

these quanti

ties

and compute the hour angles
6>

:

(

-t-

T)

(a

T)

= =

t

t

and then z and z by means of the formulae:
tang x
cos z

= cos cotang 8 = cosx
t

sin

sin

(gpj)

+ x)

and

tang x
,

cos
sin
-

t

cotang
,

cos 2

= cosx

sin

(rp a

-{-x).

In case of the pole-star

we

then have immediately:

where Z
distances.

is

now

the arithmetical

mean

of

all

observed zenith

For other

stars the rigorous

formula for
d<f

must

be computed, namely:

where
(c)

A
(rf)

and

B

are obtained

or

after taking

=

z

by means of the formulae and z *).

=

(6),

*)

WarnstorfFs Hulfstafeln pag. 127.

278
Example. In 1847 Oct. 12 the following ten zenith dis tances of Polaris were taken at the observatory of Dr. Hiils-

mann

:

Sidereal time.

Zenith distance.
39"

T 13
9
6
n

17h56
59
18
3

"21s.4

13

42".

I

19.75
46 .65
11 .45

54 .5
29 .7

12 17
11 6

.

6

.

8

62.9
8

2sin^T 348.75 187.69 75.24
25
3
.

2

103.6

3
1

38
6

.

25
15

98

35 .0 32 .0 34 .0 28
.

115.1
13
16
18
1

90.6 82.8 77.6 64.8
5 15

.

2.39
.

123.95
3
6

85

50 .85 52 .85

29 .06

92.95
151 .43

.3
.

8

46 .95
7
.

22

48 .8
.15
Refr.

3 42

7

13

65

398

38".39

__338 28 ~~125756
.

46".50
24".89

Z= 399 r = 2542
Now
we
obtain:
z

T= 7
=258
30".0,

59*. 83

24".3

2

19".

2.

taking:
7>

= 51
12
37".

13

= 39
.}0

56

+ 2)-

(zH-y)

= 39 = 399 =
z

6

34".

54

36".05

+11".

16,

hence

:

= 51

13

41".

16.

III.

METHODS OF FINDING BOTH THE TIME AND THE LATITUDE
BY COMBINING SEVERAL ALTITUDES.
11.

If
:

we observe two
sin h

altitudes of stars,
8 $

we have two

equations

sin k

= =
(*

sin
<p

sin sin
y>

-+-

cos
<p
<p

cos 5 cos
cos S cos

t, t
.

sin

+ cos

In these equations, since we always observe stars, whose and d are known, and further we have places are known,
<)

:

= +
*

f)

=

t

-+-(&

0)

(

).

known, the latter to the interval of time between the two obser being equal vations, the two equations contain only two unknown quan-

Now

since

a and 6/

B

are likewise

279

and f/, which therefore can be found by solving Thus the latitude and the time can be found by ob altitudes serving two altitudes, but the combination of two in some cases is also very convenient for finding either the
titles

them.

latitude or the time alone.
if two altitudes of the same and lower culmination, their arith upper metical mean is equal to the latitude, which thus is deter This is even found mined independently of the declination.

We

have seen before, that

star are taken at its

at

the

same time, since

it

is

equal to half the difference of

the altitudes.

Likewise we can find the latitude by the difference of the meridian zenith distances of two stars, one of which cul minates south, the other north of the zenith. For if S is the
declination of the
first

star, its

meridian zenith distance
v

is:

and
nith,

if

d

is

the declination of the other star, north of the ze
z
,

we

have:

=o

s

,

y,

and therefore we get:

p^tf+tfO-M (*-*
12.

)

If

two equal
have:
sin h
sin h

altitudes of the

same

star

have been

observed,

we

= =

sin sin
t

cp
<p

sin S -\- cos sin

y

cos 8 cos

t, t

.

.

from which we find

=

8 -\- cos rp cos 8 cos
t
.

,

The

altitudes therefore are

then taken at equal hour angles on both sides of the meridian. Now if u is the clock-time of the first, u that of the second
observation,
J

(u -{- u )

is

the time,

when

the star

was on the
:

meridian and since this must be equal to the known right ascension of the star, we find the error of the clock equal to
a
4
<>

-t-

M ).
is

This method of finding the time by equal altitudes the most accurate of all methods of finding the time by
titudes.

al

clination
for

Since neither the latitude of the place nor the de of the heavenly body need be known and since

this reason it is also not necessary to know the longi tude of the place, this method is well adapted to find the time at a place, whose geographical position is entirely un It is also not all necessary to know the altitude known.

280
it is possible to obtain by this method accurate even if the quality of the instrument employed does results, not admit of any accurate absolute observations. All which is required for this method is a good clock, which in the in terval between the two observations keeps a uniform rate, and an altitude instrument, whose circle need not be accu

itself,

so that

rately divided.

have hitherto supposed, that the declination of the But in case that altitudes heavenly body does not change. of the sun are taken, the arithmetical mean of both times
does not give the time of culmination, for, if the declination increasing, that is, if the sun approaches the north pole, the hour angle corresponding to the same altitude in the
is

We

afternoon will be greater than that taken in the forenoon and falls a little later than apparent noon. The reverse takes place if the decli

hence the arithmetical mean of both times

nation

of the sun is decreasing. Therefore in case of the sun a correction dependent on the change of the declination must be applied to the arithmetical of the two times. This
called the equation of equal altitudes.
A<)

is

If S is the declination of the sun at noon, the change of the declination between noon and the time of each obser vation, we have:
sin h
sin h

= =

sin

cp

sin (8

A<?)

-+-

cos

y
y>

cos (8

A 8)

cos cos

t t

sin

y

sin (8 -f-

A d) H- cos

cos (d 4-

A 8)

.

Let the clock-time of the observation before noon be de
M, the one in the afternoon by u\ then (u -\-ti) the time, at which the sun would have been on the ridian, if the declination had not changed.
is

noted by

U
me

Then denoting
tions
(M

half the
r,

interval

between the observa

M)

by

the equation
is

of equal altitudes by x,

the

moment

of apparent noon
t
t

given by

U -}- x

and we

have:

=T =
4

(u
(11

u) -t- x
11)

x

= r -+ =T
cos (8

x,
.r,

and also:
sin h

= =

sin

(f

sin (S

A<?)

+ cos
-f-

(p

A<?)

cos (T

-f- a:)

and

:

sin h

sin
<f>

sin

(8-{-&8)

cos

y

cos

($-hA$)

cos (r

#).

281

From

these expressions for sin h

we

find the following

equation for x:
0=singpcos Ssill&S

Now

in

cosy sin $sin A^OSTCOS x -\- cosy cos &d cos $sinr sin.r. case of the sun x is always so small, that we
1

can take cos x equal to
obtain, taking also

and

sin

x equal
/\r):

to x.

Then we

&S

instead of tang
v sin

g9 r = _/tan ,_tang^\ r t
tang
/

If

we

denote

during 48 hours, which
portional to the

now by the change of the may be considered here time, we have:
/<

declination
to

be pro

A
hence:
x ==

--*>.

U
--

/
\

T

T
tang
a>

48

smr

-f-

tang T
:

tang o

\

/

}

or if

x

is

expressed in seconds of time
X

~

1A ( 720V
-7

~
smr

tan S

~
+"
0>

tang r

tall g

^

/

)

tables

simplify the computation of this formula, have been published by Gauss in Zach s monatliche Correspondent Vol. XXIII, which are also given in WarnstorTs Hulfstafeln. These tables, whose argument is r, give

In order to

the quantities:
720
sin

r

~A

and:

J
720

r
tang r

and thus the formula for the equation
simply:
x

of equal altitudes
8.

is

=
the

Au tang

-+y>

J3u tang

(A)

Differentiating
stant,

two formulae

(a),

taking d as con

we We

find:

*)

find

this also,

if

we

differentiate the original equation for sin A,

taking 8 and
**

t

as variable,

since

we have x

=

do

&.

we

) Since the change of the declination at apparent noon is to be used, ought to take the arithmetical mean of the first differences of the de

preceding and following the almanacs give the quantity fi.
clination,

the

day of observation.

Instead

of this

282
d/i

dh

= =

cos

cos

A d(p A

cos
<p

sin
(p

cos

sin

d(f>

A dt A dt.

we can
Since

In these equations dt has been taken equal to dt, since suppose, that the error committed in taking the time of the observation is united with the errors of the altitudes.

we have now A
dh
dli

=
=

cos

cos

A A

A, we obtain: drp -(- cos rp sin A dt, cos rp sin A dt,
1
d<f

and

:

cos

(f

sin

A
observe the heavenly
as nearly as possible
is

Therefore

we

see,

that
its

we must
azimuth

body
-4-90"

at the time,

when

and --90.
fol

In 1822 Oct. 8 Dr. Westphal observed at Cairo the lowing equal altitudes of the sun:
Double the
altitude of

Chronometer -time_
forenoon
21 h 7 m 27
afternoon
2 h 33 m 59 s

(Lower limb)
73

Mean
23 h 50 m 43 s .O

20

8
9

24 23
18 16
11

33 32
31

3
5
9

43
44

.

5

40
74

.

10

20

11

30
29

12

43 .5 44 .0

40
75

12 13

14 13
15 15

42 .5 42 .0 42 .0
42 .5 43
.

11
9

28
27 26

20

14 15
16

40
76

10
6

25

20

Hence we
vations
:

find

for

the

arithmetical
43
00.

mean

of

all

obser

23 h 50

"

.

Now
that

the forenoon and the last in the afternoon

half the interval between the first observation in h m 16 s and is 2 43
last

between the

observation in the forenoon and the

first in

the afternoon 2 h 34 m
T

= 9h

37% hence we take
56 s
.

:

38"

5

=

2>>

.

649.

If

we compute with
logr COSCCT
Compl. log 720
log

this

A and

B,

we

find:

0.42308
0.19435
7.14267
"7/7601

0.42308
cotang r

0.08028
7.14267

4

logJS

7.6460,

283

and
and:

as:

=
log

6

7

,

y>

= 304
4ft.

<*

= 3.4391.,
-f-

we

obtain:
x

=

IQs

.

Therefore the sun was on the meridian or
rent

it

was appa

chronometer-time 23 h 50 m 53 46. Now since the equation of time was -- 12 h 33 s .18, the sun was on the meridian at 23 h 47 m 26 .82 mean time, and hence the error

noon

at the

s

.

s

of the chronometer was:
3

26

.

64.

If
in

we compute
dt

the differential equation and express dt

seconds of time,

we

find:
Qs. 048 (dti
10"

=

dK),

and we see, that if an error of was committed in taking an altitude, the value of the error of the clock would be s 48 wrong.
.

We

can make use of this

differential

formula in com

puting the small correction, which must be added to the arithmetical mean of the times, if the altitudes taken before and after noon were not exactly but For only nearly equal.
if

h and h
take

are the altitudes taken before and after

noon and

we
tion

h

h=dh\

we ought
_dh _

to

apply to h the correc

dh\ and hence the correction of

U

is:

_

30 cos
<f

sin

A
li t

dh cos
30 cos
(p

cos 8 sin

is required, such a equal altitudes have been taken. For although the mean refraction is the same for equal ap parent altitudes, yet this is not the case with the true refrac tion, unless the indications of the meteorological instruments be accidentally the same. Therefore if o is the refraction for the observation in the forenoon, o-+-dy that in the after

In

case that the
is

greatest
if

accuracy

correction

necessary even

noon, the heavenly body has been observed in the afternoon at a true altitude which is too small by do, and hence we

must add

to

U

the correction:

oO cos

284
13.
altitudes

in

Often the weather does not admit of taking equal the forenoon and afternoon. But if we have

obtained equal altitudes in the afternoon of one day and in the forenoon of the following day, we can find by them the time of midnight. The expression for the equation of equal altitudes in this case is of course different.
If

T

is

half the

interval

between the observations, the

hour angles are:
T

=

12i>

T
i9h

and

:

_T=
The
case
that
is if

+ T.

now

the

ference, clination
(i

A#

is

as before only with this dif positive, the sun has the greater de

same

must
:

the hour angle is -- r, hence the correction be taken with the opposite sign and we have in this

when

case

X

A 720

f \ sin

ta

~
"g
<f>

T

tang T

~~ tail g
!l

^

/

)

=
If

1 T fl ( 12 tan g ( rfon I P 720 V sin T
;

~

12

T

.A

tang T

tang o

\

)

we

write instead of
x

it:

= 720 foA
u

~

12 h

r
T

/
I

r
"

r
"

\

sin

r

tan s

9

P

tang r
;

_\ ~ tan s ^

/

)

we
tity

can use the same tables as before
-

but besides, the quan

r

must be tabulated, the argument being T or half
This quantity in

the interval between the observations.
storfTs Htilfstafeln
is

Warn-

denoted by
[A tang

/",

hence we have for the

correction in this case:
x

=

ffj,

cp

JB tang

].

In 1810 Sept. 17 and 18 v. Zach observed at Marseilles Half the interval of time was equal altitudes of the sun.

10 h 55

n

and

as:
10 h

55,

<*

= H-2
log^

14

16",

and:

= 3.4453.
log

y

= 43

17

50"

We

find:
log

A

= 7.7305
log/ tang y

B = 7.7128,
.

ufA

fifB tang S

= =

1.0033, 142*
-+-

33
67,

5

.

hence for the correction:
x

=

136s. 66.

285
Note
time.
If
1.

The equation
the

for equal altitudes

is

now

for these observations a clock adjusted to

expressed in apparent solar mean time is used,

we may assume
further

equation

to

be expressed

in

mean time without any

correction.

But

if

we use

a chronometer adjusted to sidereal time,
,

we must
Note

multiply the correction by
2.

a fraction

obo

whose logarithm

is

0.0012.

is so small, that we may use the arc in stead of the sine and the tangent, the equation of equal altitudes becomes

If

the

hour angle r

:

r

=
case

[tang

y>

tang
is

$].

But as the
inator,

unit of T in the
first

numerator

not the same as in the
the other

denom

being in the

one hour,

in

the radius or unity,

we must multiply
it

the second

member

of the equation by 206265 and divide

by 15X3600.

Thus we obtain:
x

=

18 ^

.

[tang

^

tang

$\,

where now x

is

the equation of time for T

=

0.

But

in this case the
is

two

altitudes are only one,
rection,

namely the greatest
to the

altitude,

and hence x

the cor

which must be applied

time of the greatest altitude in order

to find the time of culmination.

The same expression was found already
circum-meridian
altitudes.

in

No. 8 for the reduction of

If the altitudes of two heavenly bodies have been 14. observed as well as the interval of time between the two

same

observations, we can find the time and the latitude at the time. In this case we have the two equations:
sin
//

=

sin
<f>

sin
cp

-+-

cos
<p

cos
cp

cos

t,
t
.

sin h

sin

sin

-+ cos

cos

cos

If then u

and u are the clock-times of the

first

and sec

ond observation,

&u

the error of the clock on sidereal time,
U -f-

we have

:

*)
t

(\

U

-

where

AM has been taken the same for both observations, because the rate of the clock must be known and hence we can suppose one of the observations to be corrected on account
of
it.

Then
If the

is

*)

sun

is

observed and a

mean time

clock

is

used,

we
:

have,

de

noting the equation of time for both observations by

hence

:

= A = u
t

w

and

w

u -+-

Au
u

w,

(w

w).

286
u
it

(a
I

known quantity and we have equations contain only the two
a

=

)

=A
t

-f-

L

Hence
For
this

the
cf

unknown

quantities

two and

,

which can be found by means of them.

purpose

we

express the three quantities
sin
(p,

cos
(f>

sin

t

and cos

ip

cos

t

by the parallactic angle, since we have in the triangle bet ween the pole, the zenith and the star:
sin
(p

cos
cos

(f 9?

sin

t= cos h sin p,
t

cos

= =
8

sin h sin

-f-

cos h cos

cos p,
(r/)

sin A cos

8

cos h sin

cos
;>.

Substituting these expressions in the equation for sin

/*

,

we

find:
sin h
1

=
-h

[sin

sin 8 -+- cos sin
.

$ cos $ cos

1] sin
1]

h

[cos $ sin

8 cos 8 cos

cos A cos

p

cos $ sin 1

cos A sin p.

But

in the triangle

between the two
/),

stars

and the pole,
at

denoting the distance of the stars by the stars by s and * , we have:
cos

and the angles

D = sin 8 sin 8
6-

sin Z) cos

sin

D

sin s

= cos = cos 8
c

-f-

cos 8 cos 8 cos /
sin 8 cos

sin

8

8 cos A

(/;)

sin A,

hence, sin h
:

if

we

substitute these expressions in the equation for
sin
//

= cos D
cos
(.

sin
.

//.

-+- sin

hence

-+)=

sin

/*

D cos h cos (s -t- j), cos D sin
//
.

sm

Z)

cos

( c)

A,

Further

if

we

substitute in

sin cp sin 8 -+- cos y cos 8 cos (Y A) the expressions for sin r/-, cos cj sin and cos cos , which we derive from the triangle between the pole, the zenith and the second star, we easily find:
sin h
<

=

</

.

.

..

cos (s

p

)

=

sin h

sin

cos D sin h D cos h
-

,

,

(</)

After the angles p and p have thus been found by means of the equations (6) and (c) or (d), the equations (a) or the corresponding equations for sin f/, cos (f sin t and cos (f cos
<

give finally
the

cp

and

or
<y?

and

t

.

The equations
same
is

(6) give for

D

and

5 the sine

and
(f

cosine,

the

case with

the

equations

(a)

for

and

,

hence there can never be any doubt, in what quadrant these

287

But the equations (r?) and (rf) give only the co angles lie. sine of s -+- p and s p however we have in the triangle
-

between the zenith and both stars:
sin

and

sin

D sin D sin

(.<?

-f-

p

) )

(.<?

p

= cos = cos h

// sin

{A
1

A)
A),

sin

(A
(5

hence we see that sin
can never be any
angles
nient
lie.

(s -41
-

p) and sin

p ) have always

the same sign as sin (A

doubt

A), so that also in this case there as to the quadrant, in which the

The formulae
cos (s
-|-

(a)

and

(6)

can be made more

conve
for
for

by introducing
p)

can
2

be

auxiliary angles, and the formula transformed into another formula

tang

| (s-r-/?)

in the

same way

as in

No. 4 of

this section.

Thus we obtain the following system of equations: sin 8 = sin/ sin F
cos 8 cos^ cos 8 sin I
cos

= sin/cos F
cos/,

(e)

D cos = sin/ sin (F sin D sin s = cos/,
sin
.s

D = sin /cos (F

<?)

8}

(/)

cos

.

sin

(S

//)

where
sin
sin

5
g
<?

=
sin

cos<7

p = cos ship, sin^ = g cos (G = g cos y cos = #
7i 7*

cos

G = sin h G = cos
sin

(D

-f-

h

-+-

/*

),

cos

(//)

(?)

cos

(p

sin

cos

(?)

t

sin

sin (6-

S).

For two

The Gaussian formulae may also be used in this case. first we have in the triangle between the pole and the
stars, the sides
A, s

being

Z>,

90
sin

d and

90"

<V

and the

opposite angles
sin
sin

and
sin ^ (*

s:

^ $
]

Z>

.

D
.D
Z>

.

cosi
sin

(*

cos

.

(s -}(.9

cos ^

.

cos^

= = cos4 = cos + =
*)

(#
(

5) cos
-}- 8) sin

j A

s)

U

.9)

4-

(5

S) cos 4 *
sin
<?)

s)

sin ^ (5 -+-

4-

^.

Then we have

as before:
2

tang 4 (s-f-)

=

-

cos

5.

sin

(/< )
?

,

D)

sin(,S

288
7 Finally we ha\ e in the triangle between the zenith, the and the star: pole sin (45 sin ^ (A sin ^ p cos ^ (h -4- S) t) sin (45 cos (A -+- /) cos p sin 4 (A 5) 7 sin J sin J (A -f- c?) cos (45 %) sin (4 cos p cos cos (45 t) 8\ ^9?) cos \ (A
Ji<p)

+ =

<f)

1,

= = =

;>

.1

-3

(/<

Iii

case that the other triangle

is
<)

equations, in which

A\

t\

p\

ti

and

used, we have similar occur.

by these formulae also the azimuth, we have this advantage, that in case the observations have been
Since
find

we

made with an

altitude and azimuth instrument and the readings of the azimuth circle have been taken at the same time, the comparison of these readings with the computed values of

the azimuths

gives

the

zero of the azimuth, which

it

may

be desirable to

know

for other observations.

Example. Westphal in 1822 Oct. 29 at Benisuef in Egypt observed the following altitudes of the centre of the sun:
u u

= 20
=23

h

48
7

"

4S
17

h

= 37

56

59".

6

7/=50 4055

.3,

where u h and h

is

are

already corrected for the rate of the clock and the true altitudes. The interval of time con

verted into apparent time gives /. 2 h 18 in 28 s 66 34 37 90 and the declination of the sun was for the two ob
.

=

=

9".

servations

:

^=10
From
these data

10

50".

1

and S

=
20".

10

12

57".

8.

we

find

by means of the Gaussian formulae:
34
93 93
3

Further:
.

* -f-

hence:

and then

:

D= s= = = p= = = =
s
;>

27 93

1258.26
6
I
.

53

1541.26
57 17 .00
5 39
.

39
29

(f
t

80
23

35 46

24 59

.

.4

1952.17.
(f

It is

advisable to compute

and
t

t

also

from the other

triangle as a verification of the computation, since the values

of

(fj

must be the same and

t

=L

Now
to
find

in

order to see, what stars
best results

the

by

this

we must select so method, we must resort

as
to

the

two

differential equations:

289
d/i

dh

= =

cos cos

A A dcp

d<p

cos

y
9?

sin
sin

cos

A dt A dt

where dt has been supposed
tions,

to be the same in both equa because the difference of dt and dt may be trans

ferred to the

error

of the altitude.

From

these

equations

we

obtain, eliminating either dcp or dt:
cos

ydt
dtp

cos A cos A = -rr-T-- dh ^~TT--- dh A} (A (A A) A = --- A dh-\- -T- --^ am
sin
1

7\

sin

1 ,

sin

sin
1

.

.

(A

A)

am (A

A)

Hence we

see,

that

if

the

errors

of observation

shall

have no great influence on the values of
select the stars so that A* since, if this condition
is

and
y>

,

we must
90,

A

is

as nearly as possible =t=

fulfilled,

we have
cosAdh
-+- sin

:

cosydt=
dcp

=

cosA dh
sin

A

Then we
the
coefficient
=t= 1
;

see, that if

A

1

is

Adh == 90 and therefore
dh
.

A

is

of

dh

in

the

first

equation

is

0, that of

0, dh

hence the accuracy of the time depends prin on the altitude taken near the prime vertical. In the cipally same way we find from the second equation, that the accu
equal to

racy of the latitude depends principally on the altitude taken near the meridian. For the above example we have, since

4

=

115

:

dy>

dt

= =

-+-\-

0.0308 dh
0.1077 dh

1.0215 dh

0.0744 dh

.

15.

The problem can be

greatly simplified, for instance,

by observing the same star twice. Then the declination being the same and s s, the formulae (A) of the preceding No.

=

are changed into:

By means

of then from the of the equation (#) and the equations (C) y and t and, should be desirable, A.

D = cos sin 4 D sin s = cos 4 A cos ^ D cos s = sin S sin 4 A. these we find D and 5, and
sin
TT
>l

cos

TJ

first
if it

In this case-

we can
find

lowing way.

We
sin h
sin h

solve the problem also from the formulae:
sin S -f- cos
sin
cp
<p

in the fol

= =

sin
y>

cos S cos cos 8 cos

/

sin

(f

S

-+-

cos

(t -+-

/)

19

290

by adding and subtracting them:
cos<?sin^/l.cos9Psin(J-f-^)

sin

sin S-\- cos (f

S cos A k cos(jpcos(t -f- ^A)
.

= =

cos.j(//-h/i )sin

.j

(It

//

)

sin

(h-^h ) cos^

(^

//).

Therefore

if

we

put:
sin

cos $ cos
<5

A
^

cos S sin

A

= cos = cos =
/?

6 cos 6 sin

B 5

(/I)

sin 6,

the second of the equations (a)
sin
go

is

changed
sin
(A

into:
(A
/<

cos

5 -h cos

cos
y>

(/ -+-

.

A)

sm

=

-MO cos 4

)

and

if

we

finally take:
sin in
<f

cos
cos

y
9?

sin (t-\-\ %)

= cos .Fcos G = G
sin

(-B)

cos

(^

+ T^)
sin b

we

obtain:
sin

cos(B

= cos i (A -MO F) = cos
G

(CO
ti)

6

Therefore
Fig. 8.

if

we

first

compute the

equations (4), we find G and F by means of the equations (C) and then y and t from the equations (5). The

geometrical signification of the auxi liary angles is easily discovered by

means of Fig.

8,

where

PQ

is

drawn

perpendicular to the great circle join
ing the two stars, and
dicular to

ZM

is

perpen

b=QS =
G=ZM.

PQ.
D,

We

then see, that

B=PQ, F=PM

and

If

we =
jB

use the same data as in
to

paying no attention
taking d
-

the change
8,

the preceding example, of the declination and

10 12

57".

we

find:
cos
6

and

= 10041 G = 9.432863. = 35 22 hence
sin
t
(/")

23".l

21".0

= iUGGGOO cos G = 9.983445 y = 29 5
sin b

= 9.980534
53".3

F=41l
7.

42".

In case that the two altitudes are equal, the formulae in No. 14 remain unchanged, but the. for or (e) and (A) mulae (J5) are transformed into: cos (h 4 D) 2
tang
J

(s

-4-y>)

= tang

+

cos (A

^

291

and then p being known, rf and t can be computed by means of the formulae (ft) and (i), or (p, t and A by means of the
formulae (0).
16.

A

similar

to the class of problems
ent, is the following:

problem, though not strictly belonging we have under consideration at pres

To

find the time

at

the

same time the
differences

altitude

by the

of their

and the latitude and and the azimuth of the stars altitudes and azimuths and the
as before the formulae (4)

interval of time between the observations.

In this case
in

we must compute
in

No.

14.

Then we have
both
stars,

the

triangle

between the zenith and
</

denoting the angles at the two stars by q and A and the opposite sides 90 the third angle being 90 h and D:

,

A
x

ft

,

.

sin 4 (g -f- 7)

,

x

,

.

= cos^(//
sin
TJT

h)

cos(A
^

cos
(h
li)

rD

~

A}
1

.

i/i

N

cos ^

(A

A)

By means
and
ft

of these equations
.

we

find
-J-

(h -f-

ft

),

thence

ft

and the angles and But since we have accord s ~f- p and q s ^ we thus know p ing to No. 14 q and p hence we can compute Z and ^4 by means of the formulae (C) in No. 14 and as a verification of the compu tation also t and A

=

</

</

=

,

,

</,

.

<-,

In this

case the
first

differential equations are

according to

No. 8 of the
dh dh

section:
cos S sin

= =
sm

cos

A d(f)

p

.

d
d
i)

-

-+-

cos S sin

pd

cos

A d(f

cos

.
si\i]>

cos

sin

pd
t

dA =

A tang hdrp-\.,
. ,1., tsuagtid<p+

cos S cos

d
cos h

A

]

-\-t

cos S cos p cos h

t

d
2
t

2

dA
7

.,

=BmA
-\-t
t

cosS cosn
cos
t 7
,

d
,

,t -+-t

7

where
t

,

t

9

2
t

--h cosS cosn
cos h
.

t
,

.,,

d
2

t

9
t

-h

and
-i

t

-\-t

-

.

-----

9

have been put in place of

n

and

occurring in the original formulae.
19*

292
Subtracting the
third
first

equation from the second and the
first

from the fourth, then eliminating dy, and remembering that we have:
cos 8 sin

d* -

and then

p

cos 8 cos p

= cos =
sin

9?

sin

A
9?

CP -f-

cos

cos A

tang h cos

A

we

easily find:

Md<p

=

[tang h cos

J

tang
-f-

ti

cos
-7

^4

|

e/

(ti

h) +- [sin

A

sin

A

]

d (A

1

A)
/),

-

LCOS h

cosp

sin -4

-

-T

cos A

cos p sin A\ d(t

J

Jfcos yrf

= [tang A
-f-

sin

A
tg A

tang A sin
)

A

]

d(ti

ti)

[cos

A

cos cos

A
A

]

d(A
d(t

A)
0-

[cos

<f

(tg A

sin

2

where

M= 2

^ (-4 -+- -4) -h sin

<p

(cos J.
1

)]

[tg A

+ tg A

)

sin

2

| (A

A).

We

which the

see from this, that it is necessary to select stars for differences of the altitudes and the azimuths are

= 90,
v.

be as great as possible. If (A great, in order that is less than \. even the coefficient of d (ti Ji)

M

A)

time,

Camphausen has proposed to observe the stars at the when their altitude is equal to their declination, be

cause then the triangle between the zenith, the pole and the =180 A and: star is an isosceles triangle and we have
cotg 8 cos
t

cotg 8 cos A

= =

cotg 8 cos cotg 8 cos

t

A

= =

tg (45
tg (45

4 9?)
j
y>\

by means of which we

find:

or

-+- -4 and y. we obtain t -f- t or are hardly ever taken exactly at the But since the altitudes moment, when they are equal to the declination, the observed

From

these formulae

A

quantities

t

t

and

A

A must

first

be reduced to that

moment. (Compare Encke, Ueber die Erweiterung des Douwes schen Problems in the Berlin Jahrbuch for 1859.)
Example.
of the altitudes

In

1856 March 30 the following differences and the azimuths of i] Ursae majoris and a
at Cologne.

Aurigae were observed

293
ti

A
The
was
interval of time
"

h = 410 A= 226 28

46".0

9".9

between the observations, expressed

in sidereal time,

QMS

8s. 70.

The apparent
rj

places of the stars were on that day:

Ursae majoris a

aAurigae

= 56
133"

13 h 41 m 54 s .53
1
.

8
#

69
1,

Hence we get I means of the formulae (A)
.,

=
22
41

= 50 = + 4551
-+1

45".

9

1

.7.

30

23".

and we obtain

first

by

in
18

No. 14:

= + 31
==
32".

33".

.,

+ 28

50".

20

D = 76

14".

79.

p q= p, we = + 57 22 64. Since we find p = 44 98, p find 56 61, 61, and hence A = 50 2 (#4- A) = = we get by means of the equations (C) No. 14: = 295 2 .70, A = 244 57 50. 55 57,
q =

Then we

find

31 21

from the formulae (J?) q s 80, and since q

=

=

28 40

53".

44,

,

s -+-

62"

5".

43".

|

47"

40".

3".

in

cp

50"

55".

/

56"

48".

If

we compute
all

we

express
dtp

also the differential equations errors in seconds of arc:
(/>.

we

find, if

=

0.0342 d
0.8621
rf

A)

0.4892

d(A
1

A]

+ 0.2438 d(t
0.0188 d
(t

t)

d~p =
17.

(A

A) -f-

0.0244 d (A

A)

t).

and the time But sailors do not solve the problem in the direct way which was shown before, because the computation is too complicate, but they make use of an indirect method which w as proposed by Douwes, a Dutch seaman. Since the latitude is always approximately known from
of finding the
latitude

The method
it

by two

altitudes

often

used at

sea.

r

the log-book, they first find an approximate time by the alti tude most distant from the meridian, and with this they find the latitude by the altitude taken near the meridian. Then

they repeat with this value of the latitude the computation for finding the time by the first altitude.

Supposing again that the same heavenly body has been
observed twice, we have:
sin h

sin h

= cos cos S = 2 cos ^ cos S
<p

[cos
sin

t

cos
(t -+-

(t -f-

)]

\K) sin

A,

hence

:

2 sin

(t -+-

% A)

=

sec
y>

sec 8 cosec

-}

A [sin h

sin h

]

294
or,
if
.

we

log 2 sin

(t -f- \

write the formula logarithmically: Aj sin ti\ log sec y H- logsec ^-h log [sin h

=

Since an approximate value of
this equation t-\-\ A,

is (p
,

and hence
the

also

+ logeosec 5 A. M) known, we find from and then we find a more
2 sin
A
2
)

by means of the formula:
cos
(90

correct latitude

altitude

taken near the meridian by
cos 8
.

8)

=

sin

/t

-f-

cos
<p

-5-

(t -f-

.

( J3)

If the
latitude, the

result

differs

much from

the

first

value

of the

formulae (A) and (#) must be computed a second time with the new value of (f.

Douwes has
putation,

constructed tables for simplifying this

com

which have been published in the ,,Tables requisite to be used with the nautical ephemeris for finding the lati tude and longitude at and in all works on navigation.
sea"

table with the heading ,,log. half elapsed time" gives the value of log. cosec f A, the argument being the hour angle ex

One

pressed in time.
time"

Another table with the heading

^log. middle

gives the value of log 2 sin (t -+- 1 A), and a third table with the heading r log. rising time" gives that of log 2 sin | 2
.

quantity log. sec f/ sec d is called have therefore according to the equation
Log. middle time

The

log.
(/I):

ratio

and we

= Log.
-f-

ratio -f-

Log

(sin k

sin h

)

Log

half elapsed time.

By means
this logarithm

of the table
t.

for

middle time we find from
take from the tables
,

log.
it

rising log. ratio

sine

sine

subtract from -f- / and add the number corresponding to it to the of the greater one of the altitudes. Thus we obtain the of the meridian altitude and hence also the latitude.
t

immediately time for the hour angle

Then we

If

we cannot use
.

these tables,
cos
^ (ft

we compute:
)

,,

+h
<p

sin

(h

h

)

cos

cos

sin I A

and:
cos
((f

2V)

where:

sin

cos 8 cos

t

= J/ =

= M
sin

,

sin JV

il/cos 2V.

to

If we compute the example Douwes s method, we find:
p

given in No. 14 according

= 29

295
log ratio
log (sin A
sin k
)

0.06512
9
.

20049*

log half elapsed time log middle time
9

.

52645
79206,,

.

log rising time

5

.

log ratio
-f-

.

90340 06512 00007 77364 88858
18
.7

.

sin ti -f-

.

cos (y
<P

<?)

=

9

.

S=
0,=

39
29

5.7.

In

case that the observations are

made

at sea, the

two

altitudes are taken at two different places on account of the motion of the ship during the interval of time between the observations. But since the velocity of the motion is known from the log and the direction of the course from the needle,
it

is

very easy to reduce the altitudes to the same place of
Fig.
.

observation.

The

ship at the time of the

first

ob-

(Fig. 9) If we imagine then a straight line drawn from the centre O

ser^ation shall be in

A

and

at the

time of the second in B.

of the earth to the heavenly body, which intersects the surface of the earth in S ,

then
will

the

side

BS

in

the

triangle

ABS

BA

is

be the zenith distance taken at the place B, and since known, we could find, if the angle S BA were known,

the side

AS

,

that

is,

the zenith distance which

would have been

Therefore at the time of the second taken at the place A. observation the azimuth of the object, that is, the angle S B C must be observed, and since the angle CBA, which the di
rection
is

of the
the

course of the ship makes with the meridian,

Denoting this known, angle S BA is known also. and the distance between the two places A and angle by B by A? we have:
sin h

==

sin h cos

A

4-

sin

A

cos h cos

,

where A

is

the reduced altitude.

If a

we

write instead of this

:

sin A

=

sin h -+- sin

A

cos h cos

2 sin ^

A2

sin A,

296

and take A instead of sin A, we obtain by means of the mula (20) of the introduction:
//

for

=

h

H- A cos
in

.j

A2

tang

/<,

where the
18.

last

term can

If three

altitudes

most cases be neglected. of the same star have been ob
-+-

served,

we have
sin h sin h sin

= =

the three equations:
sin
y>

sin
tp 90

8

cos
<p

cos
y>

cos

t

sin

sin sin

$ -h cos 8 -h cos
t
</?,

cos $ cos
90

(t -f(<

/) A
),

A"=

sin

cos 3 cos

-f-

from which we can

find

and

d.

For

if

we

introduce

the following auxiliary quantities:
X

y
z

= COS = cos =
sin
z -f-

(f

COS

COS
?

gp (f

cos S sin
sin
<?,

those three formulae are transformed into
sin
li

:

sin h
sin
h"

= =

x

z -+z -\-

x cos A
x cos 1

y y

sin A sin A
,

from which we can obtain the three unknown quantities x, But when these are known, we y and z in the usual way. find (f and t by the equations:
tang
sin
(f

cos
<p

=x 3= cos $ = +y
y
t

sin

z

2

2
.

J/ar

<

This method -would be one of the most convenient and useful, since no further data are required for computing the
quantities sought*).

observation
tities.

But it is not practical, since the errors of have a very great effect on the unknown quan But if we do not consider ci as constant, that is, if

observe three different stars, whose declinations are known, at equal altitudes, the problem is at once very elegant and
useful.

we

19.

In this case the three equations are:
sin h
sin h sin h

= = =

sin
<p

sin 8 -f- cos
cp

95

cos S cos cos
cos

t

sin
sin

sin

-\S"-+-

cos
cos

y
<j>

cos
$"cos

(t

4-

A)

(a)

y

sin

(t -f-

A

where A
and
*)

=

),

1

(u

it)

(a
("

a)
).

A =(M"M)

Since three altitudes of the same star have been taken, I and A

are

not dependent on the right ascension.

297
If
i

-+.

(<y

of

t)
,

and f (3 -+J ) and subtract the second equation from the
instead of
<>*,

_
T

we now

introduce in the two

first
<V)

equations \ (o -+-S) 5 ) instead
(<?

first,

we
(5

get:
5
)

=2
or:

sin

sin

| (5

8

)

cos

- sin
(5

(5 4-

8")

4- cos

cos
y>

t

[cos

^ (5 4- 5 ) cos
sin

- cos y cos

(<

-}- A) [cos

+
<f

5 )] | (5H- 5 ) sin 4 (5 5 ) cos 4- (8 5 ) 4- sin \ (8 4- 5 )

.1

(8

5

)J

=
4- cos y cos

sin

sin
)

5 (t?

5
J[

)

cos | (5 4- 5

)
(i!

- cos

(5 H- 5

cos
sin

(

5

)

sin ^ ^ sin

<p

sin ^ (^

4- 8 )

i

(55
4- | 4- 5

)

cos 4 I cos

(i

4- \ 4- \

A)
I}.

From

this
tang

we

find:
sin
,]

=
<p

A

.

sin

(i!

A) A)

cotang ^ (5
tang
.1

5

)
).

4- cos ^ A

.

cos

(t

(5

4-

Introducing now the auxiliary quantities the formulae: by
sin

A

and B\ given

A

.

cotang | (5

5

)

cos 4- A.

tang ^(5 4- 5 ) C 4- ^A
JB>

=

= =
,

.4 sin
.4

B
(^t)

cos Z?

we

obtain:

From
in the

the

first

and third of the equations
cotang
tang
fi"

(a)

we

find

same way

similar equations:
\

sin | A

(5
(5 4-

5")

cos | A

5")

4-

tang

99

^ =
Y

= = =

"

A"

sin

\

^"

cos

5"
(<7)

C",

J"

cos

(<

4-

C").

(Z>)

Furthermore we
^4

find
(

from the two formulae (B) and
)

:
(Z>)

cos

4- C
t

=

.4"

cos

(<

4-

C").

In
it

order to find

from

this

equation,

we

will

write

in this

way:
cos
is

A
where

#

cos 4- T4[t 4- H-\- C H] an arbitrary angle, and from this
^4"
|>

=

C"

//J,

we

ta n g(/

4-

~A 7/)-^ ^^ ll^) - ff)-A r A
"

easily get:

*

(C"-V)
f

sin

(C

sln~(C

-f^
C".

can substitute such a value as gives the for mula the most convenient form, for instance 0, C or

For

H we

But we obtain the most elegant form,

if

we

take:

H=

|

(C"

4-

C")

for then

we have:
tang
[t

4- 4

(C"

4-

C")]

= ^-r^C cotang *
~

(C"

C"),

298
Introducing
equation
:

now an

auxiliary

angle

,

given

by the

we

find:

Jhence
:

tang

[t

+t

(C"+

6

")]

= tang (45 -

g)

cotang | (C

C").

(F)

We find therefore first by means of the equations (^4) and (C) the values of the auxiliary quantities A, /? C and then we obtain A\ /T, by means of the equations (E) and (F), and finally (/ by either of the equations (J5) or
,
C";
(/>).

It

not necessary to know the altitude itself, in order to find (f and f, but if we substitute their values in the origi
is

nal equations (a),

we

find the value of

/i;

hence,

if

the

alti

tude

itself is

observed,

we can

obtain

the error of the in

strument.

In order to see,
so
as to

how

the three stars should be selected
result,

give the

most accurate

we must

consider

the differential equations.

we
des,

can assume also dh
uniting the errors,

Since the three altitudes are equal, to be the same for the three altitu

which may have been committed

in

taking the altitudes, with those of the times of observation. Now since we have:
t

==

u

-f-

A

5

the

error

dt will we composed of two errors,
thas

first

of the

error

6/(A0,

may
since

be assumed

the clock, which is, that of the error of to be the same for the three observations, the
rate

we suppose

of the clock to be known,

and
will

then

of the error of the time of observation

be different for the three observations.
ferential equations are:

du which Hence the three
A c?(A M) A d(&u)
A"d(&tt).

dif

dh dh dh
If

= = =

cos cos cos

Ady A
d<p

cos
<p

sin
(f

cos cos

sin
sin

A du A du
A"du"

cos

(f
<p

sin
sin

cos
cos

A"dy

<p

y

sin

we

subtract the

first

two equations from each

other,

we

find

by a simple reduction:

299
A

= n sm A-\rA 2 9
.

^4

~-

dtp

2 cos

+

^4

cos vos
(f>d(t\n)

OP

sin A
.,

sin

9

cos
sin

OP

sin

A

&

and

in the
-,
.

same way from the
A"

first
A"

U=2sm A-}-

d<f>

A-}2 cos

and third equation: cos OP sin A
A
.

,

cos<jprt(/y)

-r^-du

sin

~
first

From
rf

(A

these two equations we obtain, eliminating and then dy:
cos
(f

sin yi

.

cos

A +A" --

cos

gp

sm

A
-

cos

A+

A"

2 sin
z z

22
sin
p

cos

sin

A"

cos
4"-

2

sm

.

^"

A

sm

.

and:
sm
^1
.

sm
.

sin .4 sin

2
2 sin

A

A.A sm
sin

A"

sm ^
sm
,

sm

--

We
come
to

see

from

this,

that the

stars

must be selected

so,

that the differences of the azimuths

of any two of them be

as great as possible, and hence as nearly as possible equal 120, because in this case the denominators of the diffe

Westphal observed at Cairo the following three stars at equal altitudes:
a Ursae minoris
Herculis
at 8 h

rential coefficients are as great as possible*). In 1822 Oct. 5 Dr. Example.

28 in 17 s
31
21

West

of the Meridian

_
*)

Arietis

47

30 East of the Meridian.
s

liche

This solution of the problem was given by Gauss in Zach Correspondenz Band XVIII pag. 277.

Monat-

300

The

places of the stars were on that day:
a Ursae minoris
Herculis
Arietis

Qh 58 m 14*
17
1

.

10

+ 88
14

21

54".

3

6

34 .26
14
.

36

2.0
.

57

00

22

37 22

7.

Now we
M

have:
4s -o
"

_ M = H-3m
7

M

=

-f.

19m 13s. o

or expressed in sidereal time: M M O h 3 m 4s. 50 -l-

_ =
A

= = =

51

39 .84
.

"

= -hO
;/

H-()h 19

16*. 16

58
39

59 .90

7h

54m 44s 34
5".

_

QI>

118 41

10

=
)
36"

43

.

74
10.

9055

56".

Then we have:
i

i

= + 8 = 51 = 32 (S + = 55
(#
(8
)
8")
(
")

52
52

56".

15

28 58 .15

15.80

29 38.50.

and from

this

we
60

obtain:
log
4"

log A

B
C

= =

0. 1183684

48

11".

92

B"

= =

0.1629829
5

=120
.J

844.47
(C"

C"

=10
10

16

52".

22

1450.27

H-

C")

=

54 65

56^

57".

i(C"

C"

)=
g==
t

11 47 .37

t

<H-C"

= = +C= =
y = 30
4

47
56 63
66

56 16 .08
18
28".

09 38

3 h 45

13s. 87
16".

50

33 18 .36
:

and the formulae

(/?)

and (D) give the same value of y
23".

72.

From

we

find the sidereal time:
<9

= 21h 13m o. 23,
.

and since the sidereal time

we

find the
:

mean

at mean noon was 12 h 54 m 2 s 04, 17 m 36 8 .44, hence the error of the time 8
h

chronometer

AM

=

10

40 S .56.

Computing

h from one of the three equations (a)
h

we

= 30

get:

58

14".

44,

and for the other two hour angles we

find:

=

62 66

22

37".

01
19.

*=

14 24

.

We

then are able to compute the three azimuths:

301

A ==181 35

A
and

=

.

2

89

33 .2 50 .4;

.4"=

279

finally the three differential equations:
d<f=

rf(An)

=

329 da 5 739 du 0.0018 du -f 468 du
. .
.

G

.

.

068 396

J",

du",

where dy du, du\
20.

is

du"

expressed in seconds of arc, whilst t/(/\w) and are expressed in seconds of time.

lution, not of the

Cagnoli has given in his Trigonometry another so problem we have here under consideration,

but of a similar one.
plied to this case,

His formulae can be immediately ap
if it
is

and

itself

required, to find the altitude besides the latitude and
little

the time, they are even a more convenient.

Let

S,

S and

S"

(Fig. 10)

be the three stars which are observed. In the triangle

between the zenith, the pole and the star we have then
"

s

"

according to Gauss
pier s formulae,
parallactic angle

s

or

Na

denoting the

by pi

tang %

(<JP

-h

h)

= =
S
]

V

cotang (45

and:

tang

J

(y>

h)

-?--2
( t

sin

tang (45

4 8)

-f-

jJ

sinsin
]

(tp)
(

t

H,

cotang (45
S"

/>)

But

in the triangles
s

PSS PS

and

PSS"

we have

also

according to Napier

formulae, putting for the sake of brevity
=1[PS"S

A A
tang

=

PS

S"]

[PS"S

PSS"]

A"=Ji[PS

S

PSS

]:

A

=
cos

(B)

302

where
since

/,

and

//

have the same signification as before.

Now

we have:

=
p -+-PS
S"=PS"S

p
p"

we

easily find, that:

P p

=A = A 4A
t
:

-i-A"A
A"

A
A".

(C)

p"=

4-

A

But we

also have:
sin sin p U4-A) sinp
:

sin

hence
or:

:

sin

t

:

sin

= cos = cos U-f-A) =
sin
1

h

:

cos cos

cp
9?,

h

:

79

:

sin|>

sin

*

4- sin
sin

(t -+(t

A)

Tin"*

+Tf
H-

__ ~~

sin
sin

[A 4[A
-f-

A"

A] -+
A]

sin sin

A"

[A H[A -h

A"

A"

A A
)

]

]

From

this follows:
tang
[t

4 A]

cotang ^ A
A"

= tang
its !

.4"

cotang (A

A

or substituting for tang
tions

value taken from the equa
8)

():
tang
[*

H-

4 A]

=

sin(S

cotang

U-A

).

,

(Z

Therefore
of A,
tions
yl

we

first

find

from the equations (#) the values

then we find p and and by means of the equa and h by means of the equa and (D), and then (C)
A",
</

tions (A).
is

An

inconvenience connected with these formulae

quadrant which the several angles lie, being found by tangents. However it is indifferent whether we take the angles 180 wrong, only we must then take 180 -+- 1 instead of f, if we that cos and sin h should find for (p and h such values have oppositive signs. Likewise if we find for ff and h values we must take the supplement to 180 or to greater than the nearest multiple of 180. The latitude is north or south, if sin ff and sin h have either the same sign or opposite signs. If we compute the example given in No. 19 by means
in
all
,
<f

the doubt in which

we

are

left

in regard to the

90"

of these formulae,

we have:

,U=
^
(8"

)

=4
;

;

=
35

59
4 i

20

32".

55

57 58 .05
(8"

O
]

r
40".

(

_) = _ 36
35

S)

=

32
15

52 15

.
.

80

52

56".

=

("-}-)=

55^9
.15,

38 .50

51

2858

303
and from
this
2

we

find:

4=

2

1".33,

^

=84
^
t

49

4".

07,

A"=
5".

29

44

16".

52

A

==86

51
2

40

,f-l-^A=

=

3

4 .47
.08.

56

1828

Then we
the pole,

h from one of the triangles between the zenith and one of the stars, and since in the
find

y and

triangle formed by the first star small angles occur, we choose the triangle formed by the second star, using the formulae:
tang
i

(p-M)

=

*

I

y*fy tang (45

-h

{

)

Now we
we

have:
*

y = ^t -+.
therefore
find:

= + / = 62
<

22

^"

A

= 243
4
1
23".

37".

02
24
38".

08,

y,= 30
A

= 149

73

45 .58

or taking for h the supplement to h 30 58 14

180:
.

=

42,

which values almost entirely agree with those found preceding No.
21.
ical

in the

We

method.

can also find Cagrioli s formulae by an analyt According to the fundamental formulae of spher

ical

trigonometry
sin h

w e have
r

for

each of the three stars the
cos cos cos

following three equations:
cos h sin p cos A cos;?
sin h

= = cos
sin
sin sin

cp

sin sin

S
t

-j-

cp

t

\

y>

(a)

= # = cosy = cos S = cos A cosy cos cos// = cos
sin
<f

rp

cos
-+-

cos
y>

sin
90

S cos

t

cos
V)

cos $ cos(i-|-/i)

i

cos h sinp cos A cos /;

sin

(t -\r

|

(6)

sin

9?

cos cos

y
<p

sin
cosS"

cos
c
(c)
*
"

sin A

sin

cp

sin

^"-4-

sin//

sin

(<

+

A

)
9?

A

sin

gp

J"

cos

sin

cos (*H-A

)

first

we subtract the first of the equations (6) from the of the equations (a) and introduce -f- #) -f- (d J instead of #, and i( fy we find instead of , ( ) the equation (rr) in No. 19. a similar process we deduce By from the third of the equations (a) and (6):
If
(*>

<V)

(

>

<)

<)

-4>^)

_J.

304
cos h sin ^
(/>

-+-/>)

sin

-5-

(//

p)

=
sin

sin
<f

sin \ (8 -\-8) sin

I
4-

(8 (8

8)

cos
<p

sin ^

(<?

H-<?)

cos

8) sin
<?)

(*-H A)

sin

/

-h cosy cos

^(<?

-H?) sin

K<?

cos(H-^)cos4-/,

and

if

we

eliminate

(f

in this equation
first

by means of the
-|-r>),

equation (), multiplying the

by cos
sin
y>

|(<)

the latter

by smK/V-hcT), we obtain:
cos h cos 4 ($ +#) sin ^ (p -fp) sin 4(p
/)

= cos

\

(8

S) cos

(H-^

A) cos ^

L

(o?)

Now
we
find:

if

we
-j

subtract the

second equations (a) and

(6),

cos h cos

(p -\-p) sin 4 (//

= cos
/>)

cp

cos

(^ -+- \

/I)

sin 5 A,

and hence:
1

X
(/>

I

\
-h/>)

tang

J

K^ = l/ SI 11

^)

cotang

^ /

= tang ^

Alt
.

We
form

can find similar formulae by combining the cor

responding equations (a) and (c) and (6) and (c), which we can write down immediately on account of their symmetrical
:

+p)
and tang
5 (/;

N

= siiU T
sin
,"

("<?)

cotang 4 /

= tang A
/)

+;?

;=

---

(<?"

S")

--

cotang

(/

=

COS^

(.O

~T"O

j

If find
:

we add
cos h sin
\

finally the

second equations (a) and (6), we
(/)

(p -^-p} cos

-^

p)

= cos
a)

9?

sin (2

-h ^ A) cos ^ A,

and from

this in
tang

connection with (d)
H4-

we

obtain:
p),

(<

A)

=

sin
g

1

^ (a

r^ _{_)
p)

cotang f (p

where ^ (/

=A

A

.

thus p and t for the first star are known, we can compute cf and h by means of the formulae found before, which were derived by Napier s formulae:
tang * dp HA)

When

=

^r|^

cotang (45

-*
^

<?)

tang

*(?-*)

=

tan ^

<

45

-

^

305

IV.

METHODS OF FINDING THE LATITUDE AND THE TIME
BY AZIMUTHS.
If

observe the clock -time, when a star, whose known, has a certain azimuth, we can find the error place of the clock, if the latitude is known, because we can com
22.

we

is

pute the hour angle of the star from its declination, its azi muth and the latitude. If we take the observation, when the
star
is

on the meridian,

it
;

is

not necessary to

know

the de

clination nor the latitude

azimuth being at its with greater accuracy than at other times.
If

same time, the change of the maximum, the observation can be made
at the

we

differentiate the equation:
cotang

A sin

t

=

cos

(p

tang

H- sin
<f>

cos

t,

we

obtain

according
cos

to

the third formula (11) in No. 9 of

the introduction:

hdA

=

sin

A

sin hdtp

+

cos

cos p

.

dt.

If the star is

on the meridian, we have: 1 sin A 0, cos p

and:

= A = 90

=

y-f-

at least if the star is south of the zenith,
dt

hence we obtain:

= mr-*) dA COS

.

We

observation

see therefore, that in order to find the time by the of stars on the meridian, we must select stars

which culminate near the zenith, because there an error of the azimuth has no influence upon the time.
time of observation, a if the clock
^<,

If a be the right ascension of the star and u the clockwe have the error of the clock equal to
is

a sidereal clock.

But

if

a

mean -time mean
is

clock

is

mination
time.

used, of the star, that

we must

convert the sidereal time of the cul
is,
its

right ascension into

If

we denote

this

by m, the error of the clock

equal to

m

u.

For

stars at

some distance from the zenith the accuracy

of the determination of the time depends upon the accuracy of the azimuth or upon the deviation of the instrument from
the meridian.
If this error is small,

we can

easily determine
"20

306
it

by observing two

stars,

one of which culminates near the

zenith the other near the horizon, and then we can free the observation from that error. For ifdA be the deviation from

a and the meridian, the hour angles (*) stars have at the times of the observations

&

a

which the

are also small

and equal to:
si

11(9^

<f)

cos o

*

A-4
S
)

and:

-,

sin (y

Hence, since
equations
:

= u-\-^u^
a

COS

s

,

A A.

we have

the following

two

=

u

sin 0/5
-+A"

cos o

^*

8)

&A

and:

= +
is

,i

- **=> & A,
COS

from which we can find both

&u

and &A.

If the instru

ment
one

so

constructed that

we can

see stars north of the

still more accurately if we select two stars, near the equator, the other near the pole, because in this case the coefficient of &A in one of the above

zenith,

we

find

AA
is

of which

equations
its

very large and besides has the opposite sign *). Example. At the observatory at Bilk the following trans
is
it

were observed with the transit-instrument, before
a Aurig-ae
ft

was

well adjusted:
5h 6 5
8
"

27 s
12

.

72
71.
:

Orionis

.

Since the right ascensions of the stars were a Aurigae 5 h 5 ra 33 s .25 4-45 50 3
.

ft

Orionis
is

57
12
.

17 .33

-

8

23

.

1

and the latitude

51

.

_ 545
-55
from which we
find:

47 38

.

= A M _ 0.13433 A^ = 0.87178 &A,
A"

5,

we have

the

two equations:

Au

=

54 s

.

30

and

:

*)

It

is

assumed

here, that the instrument be so adjusted, that the line
If this
is

of collimation describes a vertical circle.
vations
section.

must be corrected according

to the

formulae

not the case, the obser in No. 22 of the seventh

307
23.

The time can

also

be found

by a very simple

method, proposed by Olbers, namely by observing the time, when any fixed star disappears behind a vertical terrestrial
This of course must be a high one and at consid erable distance from the observer so that it is distinctly seen in a telescope whose focus is adjusted for objects at an in
object.
finite

distance.

The

telescope

must always be placed exactly low power ought to be chosen.

in the

used for these observations same position, and a
dis

Now

if for

a certain

day the sidereal time of the

appearance of the star be known by other methods, we find by the observation on any other day immediately the error
of the sidereal clock, because the star disappears every day exactly at the same sidereal time, as long as it does not change But if a mean -time clock is used for these ob its place.
into account,

servations, the acceleration of the fixed stars must be taken since the star disappears earlier every day by O h 3 m 55 s .909 of mean time.
If the

right ascension of the star changes, the time of the disappearance of the star is changed by the same quan
tity,

because the star is always observed at the same azimuth and hence at the same hour angle. But if the declination changes, the hour angle of the star, corresponding to this azimuth, is changed and we have according to the differential formulae in No. 8 of the first section, since dA as well as
d(p are in this case equal to zero:

dS
cos

8dt

= cos pdh = pdh,
sin

hence

:

at

dS. tang/?
,
>

COS

where p denotes the parallactic angle. Therefore if the change of the star s right ascension and declination is A and A (5, the change of the sidereal time, at which the star disappears, is:
,

A
15

A#
15

tang p
cos<f

Olbers had found from other observations, that in 1800 Coronae disappeared behind the vertical Sept. 6 the star
wall of a distant spire,

whose azimuth was 64 56
20*

21".

4, at

308
23 m 18^.3 mean time, equal to 22 h 26 m 21 s 78 sidereal time. Sept. 12 he observed the time of the disappearance of the star 10"49 m 21 s 0. Now since 6 x 3 in 55 .909 is equal to

IP On

.

s

.

23 m 35 s .4, the star ought to have disappeared at 10 h 59 42 s 9 mean time, hence the error of the clock on mean time was
"

.

equal to

-+-

10 m 21 s

.

9.

In 1801 Sept. 6 was:
Aa=5-H42".0

and

:

A<?=

13".

2,

and since we have:

^

and

:

= 37 31 ^ = -t-2G 41
1

-

,

we

find:
.

A

_ co7-

"

J

hence the complete correction is -+35 or 3 s 56. There fore in 1801 Sept. 6 the star d Coronae disappeared at 22 h 26 m 25 s 34 sidereal time*).
53".
. .

24.

If

we know

the time,
star,

we can

find the latitude
is

observing an azimuth of a we have:
cotang

whose place
tang
-f- sin cp

by known, since

A

sin

t

=

cos

(p

cos

t.

Differentiating this equation
sin

we
.

find:

Adtp
in

=

cotang lid A

cos 8 cos p
-\

-

sin

dt

p
h
7

~

-f- -7

sin h

sm

do.

order to find the latitude by an azimuth as accurately as possible, we must observe the star near the prime vertical , because then sin A is at a maximum. Be
sides we must select a star which passes near the zenith of the place, since then the coefficients of dA and dt are very

Hence

small, as

we have:
cos S cos

Therefore we have then no influence

sin cp cos h -h cos y sin h cos A. p see that errors of the azimuth and the time
,

=

whilst an error of the assumed de

clination of the star produces the 1 since we have then sin p

=

same error of the

latitude,

.

If

we

observe only one star,

we must observe
III.

the azi-

*)

v.

Zach, Monatliche Correspondent Band

pag. 124.

309

muth
stars

itself

besides the time.

But
y
<p

if

we suppose,
cos
<p

that

two

have been observed,
cotang cotang

we have
cos cos

A A

sin
sin

t

t

= =

the two equations:
-f- sin
-{~
t
.

tang tang 8

sin

(f

cos
t\

/,

.

Multiplying the
sin
,

first

equation by sin
.

the second by

we

find
t

:

.

sin

sin

t

sin (A A) sm A sin A
.,

= cos y
-h
sin
(f
t

.

tang d sin
1

t

tang o sin

t

J

sin (t

*)

or as:
cos 8 sin

= cos A
[cos
sin

sin

A,
sin
.

also:
cos A cos h sin

(^

A)

= cos
-h
sin

9?

8

sin 5 sin
t)

8 cos 5 sin
(&)

t

]

9?

(t

cos 8 cos 8

We

will introduce

now

the following auxiliary quantities:
%
5-

sin (8 -+- 8) sin

(t
(<

t~)

sin (8

8) cos

t}

= ?nsir\M =m M
cos

If

we

multiply the

first

the

other by sin|(f
first,
sin [^

-M)
M]

of these equations by eosJ(f -Hf), and subtract the second equation
8 cos 8 sin
first

from the m

we

get:

(t -\-t)

=

sin

t

cos 8 sin 8 sin

t

.

But
the

if

we

multiply the

second by sin | ( f), from the second, we get: m sin [| IT]
<)

equation by cos | (* f), and subtract the first equation
sin

=
m
sin

8 cos #

sin (

r).

Hence the equation
cos A cos k sin
;

(6) is

(^4

A)

= m cos

transformed into the following:
90

sin [\

(<

+

ifef]

If
either

we assume now,
at
is

t) M] cotang 8. y sin [^ (i that the two stars were observed

the

same azimuth or
in

ference

180, we have
find:
tang

two azimuths, whose dif both cases sin (A and A)
at

=

hence we

?

= tang

sin [jfr

-K)

Jf]

Therefore in this case

J-,-^^. not necessary
it

(B ]
to

is

know

the

by by the declination of the star by means of the formulae (A) and (5). If the same star was observed both times, the formulae become still more simple. For since we have in this case
itself,

azimuth

but

we

find the latitude

the times of ob

servation and

^=90"

according to the second formula

(^4),

we

find:

310

tang f

= tang

*
.

_R?_.
cos j

(Y-M)
.

(C)

at

For the general case, that two stars have been observed two different azimuths, the differential equations are:
cos h

cos h

dA dA

=

sin
s

pd

mp dd

-+-

H- cos 8 cos p dt cos S cos p d t

sin h sin
sin h s

A

d<p

m A dy-.
ft
,

If

we

introduce here also the difference of the azimuths
the other

and therefore multiply the first equation by cos by cos ft, and subtract them, we get
:

cos h cos h

d(A

A)

=
-\-

[sin h cos h sin

cos h cos d cos pdt-+- cos h cos S cos p dt sin h cos h sin ^1]

A

dy>

Now

since

dt

=
are

cos h sin p

dS

cos h sin

clu -{-

where du and

C/M

the

d (&ii) and c?J du -+errors of observation and

=

pd8.
r/

(A M),

d(&u)

that of the error of the clock,

we

find, if

we

substitute these

values in place of dt and dt

and take

at the

same time

4 =180 4- 4*):
sin
Ad<p

cosy cosAd(&u)
cos
(p

=

sin. \/i

-7-7,,

;>.

[d(A
(p

^4)

sin cpd(u

u)j

r~ fi)

cos

A sin h cos
,

h

cos

cos

A

sin h cos h

-^^nr~
~ sin
Hence we
vations
dcp
is
/?

,

~ii^q^r~
p cos A
_

cos A

sin

sin (A

H- A)
it

see again that
vertical.

is

best to

make

the obser
1

on the prime
at a

For then
of the

the coefficient of

d(u)

errors du, du and are equal to zero; and only the difference of the two errors of observation, the errors of the declination and the

maximum and

those

quantity, by which the difference of the two azimuths was greater or less than 180", will have any effect upon the re
sult.

vertical in the east

In case that the same star was observed on the prime and west, we have ft ft and sin /? == sin/?,

=

hence

:

h [d(A

A)

siny>d(u

M)]

-H
sin

, fi

d8

t

*)

In order to

find

the

equation given above,

we must
:

also substitute

for cos S cos

p and cos 8 cos p the following expressions
cos d cosp
cos

= = cosp

sin sin

tp

y>

cos h H- cosy sin h cos A cosh cosy sin h cos A,

311

and since according
sm

to
h

No. 26 of the
sin
.

first

section:

= sm

and
fp

sin

p

= cos o
cos
11)

fp

we have:
\
dy>

cotang h [d(A

A)

sin
<p

d(u

}

-f-

.

^ d&
u

see again from this equation, that it is best to ob serve stars, which pass near the zenith, because then cotang h
is

We

very large and hence errors in
little

A

A and

u have

only very

influence

upon the

result.

In this case the

is equal to 1, since the declination of stars the zenith is equal to cp, and hence the result passing through But will be affected with the whole error of the declination.

coefficient of

dd

if

the difference of latitude should be determined by this method for two places not far from each other so that the same star can be used at each place, this difference will be
entirely free

from the error of the declination*).

Example.
zenith

The

of Berlin.

star ft Draconis passes very near the Therefore this star was observed at the

between the
hence:

The interval observatory with a prime vertical instrument. transits of the star east and west was 34 m 43 8 .5
{(t
t)

=4
25

20

26".

25

and

it

was
^

= 52

26".

77.

Now

since

in

case that the observations are taken on

the prime vertical we have |(Y-f-) 0, we mic^ from the following simple formula for finding the latitude:

=

()

and by means of

this

we
y,

= 5230
A)

obtain:
13".04.

Finally the differential equation
dcf

is:
u)}

= -h 0.02310 [d(A
is

0.7934 d(u

4- 0.99925 dS.

*)
that

It

the

line

again assumed, that the transit instrument is so far adjusted, of collimation describes a vertical circle. Compare No- 26 of

the seventh section.
**)

This formula

is

also found simply

from the triangle between the pole,
is

the zenith and the star, which in this case

a right angled triangle.

312
25.
If

we

observe two stars on the same vertical
if

circle,

we

can find the time, since we have:
sin [i (
-+-

we know

the latitude of the place,

- M] =
t,

1

sin [4

(t

- - M],
t)

(A}

where

:

=u

-f-

AW

and

m sin If m cos
Since
t
t
,

= M=
is

sin (d -f-

<?)

sin

^

(*
t).

sin ($
,

$) cos

^ (*

that

half the interval of time between
is

the observations,

can find

J

-M

expressed in sidereal time, and hence t and t
.

known, we

The

differential

for finding the time

equation given in No. 22 shows, that by azimuths it is best to observe stars
is

near the meridian, because there the coefficient of dcp a minimum, that of dt at a maximum.
vations.

at

The azimuth itself can For we have:
tang

also

be found by such obser
t

A

-

cos S sin

cos
<f

5 sin o -f-.

sm
y>

cos o cos

*

---t

and making use of the equation

:

we

find:

_
If

__
-"sin

_sinj-j3in

ft

(?-

- If] OjO
[4
^ (i

""

_

we

write here
^

+

M

<

instead of

M,

we

easily obtain:
sin

(f

If the time of both observations
t t

is

the

same

or:

=

a, at

the formula

(.4) gives the time, the same vertical circle.

which two

stars are

on

places of Lyrae of the year 1849: ginning
a Lyrae
ft

The

and a Aquilae are
75
S 8
-+-

for the be

a

= 18
19

h

31

47*

.

38
8

38

52".

2

Aquilae

43

23 ,43

=+

28 30 .5.

313
Therefore
t

we
t

have:
I
1

=
4-(

1 l

If

we

take then
f/>

= 52
:

m 35* 68
.

=
16",

17

53

55".

2.

30

we

find:

3/=19255

53".0

^=158
1

7

0.4
38"
.

and from
hence
:

this

we
\

get
(t

+
(*

M= 142
-M)

35
28

6,

.1

= =
.

24
1>

28".

4

37n53 .9
2 h 13 m 41 s
.

and
*

=

lh

2m 6s

1

,

*

=

7.

Therefore the sidereal time at which the two stars are

on the same vertical

circle is:

Hence
on the same
time

if

we

observe the clock-time

when two

stars are

vertical circle, if for

instance we. observe the clock-

when two

stars are bisected

by

a plumb-line,

the error of the clock at least approximately, the latitude of the place and compute the time by means of It is best to take as one of the the formulae given above.

we can find when we know

always the pole-star, since it changes its place very slowly, a circumstance which makes the observation more
stars

easy.

V.

DETERMINATION OF THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE MERIDIANS OF TWO PLACES ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH, OR OF THEIR
DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE.
26.
If the
local

the
are

surface

of the

times, which two different places on earth have at the same absolute instant,

known, the hour angle of the vernal equinox for each But the difference of these hour angles, place is known. hence the difference of the local times at the same moment, is equal to the arc of the equator between the meridians passing through the two places and hence equal to their dif ference of longitude; and since the diurnal motion of the
heavenly sphere
west,
it

is

follows,

that a place,

going on in the direction from east to whose local time at a certain

314

moment

is

earlier

place, and that

it is

than that of another place, is west of this east of it, if its local time is later than that

of the other place. For the first meridian, from which the of all other places are reckoned, usually that of a longitudes certain observatory, for instance, that of Paris or Greenwich,
taken. But in geographical works the longitudes are more frequently reckoned from the meridian of Ferro, whose lon or 20 m West. gitude from Paris is 20
is
1"

In order to obtain the local times which exist simulta

neously on two meridians, either artificial signals are ob served or such heavenly phenomena as are seen at the -same

moment from
ses

all

places.

Such phenomena are
since

first

of the moon.

For

the

moon

at

the time
earth,

the eclip of an
the be

eclipse

enters the cone of the

shadow of the

ginning and the end of an

eclipse as well as the obscura tions of different spots are seen from all places on the earth simultaneously, because the time in which the light traverses

the semi-diameter of the earth

is

insignificant.

The same

is

true for the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter. These phenomena therefore would be very
for

convenient

finding differences of longitude, since they are simply equal to the differences of the local times of observations,

if

they
the

could

be

observed

with

greater

accuracy.
s

But
never

since

shadow of the earth on the moon

disc

is

well defined^ and thus the errors of observation
to

may amount

one minute and even more, and since likewise the begin ning and end of an eclipse of Jupiter s satellites cannot be
accurately observed, these phenomena are at present hardly If however the eclipses ever used for finding the longitude. of Jupiter s satellites should be employed for this purpose, it
is

absolutely necessary, that the observers at the two stations

have telescopes of equal power and that each observes the same number of immersions and emersions and those only of the
first

satellite,

whose motion round Jupiter

is

the most rapid.

The

arithmetical

mean of

all

these observations will give a

measurably free of any error, though any very great accuracy cannot be expected.
result

Benzenberg has proposed
pearance of shooting

to observe the time of disap

stars for this purpose.

These can be

315
observed with great accuracy, but since
forehand,
it

is

not

known be

what region of the heavens a shoot ing star will appear, it will always be the case, that even if a great mass of shooting stars have been observed at the two stations, yet very few, which are identical, will be found among them; besides the difference of longitude must be
in

when and

already

approximately known,

in

order to find out these.

Very accurate results can be obtained by observing artifi which are given for instance by lighting a quantity of gunpowder at a place visible from the two stations. Although this method can be used only for places near each
cial signals,

other,

yet the

difference
in

be determined

two
let

places,

whose
etc.

of longitude of distant places may the following way: Let A and B be the difference of longitude / shall be found, and

An AM A 3
that
that
/!

ces,

whose unknown
is

so
/2

be other places, lying between those pla differences of longitude shall be / n A2 / 3 etc. the difference of longitude between A l and J,
,

between A z and A l

etc.

the stations 4,, A a , the signal from A
tl /!

Ab
is

etc.

at

the
at

If then signals are given at local times / T , f 3 , /, etc.,

= 0, =

seen

the

place

A

at
tl

the
I,

and

at the station

A^ at the time
t

-+-

=

time
fc^.

Further the signal given from A. is seen at the station A^ at the time t 3 /3 and at the station A 4 at the time 2 But since the difference of longitude of the ^3 -f- I* &*

=

6>

,

places A and nal station is

B

is

equal to

/

-f-

^

-+-

.

.

.

-+-

/,

if

the last sig

A H .-\,

or since:
0} 4(6>

/== (0,

3

a )

H-

(6>

5

4)

etc.,

we

find:

/= 0,,it

1

(&

2

0,, -a)

.

.

.
(6>

2

(9,

)

Therefore at the stations, where the signals are observed, not requisite to know the error of the clocks but only their rate, and it is only necessary to know the correct time
is

at

the

two places, whose difference of longitude

is

to

be

found.

is

better

Instead of giving the signals by lighting gunpowder, to use a heliotrope, an instrument invented

it

by

Gauss, by which the light of the sun can be reflected in any
direction to great distances.
If the heliotrope is directed to

316
the other station, a signal can be given by covering
denly.
it

sud

The difference of longitude of two places can also be determined by transporting a good portable chronometer from one place to the other and finding at each station the error
of the
if

the error found at the
--

chronometer on local time as well as its rate. For first place be /\u and the daily rate
",

be denoted by
u

then the error after a days will be

j\u-{-a

.

Now

if after

a days the error of the chrono

meter at the other place should be found equal to /\ M ? we have, denoting the longitude of the second place east of the
first

by

I:

d
n
I

U

-h

A M H-

-

d^

u

=u

-h

AM

,

hence

,= A

,+^

-A

.-.

It is assumed here that the chronometer has kept a uni form rate during the interval between the two observations. But since this is never strictly the case, it is necessary, to transport not only one chronometer from one place to the other, but as many as possible, and to take the mean of all

In this way the results given by the several chronometers. the difference of longitude of several observatories, for in stance that of Greenwich and that of Pulkova has been de
termined.

method, being determined at the place from which the ship sails and the time at sea being found by altitudes of the sun.
27.

Likewise the longitude at sea is found by this the error of the chronometer as well as its rate

The most accurate method
is

of longitude

that

by means of the

electric telegraph.

of finding the difference Since

telegraphic signals can be observed like any other signals, the method is of the same nature as some of those mentioned
before,

and has no other advantage than perhaps its greater convenience but when chronographs are used for recording the observations at the two stations, it surpasses all other me
;

thods by the accuracy of the results. The chronograph is a cylinder, about which usually constructed in this way, that

317
a sheet of paper is wrapped, is moved around its axis with uniform velocity by a clockwork, which at the same time carries a writing apparatus, resting on the paper, slowly in a
direction
parallel
to the axis of the cylinder.

Therefore,

if

the

motion of the cylinder and of the pen is uniform, the latter markes on the paper a spiral, which when the sheet is
taken from the cylinder, appears as a system of parallel lines on the paper. Now the writing apparatus is connected with
for

an electro-magnet so that, every time the current is broken an instant and the armature is pulled away from the

magnet by means of a spring attached to it, the pen makes a plain mark on the paper. If then the pendulum of a clock breaks the current by some contrivance at every beat, every second of the clock is thus marked on the sheet of paper, and since the chronograph is always so arranged that the
cylinder revolves on its axis once in a minute, there will be on every parallel line sixty marks, corresponding to the sec onds of the clock, and the marks corresponding to the same second in different minutes will also lie in a straight line per
will suppose now, that pendicular to those parallel lines. at first the current is broken and that the pen is marking an

We

unbroken line; then if the current be closed just before the second-hand of the clock reaches the zero-second of a certain
minute, the
first

second-mark on the paper

will

correspond

to this certain second, and hence the second corresponding to any other mark is If then the current can easily found. also be broken at any time by a break-key in the hand of the

observer,

who

gives a signal at the instant

when a

star is seen

on the wire of the instrument, the time of this observation is also marked on the sheet, and hence it can be found with
great accuracy by measuring the distance of this the nearest second-mark.
If the current

mark from

gitude

is

to

goes to another observatory, whose lon be determined, and passes there also through a

key

in the hand of the observer, the signals given by this observer will be recorded too by the chronograph at the first station hence if this observer gives also a signal at the time
;

when
the

the

same

difference

star is seen on the wire of his instrument, of the two times of observation, recorded on

318
the paper and corrected for the deviations of the two instru ments from their respective meridians and for the rate of the clock in the interval between the

two observations,

will

be equal to the difference of longitude of the two places. Since the electrical current, when going to a great dis tance, is only weak, this main current, which passes through the keys of the two observers, does not act immediately upon
the electro -magnet of the chronograph, but merely upon a relay which breaks the local current passing through the

chronograph.
If a chronograph is used at each station

and the clocks

are on the local circuits, the signals from each observer and the seconds of the local clock are recorded by each chronograph,

and hence we get a difference of longitude by every star from the records of each chronograph after being corrected for the errors of the instruments and the rate of the clock.

But the
at

each station

difference of longitude thus recorded independently For since the velo is not exactly the same.

city of electricity is not indefinitely great, there will elapse a very short, but measurable time, at least if the distance of the two stations is great, till the signal given at the sta tion A, being the farthest east, arrives at the station B.

the time of the signal recorded at the station B cor responds to a time, when the star was already on the me

Hence

dian of a place lying west of A, and the difference of longi tude recorded at B is too small by the time, in which the A to B. But the same electricity traverses the distance from

time will elapse when the signal from B is given, and the time recorded at the station A will correspond to the time when the star was on the meridian of a place a little west of
B, hence the difference of longitude recorded at the station A will be too great by the same quantity. Therefore the mean
of the differences of longitude recorded at both stations is the true difference of longitude and half the difference (sub tracting the result obtained at the station B from that ob

tained at the station

A) is equal to the time in which the traverses the distance from A to B *). electricity
*)

The armature -time

is

also a cause of this difference.

319

A

accurate

single star, observed in this way, gives already a more result than a single determination of the longitude
,

made by any other method

and since the number of

stars

can be increased at pleasure, the accuracy can be driven to
a very high degree, provided that also the greatest care is taken in determining the errors of the two instruments. Since the

same

stars are observed at
is

of longitude
stars.

free

both stations, the difference from any errors of the places of the
is

In case that the distance between the two stations
great, sometimes a large is therefore preferable, to

number of

signals are lost and it let the main current for a short

time at the beginning and end of the observations pass through both clocks, so that their beats are recorded by the chrono
If then the current is closed at graphs at both stations. each station at a round minute, after having been broken for a short time, so that the clock-times corresponding to the

records

on the chronographs are known, the difference of

the two clocks can be obtained from every recorded second or better from the arithmetical mean of all. These differences,
differ again by twice the time, which the current passes from one station to the other, and which in this way can be determined even with greater accuracy. A few such comparisons are already sufficient to

as obtained at both stations,

in

give a very accurate result, since the accuracy of one com parison probably surpasses the accuracy with which the er
rors of the clocks can be obtained from observations.
tainly

Cer

the comparisons

obtained

during a few minutes are

than sufficient for the purpose so that the telegraphic part of the operation is limited to a few minutes at the be ginning and the end of the observations. After the first set of comparisons has been made, the clocks as well as the

more

keys

of both

are put on the local circuit of each ob servatory and the errors of the clocks determined by each ob server. If these errors of the clocks are applied with the

observers

proper signs to the difference of the time of the two clocks,
in this case it is advisable,

the difference of longitude of the two stations is found. Also that the observers use as much as possible the same stars for finding the errors of their

320
respective clocks, in order to eliminate the influence of any errors of the right ascensions of the stars. Besides errors arising from an inaccurate determination

of the errors of the two instruments, there can remain another error in the value of the difference of longitude, produced
the

by the personal equation of the two observers, that is, by relative quickness, with which the two observers per But this source of ceive any impression upon their senses.
not peculiar to this method, but is common to all and even of less consequence, when the observations are re
error
is

corded by the electro -magnetic method.

In this case the

error depends upon the time, which elapses between the mo ment, when the eye of the observer receives an impression

and the moment, at which he becomes conscious of this im pression and gives the signal by touching the key. If this time is the same for both observers, the determination of the
of the longitude is not at all affected by it; but is not equal and there exists a personal equation, the difference of longitude is found wrong by a quantity equal
difference
if this

time

to

error arising from this source can be entirely eliminated (at least if the personal equation does not change), if the same observers determine the difference of longitude
it.

But the

ference

a second time after having exchanged their stations; the dif of the two results is then equal to twice the per sonal equation, whilst their arithmetical mean is free from it.

The observers can also determine their when they meet at one place and observe

personal equation, the transits of stars

by an instrument furnished with many wires, so that one ob server takes always the transits over some of the wires and
the

other those

over the remainder of the wires.

If then

of observation are reduced to the middle wire, VII No. 20) the results for every star obtained by (Section the two observers will differ by a quantity equal to the per
these

times

now

sonal equation. The observations are then changed so, that the second observer takes the transits over the first set

of wires, and the first one those over the other wires. Then nearly the same difference between the observers will be ob
tained and the arithmetical
will

mean

of the two values thus found

be free from any errors of the wire -distances used for

321
reducing the observations to the middle wire. After the per sonal equation has thus been found, the value obtained for
the difference of longitude must be corrected on account of observer whose station is farthest to the east ob it. If
the"

serves later than the

E
is

W=-\-a,
too
to
it.

other, or if the personal equation is the value found for the difference of longitude small by the same quantity, and hence ~f- a must be

added

Example.

On

the

29 th of June 1861 the difference of

longitude was determined between Ann Arbor in the State O of Michigan and Clinton in the State of New York and from
of the two stations
(recorded at Cl.)

126 comparisons of the clocks recorded by the chronographs it was found that:
29s .56 A. A. clock-t.

b m (recorded at A. A,) 13 59 3s.0 Clinton clock-timc=19 58

13 59

3 .0

=19

58

29 .40

The clock at the observatory at Clinton was a mean time clock and its error on Clinton sidereal time was at the
time 13 h 59 m 3 s .O equal to 433 46 s 07, while the error of the clock at Ann Arbor on local sidereal time was -f- l m 1 s 87.
"

6"

.

.

From
20 h

the records
:

by the chronograph
sidereal time

at

Ann Arbor we

find

therefore

32>M9s.07

Cl.

= 19 = 19

h

59

"

31 .43 A. A. sidereal time

and by the chronograph
20 h 32
"

at Clinton:
h

49s. 07 ci. sidereal time

59

31 s

.

27 A. A. sidereal time.

at

Hence we find the Ann Arbor equal to

difference of longitude
33 m 17s.64,

by the records

and by those

at Clinton:

or the

mean

33 M7s.SO, 33 rn 17 s 72.
.

equation is in this case E hence the corrected difference of longitude

The personal
The

W=
is

-f-

s
.

04 *),

33 m 17 s .76.
diffei-ence of lon

Note.
gitude
is

electro

-magnetic method for finding the

usually called the American method, since it was proposed by Ame ricans. The idea originated with to Sears C. Walker and W. Bond Esq., to whom the honour of inventing it must be accorded, although Mitchel of Cin
cinnati completed the
first

instrument for recording the observations.

*) Dr. Peters observed at Clinton, the author at

Ann

Arbor.
21

322
28.

Besides the observations of natural or

artificial sig

nals, which are seen at the same instant at the two stations, whose difference of longitude is to be found, we may use for this purpose also such celestial phenomena, which, though

they are not simultaneous for different places, yet can be re duced to the same time; and they afford even this advantage, that they can be observed with great accuracy, and that they
are visible

over a large portion of the surface of the earth
is

possible to find the difference of longitude of places very distant from each other. Such phenomena are the occultations of fixed stars and planets by the moon, eclipses
it

so that

Venus.

of the sun, and transits of the inferior planets Mercury and Since all these heavenly bodies with the exception of the fixed stars have a parallax, which in the case of the
is

moon
from

very considerable, they are seen at the same instant

different places on the surface of the earth at different places on the celestial sphere, and hence the occultations as

well as the other phenomena mentioned before are not si multaneous for different places. Hence in this case the ob servations need a correction for parallax, since we must know the time, when those phenomena would have occurred, if there had been no parallax or rather, if they had been observed from the centre of the earth.

we must find first the parallaxes in longitude and the apparent semi-diameters of the heavenly bodies at the time of the beginning and the end of the eclipse or occupation (or the parallax in right ascension and decli
Therefore

and

latitude

nation, if

it

should be preferable to use these co-ordinates).
triangle

Then
the

in

the

between the pole of the

ecliptic

and

centres

of the two

complements of the

bodies the three sides, namely the apparent latitudes and the sum or the

difference of the apparent semi-diameters, are known; hence we can compute the angle at the pole, that is, the difference

of the apparent longitudes of the two bodies at the time of observation and, applying the parallaxes in longitude, we find the difference of the true longitudes, as seen from the centre of the
earth.

From

this,

the relative velocity

of the

two

bodies being known, we obtain the time of true conjunction, that is, the time, at which the two bodies have the same

323
geocentric longitude, and expressed in local time of the place of observation. If the beginning or end of the same eclipse
or
occultation
find
in

has

also

been

observed

at

another

place,

we

the

same way the time of true conjunction ex

pressed in local time of that place. Hence the difference of both times is equal to the difference of longitude of the two
places. If the times
for the

reduction

of observation, as well as the data used to the centre of the earth were correct,

the difference of longitude thus obtained But since they are subject to rect.

would

also be cor

errors,

we must

examine, what influence they have upon the result, and try to eliminate it by the combination of several observations.

This is the method, which formerly was used for find ing the difference of longitude by eclipses. At present a dif ferent method is employed. Starting from the equation, which
in contact with each other
tric

expresses the condition of the limbs of the two bodies being and which contains only geocen

unknown
29.
tact,

another equation is obtained, in which the quantity is the time of conjunction or rather the difference of longitude.
quantities,

The limbs of two heavenly bodies

are seen in con

the eye is anywhere in the curved surface envel Since the heavenly bodies are so oping the two bodies. nearly spherical, that we can entirely disregard the small deviation from a spherical form, the enveloping surface will be the surface of a straight cone, and there will always be two different cones, the vertex being in one case between

when

the

two bodies while in the other case it lies beyond the smaller body. If the eye is in the surface of the first cone, we see an exterior contact, whilst when it is in that of the
,

second,
it

cone is the most simple, if referred to a rectangular system of axes, one of which coincides with the axis of the cone. If the cone is gene rated by a right angled triangle revolving about one of its sides, the equation of its surface is:
of a straight
is

we see an The equation

interior contact.

where

c

is

the

ar zY tang/ (c -|-y distance of the vertex from the fundamental 21*
,

a

2

=

2

324
plane of the co-ordinates,

and f

is

the vertical angle of the

generating triangle.

must now find the equation of the cone enveloping the two bodies and referred to a system of axes one of which
passes

We

through the centres of the two bodies.
in

If then

we

place of the indeterminate co-ordinates ar, ?/, z the co-ordinates of a place on the surface of the earth, re
substitute

ferred to the
tal

equation determine the position of the line joining the centres of the two bodies. But if a and d be the right ascension and de

for

same system of axes, we obtain the fundamen For this purpose we must first eclipses.

clination of that point, in which the centre of the more dis tant body is seen from the centre of the nearer body or in

which the

line passing through both centres intersects the sphere of the heavens, and if G denote the distance, of the two centres, further a, d and A be the geocentric right as

cension,
ce
i
<5

declination

?

A

the

and distance of the nearer body and same quantities for the more distant body, we
cos S cos cos 8 sin
sin<?

have the equations:

G cos d cos a = A G cos d sin a = A
sin</=A

ft

A A
<?,

cos

cos #
ft

cos S sin

A

sin

or:

G cos d cos G cos d sin
If
earth,

(a

a

(a

G sin

= A cos A cos S cos (a = A cos S 8 d= A A
)
)

)

sin

(

)

sin

sin S.

we

take as unit the equatoreal semi -diameter of the
take sin

we must

n

-.

and
sin

n

instead of

A and

A, since

A

and A are expressed in parts of the semi- major axis of the earth s orbit, where n is the mean horizontal equatoreal parallax of the nearer body, n the same for the more dis
tant body; thus
sin
sin

we
r

obtain:
)

n G cos d cos
nG
cos

(a

d

sin (a

)

sin

n G sm d
since
cos

=A = =A
.

sin

n

cos 8

cos 8 cos (a

)

cos 8 sin
.

(

)

sin 7t
sin
:

,

,

n

,

sin o

sin d.

Now
sin

we

also have
f
TF

nG

d

=

A -

cos 8 cos (a

)

cos 8 cos (a

),

sin

*

325

we

find:

,

,.

tang

)

=
1

A

sin TC cos -, -,- sin SHITT cos d r 5 sin TT cos d

(ft

)

and:
,
.
c, /N

tang

(r/

)

=1

771 A smTT sin n -TJ-. A smn
-..

s?

cos

cos o
sin (o
-

(ft

a)

S)

A
Since in
the case

-.-

cos

(()

of an eclipse of the sun -

- is

a

obtain from this by mula (12) in No. 11 of the introduction:

small quantity,

we

means of the

for

a

a

,

sin

TC
.

cos S
COS

A

S1117T
;

(a

)
. ,

\A)

and putting:

ff

=
1

s
}

we

also find

:

a

=

s in
,

A

,

rm

sin??

We

will

imagine

now
is

origin the axis of y be directed towards the north pole of the equator, whilst the axes of z and x are situated in the plane of the

co-ordinates, whose

a rectangular system of axes of at the centre of the earth. Let

equator and directed to points, whose right ascensions are a and 90 -+- a. Then the co - ordinates of the nearer

body

with respect to these axes are:
z

= & cos S cos

(ft

),

y = Asin(9,

x

= A cos S

sin (a

a).

the axes of y and z to be turned in the plane of yz through the angle d *), so that the axis of z is directed towards the whose right ascension point

If

now we imagine

and declination are a and
sin

d,

we

find the co-ordinates of the

nearer body with respect to the
# sin
rf

new system
a)

of axes:

+ cos 8 cos d cos (a
sin

n
sin

sin

S cos d

cos
sin

d cos

(a

a)

n

cos 8 sin (a
sin 7t

a)

*)

The angle d must be taken
is

negative,

since the positive side of the

axis of z

turned towards the positive side of the axis of y.

326
or:
cos
sin sin
(fl

cos

H-

d) sin

(

n

cQcosi(
(a
a)

a

g)

-(-sin

(j+d)sin^ (

2

a)

_ cos $ sin
The
with this
nates
axis

sin TT

of *

is

now

centres of the

two bodies.
centre

parallel to the line joining the If we let the axis of z coincide

line, the

co-ordinates

of the

x and y will be the co-ordi of the earth with respect to the new

origin but taken negative. Let (f be the geocentric latitude of a place on the sur face of the earth, its sidereal time and y its distance from

the centre, then the co-ordinates of this place, taking the at the centre of the earth and the axis of origin parallel
to the line joining the centres of the

two bodies,
a)]

are:

*?

=

== C

[

gi

n d

sin
<p

-ftp

cos
sin
a).

(* [

cos d sin
95

d cos y cos (0 d cos cos (0
y>

a)]

(Z>)

f

C cos

sin

(0

co-ordinates of this place with respect to a system of axes, whose axis of z is the line joining the two centres
itself,

The

are:
|
x,

rjy

and

and the equation, which expresses, that the place on the sur face of the earth, given by o, f/ and 6), lies in the surface of the cone enveloping the two bodies, is:
(x

-

2

I)

-f-

(y

- -nY = (c

)"

tang/

2
,

where
to

c

and f are yet

to

be expressed by quantities referred

the centre of the earth.

But the angle f
r =t= r

is

found, as

is

easily seen,

by

the equation:
sin/==

~

-

,

Or

where r and r are the semi-diameters of the two bodies and where the upper sign must be used for exterior contacts, the
lower one for interior contacts. Now since the unit we use for G is the semi -diameter of the equator of the earth,

we must

refer

r

and

r

to

the

same

unit.

Therefore

if k

denotes the semi-diameter of the

moon expressed

in parts of

the semi-diameter of the equator of the earth and h the ap-

327
parent semi-diameter of the sun seen at a distance equal to the semi-major axis of the earth s orbit, we. have, since:
,

sin

also:
sin /

=
(JT

sm n

r [sin

h =t= k sin

n

}

or:

sin/= A 9

[sin

h

== k

sin

n ].

(JE)

But we have:
log sin

n

= 5. 6186145,
to

further

& = 0.2725

we have according
and

Burkhardt

according to Bessel h
k sin k sin

= 15

s

Lunar Tables
59".

788, hence

we

have:
log [sin h log [sin h
-f7t
]
1

n

}

= =

7. 1
.

6688041

for exterior contacts,

6666903

for interior contacts.

must still express the quantity c, that is, the dis tance of the vertex of the cone from the plane of xy. But

We

we

easily see, that:

where again the upper sign

is

used
If

for

an exterior, the lower

one for an interior contact.
/",

that is , quantity c tang the plane of xy intersects the cone, and tang f by /L, the ge neral equation for eclipses, which expresses, that the place

then denote by / the the radius of the circle in which

we

on the surface of the earth given by

&
q>\

and
is

o, lies in

the
:

surface of the cone enveloping both bodies,

as follows

(x-|)
Since
negative,
tion (F).
/

2

-f-(

<

y-7

2

7

)

= (Z-^)
we must

2
.

is

always positive,
find

take tang f or

/I

if

we

a negative value

of c from the equa

The values of the quantities used for computing ic, ?/, z and |, 77, by means of the equations (C) and (D) are taken from the tables of the sun and the moon. Since these are
always a
erroneous, the computed values of x, y etc. Therefore if will also differ a little from the true values.
little

A#,

A^

an(i

A^

are the corrections,

which must be applied

328
to

the computed values x, y
H-

and
is

/

in

order to obtain the
*)
:

true values, the above equation
(x

transformed into

2 A* I)* -+- (y 4- fry T/) (I -}- AZ 1) 2 We will assume now, that the values of d TT, , and TI have been taken from" the tables or almanacs for the
.

=

,

,

first meridian. Then if the unknown time of meridian, at which a phase of the eclipse has been observed, be T-f- T , we have, denoting by x n and y the values of x and y corresponding to the time T and by x

time
the

T

of the

first

(}

and y the

differential coefficients of

^

=

x<>

-4-

x

T

and

x and y: y=y +y T
.

way the quantities , r] and J will consist of two parts. But since these quantities change only slowly and an approximate value of the difference of longitude, and
hence of the time of the
time of observation
is

In the same

first

always known,

meridian corresponding to the we can assume, that

these quantities are known for the time of observation. Hence the equation is now:
[x

-I

-+-

x

T

-+- A-r]

2

H- [y,

-

rj

-f-

y

T

+ Ay] = + A - A).
2 (I
I

If the changes of

x and

y

x and y were proportional to the time, would be constant, and therefore it would not be

necessary to

know

the

time

T-f-

T

for

their computation.

Now

this is not the case, but since the variations of
?/,

x and

y very small compared with those of x and solve the equation by successive approximations.
are
If

we

can

we

put

:

x

i

y
-+-

i>

and

:

m

sin

M=x

y
a

i

x

i

= A* = A#
n sin

|
rj

N=x
y
(G)

}

mcosM=y
the above equation
(L
-+-

l

)l

= L,

ncosN

i

is

transformed into:
n
a
i

AO 2 = [m cos (M N} 4- n (T -+- OP + [m sin (M N] and we obtain, neglecting the squares of i and /V
5

J

,

the fol

lowing equation of the second degree for

T

-f-t:

~ sin (M
n
*) Errors in
a,

.V)

i

-f-

-

n

d and k are here neglected, since they cannot be de

termined by the observations of eclipses.

329

Now

since

:

putting

:

L

sin

y = ?sin(X L cos
yj
i

N\
=P tang y

(//)

we find from
T

this equation:

=
jT

m
cos (J/
iV)

&l
?"

=p
is

=p

sec
y>,

or except in case that

\jj

very small:
z

= -m
n

sm(MN==v>)
sin
\i)

=p tang v

AI
z

=p

sec

i/>.

n

Now
phase of
than
for

since
it

T

for

the beginning

of the

eclipse or

any

must have

the end,

a less positive or greater negative value the upper sign must be used for the be

ginning, the

lower sign for the end of the eclipse or any

phase,

if

we take
But

for the beginning of the ifr quadrant *). or any phase in the first or fourth quadrant and for eclipse the end in the second or third quadrant, we have in both

the angle if we take

/>

always in the

first

or fourth

cases

:

1

=
m
n

wsn
11

iv
sin

?

?

y
L
COS
n

tang

w
n

sec
i/>

or:

r=
Tit

cos (.If

/*r

N)

AT\

W
i

.,

A/
tang
u>

?

sec w.

n

f 7N (./)

The equation
For
this

(J) is solved

by successive approximations.

purpose compute the values of x, y, z, a, d, g, I and / by means of the formulae (4), (fi), (C), (E) and (F) for several successive hours, so that the values x and y and their differential coefficients can be interpolated for any time.
{}

{}

Then assume a value of tely known value of the
interpolate for this find an approximate

T, as accurately as the

approxima

difference of longitude .will permit, time the quantities a? , ?/, x and y and

value

of

T

by means of the formulae

With the value T-H T repeat, if (D), (6?), (#) and (J). the whole computation. If we denote again by necessary, T the value assumed in the last approximation and by T the correction found last, we have T -+- 2 V t d, where

=

is

the time of observation and d
*)

is

the longitude of the place

We

find this

easily

from the

first

expression for

T

,

330
reckoned from the
first
a?,

meridian,
i/,

that

is,

that meridian, for

which the

quantities

z etc.
is

have been computed, and
east of the first meridian.

taken positive

when the place Hence we have:
t

d

= =

T H--n

cos

(M
n sin

N)

-\

-- cos w
n
-i1:

-f-

i

4-

i

tang

w -\-n
sec w.

sec

W

TO sin
t

T-i-~

(M

N+y)
y

+

i

tang

v H-

A/
n

W

Since the values of x
the unit of time, it is referred to the
is

and y

have one mean hour as
if

assumed,
unit.

that d in the above formula

same

Therefore

we wish

to find

the difference of longitude expressed in seconds of time, we must multiply the formula by the number s of seconds con

tained in one hour of that species of time, in which the ob T is also servations are expressed. By this operation t

expressed in seconds of the same species of time, in which is given or T is expressed in the same species of time as t.

t

the equation (/if) does not give the longitude of the place of observation from the first meridian, but only a relation between this longitude and the errors of the several

Now

elements used for the reduction.

But

if

the same eclipse has

been observed
as

places, equations as phases of the ecliptic have been ob served. By the combination of these equations we can eli as will be shown hereafter, the errors of several of minate, these elements and thus render the result as independent as

at different

we

obtain for each place

many

possible of the errors of the tables. It yet remains to develop the

quantities

i

and

i

,

de

termined by the equations

:

or:
ni
ni

= =

sin sin

The
Therefore

quantities
if

x and we suppose
Ax Ay

d and n. d cf, y depend upon a these quantities to be erroneous,
)

we have

:

=AA =A&

(

-h

BA

(a

a) 4-

S d) -h C A n B b(8d)+ C &Tt,
(

where A, B,

C

are the differential coefficients of

x with

re-

331

d and TT, and A , # , C those of y with a, d sped to since A( respect to the same quantities. ), d) and A 7? are always small quantities, we can neglect in the expressions for the differential coefficients the terms contain

Now

A(<*

ing sin (a a) and sin d) as factors, and can write of cos (a and cos (JS Then we obtain: place a) rf).
(<)

1

in

A=

cos S ----- cos (a
sin
7i

a)

_

sin

8

sin (a
sin

= cos n _
sin
a) a) cos

n
n
a)
r-

C_
A=-\jD

cos S sin (a
;

sin

7i

cos 8 sin

d

sin
TT
1

(

= ^x n tang =

sin

D

,

-= cos --n =
(8
-

d) --

sin

sin TC

Now
and

since

i

and

t

,

and hence also

A(-

A

7*

are expressed in part of the radius,

)? A(^ d) we must divide

the differential coefficients

by 206265,

if

we wish
if

to find the

errors of the elements in seconds.

Therefore

we

put:

20G265

.

n sin

n

we have:
i
i

Asin2v~cos<*A(

)

H- h cosJVA (S

d}

hcosn&Ti

[x

sinN+ycosN]
y
sin

h cos NCOS

S&(a

a)-t-AsiniVA(<?

d) -+-h COSJC^TT
,

[>coszV

A

],

or multiplying the

by
i

sin
-f-i

\\)

upper equation by cos?/ and adding them
:

the lower one

tangy]

=
we
(

sin

(N

y;)

cos

&

(a
y/)

a) -f- cos (^V

^)
y;)].

A

(S

d)

cosn&Tt[x

sin (2V

-\-y cos (2V

From

this
* 6

obtain:
^-+- v)
~

sin

M

sin y,

(^ + h ~ CO
,

,

sin

y)
y>

COS

s

A *A

,

(

-

)

+ A cosJ2V- y M ^_ cos y
,)

-M

-

-j

206265

sin

cos

332
or putting:

(9

= JVcos (a H- cos 2V A (S = cos 2V cos S A 2V A (8 n A/ ^ = 2062 65 = cos n &7t y cos (2V _ x (2V
sin
<?A

a)

d)

(

a)

-f-

sin

d)

sin

()

sin

y;) -f-

y>)

cos

y

we

finally

have:
.

(Af)

the observation of every phase of an eclipse gives such an equation and since this contains five unknown quan five such tities, equations will be sufficient to find them.
T

Now

However

the quantities ?; and cannot be determined in this the observations are made at places which are way, at a great distance from each other. Nevertheless the com

unless

putation of the coefficients will show us the effect, which errors of n and I can have upon the .result. Generally it will only be practicable to free the difference of longitude

from the errors of and but the latter quantity can only be determined, if the longitude of one place from the first meridian is already known. When s and are known, the
,

errors of the tables are obtained
cos S

by means of the equations
cos 2V
sin 2V.

:

A( A (S

)

d)

= =

sin 2V
E cos 2V7 -+-

the formulae necessary for computing the difference of longitude from an eclipse of the sun, they are as follows:
If
collect
all

we

a

=a
_
=

A

sin 7t -j-,

cos S
COS
-=,

.

SinTT

(a

)

|

Asinw sin n
"

(

d and n are the right ascension, declination and r) horizontal equatoreal parallax of the moon, A an(i ^ ,

where

,

r

,

the right ascension, declination, distance and equatoreal parallax of the sun.

mean

horizontal

333
cos S sin (a
sin

a)
2

n
a)
-

y

=

sin (S

</)cos-r(a

-f- sin
--

-

(S-\-d) sin A (a

i*/

-

v

,

n

,

)

(2)

SlllTT

2

= cos(^

ef)

cos I (a

><!

2

a)

cos(S-\-d~) sin-}(

a)

sm
sin
-jr

TT

/= A -9 [sin A =p
-ffc

A;

sin

TT ],

(3)

where

:

log [sin A

sin TT

]

=

7

.

6588041

for exterior contacts

and
k sin
?r
J

log [sin A

=7

.

6666903

for interior contacts.
c

=

*

A., sm/

(4)

where the upper sign
for interior contacts.

is

used for exterior contacts, the lower

,

=c.l,

where

I has always the
I;

77

= =

same sign as
(6>

c.

cos
(>
(>

90
rf

sin
sin

a)

[cos
[

9?

sin

===

^ sm

f^

sm 9s H~

cos

d cos 9? cos ^ cos 9 cos (^
(<9

a)]

(6)

a)J

and a-re the geocentric latitude and the distance (f of the place from the centre and is the observed sidereal time of a phase.
(>

where

If then

we have

for the time T:

dx

.

we compute m sinM=x
:

|
ij

wsin^V=o:

m

cos

M =y
Itf

L
where
and:

sin

y=m

ncosN=y
sin

AT

I
I

- Ag =

l>

(7)

for the beginning i/j quadrant and for the end

(M N) must be taken
,

(8)

in the first or fourth

in the

second or third quadrant,

r=-

.

:

n

=_
i/j

.

cos

_
n

sin

n

Finally

we

have:

d=t

T

T

+ AeH-A^tangy,

(10)

334

where

:

E

= =

206265. n
sin

sin TT
(
)

N cos 8 A
A A
(

4- cos
)

cos 2V cos 5

A

(

+

N &(S
sin

d\
c/),

^V^ (8
cos iV

hence

:

cos $

ct)
rf)

(5

= =

s sin
e

iV

cos .V-t- ^ sin N.

red,

Example. In 1842 July 7 an eclipse of the sun occur which was observed at Vienna and Pulkova as follows:

Vienna
Beginning of the
total eclipse

:

18 h 49
51

n

25 s .O Vienna mean time 22
.

End

of the total eclipse 18

Pulkova:
Beginning of the eclipse *End of the eclipse
19 h
21 7m

3s

.

5 Pulkova

mean time

12

52 .0

According to the Berlin Jahrbuch we have the following
places of the sun and the

moon:

Z^"

1

.

OJ

OD.

If

we compute
a
18
19"

first

the quantities a, d and g by
find:
d
log g
2".

means

of the formulae (1)
106

we
21".

53

53

4- 22

33

55 50 .33
107

04 32 46 .47

9.9989808
11

20 h
21h

58 19 10 47 .88
.

32 30 .87

15
19.

32 15 .25

Then we
and
(5):

find

by means of the formulae

(2),

(3),

(4)

335

i

log;.
Interior contact.

Exterior contact.

Exterior contact.

Interior contact.

7

.

6605084,,

85
87

88
89
91.

Now

the time of the beginning of the total eclipse

was

observed at Vienna at:

18M9 m 258.0,
or at the sidereal time:

0= lh 52m 29. 8 = 28
Further we have:
^,==48
12
35".

7

27".0;

5,

hence the geocentric latitude:
^

= 48
11

1

S".9

and:
log?

= 9. 999 1952.
,

If

we

take
x

T=
=

18 30

h

we
#

find for this time:

0.727530

=

-4-

0.643413,

and by means of the formulae (6):

!=
duction
:

0.654897

r/

= -h

.

635482
in

log g

= 9.606857;
intro

moreover by means of the formulae
x

No. 15 of the

= H- 0.557185
54"
.

/=

0.121140,
:

hence by means of the formulae (7), (8) and (9) 276 13 8 863708 log m ^=102 1558 9. 756030 log n

M=

y;

T
Since in this case
putation,
it

= = = 39 57 = 6 40*
is

10"

.

85,

not necessary to repeat the
:

com

we
d

= + Oh 12

obtain by
"

means of the formula (10)
44s
.

15 H-

1

.

7553

e -f- 1

.4703

.

336
In the same

way we
TI

find

from the observation of the

end of the
|

=

total eclipse, if
0.

we
.

retain the

same value of T:

If =277

G53763 46
40"

= + 633338 log m = 8. 87 1874

log

= 9 .612367
8.

logL=

078638

^=150"

T
hence
:

=

54 51

".5

8">54-".74,

d

=+O

h

12

n

27s 26 H.

1

.

7553

s

.

9764

.

Likewise from

the observations at
5^

= 59

Pulkova, since:

46

18".

6,

and hence:
and:

9)

= 59 36 8 log o = 9. 9989172
16".

we

find the following equations: d 1 .7559 lh 8 26 .57

d

f

= =

"

+
"

e
e

+ 0.5064
0.

,

1

8

22

.

67 -h

1

.

7541

3034

.

We
hence:

have therefore:
d
<?

d
<*

= -h 55 = + 55

42^

.

42

.

9639

,

55

.41+0. 6730
8

,

d

d= + 55 m 50

.07

and:

=
In order to find the error

7".

94.

e,

we must assume

the lon

gitude of one place reckoned from the meridian of Berlin as known. But the difference of longitude of Vienna and Ber
lin is
:

+
and with
Since
this

h

Il n

56.40
first
55.

we

obtain from the

=
we
have:
cos S

equation for d:

20"

.

&((t) = scosN-l-

A

(a

a)

=

t-

sin

.ZV

cos
sin

N
N,

we

find:

cosd(a
and:
30.

= d) =
a)

21".

78

3".38.

the formulae

have a

=

In the case of occupations of stars by the become more simple. Since then n
,

mulae

(1),

d d Hence we need not compute the for and the co-ordinates of the place of observation
.

=

=

moon we
,

337
are independent

of the place
sin

of the

moon,

since

we have

simply

:

|
77

= cos =Q
(>

tp

(0

)

[sin

cos
y>

cos
is

cp

sin

8 cos (&

)].

we have and hence A so that we have instead 0, of the enveloping cone a cylinder. The radius / of the circle, in which the plane of the co-ordinates intersects this cylin
third co-ordinate
in this case

The

fQ

=

also not used, since

der,

is

Hence we need not compute
simply
:

equal to the semi-diameter of the moon or equal to k. the co-ordinate z and we have

cos 8 sin

(

a

)

_ sin S cos 8

cos 8 sin 8 cos (a
sin 7i

)

Thus the fundamental equation
into the following:
(fc

for eclipses is

transformed

+A

2
/-

)

= (x 4- A x "same

a

|)

4- (y

-t-

\y

-

a
i?)
,

which
t

d=T-\-T
?/

and

cients,

way Taking again and denoting by x and y the values of a; for the time 7 by x and ?/ their difierential coeffi we must compute the auxiliary quantities:
is
lt

solved in the

as before.

,

in sin

M= x
k sin
y^

|

n sin

jV= x

mcosM*=y,

=m

77

ncosN=i/
sin (J/*

iV)

and we

find:
^Z

=

t

/ H---,

m

sin (J/
s

-

where

ft,

and J

y have the same
w
sin

H- A
(

H- A C tang

v>

signification as before.

Example.

In 1849 Nov. 29 the immersion and emersion

of a Tauri was observed at Bilk as follows: Immersion 8 h 15 m 12 s 1 Bilk mean time
.

Emersion

i)

18

10.8.

The immersion
burg
at

of the same star

was observed

at

Ham

The

2 Hamburg mean time. place of the star on that day was according to the
.

8 h 33 m 47

Nautical Almanac:

= 4h = + 15

11".

16s

.

24

= 62
2.

49

3".

6

15

32".

22

338
Further

we have

for Bilk:
9?

= 51

1

10".0

log

== 9.999 1201

and

for

Hamburg:
^
log Q

= 5322 = 9.9990624.
Almanac:

4".2

Finally

we have
a

the

following places of the

moon

ac

cording to the Nautical
7"

n
1

4 4 4

1
6"

2

.

35
69

H- 15
15

47
2

24".

G

60

50".

8

S
9h

8 35 11
9

.

54 48

.

8

60 51

.

8

.31

16

6 .5

60 52 .9.

Hence we
x
7h
8"

find for those three times:
I.

Diff.

9b

-1.240980 -0.634228 -0.027364

nrnr ~ 9

+ 0.527577
+0.646318 +0.764974

y

I.

Diff.

*
at Bilk:

Now we
hence
:

have for the time of the immersion h 49 29. 93
<9

= a =
h

50

26

34".

6
0. 643216.

I

=
!=

0.484015 and

rj

=

-\-

Taking then
-TO

T=7
.

50 m

,

we
yo

obtain for this time:

x

=+

0.251346
606789

/ = -j^-= + 78

77

=

0.016682
.

118713,

hence

:

J/=266 12 logm= 9.401226
.10"

T = -h We
find therefore

^

=

log n
6
2-

=

55

50"

9.791194

43
Os
.

11"

85.

from the immersion observed at Bilk the following equation between the difference of longitude from Greenwich and the errors s and
:

d

= -h 27= H- 27

12s

.

95 -h

1

.

5945

_Q
e

.

1879

,

and

in
:

the

same way we
d
27
.

find
-+- 1
.

from the emersion observed
5937
at

at Bilk

10

+
0\.

.

5336

^,

and from the emersion observed
d

= + 40
d
rf

Hamburg:
e

3

.

76 H-

I

.

5945

1362

g.

We

have therefore the two equations:

d= +

12"

whence we

d find: d

= -{-12

50s

.

81

-I-

.

0517

,

36.66
and

0.6698^,

_ rf=H- 12m 49s. 80

=

19".

61.

339

The fundamental equations for eclipses and occul31. tations given in No. 29 and 30 serve also for calculating the time of their occurrence for any place. If we take for T
a certain time
eclipse,

of the

first

meridian near the middle of the
a?
,

and compute
[*o -i-

for this time the quantities
is:
a

?/

,

x\ y

and L, the fundamental equation for eclipses
*

T
.

-

|J

H-

[y

+y

T -ri*=L*
1

*),

where

are the co-ordinates of the place on the earth Therefore if we denote by at the time T-\- T the side
i]
()

and

real time corresponding to the time T, will be the -+- d local sidereal time of the place, for which we calculate the
eclipse,

and

if

we

denote by
6^

and
-+-d 05

v/

the values of

and

77

corresponding to the time
|

we

have:

=|

-+-

Q cos

y cosC^,
fp

- a -h

rf a )

T^
U
J.

Z"

rj

=

rj

Q -j-

Q cos

sin

(6> fl

Therefore taking now:

m sin

M= x

|

,

n sin

N=x
(>

cos

y cos(0
sin
y>

a-\-d

}

~r^r"~

m cosM=y

^

?

n

cosN=y
sin

g cos
sin

(<9

a-t-d

()

)

-,

-d
J.

sin

d

y

=

(J/

JV),

where L

denotes the value of

L

corresponding to the time T,

we

find:

T
where
ijj

=
n

cos

(M

N) =p

Z-n

cosw=tTd,
and
the lower for the

must be taken

in the first or fourth quadrant,

the upper sign is used for the beginning, end of the eclipse, or if we take:
cos

n cos

(M

N)
N} H-

-

cos

w

=T
mean time

n

n

(M

Ln

cos

w =T
is
:

the time of the beginning expressed in local

and the time of the end:

*)

For an occultation we have

L=k=

.

2725.

22

340

By

the

first

approximation

we

find the time of the eclipse

within a couple of minutes, therefore already sufficiently ac curate for the convenience of observers. But if we wish to
find
it

now T -h

more accurately, we must repeat the r and T -f- T instead of T.

calculation, using

It is also convenient to know the particular points on the limb of the sun (or the moon in case of an occupation), where the contacts take place. But if we substitute in

aV
for

t-ha?7"

and y Q

-r]+yT
cos w.

T

the value:
cos n

(M
jYsin

JV)

=p

n

we

find: x

=
=f=

[in

sin

Mcos NCOS
sin

y

m

cos

m

sin

M cos N N cos
m
sin

u>

== m cos

M cos N Nsin y M N N cos w]
sin

sin

sin

-

or:

(M
(N=f=

N}
y;)

= =p L
and likewise:
y
rj

sm y
sin

= =p L cos (N=f=
v)

y).

Hence we have
x
|

y

n

= =

for the beginning of the eclipse: L sin (N y/) L sin (2V+ 180 y)

Lcos (N

= = L cos (iV-h 180
-}- y;)

y),

and

for the end:

x

I
rj

^

= L (N = L cos (N-\- y).
sin

v

Sow we

have seen in No. 29 that

# and

;/

i/

are

the co-ordinates of a place on the earth situated in the en veloping surface of the cone and referred to a system of axes, in which the axis of z is the line joining the centres of the

two heavenly bodies, whilst the axis of x is parallel to the and y are the co-ordinates of that equator hence x point, which lies in the straight line drawn from the place
;

i]

on the earth to the point of contact of the two bodies, and

whose distance from the vertex of the cone

is equal to that of the latter point from the place on the surface of the earth.
-

Hence

-

L

and ^- - are the

L

sine

and cosine of the an^le,
circle

which the axis of y or the declination

passing through

341
the point Z*) makes with the line drawn from Z to the But since this point is always very near point of contact. the centre of the sun, we can assume without any appre
ciable error, that
--

and y
Lt
lj

n

are the sine and the cosine

the

of the angle, which the declination circle passing through centre of the sun makes with the line from the centre of the sun to the point of contact. Thus this angle is for the beginning of the eclipse or any phase of the eclipse:
AT-hlSO"

y

)

and

for the end:

AT -hy.
are as follows.

J

(A)

)

Therefore the formulae serving for calculating an eclipse first compute for the time T of the first

We

meridian to which the tables or ephemerides of the sun and the moon are referred (for which we take best a round hour
eclipse) the formulae (1), (2), (3), and (5) in No. 29 and the differential coefficients x and (4) y\ and then denoting by 6* the sidereal time corresponding to the mean time T and by d n the longitude of the place

near the middle of the

reckoned from the
east,

first

meridian and taken positive
:

when

we compute
|

the formulae
ff

=

()

cos

sin

(6>

-f-

d

a)
-f-

r io
So

Q [cos

d sin
y>

C [ sin d sin

y

-f-

d cos y cos (0 cos d cos cos (0
sin
<f

d
d

a)]
a)].

-f-

Computing then the formulae:
m sin

M=x
y

Q

1

,

n sin

N=x
(>

cosy cos (0 H-d
-|-e?

a)
dl,

*?>

ncosN=y

^cosy

sin(<9

a)

^

dt

J

sin

d

sin

y
r

=
^o

sin

(M

N)

(y;

always

<

== 90)

=
n

cos (J/

JV)

--

cos

n

v

r

=

- cos
n

(MN) +

n

cos y,

is that point, in which the axis of z or the line *) The point joining the centres of the two bodies intersects the sphere of the heavens.

Z

342

we
time

find
:

the time of the beginning expressed in local

mean

and the time of the end:

;= T+d
The

H-T

.

expressions (A) give then the particular points on the limb of the sun, where the contact takes place.
lows.

For calculating an occultation the formulae are as fol We compute again for the time T of the first meridian, which is near the middle of the occultation:
cos 3 sin (a

a

)

y

_ ~ sin S cos
by

cos S sin

~

cos (a

a)

Bin*

and the

differential coefficients

x and

y

.

Further we com

pute, denoting mean time T:
o
r]

the sidereal time corresponding to the

== C cos T sn

=

(>

[sin 90 cos

$

cos

90

sin

cos(<9

a -h

r/

)].

Then we compute:
m sin M=x Q
1
,

n sin

N=x

(>cos9p

cos(0
sin

+</

)

7

yQ

mcosM=y
where
:

??

,

ncosN=y

(>

cosy

(6>

-f-(/

a)

--

sin

,

log

-~
sin

=

9.

41016*)

sin

^

= -/J

,

y;<;==

and:
log
jfc

=

9.

43537
A:

--m
n
*)

cos

(M

f

N)

ATN

-n

COST/>=T

cos

(M

N) H--

cos

;

t^=T

taken as the unit of the differential coefficients, at 86 of sidereal is the change of the hour angle in one mean hour or in 3609 s time. If we multiply by 15 and divide by 206265 in order to express the

As one hour

is

.

differential coefficient in parts

of the radius,

we

find:

log

= 9. 41916.

343

Then

the immersion takes place at the local

mean

time:

t=T+
and the emersion
at the time:

The angle of

position of the particular point on the limb,
place,
is

where the immersion takes
whilst for the

found from
y

:

Q=r2V-M80 emersion we have
:

Example. If we wish to calculate the time of the be ginning and end of the eclipse of the sun in 1842 July 7 19 h Berlin mean time. For this for Pulkova, we take time we have according to No. 29:

T=

.r

a

= 0.44893, = 106 55
.

yn

8,

-f- 0.55718, / =4-0.58280, x d=-j-22 32 8, 2=0.53614, log A
.

=
1

= =

0.12133
7. 66262.

Then we have:
6>

=2
a

h
3"

8s

,

and since the difference of longitude between Pulkova and Berlin is equal to -f-l h 7 m 43 s we get:
-\-d

= 300
log

,

46

.

9,

and with
I

this:

=

0.43361,

?= + 0.69560,
cos

= 9.75470,

log

L

H

= 9.72716.
*)

Further we find:
^

cosy
cos

(0

+d

-a)
a)

pL = H- 0.06762
sin

-f at
hence:

=

/,

y

sin

(6>

+ d,

d

=

at

0.04352,

_ffli

= + 0.48956

and y

^=

0.07781.

*)

We

have:

^=
dt
or:

3609s. 86

=+

57147".

90;

Further we have:

=+
hence:

148"

.78

d(0
dt
the logarithm of which

a)

_ 56999 ^

12?
is

number expressed

in parts of the radius

9.41796.

344

Then we

get:

J/=18744
log

.

= 9.05628 = 12 19 v
m
,
.

1

JV=99"1 .9

log n

= 9.69522

hence:
T

= =

1.057
lh

T
.4

o

= 1.046 = -hlh2n.8,

therefore the

beginning and the end of the eclipse occur at

the times:

*=19h
These times

4m. 3

differ only 3 m from the true times. If we h h the calculation, using 7 and we should repeat , find the time still more accurately.

=18

T=20

The angle of position of the point on the limb of the sun, where the eclipse begins, is 267 and that of the point,
where
it

ends,

is

111

*).

32. Another method for finding the longitude is that lunar distances, and since this can be used at any time, by whenever the moon is above the horizon, it is one of the chief methods of finding the longitude at sea.

For this purpose the geocentric distances of the moon from the sun and the brightest planets and fixed stars are
first

given in the Nautical Almanacs for every third hour of a meridian. If now at any place the distance of the moon

from one of these stars or planets has been measured, it is freed from refraction and parallax, in order to get the true distance, which would have been observed at the centre of
the
If then the time of the first meridian, to which same computed distance belongs, is taken from the Al manac, this time compared with the local time of observation But since it is assumed gives the difference of longitude.

the earth.

here,

that

the

tables

of the
the

moon
same

give

its

method

does

not

afford

accuracy

true place, this as that ob

tained by corresponding observations of eclipses.
*)

Besides the
die

Compare on

the calculation of eclipses: Bessel,

Ueber

Berechnung

der Lange aus Stern bedeck nngen.
in

Astr. Nachr. No. 151 and

152, translated

the

Philosophical Magazine Vol. VIII
II pag.

and Bessel

s

Astronomische UnterEclipses.

suchungen Bd.

95

etc.

W.

S. B.

Woolhouse,

On

345
time of the beginning and end of an eclipse of the sun can be observed with greater accuracy than a lunar distance. In order to compute the refraction and the parallax of the two heavenly bodies, their altitudes must be known. There fore at sea, a little before and after the lunar distance has

been taken, the altitudes of both the moon and the star are taken, and since their change during a short time can be supposed to be proportional to the time, the apparent alti
tudes for the time of observation are easily found and from these the true altitudes are deduced.

A

greater accuracy

is

obtained by computing the true

two bodies. For this pur pose the longitude of the place, reckoned from the first me ridian, must be approximately known, and then for the approx
altitudes of the

and the apparent

imate time of the

first meridian, corresponding to the time of observation, the places of the moon and the other body are taken from the ephemerides. Then the true altitudes are computed by means of the formulae in No. 7 of the first

section,

and,

if

the

spheroidal

shape of the earth be taken

into account, also the azimuths.

The

then

computed by means of the formulae
the formulae used for the

parallax in altitude is in No. 3 of the

third section,

moon being

the

ri

gorous formulae: v
sin
/A

p

=
(>

sin

p

sin [z

(<p

y>

)

cos A]

cos
L\

p

=

I
(>

sin

p cos

[s

(<f>

y>")

cos A],

and

finally
is

for

the

altitudes

affected

with

parallax

the re

fraction

found with regard to the indications of the

me

But since the teorological instruments. affected with parallax and refraction,

apparent altitude, ought to be used for computing the refraction, this computation must be repeated. The distance of the centres of the two bodies is never
observed, but only the distance of their limbs. Hence we add or subtract from tfie observed distance the sum of the

to

apparent semi-diameters of the two bodies, accordingly as the contact of the limbs nearest each other or that of the other limbs has been observed. If r be the horizontal semi-diameter
of the moon, the semi-diameter affected with parallax will be
:

346
r

=

r [1

-}-/>

sin Aj,

where p
radius.

is

the horizontal parallax expressed in parts of the
since
refraction

Now
ter

diminishes the vertical semi -dia

meter of the

leaves the horizontal semi-diame unchanged, that in the direction of the measured distance will be the radius vector of an ellipse, whose major and mi nor axis are the horizontal and the vertical diameter. The
disc,
it

while

effect of refraction

by means of the formulae given
tion,

on the vertical diameter can be computed in VIII of the seventh sec

or

it

Nautical works.

can be taken from tables which are given in all If we denote by n the angle, Avhich the

through the centre of the moon makes with the direction towards the other body, by ti the altitude
vertical circle passing

we

of the latter and by have:

A

the distance between the

two bodies,

sin
sin TI

(A
sin

A)

cos

ti

A
A
sin h
,

and:
cos

n

=
4 (A

sin h sin

cos

A

cos h

hence:
,

__ cos ~

-h h
ti

+h

Then

if

we

A) s7nT(l4denote the vertical and the horizontal semi-

- K) cos i (h -hT

)

sin

(A H- A

h

}

diameter by b and a,
the ellipse:

we

find

by means of the equation of
b

I/ cos
r

7t

2

H

a2

sii

After the apparent distance of the centres of the bodies has thus been found, the true geocentric distance is obtained

by means of the apparent and true altitudes of the two bod ies. For if we denote by /T, h and A the apparent alti tudes and the apparent distance of the two bodies and by

E

the difference of their azimuths, we have in the triangle between the zenith and the apparent places of the two bodies: sin H sin h -+- cos H cos h cos E cos A 2 cos H cos h sin 4 E* h cos (H Likewise we have, denoting by #, h and A their true

= =

1

1

}

.

altitudes

and the true distance:

347
cos

A

= cos (//

=

:

sin

Hsin

h

-f-

cos

A)

2 cos

Hcos h cos E Hcos h sin
find
:

^

and

if

we
cos

eliminate 2 sin

2 we | E

A

= cos (Htake

A) -f-

f

cos

[cos

A

- cos

(JET

-h
,

)}

(a)

If

we

now:
cos If cos h
1
.v

cos // cos
>

h!

G
the altitude of the

1 we shall have always C except when moon is great and the other body is very If we then take:
,

near the horizon.

H
and take d and d

1

h

=d
d"

and

Hh =
=

d

(B)

positive, we can always put: cos A cos d . .; ,,, - cos A and cos c c

=

(C)

/^,N

because in case that

C<1,

both cos d and cos
d
cos d

A

are small.

Thus the equation
or
if

(a) is

transformed into:
A"

cos

A

cos

cos

we

introduce the sines

of half the

sum and
sin

half the
A")

difference of the angles

and write instead of
,,
)

(A

the

arc

itself:
sii

If

we

take here at

first sin |

(A -h

A")

instead of sin|(A-hA")

and put:

we

obtain:
A=A"H-ar,

(E)

only approximately true, but in most cases accurate. If A should differ considerably from A ? sufficiently we must repeat the computation and find a new value of x
a value which
is

by means of the formula:

We

have assumed here that the angle
is

E

as seen

from

the centre of the earth
the surface.

But we

the same as seen from a place on have found in No. 3 of the third section,

*) Bremicker, iiber die Reduction der Monddistanzen. Nachrichten No. 716.

Astronomische

348
that parallax changes also the azimuth of the moon and that, if we denote by A and // the true azimuth and altitude, we

have to add to the geocentric azimuth the angle:
AA
in

=

o sin p
-f-

-

(cp

OP )

sin

A

cos

a

face

order to find the azimuth as seen from a place on the sur of the earth. Therefore in the formula for cos A we

ought to use cos (E
or

A ^4)
cos

instead

of cos

E

= cos (A

0),

we ought

to

add
dA

to /\ the correction:

=
o sin

Hcos h sin {A sm A
OP )

a)

dA
(A
a)

or:

a

=

p

(OP

cos h sin

^

sin

sm A
at

:

7

23 h 8 m 45 s apparent time the distance of the nearest limbs of the sun and the moon

Example.

In 1831 June 2

a^ a place, whose north lati was observed A 96 47 tude was 19 3V, while the longitude from Greenwich was estimated at 8 h 50 m The height of the barometer was 29 6
10"
.

=

.

English inches, height of the interior thermometer 88 that of the exterior 90 Fahrenheit. Fahrenheit, According to the Nautical Almanac the places of the
the

sun and the moon were as follows:
Greenwich m.
t.

right asc. ((

decl. ([

parallax

June 2

12 h
IS"

336
337

6

24".

7

10

50
41

58".

56

44".

38

4.7
.
.

48.4
.

45 .9
47
.

14h
15^

9 45

32 35
23 17

9 9

41 27

.

9

49

.

right asc.

decl.
23".

June 2

12>

70

5

2

-f-

22

11

48".

9

13 h
14"

7 56 .9

12

8 .4

10
13

30.5
4
.

12 27 .9
12 47 .3

15 h

1

The time
right asc.
decl.

of observation corresponds to 14 h 18 m 45 s
this time
19
39".

Green
5

wich time and for

we

have:

d

=

337
10

6

right asc.
decl.

=

70

IV

18".

(C=
this

2941.3
56 48 .5

p=
we

=H-22 1233.9 TT= 5.
8".

From moon and

find the true altitude and azimuth of the

the sun for the hour angles:

+

80"

2

,56".

8

349
and:

- 12
H== 5 A = -h
The
parallax
41
58".

48

45".

4

76

43 6
.

= 77 43 a= 75 4
h

0:

56".7

.

4.

of the

moon computed by means
p
.-

of the

rigorous formula:
.

tang/;
is //

==
1

sin

sin [z -

>

(a>

n sin

= 56

p cos

r

[z

f ((p

)

cos A]

^
(f )

cos A\

n

35".4,

is

4 45
(>

23".

0.

hence the apparent altitude // of the moon In order to find the refraction, we first find
,

the

we repeat it, and applying it to H computation of the refraction with regard to the indi cations of the meteorological instruments. We then find 9 2 and hence the apparent altitude affected with re p
an approximate value for

=

3".

fraction

:

# = 4 054
the sun

96".

2.

For

we

find in the
A

= 77
/= 15

same way:
6".

44

5.

tiplying the horizontal parallax

Further we find the semi-diameter of the moon by mul by 0.2725 and obtain:
28".

8

and from
parallax:

this

the

apparent semi -diameter, as increased by

The

refraction,

moon

in

by the and the angle n being 5 48 the radius of the the direction towards the sun is
26".
,
:

vertical semi -diameter is diminished

r

=15

4".6,

and since the semi -diameter of the sun was 15 the 47".0, apparent distance of the centres of the sun and the moon is: 97 18 A 6. Further we find by means of the formulae (4), (#) and (0)

=

1".

:

log

C= 0.000463
J=72

of

d"

= 72 = 12

1

5S"

49 40 50 48
17 33

A"

=97

and at last, computing x twice by means of the formulae (#) and (E), we find the true distance of the centres of the sun and the moon:

A

= 96

30

39".

350
according to the Almanac the true dis tance of the centres of the bodies for Greenwich apparent
find

Now we

time from the following table:
12h
13h

97 96

43

0".

4
5 5

13 4

.

14 h
15^
,

43 6

.

13 6 .2,
39"

whence we see that the distance 96 30 corresponds to m h the Greenwich apparent time 14 24 55 2, and since the m h time of observation was 23 8 45 .O, the longitude of the
s
.

s

place

is:

gh

43111

498

.

8 east of Greenwich.

The longitude which we find here is so nearly equal to which we made in that, which was assumed, that the error moon can only be small. computing the place of the sun and If the difference had been considerable, it would have been
the places of the necessary to repeat the calculation with h m 55 s Greenwich time. sun and moon, interpolated for 14 24

Bessel has given in the Astronomische Nachrichten No. 220 another method *), by which the longitude can be found with

But the method given great accuracy by lunar distances. a similar one is always used at sea, and on land above or better methods can be employed for finding the longitude.

An excellent way of finding the longitude is that 33. On account of the rapid motion of lunar culminations. by the moon the sidereal time at the time of its culmination is
very different for different places.

Hence

if it is

known, how
in a certain

much

the

right ascension of the

moon changes

the dif time, the longitude can be determined by observing times at the time of culmination of ference of the sidereal

the moon.

Since these observations are

made on

the

me

ridian, neither the parallax nor the refraction will influence on the result. In order to render it also independ ent of the errors of the instruments, the time of culmination

have any

of the

moon

itself is

not observed at the two stations, but

rather the

interval

of time between the time of culmination

of the

moon and

that of

some
is

fixed stars near her parallel.

*)

The example given above

taken from this paper.

351

A

list of such stars is always published in the astronomical almanacs, in order that the observers may select the same

stars.

The method was proposed already in the last century by Pigott, but was formerly not much used, because the art
of observing had not reached that high degree of accuracy which is required for obtaining a good result. Let a be the right ascension of the moon for the time T of a certain
for the
first

meridian, and the differential coefficients

same time be

^,

*,

etc,

We

will

then suppose,
first

that
is

at

d,

a place whose longitude east of the the time of culmination of the moon

meridian

was observed

at the local time

T-M-t-d?, corresponding to the time T-\-t

of the

first

meridian.

Then
,
<*

the right ascension of the
d2 a
clr
,- 2

moon

at this time is:

da
HIf likewise
at
*

tS-H- T dt

+

;

t*

-n dt*

d3 a

-*-..

another place, whose longitude east from eT, the time of culmination of the moon was observed at the time T -+- t , corresponding to the time T -f - 1 of the first meridian , the right ascension of the moon for this time is:
the
first

meridian

is

-+-</

made on the meridian, the sidereal times of observation are equal to the true right ascensions of the moon. If we assume, that the tables, from which the values of a and the differential coefficients have
since these observations are

Now

,

been taken, give the right ascension of the moon too small by A ? and if we put:

we have

the following equations
dt

hence

:

352

and since we have
d
it

also

:

d=(&

0}

(t

0,

(6)

t by means of the equation (a). only necessary to find t In order to do this, we will introduce instead of T the arith

is

metical

mean

of the times

T-M

and T-\-t\ that

is,

the time

j-l-i (_!_

wr ite

T

we ) which and \(f
if

will

denote by
f)

T

.

Then we must

T -\-\(t
7",

in

place of

T-M

and
etc.

T-i-t\ and

we assume,

that the values of

and of

y

belong

now

also to the time

we have

the equations:

and hence:
a -*= -O^+^C -^ ^.
(/
.

1

, c?

3

From
neglect

if at first we the last equation we can find t , term of the second member and afterwards the second
t

substitute this approximate value of

t

in that term.

Thus

we

find:

- =

.

[0
L
dt

@Y
J

d*
-d

da
dt

"

\~da-

If the difference of longitude does not exceed two hours, the last term is always so small, that is may safely be ne

The solution of the problem is again an indirect glected. the longitude ap one, since it is necessary to know already
the time T proximately in order to determine For the practical application it is necessary to add a few remarks. is ex are given in sidereal time, h and If t Thus in order to find also t in sidereal seconds. pressed in seconds, the same unit must be adopted for expressed
.

&

6>

d

"

dt

c a or L must be equal to the change of right ascension in dt

one second of time.

Therefore

if

we denote by

h the change

of the right ascension expressed in arc in one hour sidereal time, we have: da h_

~

dt

f5

3600

353

Now

in the

given for sidereal time but for

ephemerides the places of the mean time, and

them the change of the right ascension of the hour of mean time. But since 366.24220 sidereal days are equal to 365.24220 mean days or since we have: one sidereal da} =0.9972693 of a mean day
7

moon are not we take from moon in one

we

denotes the change of right ascension expressed find, in time in one hour of mean time:
if ti

da
r/7
i

=

0. 9972693
""

,

/i

3600

,_

15x3600
"0.9972693

&& ~
"~

A

or from the equation (6):
.

_/

(/>

*\(\\

l? x

?69()_
1

\

0. 9972693 A /

Now
in this

greater than

the second term within the parenthesis is always 1 , and hence it is better to write the equation

way:
,/

- =
<i>

(0>

- 0}

(5

_L_^__

_
!)

,

(e)

and the second place, at which the moon was observed at $ is west from the other place, if & is pos and east, if & is negative. itive,
the time
,

Now

the time of culmination of the

moon
;

s

centre can

not be observed, but only that of one limb hence the latter must be reduced to the time, at which the culmination of the centre would have been observed. In the seventh section
the

the rigorous methods for reducing meridian observations of moon will be given, but for the present purpose the fol call the first limb the one lowing will be sufficient.

We

whose

right

ascension

is

less

than that of the centre, the

second limb the one, whose right ascension is greater. Hence if the first is observed, we must add a correction in order to find the time of culmination of the centre, and subtract a
is

observed, and this correction s semi -diameter passing over the meridian, which according to No. 28 of the first
is

correction, if the second limb equal to the time of the

moon

section

is

equal to

~
15

7?

1

-=

-.

;

cos o

1

/

,

where
(<f).

/I

is

equal to the value
if ft

of

as

given by the formula

Therefore

and

ft

354
denote the times at which the
the meridian of the

moon s limb was observed on two places, we have:
R> ..

- *
cos dJ
h
1

-

.

,

cosd

A

0.9972693

~3600
and hence we
find

from formula

(e)

:

where

ft

moon expressed

denotes the change of the right ascension of the in time during one hour of mean time and
if

where the upper sign must be used,

the

first

limb

is

ob

served, whilst the lower one corresponds to the second limb. If the instrument, by which the transit is observed at

one place, is not exactly in the plane of the meridian of the ob place, then the hour angle of the moon at the time of servation is not equal to zero, and if we denote it by s, the
difference of longitude

which we
/

find,

must be erroneous by
\
/

the quantity:

15X3600
is

S

_

VO. 9972693 h

not perfectly adjusted, the found by this method, can be considerably wrong. longitude But any error arising from this cause is at least not increased,

Therefore

if

the instrument

if

the differences

of right ascension of the

moon and

stars

on the same parallel be observed at both places, since these are free from any error of the instruments. Nevertheless since
the
right ascension of the
its hour angle a place, whose difference of longitude from that place is equal to 5, we find of course the difference of longitude between Therefore we the two places wrong by the same quantity.

when

moon was observed at one place was s, or when it was culminating at

the hour angle s, if the meridian of the inO between the meridians of the two places, and subtract s from the difference of longitude, if the meridian of the instrument corresponds to that of a place which is far ther from the other place *). How the hour angle s is found
to
it
,

must add
strument

lies

*)

We

can add also to the observed difference of right ascension of the
*

moon and

the star the quantity =*=

355
from the errors of the instrument,
of the seventh section.
will

be shown in No. 18
use the same

In order that the observers

may always

comparison stars, a
minating stars
is

of stars under the heading moon-cul annually published in the Nautical Almanac
list

and copied
it

in all other

Almanacs,

for every day,

on which

is

possible to observe the

moon on

the meridian.

Example.

In 1848 July 13 the following clock-times of

the transit of the

moon and
*)
rj
:

the moon-culminating stars were
17
1

observed at Bilk

Ophiuchi
s

l"52s.64

Q Ophiuchi

12

6 .59

moon
1

centre

27
18

34
52

.

60
99
12.

/t

Sagittarii

4
18

.

I Sagittarii

48

.

On
at

the

same day the following
r]

transits

were observed

Hamburg:

Ophiuchi
I.

$ Ophiuchi
([
1

ft

Sagittarii

I Sagittarii

= = Limb = = =
the
2".

17 h

1>"

42
56

.

61

11

.

91

25
18

4
18

50 43
38

.

43
53
56,

.

.

The semi -diameter of
nation at

moon

for the time of culmi
.

18 10 1, 10, the declination Hamburg was 15 and the variation of the right ascension in one hour of mean time equal to 129 8, hence A 0.03596. We find therefore
s
.

=

:

TVvT (1

?;, = A)cosd
differences

65".

66,
s

hence the time of culmination of the moon

centre

:

Then we
stars

find

the
s

of right ascension of the
for

and the moon
ri

centre:
Hamburg:
14
41*. 96

for Bilk:

Ophiuchi

4-25
-f-

-{-f-

25 ra 13^. 48
59
.

Q Ophiuchi

15

28

.

01

18

^
at

Sagittarii

-37
51

18 .39
13 .52

-37
51

I Sagittarii

47 .44 42 .47,
at Bilk

hence the differences of the times of culmination

and

Hamburg
*)

are:

Compare No. 21 of

the seventh section.

23

356

0=

-}-28.48
28 .83 29 .05

28^95_
mean
-f-

28

.

83.

Now we

have found in No. 15 of the introduction the

following values of the motion of the Berlin time: lOb 4- 2 m 9 77
.

moon

in

one hour for

11"

2

9 .91

12

2 10 .05,

and since the time of observation
about 10 30
h
111

at

Bilk

Berlin time, that at

Hamburg

corresponds to to about ID 16 ,
1

111

we have:
T
hence
:

= 10

1

23 m

/i

= 2n9s.S2
(e)
:

and we obtain by means of the formula

*)

Since h
is

is

about 30

,

the value

of the coefficient of

#

#

in the

about 29, hence the errors of observation have a great in s & pro 1 in & fluence on the difference of longitude, since an error of duces ah error of 3 s in the longitude.
equation (A)
.

SIXTH SECTION.
ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE DIMENSIONS OF THE EARTH AND THE HORIZONTAL PARALLAXES OF THE HEAVENLY
BODIES. In the former section we have frequently made use of the dimensions of the earth and the angles subtended at the heavenly bodies by the semi-diameter of the earth or their ho
rizontal parallaxes, and we must show now, by the values of these constants are determined.
rizontal

what methods Only the ho
directly

of planets and comets by from the earth, the semi-major axis of the earth s orbit being the unit of distance, are derived from the theory of their
orbits,

parallax of the sun and the observations, since the distances

moon

is

found

which they describe round the sun according to Kep
Therefore in order to obtain the horizontal par ho

ler s laws.

allaxes of those bodies, it is only necessary to know the rizontal parallax of the sun or of one of these planets.

I.

DETERMINATION OF THE FIGURE AND THE DIMENSIONS OF

THE EARTH.
1.

The

figure

of the earth

is

according to theory as

well as actual measurements and observations that of an ob
late spheroid, that is,

of a spheroid generated by the revo
axis.
It
is

lution
this

of an

ellipse

round the conjugate

true,

would be

a fluid mass, curved surface which comes nearest to the true figure of the surface of the earth.

true only in case that the earth were but the surface of an oblate spheroid is that
strictly

358

The dimensions

of this spheroid are found by measuring

the length of a degree, that is, by measuring the linear di mension of an arc of a meridian between two stations by

geodetical operations

and obtaining the number of degrees

corresponding to it by observing the latitudes of the two sta tions. Eratosthenes (about 300 b. Ch.) made use already of
this

method, in order to determine the length of the circum ference of the earth which he supposed to be of a spherical form. He found that the cities of Alexandria and Syene in Egypt were on the same meridian. Further he knew that

on the day of the summer

solstice the

sun passed through

the zenith of Syene, since no shadows were observed at noon on that day, whence he knew the latitude of that place. He

observed then at Alexandria the meridian zenith distance of
the sun on the day of the solstice and found it equal to 7 12 Hence the arc of the meridian between Syene and Alexan
dria
.

must be

7

12

or

equal to the

fiftieth

part of the cir

Thus, since the distance between the two places was known to him, he could find the length of the entire
cumference.

But the result, obtained by him, was very from several causes. First the two places are not on wrong the same meridian, their difference of longitude being about
circumference.
3 degrees; further the latitude of Syene according to recent determinations is 24 8 , whilst the obliquity of the ecliptic at the time of Eratosthenes was equal to 23 44 , and lastly the
latitude of Alexandria

and the distance between the two pla was likewise wrong. But Eratosthenes has the merit of having first attempted this determination and by a method, which even now is used for this purpose. Since Newton had proved by theoretical demonstrations,
ces
that

the

earth

is

not a sphere but a spheroid,
at

it

is

not

one place on the surface in order to find the dimensions of the earth, but two such de it is necessary for this purpose to combine
sufficient to

measure the length of a degree

terminations

made

at

two

distant places

so as to

determine

the transverse as well as the conjugate axis of the spheroid. In No. 2 of the third section we found the following

expressions for the

referred to a system of axes

co-ordinates of a point on the surface, in the plane of the meridian,

359
the origin of the co-ordinates being at the centre of the earth and the axis of x being parallel to the equator:

~
V\

a cos

cp

_ ~
where a and
e

denote the semi -transverse axis and the ex(p

and centricity of the ellipse of the meridian, of the place on the surface.

is

the latitude

Furthermore the radius of curvature for a point of the is: ellipse, whose abscissa is #,

_ (a
where
for

2

2

xrf

~^b~
we
substitute

b denotes the semi-conjugate axis, or if

x

the expression given before:

(1

Therefore
expressed
in

if

G

is

some

linear

the length of one degree of a meridian measure and cp is the latitude of

the middle of the degree,

we

have:
e *)

G = - 7ia(l180(1
e
2

r

,

sin

y

2

75

)

where n

is

the

number 3.1415927.

If

now

the length of
(p

another degree, corresponding to the latitude

has been

measured, so that:

180(1

we

obtain the
:

excentricity

of the

ellipse

by means of the

equation

and when this is known, the semi -transverse axis can be found by either of the equations for G or G
.

Example.
that

The

distance of the parallel of Tarqui from

of Cotchesqui in Peru

was measured by Bouguer and

360

The
and

Condamine and was found to be equal to 176875.5 toises. latitudes of the two places were observed as follows:

-3
-I-

4
2

32".

068
387.

31".

Furthermore Swanberg determined the distance of the parallels of Malorn and Pahtawara in Lappland and found it to be equal to 92777.981 toises, the latitudes of the two
places being:
65
31
8
30".

265

and
67
49".

830.

From
a degree:

the observations in Peru

we

obtain the length of

G = 56734. 01
y

toises,

corresponding to the latitude

=

131

0".34,

and from the observations in Lappland we get:
y/

= 6620 = 57196.15
a

10".05:

toises.

By means

of the formulae given above

we

find

from

this

:

2=0.0064351

= 327 1651

toises,

and since the

ellipticity of the earth

a

is

equal to

1

j/i_ f 2,

we

obtain:
a

=
310^9

<

In this way the length of a degree has been measured with the greatest accuracy at different places. But since the combination of any two of them gives different values for
the dimensions
servation

of the earth on account of the errors of and especially on account of the deviations of actual shape of the earth from that of a true spheroid, osculating spheroid must be found, which corresponds

ob
the

an
as

nearly as possible to the values of the length of a degree as measured at all the different places.

The length s of an arc of a curve 2. of the formula:
l

is

found by means

dy -~-Si<

dx

2 -

-

dx

,

-

361
If we differentiate the expressions of x and ?/, given in and substitute the values the preceding No. with respect to of dx and dy in the formula for s. we find the expression
<p

for the

length of an arc of a meridian, extending from the

equator to the place
s

whose
t

latitude is

cf

i

= a(\

But we have:

and

if

we

sines of the multiples of

introduce instead of the powers of sin (f the co and integrate the terms by means (f

of the formula:

we

obtain:
s

/I
cos

kx dx

=

-z- sin

hx

A

=

2

(1

)

E

sin
[y>

2y>

-f- /? sin

4
q>

etc.],

where

:

If

we

take here

^

= 180,
=
(1

we
2

obtain, denoting

by g the

average length of a degree: 180^ and hence:
,y

)/i\7r,

==.
[y,

a

sin 2

cp -f- {3

sin

4

cp

.

.

.]

Therefore the distance of two parallels whose latitudes
are
(f

and
<^

;

,

is
-

:

ft

.9

=

-

-

[y

cp

2 a sin (y

(f)

cos (y

-f-

y)

+2
or

/?

sin 2
<>

y) cos 2

fy>

+

y)],

denoting

r//

y by
also

latitudes

by L, 206264.8 by
3600
,
,

and the arithmetical mean of the expressing / in seconds and denoting
/

?,

we

find:
2
?y

(s

,v)

=
s

/

a sin

/

cos 2 Z/ +- 2 ?t?/9 sin 2
/

/

cos 4

j&.

If

we

substitute here for
s

the difference of the observed

latitudes

and for

the measured length

of the arc of

362
the meridian, this equation would be satisfied only in case that we substitute for g and e and hence for y , a and ft some certain values. But if we substitute the values, de

duced from the observations

at all different places,

we can

satisfy these equations only by applying small corrections to If we write thus the observed latitudes. -+- x and cp -t-x
cp

instead

and ^ where x and x are small quantities whose squares and products can be neglected, we obtain,
of y
,

neglecting also the influence of these corrections upon
r>roo

L

:

(*

s)

=

I

2 w a sin

/

cos 2

L

-f-

2

w8

sin 2

1

cos 4

L

-+-

(x

x) o,

9

where

:

o

=
<7

1

2

-cos

I

cos 2

L -h 4 /? cos

2

I

cos 4 L.

Hence we have:
x x

=

(

----

V

(s

s)

(l

2 iva sin

I

cos 2

L

-j- 2?/;/3

sin 2

/

cos 4

LY\
/

.

and a similar equation is obtained from every determination of of two places and of the length of the arc of Therefore if the num the meridian between their parallels.
the latitudes

ber of these equations is greater than that of the unknown quantities, we must determine the values of g and s so that x etc. is the sum of the squares of the residual errors x
a

minimum. If we take g and take g and
:

ti

and

as

approximate values of

y

=

.

and

=

(I -f-

fc)

we
and
x

find,
k:

if

we
*

neglect the

squares and the products of

i

-x=
H----$
1

360
3600
go

- - A + 2?0
)

[

sin

/cos 2

L

<//?

sin 2 /cos

4

,

,

(

s)

i

H-------C

2w

r [

sin

I

cos 2

L

sm
o

2

I

cos

4LJ

fc.

Here /? denotes the value of /? corresponding to but in order to get this as well as the differential coefficient
,

dn

,

,

we must

first

express
*

ft

as a function of a.

Now we

find:

1^ + 15 ^ 32
8

h

525 1024

e

+ ^

363

and likewise:

If

we

reverse the series for a
f
2

we
3

find:

=

a

-

2

+4

ft:

and

if

we

introduce this in the expression for

hence

:

da

6

27

Therefore
n

if
,

we
s)

put:
\
I
) /

=
H

1

/3GOO
I
(6-

O \

gr

t

ao

si n I

cos 2

^
a

2

f

^n

"o

H~ in a a o 4
(

)

sin

2

/

cos 4 L]

=
L

1

3600

and:
6

=2

iv

sm

/ 5
I
-

/

cos 2

a n * -f-^,

, 4

,

.

n

sin 2 /cos

4

we

obtain the equation:
x x
is

=n

-+-

ai

+

b &,

()

set of observations equation for measuring a degree by combining the station which is farthest south with one farther north.

and a

similar

found from a

If

we

treat these equations

least squares, the equations for the
#,
i

according to the method of minimum with respect to

and k are for
all

this set of observations, if

u

is

the

num

ber of

observed latitudes:

px+ [a] z+
[a]
[b]

[b] k-+- [n]

x -h x

+
re,

[a a] i-{-[a b] k -f- [a n]
[a b]
i

+

[6 b]

k H-

[b n]

= =

=0
0,

and

if

we

eliminate
i

probable values of

= [on,]

each set of observations gives the most and k by means of the equations:
-4-

[aa,] i-f-[a&,]fc
l ]Jfc.

*[*,] 4- [aft i] e-f-[66 Therefore if we add the different quantities [Wj] which we obtain from different sets of observations made in dif ferent localities and designate the sum by (an^, likewise

364
the

sum
:

of

all

quantities

[aaj by (aa^
-f-

etc.,

we h nd

the

equations

= (an,)

(aa.)

z

4-

(a

M

&

from which we derive the most probable values of i and k according to all observations made in different localities. As an example we choose the following observations:
1)
Latitude

Peruvian
/

arc.

Tarqui
Cotchesqui

-3

4

32".

068
387
3
7
3".

+0

Distance of the parallels

2 31

45

176875.5

toises

2) East Indian arc. Trivandeporum 4-11 44 52". 59 Paudru 13 19 49 .02 1 34 56. 43

89813.010.

Trims
Konigsberg

54
54 55

13

11".

3) Prussian arc. 47
29
1
39".

4250.50
43 40
.

03
98

28211.629
86176.975.

Memel

45

30 28

.

4)
Malorn
Pahtawara
65
67
31
30".

Swedish
265
1

arc.

8 49 .830

37

19".

56

92777.981.

Taking now:
57008
i

4- k

we

find:

2

3
-f1

log[yo
2

log[|o
If further

H-

= 39794 = 4.41567 Q go ] = 71670.
log
7.
4

4.

-^-

<V>]

we

put:
10000
10

i=y
k

=

z,

we

obtain the following equations for the four arcs:
1)

x x x
"

}

Xl

=

4-1".
.

97 4- 1.1225^4- 5.6059 z 94 4- 0.5697 y 4- 2.5835 37 4- 0.1779 y 0.2852
z

2)

x\
3

^2

=4-0

3)

x3
X3

=

Q

.

z z

3

== 4- 3

.

4)

.r 4

xi

=

79 4- 0.5433^ .51 0.5839^

0.9157
1.971 1

+

365

and from these we

find:

Hence

the

= + 2.3956 + 1162^+ 3.0471s = + 5.2413 + 3.0471 y + 21.4315
1.

two equations by which y and
2,

z are found,

and we

find:
2

#

= + 0.099012 = 2.4165,
0.0099012:

hence

:

=

0.00024165 and k

therefore
57008
1

--

0.00024165

= 57021.79
0.002524753.

and

:

1

+ 0.0099012
before:
32
=T"-T"

Now
we
find:

since

we had
I

H- 4

0.006710073,

and the

ellipticity of the earth

-

-

366

Moreover we have:
log

= log

I/I

-

"

1
"e

= 9.9985380,

and since we had:
180$r
(1

e^En

we

find:
log

and:
log b

= 6.5147884, = 0.5133264.
the dimensions of the

In this

way Bessel*) determined

earth from 10 arcs, and found the values, which were given before in No. 1 of the third section:
the ellipticity

a

= ^axis

the serai-transverse the semi -conjugate

axis a

= 3272077. 14 = 3261139.33 = 6.5148235 log a = 6.5133693. log
fi

^

toises

b

II.

DETERMINATION OF THE HORIZONTAL PARALLAXES OF THE

HEAVENLY BODIES.
3.

If

we observe

the place of a heavenly body,
is

whose

distance from the earth

on the
or
its

not infinitely great, at two places surface of the earth, we can determine its parallax

of the earth as unit.

we

expressed in terms of the equatoreal radius Since the length of the latter is known, can find then the distance of the body expressed in terms
distance

of any linear measure.
will suppose, that the two stations are on the same meridian and on opposite sides of the equator, and that the zenith distance of the body at the culmination is observed

We

the parallax in altitude will be for one place according to No. 3 of the third section:
at

both stations.

Then

y )], the horizontal parallax, z the observed zenith dis tance cleared from refraction, (f the latitude,, (p the geocen/>

sin

==(>

sin

p

sin [z

(y>

where p

is

*) In

Schumacher s Astronomische Nachrichten No. 333 and 438.

367
trie latitude

and
(>

the distance of the place from the centre
1

of the earth.

Hence we have:
_ __ $
sin [z
sin
(y>

y )]

sin

p
if
cp

p

We
and
centre
:

have also,
(>j

is

the geocentric latitude

the latitude of the other place, and the distance from the

sin

/7

sin/,

consider the two triangles which are formed .the place of the heavenly body, the centre of the earth by and the two stations, the angle at the body in one of the
If

we now

triangles

(p,

that at the place of observation 180 and the angle at the centre (p =^= where
is

p

,

z -\<p
r>

is

<?,

the

geocentric declination of the body and where the upper or the lower sign must be used, if the heavenly body and the place of observation are on the same side of the equator or

on
180

different

sides.

The
cp\

z l -j- (fi

and

angles in the other triangle are =t= 8. have therefore:
<p\

p 19

We

and:
>

p

+ p t=g + -V-Vi>

~

l

Therefore
TT,

if

we denote
(y_-^J>

the

known

quantity p

-f-

p\ by

we have
>

the equation:
(i

sin [z

)]

_
9?

(>i

sin[g,
sin (TT

(y,
jo )

y

,)]

sin

p
(>

whence
lg

follows:
,

P

_
$
,

sin TT sin [2
,

(90

90 )]

sin [2

,

(99,

)]

H(>

cos

n

sin [s

(y

9? )]

or

:

__ tang y

_
(>

gi sin7Tsin[.g,
(<p
<f>

(y,

y
,

,)]
(9?
,

sin [2

)]

-+-

$

|

cos

n

sin [z

9?

,

)]

When
equations,

either

p or p\ has been found by means of these
p either from:
sm ;?

we

find

=
^

sm

7

-- --7
sin

-

[z

(y
r

9? )]
)

or from:
It

sin

p

=
>,

-i3ini

sin [2,

(95,

y>

,)

was assumed, that the two places are on opposite sides of the equator, a case, which is the most desirable for determining the parallax. But if the two places are on the

368
side of the equator, the angles at the centre of the earth in the triangles used before are different, namely =p$ If we put in in one triangle and (f\ =p t) in the other. this case:
</

same

TV

=

]>

,

V

.c
,

-

(y,

<p),

p or p\ from the same equations as before. If the two places are not situated on the same meridian, the two observations will not be simultaneous, and hence the
find

we

change of the declination in the interval O taken into account.
In this

of time must

be

way

the parallaxes of the

moon and

of

Mars were

For this purpose determined in the year 1751 and 1752. Lacaille observed at the Cape of Good Hope the zenith dis
tance of these bodies at their culmination, while correspond ing observations were made by Cassini at Paris, Lalande at
Berlin, Zanotti at Bologna and Bradley at Greenwich. These The greatest difference places are very favorably situated. in latitude is that between Berlin and the Cape of Good
"

Hope, being 8G|, whilst the greatest difference in longitude is that of the Cape and Greenwich, being equal to 1~ hour, a time, for which the change of the declination of the moon
can be accurately taken into account.

By
at its

these observations the horizontal parallax of the

moon
5".

A
57

mean distance from the earth was found equal to 57 new discussion of these observations was made by Olufsen,
ellipticity

who, taking the
2".

64,

while the

found of the earth equal to 302 Q^ ellipticity given in the preceding No.,
2".

would give the value 57 80 *). Latterly in 1832 and 1833 Henderson observed at the Cape of Good Hope also the meridian zenith distances of the moon, from which in con nection with simultaneous observations made at Greenwich
he found for the mean parallax the value 57 8**)value adopted in Burkhardt s Tables of the Moon is 57
1".

Tne
0".

52,

while that in Hansen

s

is

56

59".

59.

The problem
above in
*)
**)

its

the parallax was represented but in the case of the moon it simplest form,

of finding

Astron. Nachrichten No. 326.

Astron. Nachrichten No. 338.

369
is

not quite as simple, since only one limb of the moon can be observed, and hence it is necessary to know the apparent

semi-diameter, which itself depends upon the parallax. If r and r denote the geocentric and the apparent semidiameter, A and A the distances from the centre of the earth

and from the place of observation, we have: sin r A sin r A Further in the triangle between the centre of the earth, that of the moon and the place of observation, we have sin (180 z ) A A sin(z -X) where z is the angle, which the line drawn from the place
:
"

of observation

to

the

centre

of the

moon makes

with the

radius of the earth produced through the place, and since:
z

= z-(y-rt*S

where the observed zenith distance of the moon s limb and where the upper sign corresponds to the upper limb, we
z
is

have

:

_A

=

Sin [z sin [z

A
If

(yy ^p

(y

y ) ==

/]
r
]

=fe=

we introduce
1

this expression in the equation for

sin r

sinr

and eliminate p by means of the equation:
sin

p

=

(}

sin

p

sin [z

(tp

y ) ==

r

]

,

we
(ff

obtain,
<^

writing for the sake of brevity z instead of z

)

sin r

=

and taking Q
sin r -f- sin r sin

=

1

:

p cos (z

==

?

) -f-

\

sin r sin

p

2

sin (2

=t

r )

2
,

or neglecting terms of the third order: r r -f- sin r sin p cos (z == r) -f- { sin r sin

=

2
/>

sin (z

==

2

r)

.

the geocentric zenith distance Z of the pressed by the zenith distance z of the limb, is:
r =t= ^ = z __ r
,
i

Now

moon, ex

sin

p Bin

/

(z

==
r

;\

sin

3

r )

sin (2=t=r )

3
,

6

or

if

we substitute for r its expression found before: 2 Z = z =t= r == sin r sin/) cos (2 =t= r) dt= sin r sin (2 == ?)
4sin/>

sin

p

sin (a

... ==

r)

sin n 3 sin (2 -

==r)

3

If we develop this equation and again neglect the terms of a higher order than the third, we find:

370

Z = z == r

sin r

2

sin

p

sin z
sin.

==

4-

sin r sin
y>

2

sin z

2 3

sm p
or introducing
sin
1

cos r

z -+-

*

sin

p

sin r

sin z

sin/;

3 sin z
,

| sin

r

2

instead

of cos r
2

and replacing
2 2
sin/>

p by

y sin

p

:

Z=z^=i

Q sin/? sin z

I Q sin;) sin z sin r
3
(>

=i=

7}

sin r sin 2

2

^>

sinp

3

sin z

3

"T"

and

finally, if

we

take:
sin r

=k

sin

p
3

,

and hence:
/

=k

and introduce again

z

p -+- A: sin yr A in place of a,
sin
-jt

3

where

A

=^
-i)

</>

,

we

have:

Z=z
If

a
is

sm P

[f,

sin

(s

-

A)

=F

A;]

6

fe sin (2

=F

3

*]

.

D=

the
(f

the geocentric declination of the moon s centre, observed declination of the limb, we have also, since

D

Xand

d

=
{>

<f

(z
A) =j=
fc]

A)

:

I)

=

<?

4-

sin

p

[o sin (s

+ ~^^to

[Q sin (s

3

A) =f= ^]

.

The
earth
,

quantities
it

and
is

A

depend on the

ellipticity

of the

moon
other

find the parallax of the desirable, in such a wr ay, that it can be easily corrected for any

and since

value of the

ellipticity,

we must transform
But according

the
to

ex

pression given above accordingly. of the third section we have:

No. 2

-

r
a2

sin 2

y

+ v
.

.

gf

If

we

introduce here the
a

ellipticity,

making use of the

equation:

and neglect

all

terms of the order of m a sin 2 K
1

2
,

we

find:

(fi

= =
cos
2
9P 2

<p.

Moreover we had:
,

__

2

2

_ ~
1

_
sin
p
2

(1
1

g-)
2

2

2

siny

sin

"sfn"^

y

2

_1

2

2

sin

2

1

9 2

H-

*

sin

"

371
If

we

introduce here also a by means of the equation:
2

=2a
1

a2
2
,

and neglect

all

terms of the order of
a
sin
y>

we

find:

2
.

(>

Thus

the last
-{- [sin 2

expression for
fc]

D

is

changed
sin 2
90

into:
2]

D=

=p

sin

p

2

[sin

sin 2
.... 8

<p

~h
-

cos

a

sin

p

sin

p

3

-f-[sms=T=fc]

^-.
moon, made
at a

Every

observation of the limb of the

place in the northern hemisphere of the earth, leads to such an equation, in which the upper sign must be taken in case that the upper limb of the moon has been observed, whilst

the lower sign corresponds to the lower limb of the moon. Likewise we find for a place in the southern hemi

sphere

:

D

,

=

<?!

[sin z
2

,

=p

k\ sin

p

,

[sin z

,

=p

3

k]

~
b

-f- [sin tp

,

sin z, -+~ sin

2y>,

cos z

t

]

sin;?,.

Now

let

t

and ^ be the mean times of a certain

first

meridian, corresponding to the two times of observation, let Z) be the geocentric declination of the moon for a certain

time

T and

c
.

its
t

a

variation in one hour of mean time

and taken

positive, if the moon approaches the north pole, then we find from the two equations for D and D 1
:

(*i

^t

=

^j
jt

^

[sin 2,

=pl-

2

(sin y,

sin z

t

-hsin 2^, cos 2,)] ship,
9?

[sin

.c

=p k =f
71 3 ,

a

2

(sin

y>

sin z -f- sin 2

cos 2)] sin
3
.

p

^fy-

,

sinp,

3

[sin 2,

k]

-

sin
[gin 2

|

=p

A;J

-f-

Moreover

if

pQ

is

the parallax for the time

T and

^

its

change in one hour, we have:
sin

p

=
,

l

sin

p

-f-

cos

p -f at
-jf

(t

T}
T),

sin

p

=

sin

p

+ cos p

(t

t

therefore

we find the following equation for determining the parallax for the time T:
24*

372

=
-

tf,

S Hcos

(t

/,)

[(sins, =f= &)

3

H=p

sin

--.

p

[(sin 2 =f=

fc) (/

7")

-f- (sin c,

-

(

sin
4

[sm2, -fsin2=pA-=F/.-Jsin;?

y
09

2

sin s

+
.

sin 2
sin z

OP

cos
.

2
.

)

..

H-rtsinp

J
v

sin

.

sin z

nn

rns 2

j
>

*).

If at

the

two places opposite limbs of the moon

are

observed, the coefficient of sin p Q is rendered independent of /c, and since this quantity thus only occurs in the small

terms multiplied by sinp

3

and
-j-

,

the value

of/> ()

,

which

is
k.

found from the equation,

is

independent of any error of

the parallaxes from former determinations suf Since ficiently accurately so as to compute the third and the fourth term of the formula without any appreciable error, we can

we know

consider the
all

first

four terms of the formula as

known,

since

quantities

contained in them

have either been observed
Therefore
if

or can be taken from the tables of the moon.

we denote
sin

the

sum

of these terms
sin

by
6,

ft,

the coefficient of

p
:

{)

by a and that of a

p
(a

by

we

obtain the equa

tion

=n
{}

sin/>

b a),

from which p

can be found as a function of

a.

But

in

stead of the parallax p for the time T it is desirable to find immediately the mean parallax, that is, the horizontal parallax for the mean distance of the moon from the earth **). There
is the value of the mean parallax adopted in the lunar tables, and n the value taken from those tables for the time T, we have, if we denote the sought mean horizontal

fore if

K

parallax

by

II:
sin

p

==~
A

sin

11= fi sin ZT,
is

hence the equation found before

transformed into:
ba).

= --ft

sin 77 (a

*) If the

second differential coefficients are taken into account, we must

add the term:

but
this

if

we

take:

T=\

(/,-+-/),

term vanishes.
**)

Namely

the distance equal to the semi-major axis of the

moon

s orbit.

373
Example.
In

1752 February 23 Lalande
S

observed

at

Berlin the declination of the lower limb of the

moon:
declination of

= + 20

26

25".

2,

and Lacaille

at

the

Cape of Good Hope the
l

the upper limb:

= + 21
r=6
h

46

44".

8.

For the arithmetical mean of the times of observation,
corresponding to the Paris time:

40,

we

take from Burkhardt

s

tables:

^

= 59

24".

54

^
dt

finally

we have:
y

and
<p

{

= 52 = 33

30

16"

56 3 south.

m Since the longitude of the Cape of Good Hope is 20 19 s 5 East of Berlin and the increase of the ascension right of the moon in one hour was 38 the culmination of the moon took place 21 m 11 s later at Berlin than at the Cape, hence we have:
.

10",

*<,

=-t-21

Ml<S

hence

(t

*,)

~=
at
6.
,

12".

06

further

we

have:
?
<y,

= -MO 20

19".

The

third
if

-OM2,

3 we find equal to term, depending on sin p we take ft therefore if we omit the 0.2725;

=

insignificant

term multiplied by
n

,

we
42

find:

=

-M<>

20

7".

or expressed in parts of the radius: n -h 0.023307

=

and since the value of the mean parallax adopted
hardt
s

in

Burk

tables is:

^=57
we have:
log^

0".52

=

0. 01792,

hence

:

= + 0.022365.

374
If

we compute
z

the coefficients a and
51"

= 323
:

6,
48"

we

find, since:

and

^=55

42

the following values
a

= 4- 1.3571

and

/,=-+- 1.9321

and hence

the equation for determining sin 77 is: sin 77(1.3571 1.9321 ). 4- 0.022365

=

Every combination of two observations gives such an
equation of the form:

0=If there
is

-x(a

ba)

value

of

x corresponding

only one equation, we can find from it the to a certain value of nr. For in
--

stance taking a

=

ij i)

10

we
II

find

:

log sin

77= 8.21901

=56

55".

4.

there are several equations, we find for the equa tion of the minimum according to the method of least squares

But

if

:

[a a]

x

[a b]

ax

a

=

0,

hence:

.

[a a]

[a a]

r

= L ^J^L
[a a]

a n~]

r

a
[a a]

[a a]

Thus Olufsen found
the

for the
2".

mean

horizontal parallax of

rnoon the value
is

57

moon

so large,

it

may

Since the parallax of the *). even be determined with some de

80

gree of accuracy from observations made at the same place by combining observations made near the zenith, for which the parallax in altitude is small, with observations in the

neighbourhood of the horizon, where the parallax
at its

nearly the parallax of the moon was discovered by Hipparchus, since he found an irregularity in the motion of the moon, depending on its altitude above the

is

maximum.

In this

way

horizon and having the period of a day.

*) Astron. Nachrichten No. 32G.

375
This method does not afford sufficient accuracy for determining the horizontal parallax of the sun, but the first
4.

approximate determinations were obtained in this way. In 1671 meridian altitudes of Mars were observed by Richer in Cayenne and by Picard and Condainine at Paris, and from
these the horizontal parallax of Mars was found equal to 25 5. But as soon as the parallax of one planet is known, the parallaxes of all other planets as well as that of the sun
.

to

can be found by means of the third law of Kepler, according which the cubes of the mean distances of the planets from

from

the sun are as the squares of the times of revolution. Thus this determination the parallax of the sun was found
9".

5. Still less accurate was the value found from equal to the observations ofLacaille and Lalande, namely 25; nei
10".

ther have

the

observations

made

latterly in Chili

by

Gilliss

contributed anything towards a more accurate knowledge of
this

But allthough all results hitherto important constant. obtained by this method have been insufficient, it is still de
sirable, that they should be repeated again with the greatest

care, since the great accuracy of modern observations may lead to more accurate results even by this method *). The best method for ascertaining the parallax of the sun
is

Venus over the disc of the sun at her inferior conjunction, which was first proposed by Halley. The computation of such transits can be made in a similar
that

by the

transits of

way

as that given for eclipses in No. 29 and 31 of the pre The following method, originally owing to ceding section. was published by Encke in the Berliner Jahrbuch Lagrange,
for 1842.

If

,

<>

,

A

and

D

declination
tain
first

of Venus

are the geocentric right ascension and and the sun for the time T of a cer

meridian, which is not far from the time of con then we have in the spherical triangle between the junction, pole of the equator and the centres of Venus and the sun, denoting the distance of the two centres by m and the angles
at the
*)

sun and Venus by
Such observations
1862 and seem
luive

M

and 180
made
since

IT:
during the oppositions of

been

Mars

in

to give a greater value of the parallax than the

one

considered hitherto as the best.

376

sin |

m m cos ^ w
sin
-$

.

sin \

.

cos \
sin ^

(M (M
(

1

-+1

-f1

.

M

cos 4

TO

.

cos 4

(M

M} = sin M) = cos (a M} = sin \ (a M) = cos ^(a
\

(

]

A)

sin i (#

/>)*

.4) sin

^

(8 -+
(tf

D)
Z>),

A) cos

or since a

A

and d

D

and hence
(a

also

m

and

M

M

are

for the times of contact small quantities:

m

sin

M

A) cos ^
Z).

(<?

-+->)

Taking then:

n cos

=
dt

where

and
dt
dt

are

the

relative

changes of the

right ascensions and declinationa in the unit of time, and de noting the time of contact of the limbs by T-f-r, we have: 2 2 2 -f- rn cos N] [m sin M-+- r n sin N] H- [m cos [R == r]

M

=

,

and r denote the semi -diameter of the sun and of Venus, and where the upper sign must be used for an ex terior contact, the lower sign for an interior contact.

where

R

From

this equation

we

obtain:

Therefore

if
sin

m

we (M

put:
2V)
r

^_^_

=

sin y;,

where

y

<

=b 90,

(C)

we

obtain

:

r

=
n

cos

(M

N}

=f=

cos w.
n

(D)

where again the upper sign must be used for the ingress and the lower for the egress. Therefore at the centre of the earth
the ingress
is

seen at the time of the

first
r

meridian:

T
and the egress

---

cos

n

(M

N}

cos
n

y

at the time:

T
n

cos

(M

N)

+ R=n

^T
cos y.

is the angle, which the Finally if great circle drawn from the centre of the sun towards the point of contact ma-

377
kes with the declination circle passing through the centre of
the sun,

we have

:

dt= r) (/2

cos

(ft =t= r) sin

= m coe M n cos N t = m M-+- n N .r
-+.

sin

sin

or:
cos
sin

= =

sin sin

N sin y =p cos N cos y y cos .2V =p cos y; sin JV,
>

hence for the ingress we have:

= 180H-2V
and for the egress
:

(^)

These formulae serve for computing the -times of the in In order to gress and egress for the centre of the earth. find from these the times for any place on the surface of the earth, we must express the distance of the two bodies, seen at any time at the place, by the distance seen from the cen
tre of the earth.

We
If
,

have:
cos
<)

m

=

sin

8 sin

D -f- cos 8 cos

I.)

cos

(

A).

,

A and D
of

be the apparent right ascensions and

Venus and the sun, seen from the place on the surface of the earth, and m the apparent distance of the centres of the two bodies, we have also:
declinations
cos

m

=

sin

sin

D

-f-

cos 8 cos

D
sin

cos

(

A}
1

and hence:
cos

m

= cos m +
-4-

(

8
1

8) [cos 8 sin

D

8 cos

D cos (a
Z>

A)]
A)]

4- (D (a

D) [sin^cosZ*
a ) cos 8 cos

cos # sin

cos (a

D sin
Z>

(a

A)
4).

(A

1

A) cos 8 cos

sin (a

But according
tion

to the formulae in

No. 4 of the third sec

we have
We
o

*)

:

*)

have according to the formulae given there:
o
s
Ti

w

sin

-cp

sin(<?
;

v)

;=

7t

sm

sin

cp

Ism o cotangy

cos

ol.

y

but since:

cotang Y

= cos
sin

(

0}

.

cotang

y>,

we

have:

8

8= n [cos

cp

8 cos (a

(9)

sin
y>

cos

8].

378
S

//

I)

A

= =p a = A =p
S

7t

[cos

rp
<p

sin sin

$ cos (a

0)
0)
cos
ip

sin sin

y

cos 8]
/>j

[cos

D cos (a
6*)

ycos

rt

sec S sin (a
sec

D sin (J.

0) cos

y,

where n and p are the horizontal parallaxes of Venus and the sun; and if we substitute these expressions in the equa
tion for cos

m we
,

obtain

:

cos
-f- [cos

m

= cos m
[TTCOS<JP

8 sin/J
$cos.Z>

sin

8 cos

D cos
(

(

A}}

sin$cos(
sin/>cos(

0)
6>)

-Trsinycos

#]

4-+-

[sin

cos$sin/>cos

(a

^1)J [79

cosy

cos

D sin
If

(
(

A)
^4)

.

n
/>

sin

cos $ sin

.

sin (A-

0) cos y 0} cos y.

p sin y cos/)] ()

we develop
:

this equation,

we
2

find first for the coef

ficient of cos
7i [sin

tf

S cos S sin

D cos
/>

(

6>)

sin #

cos

D cos (
(

0) cos
sin
(
(

(

^4)

cos Jj sin
-\-

0)

(

A)]

p

[sin

$ cos

D sin

cos

(

0)
-f-

cos S sin JJ* cos cos S sin
(

0} cos
vl)J

(

^4)

0~) sin

or since:
sin
71
(V-

=

1

cos S* and sin
Z>

D

2

=
(

1

cos

D*

:

[(sin

8

sin/>

+

cos #cos

cos (a

A) ) cos $ cos

0}
0}

cos

D cos (A

0)]
0)],

-f-/>[(sin^sinZ>H-cos^cosZ>cos(

^l))cosDcos(^4

cos S cos (a

hence

:

71

COS

/ft

COS S COS cos
Z>

(rt

0)
6>)

71

COSZ>

COS (A
(

0)
0).

H-

/)

cos

m

cos

(^l

cos 8 cos
/>

This

we can transform
|?r

in the following

way:

cos

m
?.

cos $ cos a cos

n

cos

Z>

cos
cos

^4]
J

cos cos
sin sin
6>,

-f-

[p cos

D cos ^1
D
sin

p cos J

-f- [TT

cos

-+ [p cos

M m

cos $ sin
cos

A

7t cosD sin^] p cos 8 sin
j

and hence the term multiplied by cos ^ becomes cos D cos ^4] cos (n ;) cos m} [(71 cos m p} cos $cos
-t- [(TT

:

cos
<f

.

.

sin A] cos y sin 0. p cos m) cos Further the coefficient of sin y in the equation (a)

cos

/ft

p} cos $ sin

(it

Z>

is

:

7i

[

cos 8
sin
2

*

sin

D H- sin
-1-

<?

cos ^ cos

D cos (a
(

^1)] ^Ijj,

-+-;>

[

^ cos //2

sin/^cosjL cos ^ cos
2

or since cos
TT
[

r)

=1
D + sin
8
-+-

sin

<)

and cos
/>-+-

2
/>

=1
Z>

sin
(
(

D

2
:

sin

-H p

[

sin

$ (sin 8 sin sin/) (sin 8 sin

cos 5 cos

cos

^4))J
^4))J-

D -f- cos ^ cos /) cos

Therefore the term of the equation (a), which
tiplied

is

mul

by

sin y, is
(?r

:

cos

m

sin
/>)

^ sin

y

(TT

jt>

cos m) sin Z) sin

<p,

379

and thus the equation () cos m cos in -J- [(Vr cos m p) cos S cos a

is

=

transformed into the following:
p cos
y>

(n
(TT
(jt

TO)

cosL>

cos

-^4]

cos

(p (p

cos
sin

(9
6>

-+- [(ft -f- [O/r

cos cos

TO

p) cos S sin
p) sin
(V

cos m) cos
TO.)

D sin yl} cos
D]
sin y.

(

c

)

TO

p cos

sin

If

we

take

now:
it

cos

m

-

p

TT

sin

m

=

=f sin
/ cos

s
s,

we

have:
7t

p

cos

TO

=fsm (s

TO),

and henee:
cos
in.

= cos

in.

H-/[sin

ft

cos

<?

cos a

sin

(.s

-m) cos L) cos A] cos
in)

y
<f>

cos
sin
(e)

-f-yfsin s cos $ sin a

sin

(*

cosl) sin
jDj sin

^4]
f/>.

cos

+/[sin

s sin

$

sin (s

m) sin

Further

if

we
8 cos

take:
sin
(.s-

sin s cos

?//)

cos
cos

sin s cos $ sin

a
$

sin

(*
(,v

in)

I) cos .4 = P cos A cos D sin .4 = P sin A cos
Z>

/?
ft

sin

A-

sin

sin

TO) sin

=P

(/ )

sin

/^,

we

find

by squaring these equations the following equation

for P:

P

2

==

=
^
,v

sin s
sin
A-

z

H- sin
sin

1<!

(s
2
.s

/)
cos

2 sin s sin
-f-

(s
-

2

m2

cos

.$

sin TO

=
TO

m) cos

m
2
.

sin TO

Hence we may put:
sin s cos sin s cos sin

$ cos a
sin

sin (s
sin (s
sin
(.s-

TO)

cos /) cos

a ^

m) cos
TO)

sin

D sin J. = sin sin = sin m sin sin D
sin (a
(

A = sin m

cos 1 cos
A,

(3

cos

/9

(3,

or:
sin
TO
//

sin (A

J) cos
sin
TO

ft

sin

cos (A

A) cos p
sin
:

/^

= = =

sin a cos

S S

J)
^1)
TO)

sin s cos

S cos

sin (s
sin
/>.

m)

cos/>