SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY.
SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY
BY
F.
BRUNNOW, PH. DR.
TRANSLATED BY THE AUTHOR FROM THE SECOND
GERMAN
EDITION.
LONDON:
ASHER
13,
& CO.
BEDFORD STREET, COVENT GARDEN.
1865.
DEDICATED
TO THE
REV.
GEORGE
P.
PROFESSOR OF MATHKMATICS
IN
WILLIAMS, OF
THE UNIVERSITY
L. L. D.
MICHIGAN
rt
BY THE AUTHOR
AS AN EXPRESSION OF AFFECTION AND GRATITUDE FOR UNVARYING FRIENDSHIP AND A NEVER CEASING INTEREST IN ALL HIS
SCIENTIFIC PURSUITS.
2
72.
PREFACE.
.During
my
connection
with the University of
I felt
Michigan as Professor of Astronomy
very
much
the want of a book written in the English language, to which I might refer the students attending my lec
tures,
and
it
seems that the same want was
felt
by
other Professors, as I
expressed, that I
heard very frequently the wish should publish an English Edition of
my
at least for
Spherical Astronomy, and thus relieve this one important branch of Astronomy.
I
want
How
ever while
was
in
America
I
never found leisure to
undertake this translation, although the arrangements for it were made with the Publishers already at the time
In of the publication of the Second German Edition. mean time an excellent translation of a part of the book was published in England by the Rev. R. Main; but
the
seemed to me desirable to have the entire work translated, especially as the Second Edition had been
still
it
considerably enlarged.
Therefore when
I
returned to
Germany and was invited by the Publishers to pre pare an English translation, I gladly availed myself of
my
comply with their wishes, and hav ing acted for a number of years as an instructor of
leisure here to
VJII
science in America,
at the
it
close
of
my
was especially gratifying to me career there to write a work in
the language of the country, which would leave me in an intellectual connection with it and with those
young men whom
I
had the pleasure of instructing
in
my
science.
Still I
as publish this translation with diffidence, I am well aware of its imperfection, and as I fear that, not to speak of the want of that finish of style which
might have been expected from an English Translator, there will be found now and then some Germanisms, which are always liable to occur in a translation, espe made by a German. I have discovered cially when
some such mistakes myself and have given them
the Table of Errors.
I trust therefore that this translation
in
may
be re
ceived with indulgence and may be found a useful guide for those who wish to study this particular branch of science.
JENA, August 1864.
F.
BRtTNNOW.
TABLES OF CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION.
A.
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES. FORMULAE OF SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
Page
1
1.
Formulae for the transformation of coordinates
Their application to polar coordinates Fundamental formulae of spherical trigonometry
2.
2 3
3.
4. 5.
6.
Other formulae of spherical trigonometry Gauss s and Napier s formulae
Introduction of auxiliary angles into the formulae of spherical trigo
4
.
5
9
nometry
7.
On
the precision attainable in finding angles by
means of tangents
10
11
and of sines
8.
9.
Formulae
for right angled triangles
The
10.
11.
formulae of spherical trigonometry Approximate formulae for small angles Some expansions frequently used in spherical astronomy
differential
12
14
....
14
B.
12. 13.
THE THEORY OF INTERPOLATION.
Notation of differences
Object of interpolation.
18
Newton
14.
15.
formula for interpolation Other interpolation  formulae
s
20 22
27
Computation of numerical
C.
differential coefficients
THEORY OF SEVERAL DEFINITE INTEGRALS USED
SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY.
f e~* dt
(/
IN
16.
The
integral
33
17.
Various methods for computing the integral
T
f**3
I
e
dt
....
dx
35 38
18.
Computation of the integrals
rV^ n^
si
and
2
C
,
(1
2
x) sin
J
Fcos
2
}2*sin
cos
h
P
2 sing .x
D.
19.
THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES.
Page
Introductory
remarks.
On
the form of the equations of condition
derived from observations
20. 21.
40
42
The law of the The measure of
errors of observation
precision of observations, the
mean
error and
the
22.
probable error Determination of the most probable value of an unknown quantity and of its probable error from a system of equations
46
48 54
23.
Determination
quantities
of
the
most
probable
values
of several
unknown
57
24.
25.
from a system of equations Determination of the probable error in
this case
Example
60
E.
26. 27.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODICAL FUNCTIONS FROM GIVEN NUMERICAL VALUES.
Several propositions relating to periodical series
63 65
Determination of the coefficients of a periodical series from given numerical values
28.
On
the identity of the results
obtained by this method with those
obtained by the method of least squares
68
SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY.
FIRST SECTION.
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE AND ITS DIURNAL MOTION. THE SEVERAL SYSTEMS OF GREAT CIRCLES OF THE
CELESTIAL SPHERE.
1.
I.
The equator and
the horizon
and
their poles
71
2. 3. 4. 5.
Coordinate system of azimuths and altitudes Coordinate system of hour angles and declinations Coordinate system of right ascensions and declinations
Coordinate system of longitudes and latitudes
II.
73 74
....
75
77
THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF
COORDINATES.
6.
Transformation of azimuths and altitudes into hour angles and decli
nations
79
7.
Transformation of hour angles and declinations into azimuths and
altitudes
80
Differential formulae for the
8.
9.
Parallactic angle.
two preceding cases
85 86
Transformation of right ascensions and declinations into longitudes and latitudes
XI
Page
10.
Transformation of longitudes and latitudes into right ascensions and declinations
88
89
11.
Angle between the circles of declination and formulae for the two preceding cases
tudes
III.
latitude.
Differential
12.
Transformation of azimuths and altitudes into longitudes and
lati
90
SIDEREAL, APPARENT
13. 14.
THE DIURNAL MOTION AS A MEASURE OF TIME. AND MEAN SOLAR TIME.
Sidereal day
Sidereal time.
91
Apparent solar time.
earth in her orbit.
Apparent solar day.
On
the motion of the
ecliptic
Equation of the centre.
Reduction to the
91
15.
Mean
solar time.
Equation of time
.
96 98 99
16.
17.
Transformation of mean time into sidereal time and vice versa
18.
Transformation of apparent time into mean time and vice versa Transformation of apparent time into sidereal time and vice versa
.
100
IV.
19.
PROBLEMS ARISING FROM THE DIURNAL MOTION.
of culmination of fixed stars and moveable bodies
.
. .
Time
101
20.
21. 22.
23.
24.
Rising and setting of the fixed stars and moveable bodies Phenomena of the rising and setting of stars at different latitudes
. . .
103
104 106 107
Amplitudes
at rising
and setting of
stars
Zenith distances of the stars at their culminations
Time
of the greatest altitude
when
the declination
is
variable
.
.
108
25.
Differential
formulae
of altitude and azimuth with respect to the
hour angle
26.
109 109
Transits of stars across the prime vertical
27. 28.
Greatest elongation of circumpolar stars Time in which the sun and the moon move over a given great circle
110
111
SECOND SECTION.
ON THE CHANGES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANES TO WHICH THE PLACES OF THE STARS ARE REFERRED.
I.
THE PRECESSION.
1.
Annual motion of the equator on the ecliptic and of the ecliptic on the equator, or annual lunisolar precession and precession pro
duced by the planets.
ecliptic
Secular variation of the obliquity of the
115
in longitude
2.
Annual changes of the stars ascension and declination
and latitude and
in right
119
3.
Rigorous formulae for computing the precession in longitude and latitude and in right ascension and declination
124
XII
Page
4.
Effect of precession on the appearance of the sphere of the heavens Variation of the length at a place on the earth at different times.
of the tropical
128
"year
II.
THE NUTATION.
130
5.
Nutation in longitude and latitude and in right ascension and de
clination
6.
Change of
the expression of nutation,
when
the constant
is
changed
133
7.
8.
Tables for nutation
134
136
The
ellipse of nutation
THIRD SECTION.
CORRECTIONS OF THE OBSERVATIONS ARISING FROM THE POSITION OF THE OBSERVER ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH AND FROM CERTAIN PROPERTIES OF LIGHT.
I.
THE PARALLAX.
139
1.
Dimensions of the
on the earth
2.
Equatoreal horizontal parallax of the sun Geocentric latitude and distance from the centre for different places
earth.
140
144
147
3.
Parallax in altitude of the heavenly bodies
4.
Parallax in right ascension and declination and in longitude and
latitude
5.
Example
for the
moon.
II.
Rigorous formulae for the
moon
.
.
.
152
THE REFRACTION.
Differential expression of refraction
.
6. 7.
Law Law
of refraction of light.
154
of the decrease
of temperature and
of the
density
of the
atmosphere.
8.
9.
Hypotheses by Newton, Bessel and Ivory
....
.
.
160
163
10.
Integration of the differential expression for Bessel s hypothesis Integration of the differential expression for Ivory s hypothesis Computation of the refraction by means of Bessel s and Ivory
164
166
169
s
formulae.
11.
Computation of the horizontal refraction Computation of the true refraction for any indications of the ba rometer and thermometer
12.
Reduction of the height of the barometer to the normal tempera Final formula for computing the true refraction. ture. Tables
for refraction
172 174
13.
Probable errors of the tables for refraction.
14.
Simple expressions for refraction. Formulae of Cassini, Simpson and Bradley Effect of refraction on the rising and setting of the heavenly bo
.
.
dies.
the
15.
Example for computing the time of rising and moon, taking account of parallax and refraction
twilight.
setting of
176
On
The
shortest twilight
178
XIII
Page
III.
THE ABERRATION.
and
latitude
.
.
16.
in right ascension and de Expressions for the annual aberration
clination
17.
and
in longitude
180
188
Tables for aberration
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Formulae for the annual parallax of the stars Formulae for diurnal aberration Apparent orbits of the stars round their mean places Aberration for bodies, which have a proper motion
for this case Analytical deduction of the formulae
188
190
.
.
.
.
191
192
194
FOURTH SECTION.
ON THE METHOD BY WHICH THE PLACES OF THE STARS AND THE VALUES OF THE CONSTANT QUANTITIES NECESSARY FOR THEIR REDUCTION ARE DETERMINED BY OBSERVATIONS. I. ON THE REDUCTION OF THE MEAN PLACES OF STARS TO APPARENT PLACES AND VICE VERSA.
1.
Expressions for the apparent place of a
for their computation
star.
Auxiliary quantities
202
star
2. 3. 4.
Tables of Bessel
Formulae
Other method of computing the apparent place of a for computing the annual parallax
.
.
.
204
206
II.
DETERMINATION OF THE RIGHT ASCENSIONS AND DECLINATIONS OF THE STARS AND OF THE OBLIQUITY OF THE ECLIPTIC.
Determination of the differences of right ascension of the stars
Determination of the declinations of the stars
.
5.
6.
206 212
,
7.
89.
Determination of the obliquity of the ecliptic Determination of the absolute right ascension of a star
Relative
214
....
Obser
218
223
determinations.
The use
of the standard stars.
vation of zones
III.
ON THE METHODS OF DETERMINING THE MOST PROBABLE VALUES OF THE CONSTANTS USED FOR THE REDUCTION OF THE PLACES OF THE STARS.
A. Determination of the constant of refraction. Determination of the constant of refraction and the latitude by upper and lower culminations of stars. Determination of the coefficient
for the expansion of atmospheric air
10.
227
B.
Determination of the constants of aberration and nutation and of the
annual parallaxes of
11.
stars.
Determination
observed
right
of the
constants
of aberration and
declinations
nutation from
ascensions and
stars
of Polaris
Struve
s
method by observing
on the prime vertical. Determination of the constant of aberration from the eclipses of Jupiter s satellites
231
XIV
Page
12.
Determination of the annual parallaxes of the stars by the changes
of their places relatively to other stars in their neighbourhood
.
237
C.
Determination of the constant of precession and of the proper motions
of the
13.
stars.
Determination of the lunisolar precession from the mean places of the stars at two different epochs
239
241
14.
On
the
proper motion of the
stars.
Determination of the point
is
towards which the motion of the sun
15.
directed
Attempts made of determining the constant of precession, taking account of the proper motion of the sun
Reduction of the place of the polestar from one epoch to another. On the variability of the proper motions
245
16.
248
FIFTH SECTION.
DETERMINATION OF TOE POSITION OF THE FIXED GREAT CIRCLES OF THE CELESTIAL SPHERE WITH RESPECT TO THE HORIZON OF A PLACE. I. METHODS OF FINDING THE ZERO OF THE AZIMUTH AND THE TRUE BEARING OF AN OBJECT.
1.
Determination
test
elongations
of the zero of the azimuth by observing the grea of circumpolar stars, by equal altitudes and by
2.
observing the upper and lower culminations of stars Determination of tfie azimuth by observing a star, the declination and the latitude of the place being known
253
255
257
3.
Determination of the true bearing of a terrestrial object by ob serving its distance from a heavenly body
II
METHODS OF FINDING THE TIME OR THE LATITUDE BY AN
OBSERVATION OF A SINGLE ALTITUDE.
Method of finding the time by observing the altitude of a star Method of computation, when several altitudes of the same body
.
4. 5.
259 262 264
266
have been taken
6.
7. 8.
Method of finding the latitude by observing the altitude of a star Method of finding the latitude by circummeridian altitudes The same problem, when the declination of the heavenly body is
.
.
variable
9.
.
269
271
10.
III
Method of Method of
finding the latitude by the polestar finding the latitude, given by Gauss
275
METHODS OF FINDING BOTH THE TIME AND THE LATITUDE
BY COMBINING SEVERAL ALTITUDES.
Methods of finding the latitude by upper and lower culminations of stars, and by observing two stars on different sides of the zenith
1 1
278
XV
Page
12.
Method of
altitudes
finding the time by equal altitudes.
Equation for equal
279
13
14.
The same, when the time of true midnight is found Method of finding the time and the latitude by two
stars
284
altitudes of
285
15. 16.
Particular case,
when
the
same
star
is
observed twice
....
289
Method of
finding the time and the latitude as well as the azimuths and altitudes from the difference of azimuths and altitudes and the
interval of time
between the observations
Tables of Douwes
the
latitude
291
17.
Indirect solution of the problem, to find the time and the latitude
by observing two
18.
altitudes.
293
296
Method of
Method of
finding the
time,
and the declination by
three altitudes of the
19.
same
star
finding
the time,
the latitude and the altitude by ob
serving three stars at equal altitudes.
20.
Solution given by Gauss
.
296 301
21.
Solution given by Cagnoli Analytical deduction of these formulae
IV.
303
METHODS OF FINDING THE LATITUDE AND THE TIME
BY AZIMUTHS.
finding the time by the azimuth of a star
22. 23.
Method of Method of
....
.
305 307
finding the time by the disappearance of a star behind
24. 25.
a terrestrial object Method of finding the latitude by the azimuth of a star Method of finding the time by observing two stars on the same
. .
308
vertical circle
312
V.
DETERMINATION OF THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE MERIDIANS OF TWO PLACES ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH, OR OF THEIR
DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE.
Determination
of the
difference
at
26.
of longitude
the
by observing such
phenomena, which are seen and by chronometers
27.
tric
same
instant at both places,
313
316
Determination of the difference of longitude by means of the elec
telegraph
28.
Determination of the difference of longitude by eclipses. which was formerly used
Method
322 323
29.
Method
given by eclipse of the sun
Bessel.
Example of
the
computation of an
30.
Determination
stars
of the difference of longitude
by occultations of
336
calculating an eclipse
.
31. 32.
Method of
339
33.
Determination of the difference of longitude by lunar distances Determination of the difference of longitude by culminations of
the
344 350
moon
XVI
SIXTH SECTION.
ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE DIMENSIONS OF THE EARTH AND THE HORIZONTAL PARALLAXES OF THE HEAVENLY
BODIES.
I..
DETERMINATION OF THE FIGURE AND THE DIMENSIONS OF THE EARTH.
Page
1.
Determination of the figure and the dimensions of the earth from two arcs of a meridian measured at different places on the earth
.
357
2.
Determination of the figure and the dimensions of the earth by
any number of arcs
II.
360
DETERMINATION OF THE HORIZONTAL PARALLAXES OF THE
HEAVENLY BODIES.
3.
Determination
its
horizontal parallax of a body by observing meridian zenith distance at different places on the earth
.
.
of the
366
375
4.
Effect of the parallax
on the
transits of
Venus
for different places
on the earth
5.
Determination of the horizontal parallax of the sun by the transits
of Venus
384
SEVENTH SECTION.
I.
THEORY OF THE ASTRONOMICAL INSTRUMENTS. SOME OBJECTS PERTAINING IN GENERAL TO ALL INSTRUMENTS.
1.
A. Use of the spiritlevel. Determination of the inclination of an axis by means of the spi
ritlevel
390
its
2.
Determination of the value of the unit of
scale
.
395 398
401 403
3.
Determination of the inequality of the pivots of an instrument
13.
The vernier and
the reading microscope.
4.
5.
Use of the vernier
Use and adjustments of the reading microscope
C.
Errors arising from the excentricity of the
circle
and
errors of division.
6.
Effect of the excentricity
of the circle on the readings.
The use
408
them
.
of two verniers opposite each other.
tricity
7.
Determination of the excen
by two such verniers
.
On
D.
the errors of division and the methods of determining
411
On
flexure or the action of the force of gravity upon the telescope
and
8.
the circle.
Methods of arranging the observations so as
of flexure.
to eliminate the effect
Determination of the flexure
417
9.
of Determination of the periodical errors of the screw. of the equal length of the threads
E.
On
the examination
the micrometer screws.
Examination
425
XVII
Page
II.
THE ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH INSTRUMENT.
upon the observations
.
10.
Effect of the errors of the instrument
.
429
433 434 437
439
11.
12.
Geometrical method for deducing the approximate formulae Determination of the errors of the instrument
Observations of altitudes
.
.
13.
14.
Formulae for the other instruments deduced from those
titude
for the al
and azimuth instrument
III.
THE EQUATOREAL.
upon the observations
. .
15.
16.
17.
Effect of the errors of the instrument
441
Determination of the errors of the instrument
Use of the equatoreal
IV.
for determining the relative places of stars
445 449
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT AND THE MERIDIAN CIRCLE.
upon the observations
. .
18. 19.
Effect of the errors of the instrument
451
20.
Geometrical method for deducing the approximate formulae Reduction of an observation on a lateral wire to the middle wire.
.
.
456
457
461
Determination of the wire distances
21.
Reduction of the observations,
if
the observed body has a parallax
and a
22.
visible
disc
Determination of the errors of the instrument
466
23.
Reduction of the zenith distances observed at some distance from
the
meridian.
Effect of the
inclination of the wires.
disc
The same
for the case
when
the
body has a
and a parallax
24.
Determination of the polar point and the zenith point of the Use of the nadir horizon and of horizontal collimators
V.
.... ....
circle.
.
.
477
482
THE PRIME VERTICAL INSTRUMENT.
upon the observations
484
25. 26.
Effect of the errors of the instrument
Determination of the latitude by means of this instrument, when the errors are large. The same for an instrument which is nearly
adjusted
488 492 498
27.
Reduction of the observations made on a lateral wire to the middle
wire
28.
Determination of the errors of the instrument
VI.
ALTITUDE INSTRUMENTS.
29.
30.
Entire circles
....
On
"by
...
Ob
499
The
measuring the angle between two objects. servations of altitudes means of an artificial horizon
sextant.
....
500 503
31.
Effect of the errors of the sextant
upon the observations and de
termination of these errors
VII.
INSTRUMENTS, WHICH SERVE FOR MEASURING THE RELATIVE PLACE OF TWO HEAVENLY BODIES NEAR EACH OTHER.
(MICROMETER AND HELIOMETER.)
32.
The
33.
micrometer of an equatoreal Other kinds of filar micrometers
filar
512 517
XVIII
Page
34.
Determination of the relative place of two objects by means of the ring micrometer
Best way of making observations with this micrometer Reduction of the observations made with the ring micrometer, one of the bodies has a proper motion
518
522
35.
36.
....
if
if
523
37.
Reduction of the observations with the ring micrometer, jects are near the pole
the ob
525
527 532
38. 39.
Various methods for determining the value of the radius of the ring The heliometer. Determination of the relative place of two. objects
40.
by means of this instrument Reduction of the observations
,
if
one of the bodies has a proper
motion
41.
539
circle
Determination of the zero of the position of one revolution of the micrometer screw
and of the value
542
VIII.
METHODS OF CORRECTING OBSERVATIONS MADE BY MEANS OF A MICROMETER FOR REFRACTION.
Correction which is to be applied to the difference of two ap parent zenith distances in order to find the difference of the true
zenith distances
42.
545 550
43.
Computation of the difference of the true right ascensions and de clinations of two stars from the observed apparent differences
.
.
44.
of refraction for micrometers, by which the difference of right ascension is found from the observations of transits across wires which are perpendicular to the daily motion, whilst the dif
Effect
ference of declination
45.
46.
Effect of refraction Effect
is
found by direct measurement
.
.
.
.
of refraction
upon the observations with the ring micrometer upon the micrometers with which angles of
551 552
position and distances are observed
555
IX.
EFFECT OF PRECESSION, NUTATION AND ABERRATION UPON THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO STARS AND THE ANGLE
OF POSITION.
47.
Change of the angle of position by the lunisolar precession and by nutation. Change of the distance and the angle of position
by aberration
4
556
XIX
ERRATA.
XX
page 140 144
147
line line
16 from bottom
10 from bottom
2 from bottom
line line
line
148 154 155
169
from top 11 from bottom
1
for at
read on
line
line
8 from bottom
9 from top
/
171 line 4 from top 173 line 1,2, 18 from top 174 line 13 from top
r
stand
I
read height
176 178
line 14, line 11
11 from bott. for the refraction
read refraction
from top 181 line 12 from top
line 11 line
for at for
vertical
read on
read perpendicular read on
190
209
from top 5 from top
for at for vertical
210 214
226
232 272
286
331
line
line line line
4 and 5 from top for vertical 8 from top for usually 10 from top for at last
14 from bottom
read perpendicular read perpendicular
read and as usually read finally
for
for
Now
^p
3
read
sin
t
line 13
line 18 line
line
from bottom
from bottom
cost read
Now let 3 \p sin
sin A
t
cos
2
X
for cos S sin h
read cos
9 from top
for
=tang
7i
i
read =
tang read an
7t
18 from top 399 line 1 from bottom
397
for a for
and
{
read 2i and 2i read between read between
read from
425 450 456
line
line
14 from bottom
for of
4 from bottom
16 from top
line
for of for form
INTRODUCTION.
,1.
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES. FORMULAE OF SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY.
In Spherical Astronomy we treat of the positions 1. of the heavenly bodies on the visible sphere of the heavens, referring them by spherical coordinates to certain great cir
cles of the sphere and establishing the relations between the coordinates with respect to various great circles. Instead of using spherical coordinates we can give the positions of the
heavenly bodies also by polar coordinates, viz. by the angles, which straight lines drawn from the bodies to the centre of
the celestial sphere make with certain planes, and by the distance from this centre itself, which, being the radius of
the celestial sphere,
is
always taken equal to unity.
These
polar coordinates can finally be expressed by rectangular coordinates. Hence the whole of Spherical Astronomy can be reduced to the transformation of rectangular coordinates,
for
which we
If
shall
now
find the general formulae.
we imagine
in a plane
two axes perpendicular
to each
other and denote the abscissa and ordinate of a point by x and ?/, the distance of the point from the origin of the coor
sitive
dinates by r, the angle, which this line makes with the side of the axis of a?, by t?, we have:
r
po
cos v
r sin v.
If we further imagine two other axes in the same plane, which have the same origin as the former two and denote the coordinates of the same point referred to this new sys1
tern
by x
have:
and y
and the angle corresponding
to
by
,
we
the
we denote then the angle, which the positive side of axis of x makes with the positive side of the axis of a?,
If to
by o, reckoning all angles in the same direction from v \ w, hence 360, we have in general v
=
w w
:
x
y
or:
= =
r cos v cos r sin v cos
1
w w \y
J
r sin v sin
1
w
r
cos v sin w,
x=
y
= =
x cos x
sin
sin
y cos
sin
w w
w w
and likewise:
x
y=
of
x cos
re
sin
w + y w f y
cos
(1)
These formulae are true
for all positive
x and y and
2.
for all values of
w
from
and negative values to 360.
referred
Let
a;,
?/,
z be the co  ordinates of a point
to three axes perpendicular to
each other, let a be the angle, with its projection on the plane which the radius vector makes
of xy, B the angle between this projection and the axis of a? (or the angle between a plane passing through the point and the positive axis of z and a plane passing through the
positive, axes of x and a, reckoned from the positive side of the axis of x towards the positive side of the axis of y from to 360), then we have, taking the distance of the point
0"
from the origin of the coordinates equal to unity:
x
= cos B
cos
,
y
=
sin
B
cos a
,
2
=
sin a
.
But if we denote by a the angle between the radius vector and the positive side of the axis of a, reckoning it from the positive side of the axis of z towards the positive side of the axis of x and y from to 360, we have:
x
=
sin a cos
B\
y
=
sin
a sin
B\
z
= cos
a.
If
now we imagine
axis of y
another system of coordinates, whose coincides with the axis of ?/, and whose axes of
of x and z the angle c and if the radius vector and the posi
x and
a make with the axis we denote the angle between tive side of the axis of a
1
the plane passing through
the angle between by b and by and the positive axis of z and the
A
of x and plane passing through the positive axes direction as a and B\ both angles in the same
x
,
we
reckoning have:
=
sin b cos
A\ y
=
sin b sin
A
,
2
= cos
6,
and as
we have according
z
to the formulae for the transfor
mation of coordinates:
r=*y
a
=x #=
sin c + z cos c
cos c
z sin
c,
we
find:
sin
sin
= = a cos B =
cos a
sin b sin c cos J.
H cos
6 cos c
a sin .5
sin 6 sin
A A
cos b sin
c.
sin 6 cos c cos
a sphere, whose centre is the origin and whose radius is equal to unity and draw through the point and the points of intersection of the axes of z and * with the surface of this sphere arcs of great circle, these arcs form a spherical triangle, if we use this term in its most general sense, when its sides as well as The three sides ingles may be greater than 180 degrees. Z and Z Z of this spherical triangle are respectively Z, The spherical angle A at Z is equal to A, being a, b and c. the angle between the plane passing through the centre and the points and Z and the plane passing through the centre and the points Z and Z while the angle B at Z is generally B equal to 180 Introducing therefore A and B instead af A and B in the equations which we have found in No. 2,
3.
If
we imagine
of the coordinates
a,
,
.
1
we
get the following formulae, which are true for every spher
cos a
ical triangle:
B = sin b sin A sin a cos B = cos b sin c
sin a sin
= cos
b cos c + sin b sin c cos
A
sin 6 cos c cos ^4.
These are the three principal formulae of spherical tri gonometry and express but a simple transformation of coor
dinates.
may consider each vertex of the spherical triangle the projection of the point on the surface of the sphere and the two others as the points of intersection of the two axes z and z with this surface, it follows, that the above
as
As we
formulae are true also for any other side and the adjacent
1*
4
if
angle,
ingly.
we change the other sides and angles correspond Hence we obtain, embracing all possible cases:
cos a
cos
I,
CO s
c
= cos cos = cos a cos = cos a cos
b
c
H sin
b sin c
cos
cos
A
c f sin
a sin
c
B
C
(2)
6 + sin
a sin 6 cos
sin
sin a sin
sin
B = sin 6
sin C (7= sin
ft
a sin
=
A
(3)
c sin vl c sin
sin b sin sin a cos sin a cos sin b
5
A
B
C
sin 6 sin c
sin c
= cos = a cos cos C = cos a cos A = cos B = cos
C
J.
B = cos
sin c
sin 6 cos c cos
c sin b
sin c cos b cos 4
sin a cos c cos
cos
sin c
c sin
a
sin c cos a cos jB
cos
sin 6
sin a cos b cos sin 6 cos
6 sin
a
a cos C.
can easily deduce from these formulae all the other formulae of spherical trigonometry. Dividing the for mulae (4) by the corresponding formulae (3), we find:
4.
sin
We
A cotang B = cotang b sin c A cotang C = cotang c sin b sin B cotang A = cotang a sin c sin B cotang C = cotang c sin a sin C cotang A = cotang a sin b
sin
cos c cos cos b cos
cos c cos
A A
B
cos a cos
cos b cos
B
C
sin
C cotang B
= cotang
b sin
b sin
a
cos a cos C.
If
we
write the last of these formulae thus:
sin
C cos
J3
= cos
a sinB
cos a sin 25 cos C,
o
sm
we
or:
find:
sin
C cos .B
= cos
6 sin .A
cos a sin .B cos C,
sin J. cos b
= cos 5
sin
C +
sin jB cos
C cos
a
an equation, which corresponds to the first of the formulae (4), but contains angles instead of sides and vice versa. By chang six equations: ing the letters, we find the following
sin sin
A cos 6 = cos^B sin (74 sin B cos C cos A cos c = cos C sin B + sin C cos B cos sin 5 cos a = cos A sin C H sin A. cos C cos
a
a
6
sin
B cos c
C cos
a
= cos C
sin
sin (7 cos 6
= cos A = B
cos
sin ^4 f sin sin jB f sin
C cos
J. cos 6
A
cos J3 cos c
sin
A
{ s
mB cos J. cos c
and dividing these equations by the corresponding equations
(3),
we
have:
sin a
sin a
sin 6
sin b
sin c
sin c
= cotang C = cotang C B 6 cotang a = cotang A cotang = cotang C cotang a = cotang A sinB A cotang = cotang B
cotang
b
.5 sin
sin
\f
cos
C cos
C cos
a
cotang
c
cos jB cos a
cos
6
ft
sin
Y
+
c
sin J. f cos
\f
A cos
cos .6 cos c
b
sin
cos ^4 cos
c.
From
the equations (6)
cos cos
we
cos a
6
A sin C = sin .5
C=
sin
easily deduce the following:
sin
sin
A cos
6 cos
(7
y
6
a.
B sin A
A cos
B cos
cos
Multiplying these
the value of sin
sin
C
equations by sin C and substituting cos b taken from the second equa
cos
tion into the first,
we
find:
following three equations, which correspond to the formulae (2), but again contain angles instead of sides and vice versa:
cos A = sin B sin C cos a and changing the letters we get the
B
cos
C
A = sin B sin C cos a = sin A sin C cos b cos C = sin A sin B cos c
cos
cos
cos
B cos
cos
cosB
5.
A cos A
C C
(8)
cos .5.
If
we add
sin a [sin
the two first of the formulae (3),
we
find
:
B + sin
.
C]
=
sin
A
5
[sin b f sin c]
,
or:
B
smj^cos
~
C
.cos^asm
B+C = sin B+C
^
.
64c
.
6
c
4 sin
cos ^^4 cos
and
if
we
subtract the
same equations, we get:
b
8in4 a sin
B

C
.
cos
.,
a cos
=sm^ylcos
+
c
.
cos
4
.
b
sin
~
c


Likewise
first
we
find
by adding and
subtracting the two
of the formulae (4): E\C
sm
.
a sin
BC BC

.
.
2
.
sm.4cos
cos f
2
b c
2i
.
cos
a sin
B+ C=
^
is
cos T
M sm
.
b
c
A cos
^
s
Each
equations,
of these formulae
the product of two of Gauss
equations; but in order to derive from these formulae Gauss
s
find another formula, in which a different combination of equations occurs. may use for this pur
we must
We
pose either of the following equations: B\C B+C  cos T a cos =sin^cos ^ .cos^asm Z Z
.
bic
b
c
sm^acos,
.
BC
*
2
6fc
.cos^^lcos
b
n Z
c
j
.
.
B
2
C
.sm^asin
=smy^sin
.cos 7^4 sin
6
which we find by adding or subtracting the
equations (6). If we take
first
two of the
now
:
sin
A sm 5
.
&lt;r
6hc
=a
p
sin? Jcos
cos j
A sin
.
c b ~
=y
COS
5
.4
COS
~
and:
sm
cos
,
a cos
sin
=a = a cos BC = y a sm
tf
~

,
/a
.
,
cos
a
sm
.

=
=
o
,,
,
we
find the following six equations:
a 8
=a
8,
y p
from which we
or:
=a{3, y 8 y8 deduce the following:
=yp,
a
{3
t
a y
=ay,
=
a,
/9
=
/?,
/ = y,
3
=
Hence we
g, / 7 find the following relations
,

=
=
,
= 8 =
,
8.
between the angles
and sides of a spherical triangle:
sm
5
A sm b+c = sm
.
a cos
BC

sm
cos
b
j^.
cos

,
5
A sin 6
,
6
+ = cos ~ =
c
^r
B+C
.y
cos
g
(9)
c
=
sm
7 a a
i
BC sm
^
c
cos
J.
cos
^ 
= cos
ijr
sm
.
or:
sm
^ ^1
sm
cos
.
6+c = 2i
sm
cos
4
a cos
sm
cos
4
A
4
6hc
6
c
=
=
a cos
TJ
sm
.
r
6 c
&lt;
sin
7 a sm
j
cos 5 vl cos
cos
a
sn 
Both systems give us for the unknown quantities, which may be either two sides and the included angle or two angles and the interjacent side, the same value or at least values If we wish to find for instance differing by 360 degrees. b and c, we should get from the second system of for A,
mulae either for
first,

and
^
the
same values
differs
as
from the
but for
c
\A
and
a value which
find for
~
first
180,
180
or
we should
from those
values which
differ
derived from the
system
,
but for
of 4,
A
b
the same value.
In each case therefore the values
and
c as
found
from the two systems would differ only by 360. The four formulae (9) are therefore generally true and it is indifferent, whether we use for the computation of A, b and c the quan
tities
a, B,
C
themselves or add to or subtract from any of
them 360*).
The
four equations (9) are
if either
and are used,
are given
of a spherical triangle
Gauss s equations" one side and the two adjacent angles or two sides and the included angle
as
known
and it is required to find the other parts. The best of computing them is the following. If a, B and C are the given parts, we find first the logarithms of the following
way
quantities
:
(1)
cos
BC
(4)
(5)
(2)
,,,
sin ^
.
(3)
BC sm 5^
2i
a
cos
.
I
a
(6)
B+C sin
sin ^ a sin
and from these:
(7) sin
^ a cos

(9)
2
(8)
cos  a cos
(10)
cos \ a sin
the logarithm
(b
 c)
Subtracting the logarithm of (8) from that of (7) and of (10) from that of (9), we find log. tang
arid Ig. tg.
j[
(6
c),
from which we get b and
+ c)
c),
c.
Then
we
take either log cos (6 cos ^ (6 c) or log sin (6
or log sin
i
(6 + c)
and log
whichever
is
the greater one
*)
Gauss, Theoria motus corporum
coelestium pag. 50 seq.
8
first from the greater one of the or (8), the other from the greater one of the logarithms (7) logarithms (9) or (10) and thus find log sin { A and log cos  A. Subtracting the latter from the first, we get log
of the two and subtract the
tang
cos

\
A
,
from which we find A.
As
sin
\
A
as
well as
\
A must
we may
necessarily give the same angle as tang use this as a check for our computation.
A,
If for instance
we have
the following parts given:
25
6
56."3
a=
.
= 184
11
11
55.
4
C=
we
have:
(7)
18 40. 3
cos
4
(B
sin
sin \ sin \ a cos
\
(B (B
= 86 24 C) = 8.7976413 ^ a = 8.9982605 = 9.9991432
7."55
97
)
42
47."85
9.1278046
9.9978351
cos i a
S in
(7)
^( B
^
(
+ (7)
&lt;7)
9.9960526
8.9974037 9.9938877
5 45 24. 13
C)
f
7.7959018
9.1256397.
sin
4
sin
cos 4 a cos
 (B
C)
cos \ a sin
^(B + (7)
c)
i(6fc)~ 177 19 13.49^ 9.9995248 cos 4 (b h c)
_
sinM cos ^ A
4
9.1261149
9.9960835
7
JTTMO
taken
^
^
(
59."38~
= 183 = 171 A= 15
6
c
(6 cos^(6
4
c)
37."62
9.9978042
33 49. 36
21 58. 76.
If
we had
B=
175
53 4.%, hence:
17
12."15
+C =
)
we
(5 C) should have found:
^ (6 _l_c)
7 
=
82
93
35 52. 45
==
_ 240
185
46."51
(i
c
hence
6
= 183
)=
c
45
24. 13
4
37."62
and
=
188
26
;
10."64.
Dividing Gauss
s
equations by each other,
we find Napier
er,
s
equations. Writing A, B, C in place of 5, C, A and in place of 6, c, a, we find from the equations (9):
a
C S
6,
c
~~ b
tang
AiB 
(9 a)
tang

2
 cotang
C
A
B
r
+b ~
2
cos
sin
&gt;
A B
a
b
^ 2
c
are under nearly all the formulae in No. 3 and 4 a form not convenient for logarithmic computation, their second members consisting of two terms, we must convert them by
6.
As
the
free
introduction of auxiliary angles into others, which are from this inconvenience. Now as any two real, positive
or negative quantities x and y may be taken proportional to a sine or cosine of an angle we may assume:
x
for
=m
sin
M and y =
and
in
cos
M
we
find immediately:
tang If
=
m
=V
1
x"
+
y*
,
hence
all
M
and
m
expressed by real quantities.
Therefore as
the above formulas, which consist of several terms, con tain in each of these terms the sine and cosine of the same
angle, we can take their factors proportional to the sine and cosine of an angle and, applying the formulae for the sine or cosine of a binomial, we can convert the formulae into
a form convenient for logarithmic computation. For instance, if we have to compute the three formulae:
sin
sin
a sin
= cos a cos B = cos
cos a
B=
b cos c f sin b sin c cos
A
A,
sin 6 sin
A
sin b cos c cos
6 sin c
we may
put:
sin b cos
A = m sin M
cos b
= m cos M. = m cos
(c
and
find:
cos a
sin a sin
If
we know
the
B = sin b sin A sin a cos B = m sin (c M}. quadrant, in which B
S1
M)
is
situated,
we
can also write the formulae in the following manner, sub
stituting for
m
its
value
sin
M
:
.
We
cos
compute
first:
tang
M= tang b
A
10
and then
find:
tang=
tang a
tang
A  M
sin
sm(c
M}
= tang(c ^ M) cos
logarithmic tables, by which we can find immediately the logarithms of the sum or the difference of two numbers from the logarithms of the numbers themselves,
If
we have
to use the it is easier and at the same time more accurate, three equations in their original form without introducing the
auxiliary angle.
Such
tables
have been computed for seven
decimals by Zech in Tubingen. (J. Zech, Tafeln fur die Ad ditions und Subtractions Logarithmen fur sieben Stellen.)
Kohler
7.
s
edition of
Lalande
s
logarithmic tables contains
similar tables for five decimals.
always best, to find angles by their tangents; for as their variation is more rapid than that of the sines or cosines, we can find the angles more accurately than by
It is
the other functions.
If /\x denotes a small increment of an angle,
we
have:
Now
dius,
it
is
customary to express the increments of angles
;
in seconds of arc
we
but as the unit of the tangent is the ra must express the increment A & a ls parts of the
m
radius, hence we must divide it by the number 206264,8*). Moreover the logarithms used in the formula are hyperbolic logarithms; therefore if we wish to introduce common loga
rithms,
Finally
*)
in
we must multiply by the modulus 0.4342945 in if we wish to find A (log tang x) expressed
convert
= M.
units
order to
into
is 5.3144251, is always used which are expressed in parts of the radius? seconds of arc and conversely. The number of seconds in the whole
The number 206264.8, whose logarithm
quantities,
circumference
unit
is
is
129(5000,
while this circumference
if
we
take the radius as
1.
27r or 6.2831853.
These numbers are
in
the ratio of 206264,8 to
Hence, if we wish to convert quantities, expressed in parts of the radius into seconds of arc, we must multiply them by this number; but if we wish to convert quantities, which are expressed in seconds of are, into parts of the
the radius, we must divide them by number of seconds contained in an
this
number, which
is
also equal to the
arc equal to the radius,
while
its
com
plement
is
equal to the sine or the tangent of one second.
11
by
of the last decimal of the logarithms used, we must multiply 10000000 if we employ logarithms of seven decimals.
We
find therefore:
A
(log tang x}
2 = r M
JL
/\x"
,
Q
10000000
or:
sin 2,
A
(log tang r).
This equation shows, with what accuracy an angle by
we may
find
Using
computation
tangent. logarithms of five
to
its
decimals
we may expect our
last decimal.
be exact within two units of the
case
Hence
in
this
A
(log tang
900"
a?)
being equal to 200, the
error of the angle
would be:
A*"
=
sin2 * 11 4:2,1
V
=5
"
sin2 *
Therefore if we use logarithms of five decimals, the error cannot be greater than sin 2x or as the maximum value of sin 2 x is unity, not greater than 5 seconds and an error of that magnitude can occur only if the angle is near 45.
5"
If
we use logarithms of seven decimals, the error must needs be a hundred times less hence in that case the greatest er
;
ror of an angle found by the tangent will be O."05. If we find an angle by the sine or cosine, we should have in the formula for A (log sin x) or A (log cos x) instead
of sin 2 x the factor tang x or cotang x which may have any value up to infinity. Hence as small errors in the logarithm of the sine or cosine of an angle may produce very great
errors
in
the
angle
itself,
it
is
always preferable, to find
the angles
8.
by
their tangents.
Taking one of the angles in the formulae for oblique triangles equal to 90, we find the formulae for rightangled If we denote then the hypothenuse triangles. by /, the two sides by c and c and the two opposite angles by C and we get from the first of the formulae (2), taking A 90
cos h
= cos
=
C",
:
c
cos c
,
and by the same supposition from the
sin h sin
first
C= sin
of the formulae (3)
:
c
12
and from the
first
of the formulae (4)
sin h cos
:
C= cos
C=
c sin c
or dividing this
by cos
h
:
tang h cos
tang c.
Dividing the same formula
cotang
C
c
or:
tang
= cotang = tang C
by
sin h sin C,
c sin c
,
we
find
:
sin c
.
Combining with
this the following
tang
c
formula:
we
obtain
cos h
= tang C = cotg Ccotg C
sin
c,
.
At
last
from the combination of the two equations:
sin h sin
C
;
and
sin h cos (7
= = cos
cos
sin c
c sin c
,
we
find:
cos
=
sin
C
c.
We
ing six
parts
:
have therefore for a rightangled triangle the follow formulae, which embrace all combinations of the five
cos h
sin c
tang tang
c
cos h
= h C = tang cos = tang C = cotang C cotang C
sin
sin
= cos
c
cos c
h
C"
sin c
cos (7= cos sin and these formulae enable us to find all parts of a rightangled triangle if two of them are given. Comparing these formulas with those in No. 6, we easily
r;
C",
that by the introduction of the auxiliary quantities m and M, we substitute two rightangled triangles for the oblique triangle. For if we let fall an arc of a great circle from the see,
vertex
C of the oblique triangle vertical to the side c, it is that m is the cosine of this arc and the part of the plain, side c between the vertex A and the point, where it is in tersected by the vertical arc.
M
For the numerical computation of any quantities in astronomy we must always take certain data from obser But as we are not sure of the absolute accuracy vations.
9.
of any of these, on the contrary them to be somewhat erroneous,
as
it
we must suppose
is
all
of
necessary in solving a
problem to investigate, whether a small error of the observed
13
quantity
is
may
to be found.
not produce a large error of the quantity which Now in order to be able easily to make such
differentiate the formulae of spherical
all
an estimate,
all
we must
trigonometry and in order to embrace
cases
we
will take
quantities as variable. Differentiating thus the first of the equations (2), sin b cos c + cos b sin c cos A] db sin a da cos b sin c h sin b cos c cos A] + dc [
we
=
get:
[
sin b sin c sin
A.dA.
Here the
factor
of
db
is
the factor of dc equal to  sin a sin c sin B instead
differential
 sin a cos E\
of the
 sin a cos C and equal to if we write also
factor of
A
,
we
find the
formula
da
:
= cos Cdb
first
+
J~
cos 13 dc
+ sin c sin
BdA..
Writing the
form,
of the equations (3) in a logarithmic
log sin
it:
we
find:
log sin a
B = log sin
b j~ log sin
A
and by
differentiating
cotang a da
+
cotang
first
Bd.B
= cotang bdb
Instead of the
of the
Ad A. formulae (4), we will
\
cotang
dif
ferentiate the first of the formulae (5),
the combination of the formulae (3) and (4).
which were found by Thus we find:
sin
dB
sin JD
+
dA
[cotang
B cos A
cos c
+
A
sin
cos
c]
=
or:
sm
sin
&a
, ,
db
,
+
dc [cotang
cos
b
cos
A
c]
A  dB smB*
sin
C
sm B
dA=
7
sin c 72 sin b*
cos a
&lt;/6h.
:
dc.
sin o
Multiplying this equation by sin B,
sm
or finally:
sin
we
find:
 d
b
a
B
cos CdA =
sin
C
cos a sin
db
B
dc,
\
sin b
sm
6
adB = sin Cdb
the
first
sin
B cos adc
sin b cos
CdA.
find
From
of the formulae (8)
cos
we
b sin
by
similar
reductions as those used for formula (2):
dA = Hence we have
:
cdB
cos
bdC + sin
Cda.
tri
the following differential formulae of
f
gonometry
cotang a da
sin
= cos Cdb cos Bdc Hcotang BdB = cotang bdb adB = Cdb B cos adc dA = cos cdB cos bdC
da
+
sin b sin
+
CdA A dA CdA
cotang
sin
sin
sin b cos
} sin b sin
Cda.
14
as the angles are small, we may take their equal unity and their sines or tangents equal to the arcs themselves, or if we wish to have the arc expressed
10.
As long
to
cosines
in
seconds we
may
take 206265 a instead of sin a or tang
a.
If the
angles are
not so small that
we can
the
second term of the sine, we
may
neglect already proceed in the fol
lowing way. have:
We
sin
a
i
_ J_ a
6
y
a
.
_i_
4
_
a
^120
+ jr
and:
cos
a=
1
a2
a4
hence
:
y
cos a
=
1
a2
f
have therefore, neglecting only the terms higher than the third power:
sin
We
a
a
= \l cos a V
3
or:
a
=
sin
a y sec a
i/
This formula
of 10
is
so
we commit
only an error
3
accurate that using it for an angle less than a second. For we
have
:
log sin 10
]/ sec 10
= 9.2418864
and adding
number corresponding
11.
to this the logarithm 5.3144251 and finding the to it, we get 36000."74 or:
10
0."74.
As we make frequent use in spherical astronomy developement of formulae in series, we will deduce those, which are the most important. If we have an expression of the following form:
of the
,
1
a cos x
we
can easily develop y in a series, progressing according
to the sines of the multiples of x.
For
if
we
find
d*=
ndm
~m
we have tang
z=,
rf
2 t
.
If
we
take thus in the formula
15
for
tang y a and y as variable,
dy da


;
we
x
sin
1
find:
2 a cos x + a~
and
if
we develop
,
this expression
by the method of indeter
minate coefficients in a series progressing according to the
powers of
we
^
find:
2
da
y =
= sinx{asin2xi a
0,
sin
sin 3
x
+ ____ *)
Integrating this
when x
y
=
we
x
f
=a
equation and observing that we have find the following series for y:
2 3 ^ a sin 2 x + ^ a sin 3 x
+ ____
(12)
Often
we have two
Asin
J.
equations of the following form:
JB
cos
B=1
=a
sin
.r
cos #,
and wish
to develop
B
and log A
cording to the sines or cosines of the multiples of x. this case we have
:
in a series progressing ac As in
tang
B=
1
a sin:r

,
a cos x
we
find for
B
a series progressing according to the sines of
the multiples of x from the above formula (12). to develop log A in a similar series, we have
:
But
in order
A=V
I
2acosxia 2
.
find the following series determinate coefficients
:
Now we
by the method of
a 3 cos
in
a cos x
1
a2
~
2 a cos x H a 2
= a cosx

f
a
cos
2x
f
ox
f ..
.
)
Multiplying this by
to a,

and integrating with respect
we
find for the left side:
2acosa:ta 2 )
&lt;a
and as we have log
log ]/l
^4
=
te
when a
=
2
0,
we
get
:
2acos#a
2
=log^l=
that
[ocosar+^a cos2ar+
a 3 cos3.r +
.
.
.]
(13)
*) It is easily seen,
first
term
cos x
is
sin^,
and that the
coefficient
of
a"
is
found by the equation:
A,,
= 2A
i
Ani
a:,
**) It
efficient of
is
again evident,
is
that the
coefficient of a is cos
:
while the co
a,,
found by the equation 2 An COS X A,
t
=
\
An
%.
16
If
we have
the
two equations:
A sin B = a sin x
A
cos
B=1
+
a cos
or
we
by substituting 180 and (13): (12)
find
.B
x instead ofx
4
.]
in the equations
= asinar
a COS.T tang y
a 2 sin
2*4 j a 3
sin
3*
....
....
(14)
a
2
cos2:r4
3 }a cosStf
(15)
If
we have an
expression of the following form:
= n tang =
j?,
we
can easily reduce J
it
to the
form tang y
(n
1
)
=
1
2
cos x
For we have:
x)
=
tang y
tang x
tang x
1j tang y tango:
(n
x"
lfntang*
(n
1) sin
1
x cos x
+
2 n sin x
2
11 cos2*fn
1) sin
x cos x
4
2
cos2*
n
n(n 1) sin 2;r
(M
1
sm 2x
 cos
1
a?,
.
(n4D
n\
Hence,
y
if
we have the equation tang y = n tang
sin 2
we
...
find
:
= x} nhl
If
x h 4 (
sin6r .) sin4a: t4 ( ) \njl/ Vnflx
.
+
(16)
we
take here:
we have:
Hence from

= cos a, = tang 4 a
n
2
.
nf1
the equation:
tang^
= cos a tang x
]
6 tang \ a sin6a:
we
get
y
=x
2
tang^:
4 sin2o:H^tang4a sin4ar
+
...
(17)
If
we have
we
find:
= sec = ^ tang
n
,
2 $
.
Hence from
tangy =
the equation:
sec
tang
a:
or tang x
= cos a
tangj/,
we
obtain for y 2 ^== x _tang^a sin2^+Jtang;a 4 sm4a:hitang^a 6 As we have: cos a cos 8
:
sinGa:4...
(18)
ioIa
dsin
sin
Tcos ft
sin
/9
h
sin
i
17
we
find also
from the equation
tang
:
y=
cos
a
^
/?)
tang
(
or,
x
tang
4
(
tang
4
/?)
sin
and from:
^
= # h tang ^

(
2
)
/?)
cotang
(
^
(a f /9) sin 2 x
2
+
tang
4
(
cotang ^
f /9)
sin 4or
+
.
.
.
By
Napier
s
the
aid
of the two last formulae
series.
we can develop
formulae into a
For from the equation:
ab Sm 2=
2
s
A
B
c
we
find:
ab ~
~2~
or:
c
c
~2
 tang B
Z?
T cotan g 2
A
2
A
sin c
+ ^ tan g B

2
A
cotang
2
sin 2 c
....
"^~
=:
a
6 ~
2
~2
+ tan S 2
cotan g
sin ( ft
~ 6 )HTtang B
A
2
A2
cotang
y
sin 2 (a
6)4
...
and
also in the
same way from the equation:
B
2
tang  =
a+ft
2
C S
^
cos
^tang:
we
find the following
c
two
series
Sin
A
tang
B
"2"
2"
T tang
5
sin
+
A2
tang
~2~
^l
2
B
tang
2
S
T"
~
2
~^
 tang
^4
2
tang
2
^
a
+^+
B
tang
2
tang
2"
T
sin 2
(l ^)
Quite similar series
equations
:
may be
sin
obtained from the two other
AB
~2~
180
(7
sin


a~b
~2~
cos
180C7
It often
happens, that lowing form:
we meet
C os
y = cos x H
with an equation of the
6
fol
18
from which we wish
according to the
to develop y into a series progressing obtain this by applying powers of b.
We
x
Taylor
s
theorem
put:
to the equation:
For
if
we
= cos x =
y
arc cos [cos
z
f b]
and y
=/(z f
?&gt;),
we
get:
or as:
f
f \
z
=x
d
.f=
dz
_^.* ... d.cosx
=
L
sin*
cos x
d*f_
dz 2
sin*
dx
d.cosx
dx
sin* 3
~
d3
cos x
sin
f_
sin*
x3
dx __
d.cosx
sin* 2
,
[1
h 3 cotang**]
sin
dz 3
y
dx
^cotang*
x3
2
]
=x
i[lH3cotang*
sin* 3
,.... (19)
In the same
way we
sin
find from the equation: y
=
2
sin
*
f b
y
= x\
cos *
Ktangs^rH cos *
[1
+ 3 tang*
2
] * cos
3
+ ...*)
(20)
.B.
THE THEORY OF INTERPOLATION.
12. continually use in astronomy tables, in which the numerical values of a function are given for certain nu
We
merical values
of the variable
the
quantity.
But
as
we
often
want
to
know
value of the function for such values of
the variable quantity as are not given in the tables, we must have means, by which we may be able to compute from
certain numerical values of a function its value for any other value of the variable quantity or the argument. This is the object of interpolation. By it we substitute for a function,
whose
analytical expression is either entirely unknown or at least inconvenient for numerical computation, another, which
Encke, einige Reihenentwickelungen aus der spharischen Astronomie. s astronomische Nachrichten No. 562.
*)
Schumacher
19
derived merely from certain numerical values, but which may be used instead of the former within certain limits.
is
We
quantity.
in
can develop any function by Taylor
s
theorem into
is
a series, progressing according to the powers of the variable
The only
case,
which forms an exception,
that,
which
tity
numerical value of the variable quan the value of one of the differential coefficients is infinity,
for a certain
so that the
function ceases to be
bourhood of this value.
The
continuous in the neigh theory of interpolation being
derived from the development of functions into series, which are progressing according to the integral powers of the va riable quantity, assumes therefore, that the function is con
tinuous between the limits within which
ration
it
comes
into conside
is fulfilled.
and can be applied only
if this
condition
If
we
call
w
the interval or the difference of two follow
ing arguments (which we shall consider as constant), we may denote any argument by a\nw, where n is the variable quantity, and the function corresponding to that argument by
f(a\nw}.
/"(ahftfi),
We
will
denote further the difference of two
consecutive functions f (a f nw] and f(a f (n f 1) w) by writing within the parenthesis the arithmetical
mean of the two arguments, to which the difference belongs, but omitting the factor w*). Thus (a! 5) denotes the difference of f(a h to) and f(a), f(tfhf) the difference of f(a l20) and /"(afw?). In a similar manner we will denote
/"
the higher differences, indicating their order by the accent. Thus for instance (a\Y) is the difference of the two first
f"
differences
f (aHf) and
/"(+).
the arguments and the corresponding functions with their differences in thus as follows:
Argument
a
Function
I.
The schedule of
Diff.
II. Diff.
III. Diff.
IV. Diff.
V.
Diff.
3w f(a
3 w)
/
(
o3;/(a
notation was introduced by Encke in his paper on ) This convenient mechanical quadrature in the Berliner Jahrbuch fiir 1837.
9*
20
All differences which have the same quantity as the ar gument of the function, are placed on the same horizontal
line.
In differences of an odd order the argument of the function consists of a} a fraction whose denominator is 2.
13.
As we may
develop any function by Taylor
into a series progressing according to the integral
s theorem powers of
the variable quantity,
we can assume:
ft
.
/(a + nw} = a H
n
w h
y
.
n2
1
w"
+
.
n3
iv
3
H
.
.
.
function f (a) were If the analytical expression known, we might find the coefficients a, ft, 7, 6 etc., as we of the
have a
that
f(a)
/i
=
~r
etc.
We
will
suppose
however,
we will not make use we know the numerical
certain
the analytical expression is not given, or at least that of it, even if it is known, but that values of the function f(a\nw) for
values
Then substituting of the argument a + nw. those different values of the variable n successively in the equation above, we get as many equations as we know values
of the function and
coefficients
,
we may
therefore find the values of the
2
/:?,
; ,
d etc. from them.
we have a
f(a) and that pw, /w of differences, which all may be reduced to a certain series of differences, so that we may assume f(^a\nw) to be of
easily seen, that are linear functions etc.
It is
the following form:
where ^,
by the introduction of certain values of n. an integral number, any function f (a \nw}
f(a)
which may be determined But when n is is derived from and the above differences by merely adding them successi
J5,
C... are functions of w,
vely, if we take the higher differences as constant or if we consider the different values of the function as forming an
arithmetical series of a higher order. If already the first dif ferences are constant, we have simply f(a}nw) f(a)+n /"(ajJ), if the second differences are constant, we must add to the
=
above value
f"
(a\Y) multiplied
1
by the sum of the numbers
and
if
from
1
to n
or byy~^;
(
only the third
/""(aHf)
diffe
rences are constant, we have to add still by the sum of the numbers 1, l}2,
1 {
multiplied 2 + 3 etc. to
21
1
+2
"
f
.
.
.
{
2 or
by
(&gt;*
(w
7^ J
1
.
(
.
"
~ 2)
.
o
n (n
1
We
1) (n
have therefore
2) i
in general
i
A
A
=
n,
n n B = yg 1) n
(a
etc.
^
(
g
hence
:
f(a
+
w ) ==/() 4 n/
+*)
+ ^^/
+
where the law of progression
This formula
lation.
is
^^
obvious
s
+D
2)
/
(
+ t)H...,
(0
is
*).
known
as
Newton
The
coefficient
of the
a?"
difference
formula for interpo of the order n is
(1fa?)*.
equal to the coefficient of
in the
development of
Example.
According
to the
Berlin
Almanac
for
1850
for
we have
the following heliocentric longitudes of
I.
Mercury
mean noon:
Diff.
II. Diff.
III. Diff.
Jan.
0303 2310 4317
6 3/1 D 324
25
651.5 +
1".
5
6 ! 7 1
7
29.5
.
29 oy zy 39
16
9 j
038 J^
ic 07
o
+18
48
.
S
q
21 32 24 9A ^
wt&gt;
4
9 y
1
+* H2
2 9
44"4
*
9
4 f^
_
h
10".
1
&lt;
.
47
t
.
17.2 10340 30 20.6 If we wish to find
8 332
27 26
.
Jan.
1
at
now mean noon, we have
/(a)
the longitude of
:
Mercury
for
= 303
50".
25
n
1".
5 and n
=
,
further
:
/
( a f
)
= h 6
41
0,
=
1
.
Product:
h 3
20
55".
/(a + l)=
h 18
48.0,^^ =  Z
n
221.0
s
+ = +
244.4
^=i
)2 = +
) 
+10.3
are
vity
*) We can see this easily by the manner in which the successive functions formed by the differences. For if we denote these for the sake of bre by / / etc. we have the following table
"
:
,
/",
I.
Diff.
II. Diff.
III. Diff.
/()
J(&)~r*J H~/
f(
\
I
O
fl
I
f
Q
fll
I
J f
fill
J
\
J
_,
&lt;
o fn
,
^/
~T"
fin J
J
,r;/;
./
fH
i
~T~ J
.
fill
f&gt;
J
fll
r*&gt;j
j
O
,.,
Q
,,;;
o
v
J
fin
/;//
/(a) H 5/ /(a) 4 6/
4
10/
15/"
f
+
+
f
10/"
+
Yf
fi
1
[T
"
"
20/"
^J
"
10^
I
K&gt;
"&gt;
"
4/
5/"
,,
/"
+
7
^"
/(a)47/h21/"435/""
22
Hence we have
and we
to
add
13
to f(cf)
18
43".
9
find the longitude of Mercury for Jan. 1 O h 4. 300 43
45".
We
may
write
Newton
s
formula in the following more
gain the advantage of using
convenient form, by which
we
more simple
/(a
f nto)
fractions as factors:
=/(a) H n
[/ (a
+ $ ^+
[/"
(a+ 1)
+ ~ X
If n
is
again equal to
6".
,
we have
this

=
,
hence
mul
4
/IV (aH2) =
3.
Adding
to
f"
(4f) and
19".
tiplying the
sum by
? =
f"
f,
we
find  1
0.
Ad
ding this again to
(a f 1)
and multiplying the sum by
if
^~
l

=
i,
we
get
4
22".
2 and
we
finally
add
this to
43".
f (a 4 1) and
to f(d)
we have to add 3 18 9 multiply by and thus we find the same value as before, namely
4.
n=^
306 43
14.
45".
We
polation, if we tains only such differences as are found on the same horizon tal line and that for instance starting from f(a) we have to use only the differences /X#4), GO an(^ f a ~k~%) The
/"
can find more convenient formulae of inter transform Newton s formula so, that it con
"(.
two
first
terms of
Newton
s
formula
may
therefore be re
tained.
Now we
/"
have:
( a H 1)
/
"
(
/iv
(
/v
(
= f ()+= a + HI/ = f H 4/ + f a+ =/ ()+2/v + f/v + a 4 I) ==/% + + yvi (a + v
f"
(a f 1),
(
h
)
f"
(a
)
1)
lv
2)
(a
1)
v
(
)
IV
(a
)
(
1),
3
(
)
2)
=/
(
4 i)
4/
VI
(a
+ +/
1)
f"
VI
(a
+
2),
etc.
We
obtain thus as coefficient of
n (n
1)
(a)
:
23
as coefficient of njn
f
lv
^ah^)
n (n

1)
1) (n
2)
_
(n
H
1
)_( w_
_1 )
~T:2
as coefficient of
1.2.3
f (a):
n(n
1) (n
1.2.3~
2) (n
n(n
l)(n
2)
3)
_
(n + 1) n (n
1) (n
2)
1.2.3
at last as coefficient of
1.2.3.4
v
1.2.3.4
n(
l)(n
2)
n(n
l)(n
2)(n
3)
n(n
l)(n
2)(n
3)(n4)
1.2.3
1.2.3.4
1.2.3.4.5
1) (n
_ (nf2) (nH1) n (n
1
2)
.2.3.4.5
is
where the law of progression
obvious.
Hence we have:
If
we
ment
is
introduce instead of the differences, whose argu aHf those whose argument is a f, we find:
/
(a
+
i)
=./"
(a

)
+/"
(a),
Therefore in this case the differences of an odd order
remain the same, but the coefficient of
n (n
1)
f"(a)
is:
_
n
(n
+
2)
1)
1.2
1.2
and that of
/"
Iv
(a)
1)
:
(n+l)n(n 1.2.3
(n +
l)n
(n
l)(n
(n
l)n(n
+
l) (nf2)
1.2.3.4
1.2.3.4
We
find therefore:
(a)
f"
+
1
( n 2)( n
l)n(n+l)(nH2)
"
~"i7273 .T.T TTT^IL 4^ where again the law of progression is obvious.
Supposing now, that we have to interpolate for a value, whose argument lies between a and a 0, n will be negative. But if n shall denote a positive number, we must introduce
n instead of n in the above formula,
which therefore
is
changed
into the following:
24
/(a)
w
(
 n/(a i) +
4)
~^^/
2)
(a)
_
+ (n+lnl)
/lv
(n42)(n4l)n(nl)(n2)
This formula
wards.
(3) as before
Making made with Newton
if we interpolate back the same change with the formulae (2) and s
~lT2T374~5~ we use therefore
formula,
[/"
we
find:
f(a 4 nw)
=/() + n
X
[/"
[
/"
(a
K) H
(a
4) h
a
^
)
^
1
(a)
+

n
X
(2 a)
~
[/
IV
(a) 4 ...
/(a
_ nw =/() _ n [/
)
(
 ~^
[/
^(a)
[/"
(a)
?^
X
(3 a)
X
If
"
[/
(a
$n
Iv

...
drawn through the table of the functions and differences near the place which the value of the function, which we seek, would occupy and if we use the first formula, when a\nw is nearer to a than to a\w, and the second one, when a nw is nearer to a than to a we have to use always those differences, which
therefore a horizontal line
?,
we imagine
are situated next to the horizontal line on both sides.
It is
then not at
of the
all
necessary,
to
differences, but we rence so that it comes nearer to the difference on the other
pay any attention to the sign have only to correct each diffe
side
first
of the horizontal
line.
For instance
if
we apply
the
formula, the argument being between a and a\~^w^ the horizontal line would lie between/""^) and (ahl). Then
/"
we have
to
add
to
f"
(a):
Therefore
rected
if
f 00
is
(
smaller ) Vgreater/
than
f"(a
hi), the corf"
f"
(a) will be
and hence come nearer
(f"*^)
(a 41).
little greater accuracy may be obtained by using in of the highest difference the arithmetical mean of the two differences next to the horizontal line on both sides of it.
A
stead
We
shall denote the arithmetical
mean of two
differences
by
25
the sign of the differences, adopted before, but using as the argument the arithmetical mean of the arguments of the two
differences, so that
we have
&gt;
for instance
:
/ (a + ,/(+
As
J)+/(++
2
in this case the quantities within the parenthesis are fractions for differences of an even order and integral num bers for those of an odd order, while in the case of simple
rise to
differences they are just the reverse, this notation cannot give any ambiguity. If we stop for instance at the second
differences, direction
,
we must
use
the
arithmetical
so that
we
take
when we interpolate in a forward mean of (a) and (a + 1) or now instead of the term
f"
/*"
the term:
?;* f (a+ * "riHence while using merely
"
"
}
"
(/ (o)
+ */
"
(a
+
)! 
equal to the
mit,
is
(a) we commit an error whole third term, the error which we now com
f"
only:
+&gt;

If
we have n
is
differences,
this
case
\, this error, depending on the third therefore reduced to nothing, and as it is in indifferent, which of the two formulae (2) or (3)
=
we
use, as
we can
either start
from the argument a and in
terpolate in a
forward direction or starting from the argument
a+w
interpolate in a backward direction, we get the most convenient formula by the combination of the two. Now for \ formula (2) becomes
=
:
while formula (3) becomes,
the starting point:
if
the argument (ofto)
is
made
"
(a t
26
If we take the arithmetical mean of these two formulae, terms containing differences of an odd order disappear and we obtain thus for interpolating a value, which lies ex
all
in the middle between two arguments, the following convenient formula, which contains only the arithmetical very mean of even differences:
actly

*
[/"(aH)

^ [/
is
IV
(K)  ~ f/V
where the law of progression Example. If we wish to
for Jan.
obvious.
find the longitude of
4 12 h ,
we apply formula
I.
(2 a).
The
differences,
Mercury which
IV. Diff.
we have
to use, are the following:
Diff.
38".
II. Diff.
III. Diff.
44".
+7
Jan. 4
317
7
29".
5
"
21
_
^
H2 2 !jA_
.
3
+ 10
"
l
__
6
7 22 10

4 24 26
9~
2 54
.
5
324 29 39
~~9
4
.
7
In this case
n
~
we have
1
n
=
J
,
hence
n
:
== ~
A
8
!L]
3
""2
A = 12
2
2
4
7 = 16
taking no account of the signs and we get: 7 differences X T g arithmetical mean of the
4"
corrected third difference
51".
3
8
corrected second difference
22
7
43".
corrected
first
difference
13
.
39".
X X X
^
f
.
,
= = = =
I
ll".
4
8
1
31".
4
7,
48
24".
hence the longitude
If
for Jan. 4
5
2.
318
55
54".
to find the longitude for Jan. 5.5, we have to apply formula (3 a) and to use the differences, which are on both sides of the lower one of the two horizontal lines.
we wish
Then we
find the longitude for Jan. 5 7. 322 36
56".
.
5
In order to
make an
application of formula (4 a)
.
we
1".
will
now
find the longitude for Jan. 5
arithmetical
arithmetical
0,
and get:
T
36
arithmetical
mean mean mean
of the 4 th differences
of the 2
d
differences
X X
^
of the functions
= = = 320
4
3
7
2
52".
48
34".
hence
the longitude for Jan.
5.0
42".
320 45
4.
27
Computing now the
interpolation
Jan.
differences
of the values found by
II. Diff.
we
obtain:
I.
Diff.
III. Diff.
4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0
r29 318 5554
SIT"
.
5
.2
*
hl
23".5
3204542.4
322 3656 .7
126.1 128.9
+
_
_
,/
2
8
324 29 39
.
9
regular progression of the differences shows us, the interpolation was accurately made. This check by forming the differences we can always employ, when we have
that
The
computed a
of the
series
argument.
in
of values of a function at equal intervals For supposing that an error x has been
/"(a),
made
computing the value of
the table of the diffe
rences will
now
be as follows
:
Hence an
very much
error in the value of a function
shows
itself
increased in the higher differences and the greatest irregularities occur on the same horizontal line with the er
roneous value of the function.
15.
We
often have occasion to find the numerical value
differential coefficient of a function, whose analytical expression in not known and of which only a series of nu merical values at equal intervals from each other is given. In this case we must use the formulae for interpolation in order to compute these numerical values of the differential
of the
coefficients.
If
we
develop
f
Newton
n[f
(a
s
formula
find:
/"
for
interpolation ac
cording to the
powers of w,
4^)
we
/(oHnuO =/(a)
(a 41) + j
"
+ ^2
but as
[/"
Ca H 1)
/
(a
+ f) 4
1.2.3
Ly
we have
also according to Taylor s theorem:
/C
/v
+
/v^^/M 0=/C) + i_ B
&gt;
,
,d*f(a)n*w&gt;d f(a)n + , i;  + Ta r 1^3 +
,&gt;
U

...
we
find
VQ =
by comparing the two JL [/ f i)
(
series:
(a
/"
+ 1)+ I/
"
(afi)

...]
^=
arithmetical
1 [/
(
+
1) /" (a
K)
+
...].
More convenient values of the differential coefficients may be deduced from formula (2) in No. 14. Introducing the
mean
of the
odd differences by the equations:
etc.
we
find:
/(a+nu,)
=/() + / (a) 4 ^/
()
/
+ ^^=^
(
)
/"
(a)
(^D^CnLt)
1.2.3.4
This formula contains the even differences which are on
the same horizontal line with
/"(a),
and the arithmetical mean
of the odd differences, which are on both sides of the hori zontal line. Developing it according to the powers of n we
obtain
:
/(a4nu;)=/(a)
+ n [/
H
(a)

J
:
/
"(a)
+ ^fv
(o)
(a)
 T io/
VI
VI1
(a)
+
.
.
.]
Y~2
If"
W ~ A/ v
(a)
H F O
/ ()/vn (a)
"
]
+
f/"
~ ^V
(a)
+^

]
and from
this
we
find:
etc.
If
we wish
is
to find the differential coefficient of a function,
itself,
which
have:
not given
for instance of
f(a\nw\ we must
substitute in these
formulae a\n instead of a, so that
we
29
tfI
t0
.
P
,
J
IV
,
/"
aa
.
.&gt;
,
(afn) h
..
.
,
z
etc.
The
differences
which are
to be
used now do not occur
in
the table of the differences, but must be computed. even differences such as (a \ ri) for instance this
f"
For the
compu
tation
is
simple,
as
we
find these
by the ordinary formulae
/"
of interpolation, considering merely now (fl), f"(atri) etc. as the functions, the third differences as their first ones etc.
But the odd
find a
we
differences are arithmetical means, hence we must formula for the interpolation of arithmetical means. But have:
/ (0 +
and according
to
)
=(a
f)
1
/"
2
formula (2) in No. 14:
/ (a 
4
h n)
=/  + /
/ (aHi) 4
(a)
4
^^/"
(a
(n+l)(nl)
.2.3
(a)
H
1.2.3
therefore
find
~J
of both formulae
taking the arithmetical
mean
we
the following formula for the interpolation of an arith metical mean:
)
=/
(a)
4
nf"
(a)
4
"/"
(a)
4
{
nf"
(a)
The two terms:
arise
from the arithmetical mean of the terms:
n (n
1)
iT^
/
(
I)
and
which gives:
l^/"
()
H
^
f/"
(a
4
) /"
(a

])].
30
lv Combining the two terms, which contain f (a), we may
write the above formula thus:
/
(
aH _ w )
=/
()
+
/ (a) h y /
6
"
(a)
+
^/^ ()
H
(7)
The formulae
5,
and 7 may be used to find the nu
merical values of the differential coefficients of a function for
any argument by using the even differences and the arith metical means of the odd differences, whenever a series of
numerical values of the function at equal intervals
is
given.
We
can also deduce other formulae for the
differential
which contain the simple odd differences and the For if we in arithmetical means of the even differences. troduce in formula (3) in No. 14 the arithmetical means of
coefficients,
the even differences
by the aid of the equations:
/(a
/() =
+
J)
i/(oHj)
etc.
we
find, as
we
have:
1)
(nhl)n(n
_
,
n (n
1)
1.2.3
=n
(n
1) (n

1.2
etc.
1.2.3
If
we
write here
w~h
instead of w, the law of the co
as
efficients
becomes more obvious,
(
we
get:
(a
/[+ (n hi) w] =f(a H 1) h /
h
D
+
/"
+ i)
(!^i^^
Developing
this
formula according to the powers of
w,
we
find the terms independent of n:
hence
:
31
/[a
+ + 1) w] =/(
h { w)
l920
/VII(a+4) 

]
Comparing
according
this
formula with the development of f(a\\w+ nw)
s
to
Taylor
theorem,
we
find:
(8)
etc.
These formulae
will
be the most convenient in case that
coefficients of a function for
we have
to find the differential
is
an argument, which
the arithmetical
mean
of two successive
given arguments. For other arguments, for instance a+(n}Qw
we have
again:
da
=/ + 1 *^)
,
1
(
/ (aH + n)
etc.
Here we can compute the difference f (a{\\ri) as well as all odd differences by the ordinary formulae of interpolation. But as the even differences are arithmetical means, we must use a different formula, which we may deduce from the for mula (7) for interpolating an arithmetical mean of odd diffe rences by substuting a h \ instead of a and increasing all
accents by one, so that
we have
for instance:
/1V (a h
TZ
Example.
According to the Berlin Almanac for 1848
we have
the following rightascensions of the moon.
32
I.
Diff.
II. Diff.
III. Diff.
IV. DifF.
15
Oh
50 to
6 .39
If
we wish
1
find
1
the
first
differential
coefficients
for
h July 13 10 , II and 12 and use formula (9), we must first h h h compute the first and third differences for 10 , ll and 12
.
The
third of the first differences corresponds to the argument h h h (a hi)? we have therefore for 10 , ll July 13 6 and is and \. Then inter and 12 h n respectively equal to *,
/"
^
polating in the ordinary way,
10h
we
find:
+25
25 26
57s. 11
2s.
2
.
51
llh
12h
58 .81
.
2 .58
49
64
and from
this the differential coefficients:
for
10h
+25^573.21
25
llh 12h
58 .92
.
26
60
where the unit is an interval of 12 hours. If we wish to find them so that one hour is the unit, we must divide by 12 and
find thus the following values:
10 h
ll h 2
99. 77
9 .91
12h
10
.
05,
which are the hourly velocities of the moon in rightascension. If we had employed formula (6), where the arithmetical Juli 13 12 h means of odd differences are used, taking a h we would have found for instance for 10 where n is J,
=
2
,
,
according to formula (7)
:
f (a
^)
= + 2556s.77
and
/
"(a
)
=
.
51
and from these the differential mula (6) equal to 42 m 9 s .77.
coefficient according to for
The second
differences are the following:
for 10h
j
20s. 55
llh
12*&gt;
20 .34 20 12.
.
33
If
P&gt;
we add to these the fourth differences multiplied by and divide by 144, we find the second differential co
for
efficients
1O
lib
I
s
.
1432 .1417
1402.
12h
.
where again the unit of time
is
one hour*).
C.
THEORY OF SEVERAL DEFINITE INTEGRALS USED
SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY.
IN
16.
limits
As
and
the integral
co
le ~dt, either taken between the
or between the limits o and
T
or
T and
oo,
is often used in astronomy, the most important theorems re garding it and the formulas used for its numerical compu
tation shall be briefly deduced.
The
of the
definite integral
\e~^dt
s
is
a transformation of one
first
class of
Euler
class
x
integrals
known
as
the
Gamma
functions.
For
this
the
following notation
has been
(1)
adopted
:
le
o
.x"
dx
= F(a\
where a always is a positive quantity, and as we may deduce the following formula:
\e
x
.x"
easily
~
{
dx
=
\e
x
d(^"^
=
e
x
.
*"
*
f
fx a e
x
dx
to
and as the term without the integral sign becomes equal
zero after the substitution of the limits,
CO
&lt;X
we
x"
find:
fir*
.
xa
~
l
dx
=
J
or:
a J
fe*.
dx
(2)
ar(a)
= r(a+l}
But
as
we have
also:
*)
Encke on interpolation and on mechanical quadrature
1837".
in
Berliner
Jahrbuch fur 1830 und
3
34
it
follows, that
If
when
F(n}
n
(n
is
=
an integral number,
\}(n
2)(n
3)....
1.
we have:
find:
we
take in the equation (1)
x
=
2
J
,
we
hence for a
=
o
\
:
2
feI
.d/
=
we
will multiply
it
In order to find this integral,
similar one
by a
\e~ yl dy, so that
r
we
get:
(
(I
=f
(&gt;,/,
," rf ,
).
I)
d,
J&gt;
=
Jj&gt;"
II
2+
tl
"
2)
"
rf*.
Taking here y
=x
t
,
hence d/
=
t
.
dx
,
we
find
:
or as:
we
find:
2
(
(i
I
e~
d
ty
=
\
ii
I
=
^ (arc
tang GO
arc tang 0)
=
&gt;
hence
:
From
If
this follows
r() = /7r,
JTQ)
=
r (I) = 1/7T
shall
J/TT,
hence from equation (2):
etc.
we
introduce in equation (1) a
by taking x
=
new
constant quantity
ky
,
where k
the limits of the integral
may
be positive in order that remain unchanged, we find:
hence
:
*V ^ =
.
(4)
35
17.
To
find the integral
is
le^dt, various methods are
easily
used.
While T
small,
we
obtain
by developing
&lt;
2
,,
T3
X
and as we have \e~
*dt=
&gt;
we
also find
from the above
formula the integral
\e~ li dt.
crease only at the ratio of
This series must always converge, as the numerators in T 2 while the denominators arc con
,
stantly increasing; but only while T is small, does it converge with sufficient rapidity. therefore T is large, another series is used for computing this integral, which is obtained
When
parts. Although this series is divergent continued indefinitely, yet we can find from it the value of the integral with sufficient accuracy, as it has the property,
by integrating by
if
that the
sum
have:
of
all
the terms following
itself.
a certain term
is
not greater than this term
We
.
or integrating
by parts:

,
By
the same process
we
find:
/2
&gt;~
) j
dt in
~ rl
,
,
e
or finally
re J
^^=_
~
e
/2
2t
riL
l
2&lt;
1.3.5....(2n
2"+
+
l)
_*2 f e t*
rf&lt;
J
3
36
or after substituting the limits:
,
f
The
_e~ =
2
Ti
T
[ L
1
_ l.3_
1.3.5
2
2712
(2r 2
)
(27
12
)
3
1.3. 5. ...(2?il)
1.3.5....
(5
factors in the
numerator are constantly increasing,
;
2 when this happens, hence they will become greater than 2 T as the numerators in the terms must indefinitely increase, But if we consider the crease more than the denominators.
remainder
:
hl) C
t
J
we can
easily
prove that
it
is
smaller
than the
is
last
pre
ceding term. &
For the value of the
,11
integral
less
than
multiplied
and
OD
2 by the greatest value of e~ between the /12 and as we have: which is e~
,
limits
T
A
r
J
/"+
L. = 2n+l
_
_1 2
T
"
the remainder must always be less than: 1 1.3.5...2n _
Now
this
expression
with opposite sign, remainder is negative and less than it. In order therefore to find a very accurate value of the integral, we have only to see, that the last term which we compute is a very small one, as the error committed by neglecting terms is less than this very small term.
the
that of the last preceding term so that if the last term is positive, the
is
remaining
Another method
for
computing
it
Laplace, consists in converting If we put:
x
this integral, given by into a continued fraction.
dx
=
7,
(a)
J
/
we
find
:
37
rf7
df&lt;
= 2te
_
2
&lt;
/
I
X2
e
dx
2
e
= 2* 71.
Now
d"
t
(/?)
the n ih differential coefficient of a product is: 8 d .xy __&lt;*.* * 1) e* * (n dy *Py
n
,
,
"
"
"
1
rf^"
7
rfir
1.2
rfr
2
rf^
2
hence we have:
c/"
+1 77
rf
7
If
we denote
this
the product equation thus:
r
=
1.2.3  n by w/, we may write
o
=2
"
or denoting 777
by
(n
Un
1)
:
His
67rt+
i
=2
for
*
/
all
4
2 7w _i.
This equation
true
values
itself.
of n from n
=
1,
it:
when
t/
()
is
equal to the function
U
We
find
from
hence
:
But we have from equation
(/9):
,
~
hence
:

= 2t
1
2&lt;
o
j
i
"
U
and from equation
(; )
follows:
1
2*
Z7,
38
If
we
substitute
this
value in the former equation and
continue the development,
we
find:
1
+3
1
H
etc.,
therefore , taking
^^ = g
(7)
143?
144?"
1
4
etc.
By
one of the three formulae (5), (6) or (7)
we can
i2 f2 always find the value of the integral Ie~ dt or ie~ dt, but
T
on account of the frequent use of tables have been constructed for
given in Bessel
s
this transcendental function
it.
One
of such tables
is
Fundamenta Astronomiae
for the function:
/J.**,
from which the other forms are easily deduced. The part of this table has the argument T and extends from
to
first
T=
T=l,
But
as according to
the interval of the arguments being one hundreth. formula (6) the function is the more
nearly inversely proportional to its argument, the greater T becomes, the common logarithms of T are used as arguments
for values
of
T
greater than
is
1.
This second part of the
table extends from the logarithm
T == 0.000
is
to log.
still
T= 1.000,
which
for
most purposes
sufficient.
For
greater ar
guments the computation The integral 18.
by formula (6)
very easy.

dx
39
can be easily reduced to the one treated above.
For
if
we
introduce another variable quantity, given by the equation:
,
from which we have
the above integral
is
dx=
2
1
dt, ,
transformed into:
if
we
take
:
T= cotang
}
^
.
If
now we
introduce the following notation
we have
and also
:
I ^
^=: dx = }
j
^H
(8)
:
If
we
diflPerentiate
the expression e~ x
Vcos^ 2 f^
n
ft
x
with respect to x and then integrate the resulting equation with respect to x between the limits and oo, we easily find
:
where
T= cotang t
(9)
And
as
we have by formula
P
o
we
find:
J
\l
52
^
i
9
S111
=&gt;
(10)
of which formulae
we
shall also
make use
hereafter.
40
D.
19.
THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES.
In astronomy
we
continually determine quantities
But when we observe any phenomenon re by we generally find different results by different ob peatedly,
observations.
servations, as the imperfection of the instruments as well as that of our organs of sense, also other accidental ex ternal causes produce errors in the observations, which render
It is therefore very important to have result incorrect. a method, by which notwithstanding the errors of single ob servations we may obtain a result, which is as nearly correct
the
as possible. The errors
committed
in
making an observation
all
are of
two kinds,
either
constant or accidental.
The former
are
such errors which are the same in
observations and which
may be caused
either
by
a peculiarity of the instrument used
or by the idiosyncrasy of the observer, which produces the same error in all observations. On the contrary accidental
errors
are
for different observations
such which as well in sign as in quantity differ and therefore are not produced by
causes
may
which act always in the same sense. These errors be eliminated by repeating the observations as often as
possible, as
we may expect, that among a very great number of observations there are as many which give the result too
great as there are such which give
result
it
too small.
But the
final
must necessarily remain
any, when
there are
by constant errors, if for instance the same observer is ob
affected
serving with the same instrument. In order to eliminate also these errors, it is therefore necessary, to vary as much as
methods of observation as well as the instruments and observers themselves, for then also these errors will for the most part destroy each other in the final result, deduced from the single results of each method. Here we shall con sider all errors as accidental, supposing, that the methods have been so multiplied as to justify this hypothesis. But
possible the
if this
is
method given
errors,
not the case the results deduced according to the hereafter, may still be affected by constant
41
a quantity by immediate measurement, it is natural to adopt the arithmetical mean of all single ob servations as the most plausible value. But often we do not determine a single quantity by direct observations, but only
If
we determine
which give us certain relations between several that quantities; we may however always assume, these relations between the observed and the unknown quan For although in ge tities have the form of linear equations. which expresses this relation neral the function ?/, etc.) between the observed quantities and the unknown quantities
find values,
unknown
/"(,
L,
be a linear function, we can always procure approximate values of the unknown quantities from the ob and f and assuming servations and denoting these by ?; , ,
,
?/,
C,
will not
that the correct values are
find
z etc., we {.T, ^o4y? Jo from each observation an equation of the following form
~+"
:
,...
9
,
,
provided that the assumed values are sufficiently approximate as to allow us to neglect the higher powers of ic, ?/, z etc. Here /"(, r^ ...) , ...) is the observed value, /X the value computed from the approximate values, hence
&gt;/,
tfco
o
)
f(i
^
Vi f
f
)
=n
is
a
known
quantity.
Denoting then
by
a,
~
by
6,
by
c etc.
and distinguish
ing these quantities for different observations by different ac cents, we shall find from the single observations equations
of the following form:
=n =n
+
ax
+
l&gt;y
+ c z f
. .
.
,
a x h //y
etc.,
+
r z f
.
.
.
,
where
a?,
?/,
a ... are
unknown
values,
which we wish
to de
termine, while n is equal to the computed value of the function of these unknown quantities minus its observed value. There
must necessarily be as many such equations as there are ob servations and their number must be^as great as possible,, in order to deduce from them values of a;, */, z etc. which
are as free as possible from the errors of observation. easily see also , that the coefficients a , b , c  in the dif
We
ferent
equations
coefficients
must have
in all the
different
values
;
for
if
two of
these
different
equations were nearly
42
equal or proportional,
we
should not be able to separate the
unknown
the
quantities by which they are multiplied. In order to find from a large number of such equations
best possible values of the
unknown
quantities, the fol
lowing method was formerly employed.
all all
First the
signs of
equations the terms
were changed
containing x.
other equation resulted, In the same way equations were deduced, largest possible. in which the coefficient oft/ and z etc. was the largest pos
sible
same sign to equations, an in which the factor of x was the
so as to give the
all
Then adding
and thus as many equations were found as there were
quantities,
unknown
whose solution furnished pretty correct method is a little arbitrary, it is better to solve such equations according to the method of least squares, which allows also an idea to be formed of the ac curacy of the values obtained. If the observations were per fectly right and the number of the unknown quantities three, to which number we will confine ourselves hereafter, three such equations would be sufficient, in order to find their true values. But as each of the values n found by observations is generally a little erroneous, none of these equations would
values of them.
But
as this
be
satisfied,
even
if
we should
substitute the exact values of
#, y and
z\ therefore denoting the residual error to write these equations thus: ought
by A^ we
A
/y
= n 4 ax} byi=,/+
* 4etc.,
/&gt;V
cz,
+ cX
from a large number of such equations those values of x, y and z, which according to those equations are the most probable.
and the problem
is
this: to find
20.
We
have a right to assume, that small errors are
more probable than large ones and that observations, which are nearly correct, occur more frequently than others, also that errors, surpassing a certain limit, will never occur. There must exist therefore a certain law depending on the magni tude of the error, which expresses how often any error oc If the number of observations is TW, and an error of curs.
the magnitude
A
occurs according to this law p times,
43
expresses the probability of the error A and shall be de noted by (/(A). This function (A) must be therefore zero, if A surpasses a certain limit and have a maximum for
5
&lt;/
/\
=
0,
besides
it
must have equal values
for equal, positive
or negative
will
values of A
As we have p
m&lt;f
= m y (A)
to the
,
there
be among
m
observations
tude A? likewise as the number of
all
my (A )
all
(A) errors of the magni errors of the magnitude A etc.; but
errors
must be equal
number of
observations,
we have:
i.
.
This sum being that of
certain limits
thesis
&lt;^(A)
all
,
errors
must be taken between
k and
is
f
k
but as according to our hypo
ference, if
limits
oo
we
and
zero beyond this limit, it will make no dif take instead of the limits k and {k the
+ oo.
But
as
any
A
between these
limits
are possible,, as we cannot assign any quantity between the limits k and t&, which may not possibly be equal to an as therefore the number of possible errors, hence also error,
the
number of the functions (A) is infinite, each cf (A) must be an infinitely small quantity. The probability that an error
&lt;/)
lies
between certain limits, is equal to the sum of all values f(A) which lie between these limits. If these limits are in
finitely
near to each other, the value rp (A) may be considered constant, hence &lt;/)(A).dA expresses the chance, that an er ror lies between the limit A and A H ^A The probability that an error lies between the limits a and 6, is therefore
expressed by the definite integral
1
9
(A)
.
&lt;/A
and we have according
to the
formula found before:
when
A?
is
According to the theory of probabilities we know, that ^ (A ) etc. express the probability of the errors
r/&gt;(A),
etc. the probability, that these errors occur together, equal to the product of the probabilities of the separate
A
44
errors.
If therefore
W
ries of observations the errors A?
denotes the probability, that in a se etc. occur, we have: A)
A"
Therefore
errors A?
tions (1),
if
for
certain
assumed values of
a?,
?/,
z the
A
,
A"
etc.
W
is
express the residual errors of the equa the probability that just these errors have
therefore be used for measuring the pro
been made and
may
bability of these values of ,T, y and z. Any other system of values of x, y and z will give also another system of resi dual errors and the most plausible values of a?, y and z must evidently be those, which make the probability that just these
errors have been committed a
the function
W
(f
itself is
is
a
maximum, for which maximum. But in order
it
therefore
to deter
mine,
when
(A)
a
maximum,
is
necessary to
know
the
form of
for
this function.
in the
Now
tity,
case that there
which the
m
by observations, it is all observation as the most probable value of x. therefore
:
is only one unknown quan values w, n\ etc. have been found the rule, to take the mean of always
n"
We
have
x
=
n
4 n
f
n"
4
.
.
or:
n
_
x
a .__
_
x
m
ar
__
n
_
a .....
== o
j
0)
where n
x,
n
we have n
for the
x
=
etc.
correspond to the errors A, so that
/\,
n
=
/\
etc.
a?,
But
as
W
is
a
maximum
equa
most probable value of
we
find differentiating
tion (2) in a logarithmic form:
dx
d{\
rfA
.* c?:r
dx
and as
in this
case
we have
*
= = etc. =
rfA
f/.r JJT
1,
we
find
or:
d (,) :]?8fAT^ +(_,) J^2SJ^=^+....0. d. (n d x) (n
x)
.
W
mean
(n
a?)
(n
a?)
But
as according to the hypothesis the arithmetical
gives the most probable value of a?, the two equations (a) and (6) must give the same value for a?, hence we have:
1
c/.logyCn
a?)
_
n
1
1
(
!_^
o S (p( n_
x)
x)
_
etc
__ ^
n
x
d(n
x)
x
d(n
45
where k is a constant quantity. We have therefore the lowing equation for determining the function
d_&gt;
fol
log
y
(A)_
_
2
,
A.rfA
hence
logy
(A)
= ?A
4logC
and
The
decreases
sign
of k
is
when A
can easily be determined for as y (A) increasing, k must be negative; we may
,
therefore put
\k=
2
ft
,
so that
we have q(/\^=Ce
**^*.
In order to determine
C we
use the equation:

and as we have
00
ie~ x dx
or
*
=
J/TT,
we
a ^ a d/\ == get le~*
Of)
,
hence
^==1
0=
and
finally:
The constant quantity ft remains the same for a system of observations, which are all equally good or for which the For such probability of a certain error /\ is the same.
rV
,
system the probability that an error lies between the limits
and
frV is:
hS
Now
if
in
another system of observations the
/\
is
proba
bility of an error
expressed by
lies

/
e~
,
in this sys
tem the probability that an error and Hd is:
,
between the
limits
_
&lt;Y
+
+h
Both integrals become equal when h
if
we have h an error 2x is
=
&lt;)
=h
rV.
Therefore
, obvious, that in the second system as probable as an error x in the first system.
2ft
it
is
46
The accuracy
as
of the
that
of the
first system is therefore twice as great second and hence the constant quantity h
may be
vations.
considered as the measure of precision of the obser
observations
Usually instead of this measure of precision of their probable error is used. In any series of errors written in the order of their absolute magnitude and
21.
each written as often as
it
actually occurs,
we
call that error
which stands exactly in the middle, the probable error. If we denote it by r, the probability that an error lies between r and f r, must be equal to \. Hence we have the limits
the equation:
A_ C
W* = ^
hr
or taking
h^
=
o
r
t
dt
=
4,
therefore
n

e~
l
dt
=
J
But
hr and
I/ TT
as the value of this integral is
*),
= 0.44311,
when
= 0.47694
h:
we
find the
following relation between r
0.47694
The
ror,
9
integral
is
,
Ie~ t2 dt gives the probability of an er
if
nhr r
which
less
compute
for instance
than n times the probable error and the value of this integral for n
taking therefore
nhr
= 0.23847,
=
we
\,
we
find the probability of
an error, which
is less than one half of the probable error equal to 0.264, or among 1000 observations there ought to be 264 errors, which are smaller than one half the probable error. In the same way we find, taking n successively equal
to , 2, , 3, J, 4, , 5, that ought to occur:
among 1000
observations there
)
On
the computation of this integral see No. 17 of the introduction.
47
688, where the error in less than fr 823,
2r
.
908, 956,
r
3r
982,
993,
\r
4r
998,
999,
fr
5r,
and comparing with this a large number of errors of obser vations, which actually have been made, we may convince ourselves, that the number of times which errors of a certain
magnitude are met with agrees very nearly with the number
given by this theory.
We
by &,
will
find
now
the value of
h.
Suppose we have a
number of
m
actual errors
A
etc.,
of observation, which we denote the probability that these occur together is:
=
and
^ AMAA+A
A
C
A
+A"A"+....]
if we further suppose, that these errors were actually committed and hence cannot be altered, the maximum of
W
depend merely on h and that value of ft, which gives the maximum, will be the most probable value of h for these
will
observations.
Denoting now
for the sake of brevity the
of the squares of the errors A?
A
etc.
by [A A]?
sum we have:
**.*"],
and we easily find the following conditional equation for the
maximum
:
hence follows
:
1h\/2
This square root of the sum of the squares of real errors
of observations divided
by
their
number,
error of these observations.
If this
each observation, it would give the as that of the actual errors. If we denote
mean error had been made in same sum of the squares
is
called the
it
by
f,
or put:
48
we have:
and:
/
r
= 0.47694 = 0.074489
/
2e
s.
solve the real problem: To find from a system of equations (1), resulting from actual observations, the most probable values of the unknown quantities x, y and z
22.
will
We
now
and
at the
same time
substitute
their
their probable error as well as that of
the single observations.
If
&lt;pGY)
we
etc.
in
the
equation
expressions
(A), (2) instead of according to equation (3), we
y&gt;
find:
A"
A
2
[A
2
+A
2
+A"
2
+ ...]
be considered as
"gF
if
we suppose
that
all
observations
A"
can
Here A, A , equally good. of observations, but depend
etc. are not the pure errors still on the values of #, y and a.
a?,
But
bability that the
y and z the pro have occurred to as near gether, must be as great as possible, as they become as possible equal to the actual errors of observations, which
as for the
most probable values of
then
remaining
errors
must be expected among a certain number of observations, we see that the values of the unknown quantities must be
derived from the equation:
A 2 H A
or the
2
+
2
A"
h
= minimum
sum
tions (1)
of the squares of the residual errors in the equa Hence this method to find must be a minimum.
the most probable values of the unknown quantities from such equations is called the method of least squares.
we first consider the most simple of one unknown quantity are found by the arithmetical mean of all observations
If
value.
case, that the values
direct observations,
is
the most probable This of course follows also from the condition of above.
:
the
minimum given
x
A
For the residual errors
n,
for
any
certain value of
are
??,
=x
i\
==x
l
\
=
x"
w",
etc.
We
get therefore for the
sum
of the squares of the re
sidual errors, if
we denote
49
the the
sum sum
of n \ri of w 2  n
\n"
J...
2
&gt;2
\
w"
{...
by by
[n]
[n n]
and the number of observations by m: mx* nY 2x[n] +
=
[nr&gt;]
As
sum
all
terms of the second
member
are
positive,
the
of the squares will
become a minimum, when:
and the sum of the squares of the residual errors will be:
the
known probable
In order to find the probable error of this result from error of a single observation, we must
solve a problem,
which on account of an application
to
be
made hereafter we will state in a more general form, namely: To find the probable error of a linear function of several quantities a?, x etc., if the probable errors of the single quan tities a;, x etc. are known. If r is the probable error of x and we have the simple
function of x:
X = ax,
&lt;}
it
is
is
For if x evident, that ar is the probable error of X. the most probable value of a?, ax is the most probable
of
and the number of cases, when x lies between the limits x r and a? Hr is equal to the number of cases in which X lies between ar and aa? +r. a? Let X now represent a linear function of two variables
value
or take:
X
X=x + x
and
let
and r
a and a represent the the probable errors of
x and x.
most probable values and r As we must take
then for the errors
x and x
respectively
h=
and h
=
c
,,
where
c is
equal to 0.47694,
we have
the probability of any
value of x:
50
and the probability of any value of x
:
hence we have the probability that any two values x and x occur together:
We
X
x
shall find therefore
and x whfch
for
x
the probability of two errors x the equation X=*x\x\ if we substitute satisfy in the above expression and denoting this pro
bability
by
FT,
we
get:
W= rrrIf
e
7t
we perform now
unite
the summation of
all
cases, in
which an
x may
or in
with an x to produce X, where of course we oo and \ oo, must assign to x all values between the limits
other words
if
we
integrate
W
we we
shall
embrace
all
all
cases, in
which
X
between these limits, can be produced or
shall determine the probability of X.
Uniting
of a square,
we
terms containing x and giving them the form easily reduce the integral to the following
form
:
/
"
dx
2
C
*
if
we put
:
~r*(X
rr
a)hr
&gt;a
a&gt;
and
as
we have
we
find the probability of
any value of X:
&&**
51
But
this expression
becomes a maximum, when
X = a +
,
hence the most probable value of X is equal to the sum of the most probable values of x and x and the measure of
accuracy for
J/ r 2_j_
X
is
?=,
hence the probable error of
X
is
r
2
From
this follows in connection
with the formula
proved before, that when:
the probable error of
X
is
equal to
this
Va z r 2
f
a2r
2
.
We
Hence
if
may
easily
extend
theorem to any number of
terms, as in case we have three terms, we can first combine two of them, afterwards these with the third one and so on.
we have any linear function: X== ax H a x h + ....,
a"x"
and
if r,
r
,
r"
etc.
are the
probable errors of
equal to:
re,
x\
x"
etc.
the probable error of
X
is
From
this
arithmetical
we find immediately mean of m observations
,
the probable error of the each of which has the
probable error r; for as:
we have
r
the
probable error of the mean equal to
j/
m
.
a
or
.
Vm
The probable
vations
is
error of the arithmetical
mean
of
m
obser
therefore to the probable error of a single obser
:
vation as
1 or its measure of precision to the measure Vm of a single observation as h]/m:h. Often the relative accu
racy of two quantities is expressed by their weights, which mean the number of equally accurate observations necessary
in
order to find from their arithmetical mean a value of the same accuracy as that of the given quantity. Therefore if the weight of a single observation is 1, the arithmetical mean
of m observations has the weight m. Hence the weights of two quantities are to each other directly as the squares of
52
their
measures of precision and inversely as the squares of the
*).
probable errors It remains
observation.
still
to find the
If the residual errors
probable error r of a single n x & of the original
=
the most probable value of x were equations after substituting the real errors of observation, the sum of their squares di vided by m would give the square of the mean error of an to No. 20, or this error itself would observation
according
be T/fclJ.
r
m
But
as the arithmetical
mean
of the observations
is
not the true value, but only the one which according to the observations made is the most probable, except in case
that the
sidual
differ
number of observations
less
errors will
is infinitely great, the re not be the real errors of observation and
more or
of
from them.
as
Now
let
x
()
be the most pro
bable value
#
()
{
ma y
given by be the true value which
first
x
the arithmetical mean, while
is
unknown.
By
substi
tuting the errors o?
value in the equations
l}
we
get the residual
ri etc. which shall be denoted by A? A w, x etc. while the substitution of the true value would give the have therefore the following $ etc. n errors a? r
=
We
equations
:
A
A
and
if
+ = + =
etc.,
&lt;?,
&lt;?
,
we
all
take the
sum
of their squares
observing that the
sum
of
A
is
equal to zero,
[A A] 4
we
&gt;P
find according to the adopted
notation of sums:
=
[&lt;?&lt;?],
which equation shows that the sum of the squares of the
residual errors
belonging to the arithmetical mean
is
always
error
too small.
As we have
of an
[&lt;)c)]
=W
2
,
when
[A A]
denotes the
[n
observation and further
%]
,
mean we can
"
write
the equation also in the following form:
*)
If therefore
two quantities have the weights p
1
=
^
and p
=
j^
the weight of their
sum
is
=
a 2__ ,^=
pp
53
Although we cannot compute from
lue of
,
this equation the
va
as
2?
is
near as possible,
of
unknown still we shall get this value as if we substitute instead of g the mean error
,
x and
:
as
we have found
this to be equal to
y
m
, 7
we
find
thus
for the
mean
error of an observation and hence the probable
error
:
r 0.674489
r

1
m
Furthermore we find the mean error of the arithmetical
mean
:
and the probable error:
0.674489
Example. On May 21 1861 the difference of longitude between the observatory at Ann Arbor and the Lake Survey
Station
at Detroit
telegraph,
was determined by means of the electric and from 31 stars observed at both stations the
following values were obtained:
Mean
2 m 43 s
.
49
*
54
Here we
errors
find the
[wJ
=1.77,
of the squares of the residual and as the number of observations is 31,
sum
we
find:
s 164 the probable error of a single observation hence the probable error of the mean of all observations
.
==b
Although we cannot expect that
of observations, the
in this case the errors
of observations being so small, will be distributed according to the law given in No. 21, yet we shall find, that this is approximately the case. According
to the theory, the
number
number
of observations being 31, the
num
ber of errors
r, f?*, 2r, fr, 3r ought to be 8, 15, 21, 25, 28, 30 while it actually is according to the above table: 6, 12, 22, 24, 29, 30. The error which stands exactly in the middle of
smaller than r,
all
er
rors written in the order of their magnitude to be equal to the probable error is 0,18.
23.
and which ought
In the general case,
when
from the observations contain several unknown
the equations (1) derived quantities, the
number of which we
will limit here to three, the most pro bable values of these quantities are again those , which give the least sum of the squares of the residual errors. As this
sum must necessarily be a minimum with respect to x as well as to y and 3, this condition furnishes as many equa tions as there are unknown quantities, which therefore can
be determined by their solution.
The
follows
:
equation of the
minimum with
respect to
x
is
as
ax
or as
...
ax
)
we have according
A
to equations (1)
^=a,

=a etc.
we
get:
+ AV +
A"a"h...
=
0.
If
we
substitute in this for
if
A?
A
etc.
from (1) and
we adopt
a similar notation of the
their expressions sums as
before, taking:
.
55
aa
f
a a
f
a" a"
+f
.
.
.
and a 6 4 a
b +
a"
b"
.
.
.
= =
[a a]
[a b] etc.
we
get the equation:
[a a]
x h [ab] y
f [ac] z f [aw]
and likewise and
a &] x [
[rt
+ [bb]y+j_ [^ c ]
[b c] z
[
4
[6 n]
C]
*
y

c c] z
4 [ cw j
= 0; =o =o
(4)
(5)
(C)
from the two equations of the minimum with respect to y and z. The solution of these tree equations gives the most probable values of x, y and 3.
In order to solve them
we
multiply the
first
by J
[aa]
and subtract
first
it
from the second, likewise we multiply the
it
by p
and subtract
#,
from the
third.
Thus we obtain
two equations without
[66 ]y
I
which have the form:
1
+ [6c
]+[6i
I
]
=

(D)
when we
take
[Ml
]
[]_ fe^
now
the
,
[6c,]
=[c]
fe^
which equations explain the adopted notation.
If
tract
it
we
multiply
(JS),
equation (D} by ~p and sub
from
we
find:
[cc a l*H[cw a ]
=
(F),
where we have now:
From
equation (F)
we
find the value of 3,
while the
equations (D) and (^4) give the values of y and x. If we deduce [A 2 ] from the equations (1) we find with the aid of equations (4), (5) and (C) for the sum of the
squares of the residual errors:
[^2]
_
[
ww ]
+
[
fln ]
x
_}_
[
6n ] y
/
__
[
cw ]
2&lt;
In order to eliminate here #,
tion
^1
:
and
3,
we
multiply equa
by
and subtract

^j
it
from the above equation, which
gives
=
If
[nn]
 Cn + [6m]y H[cn,]

*.
we
then multiply the equation
(/&gt;)
by
~
and sub
56
tract
it
from the
last equation,
we
get:
and
if
at last for the
we here substitute minimum of
, ,
the value of z from (F) we find the squares of the errors
:
[an]
Q..P
[cn 2 ]
2
can find the equations for the minimum of the squares of the errors also without the differential calculus. For if
We
we
by ax,
where
If
multiply each of the original equations (1) respectively by, cz and n and add them, we find:
[A A]
[
A]
= =
[
A] *
+
[ft
A] y
6]
+
[&lt;
A]
c] 2
4
A]
(a),
(ft)
[a a] x
4 [a
y H [a
4 [a n\
etc.
we now substitute from (6), we find:
in (a) instead of
#
its
value taken
where
Then
substituting in (c) for y of the equations (d), we find:
[A A]
its
value taken from the
first
= j^r 4
n^f +
tc
A2]
+
[n
A 2 ],
(c)
where now
and
the
if
we
finally substitute in (e) for 3 its value
taken from
first
of these last equations,
we have:
and we
easily see that
we have [Aa]
=
[
WW J
As the first three terms on the right side of equation (#), which alone contain x, y, and z, have the form of squares,
we
see, that in order to obtain the
of the errors,
[6/\ 1 ]
=
we must
flA 2
l
and
minimum of the squares the following equations [/\] 0, satisfy 0, which are identical with those we
=
found before.
We
see
also,
that
[w/? 3 ]
is
the
minimum
of
the squares of the errors.
57
24.
will
The theorem
again
serve us
to
for the probable error proved in No. 22 find the probable errors of the un
quantities, as we easily see by the equations A^ and F that the most probable values of .T, y and z can be etc. expressed by linear functions of w, ri,
known
D
n"
For in order to find x from these three equations, we must multiply each by such a coefficient that taking the sum of the three equations the coefficients of y and 3 in the re Therefore if we mul sulting equation become equal to zero.
*
tiply (A}
by
,
(D) by
j
,
(F) by =4
and add the
]
three equations,
we
A":
termining
A
get the following two equations for de
and
and we have:
__z
[aa]
J// ~~^
x&lt;
In order to find y
"
we
:
multiply (D) by
fLo]J
,
(F) by
~
r L
C&gt;C
and
2J
adding them we get
and
.

At
last
we have:
Developing the quantities
[ftwj]
and [cw 2 ], we easily
(77),
find:
[&n,]=4
[cn 2 ]
[an]f[6w]
==^"[aw] f
5
[6n]
+[cw]
1
(5 ),
and as we
may change
the letters, the quantities in paren
thesis being of a
symmetrical form,
we
find also:
(0,
[&&,]= .4 [&]
[c c 2 ]
[6 c 2 ]
[a c 2 ]
= = =
+
[& 6] [6 c] f [c c]
A"
A"
5 [a 6] h B
[a c] f[ ]
yl"
+&
\b 6]
[a
&]
+ +
[6 c]
[ a c]
= =Q
(x),
(A),
*
(^).
)
*)
The two
last
equations
(8).
we may
easily
verify with the aid of the
equations (a), (/) and
58
Now
tions of n,
as [an] as well as
[6%]. and
a" n"
[c
2]
are linear func
we can
we have
[a n]
= an
=
easily
+
compute
ri
their probable errors.
+
First
a
h
If therefore r de
notes the probable must be:
r ([an])
error
of one
observation,
that of
[an]
r
J/7?a~4Va 4~
a"
a"
4
.
.
=
r
V[aa\.
1
Every term
ively by
in \bn^\ is of the following
form (A
it
r6)w.
In order to find the square of this,
we
1&gt;
multiply
b.
success
A an and bn and find for the A (A a a 4 a 4 A a b +fi)
coefficient of ir\
This therefore must also be the form of the coefficients
of each
error of
r
2
in
the expression for the square of the probable
[&wj or we have:
[6 Wl ])
=
[_A
(A[aa] 41
[aft])
4
A
[ab] 4 [66]] r
2
,
or:
r([6,])=rYp
we
find immediately
last
],
as
by the equations () and
of each n in
the
(&lt;.).
At
[cn.2 ] is:
the
coefficient
expression of
Aa + Bb +
we
find:
A"(A"aa\
Taking
the square of this
B
ab
taking the sum of all single squares, 2 in the expression of (r[cw.2 ]) coefficient of /
:
Now
we
find the
A"(A"[aa]
+ B [ab] +
4
[ac] )
[6 c])
4 B
1
(A"
[a b]
B
[bb]
4
which according
[cc 2 ]; hence
to the equations (x), (A)
and
is
(/&lt;)
simply
we
have:
r[cw 2 ]
=
/.
K[cca]
We
any
the
find the probable errors of x, y and a without For according to equation (7) we have for difficulty. square of the probable error of x the following ex
can
now
pression
:
A&gt;A&gt;
A A
"
+
[66 l
]"
"
"\
[cc a ]i*
59
Likewise we find:
2
K&lt;/)]
=&gt;
2
j
aild
It
2
[r(z)]
=r
2
remains
If
still
to
find
observation.
we put
for x,.y
the probable error of a single and z in the original equa
tions (1) any determinate values, we may give to the sum of the squares of the residual errors the following form:
we substitute here for #, y and z the most values resulting from this system of equations, the probable quantities [a A] 5 [^AJ and [ C A2J become equal to zero and
In case that
the sum of the squares of the residual errors resulting from these values of #, y and z is equal to [wwj. But these val ues will be the true values only in case that the number of
observations
is
infinitely
great.
Supposing now, that these
true values were
equations,
real errors
known and were substituted in the above would be the sum of the squares of the [A A] of observation and we should have the following
equation
:
[aa]
[bb,]
[cc 2 ]
where now the quantities little different from zero.
[a
A] 5 [&AJ and [cA2J would be a As all these terms are squares,
we
sum of the squares as found from the most values is to small and in order to come a little probable nearer the true value we may substitute for [a A] etc. their
see that the
mean
errors.
But
as in the equations:
ax 4 by 4
cz
f n
=A
etc.
no quantity on the left side is affected by errors except ft, A must be affected by the same errors and the mean errors
of [a A]
5
[&Ai] and [cA 2 ]
[aw], tion we find:
[6wj] and [cw 2 ].
equal to those we found for Substituting these in the above equa
are


3
60
Hence the mean error of an observation is derived from number of equations between several unknown quan tities by dividing the sum of the squares of the residual er
a finite
rors,
resulting
all
number of
quantities
observations
from the condition of the minimum, by the minus the number of unknown
and extracting the square root. Likewise we find for the probable error of an obser
:
vation
0.674489
Note
1.
m
3
all
We
good.
have hitherto always supposed, that
observations, which
we
as
use for the determination of the
equally
If
this
is
unknown
quantities,
if A,
may
etc.
be considered
are the
not the case and
h
,
h"
mea
sures of precision for the single observations, the probability of the errors A,
A
etc.
of single observations
h
is
2
expressed by:
h
A A 2 e
2
.h"...
1
7/ 2 A
2
V
Hence
the function
W becomes y/
(/,
or,
in this case:
2 A +A A 2
+/&lt;"
h.h
2
A"
2
+ ..0
those,
and the most probable values of
the
"orav
y nnd
2
fA"
z
will
be
which make
sum
7,242
__ 7/2
A
2
2
A"
4....
the original
a minimum.
In order therefore to find these,
,
h"
we must multiply
etc. and then computing the sums with equations respectively by h, h these new coefficients perform the same operations as before.
Note
2.
If
we have
only one
unknown
t
quantity and the original equa
tions have the following form:
= n ax, = n Ho
*,
etc.,
0=w"frt"ar,
we
find
x=

r
[]
with the probable error r r
=
V(aa\
,
where
r
denotes
the probable error of one observation.
25.
This method
is
may be
illustrated
s
example, which
taken from Bessel
by the following determination of the
constant quantity of refraction, in the seventh volume of the ^Koenigsberger Beobachtungen" pag. XXIII etc. But of the
52 equations given there only the following 20 have been
selected, whose weights have been taken as equal and in which the numerical term is a quantity resulting from the
observations
of the stars, while y denotes the correction of
61
the
constant quantity of refraction and x a constant error which may be assumed in each observation. The general form of the equations of condition in this
is
case
to
1,
n x\by, as the factor denoted before by a is equal and the equations derived from the single stars are:
=
In order now to find from these the equations for the most probable values of x and y (equations (A) and (/?) in No. 23), we must first compute all the different sums
[a a],
[a 6], [aw], [66]
and
[few].
is
of
unknown
but
if
quantities
In this case, where the number so small, besides one of the coef
ficients is constant
easy;
and equal to one, this computation is very there are more unknown quantities, whose co
efficients
take also the algebraic
.
tion,
be for instance a, 6, c, d it is advisable, to sum of the coefficients of each equa which shall be denoted by s and to compute with these
may
the
sums
[as],
may be used
tations
:
as
[6s], [cs] etc., as then the following equations checks for the correctness of the
compu
[ns]
[a^
= [an] 4 [6w] 4 4= [a 4 4 [ac] 4 [ad],
[en]
[rfn],
a]
[a 6]
etc.
62
If
we compute now
the
sums
for
the following two equations bable values of x and y:
example, we find determining the most pro
for our
12.72 4 20.000 x 4 3014.80 y 3700.65 4 3014.80 x 4 844586.1y
= =
0,
0.
The
quantities
solution of these equations can be
made
in the fol
lowing form, which
:
may
easily be extended to
more unknown
[wn]
[a a]
[a 6]
[an]
420.000
1.301030
Ian]
[a
43014.80
3.479259
[66]
12.72
1.104487,
[6n]
20.28
^
8.09
=12.72
12.19
6]*
= 4 13.78
41.06
0.025306,,
4844586.1
3700.65
^~
[*&J
]
8.15
[66,]
= 4390134.1
4454452.0
[few,]
=
1917.41 [wn 2
1783.24
= 4.04
log*
x
=
= 8.724276,,
0".
1.301030
log [6n,] 3.251210 log [66,] 5.591214
053
log y
y
= 7.659996 = 4 0.0045708
In case that
we have computed
also
the quantities [as], [bs] etc.
we may compute
as a check.
[6*J and use the equation [66 1 ]
= [6sJ
In the case of 3
use [66 T ]
}
[6cJ
= [6*J
unknown
and [ecj
= [csj
quantities and similar equa
we should
tions for a greater number of unknown quantities. In order to compute the probable errors of
x and
y,
we
use besides [66,] also the quantity
[a a,]
=
[a a]
^~
error
= H 9.2384.
of the quantity n for a
Then we
find the
probable
single star:
,.
= 0.67449
/
L
"
=0.3195,
:
hence the probable errors of x and y
^V ^,^
~

=
d=0".0005116.
We
see therefore, that the determination of
x from
the
above equations is very inaccurate , as the probable error is greater than the resulting value of x; but the probable er
63
ror of the
is
correction of the
constant quantity of refraction
only
If

of the correction
itself.
in
substitute the most probable values of x above equations, we find the residual errors several equations, which have been placed in the table at the side of each equation. Computing the sum
we
the
and y of the
above
of the
squares of these residual errors, we find 4.04 in accordance with [wwj, thus proving the accuracy of the computation by another check.
Note.
On
the
method of
least squares consult:
et seq.
corporum coelestium, pag. 205
liner
Gauss, Theoria motus Gauss, Theoria combinationis obserin
vationum erroribus minimis obnoxiae.
Jahrbucher fur 1834, 1835 und
Encke
1836."
the appendix to the
Ber
E.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODICAL FUNCTIONS FROM GIVEN NUMERICAL VALUES.
26.
Periodical functions
are
frequently used in astro
nomy,
mena
always comprised within certain limits without becoming infinite, only such pe
riodical
as the problem, to find periods in which certain return, often occurs; but as these are
pheno
functions will
the
if
sines
come under consideration as contain and cosines of the variable quantities. Therefore
X
denotes such a function,
it:
we may assume
+
the following
...
...
form for
X= a
Now
{a, cos a:
f 6,
+
a 2 cos2.r
a 3 cosSx h
b a sin
sin arf 6 2 sin
2x\
3 a: H
the case usually occurring is this, that the nume rical values of are given for certain values of x, from
X
which we must find the
is
coefficients, a
especially convenient, if the circumference
problem whose solution is divided in n
equal parts and the values of
X
are given for
#
= x=?,
0,
x=== 2
~
etc

to
x
=
(n
1) ~, as in that case
we can make
use of several lemmas, which greatly facilitate the solution. These lemmas are the following.
64
If
A
is
an aliquot part of the circumference,
nA
being
equal to 2?r, the
sin
sum
sin
of the series
f s
A\
2.4
mSA h
... +
sin (n
I)
A
of the series
is
the always equal to zero; likewise also
. . .
sum
cos(n 1)^, cos A H cos 2 A f cos 3 A+is zero except when A is equal either to 2 n or to a mul in which case this sum is equal to w. tiple of 2 TT, The latter case is obvious, as the series then consists
of n terms,
each of which
2?r cos r
is
equal to
1.
We
If
have there
put:
fore to prove only the
two other theorems.
"27t
we now
n
h
i
sin r
=1
n
n
,
r
,
n
i
where we take
r
i
= Vl
r=
2
and
1
.,_!
2
r
cos T
4
t
2
r
sin r
we have: T=e __, = ^ T = ^p
r 1
9
yj.
J&gt;
1
As we have now
that:
* cos
,
T"
= cos2n{i
7T
.
O
f
=
sin
2rc=
0,
1,
it
follows
?
h
n
t
^i sin r **
.
&gt;,
=
n
r=0
hence
:
^
&gt;
sin r
=0
side.
(1)
=o
and
this equation is true
without any exception, as there
It follows also,
is
nothing imaginary on the right we have in general:
cos r
that
=0.
n
,
Only when n
= 0,
rthe expression
r_ 1
i
takes
the form
o
~^
it.
and has the value
w, as
we
can easily see by differentiating
From
we
shall
the
make use

which equations (1) and (2) several others, can be easily deduced. For we find: of,

* r=0
&gt;,
sin r ~
n
cos r ^ n

=
4"
^. ~* sin 2
r=0
&gt;
H
=0,
(3)
2n ^
^

?^
w
= n =n
in general
(4)
in the exceptional case,
65
finally:
r=. 1
/
=

1
^n
*
r
&gt;,
/
I
2?r\
sin r
tt
2
=
V
/
)
=
in
,
^
XT cos
&gt;,
2?r
2r
)
=
=4 =
in general
(o)
in the exceptional case.
27.
We
will
assume now:
X=
cip
cos p x
f bp sin
p x,
in
which equation all integral numbers beginning with zero must be successively put for p. If now q denotes a certain
number, we have:
X cos qx = \a
+
p cos
(p
( jo
+
7)
a?
H+r
/
cos (p
(;?
q}
f/)
x
x
,
\
b p sin
4 9)
or
bp sin
and
(n
if
we
assign x successively the values
0,
A^ 2 A
to
1) 4,
all
where A
=
/*,
and add the several resulting equa
terms on the right side will be zero according to the equations (1) and (2) with the exception of the sum of the terms of the cosine, in which (p\&lt;f) A is equal to 2/c^r,
tions,
which
will receive the factor n.
But
as
A
=
of
a?
p=
of
for the
kn or p kn, hence q remaining terms piq or ={~q+kn. Therefore denoting the value qikn
to the value
=
n
,
we have
have
2H
:
X, which corresponds
rA
by
X rA we
,
XrA
COS q
A=
a
v
+ A h
aa
f
is
does not contain any coefficients whose index and get: negative, we must take a_ 2
But
as
X
=
[&lt;,+
a
lt
~
Here we have to consider two particular cases. For when q a ? a_j etc. hence: 0, we have a_ ? ct/jfj
=
=
,
=
and when w is an even number and q =^n, a^ q is to be omitted and a unites with a _,y etc., hence we have also in
(J
rt
this case:
5
66
"^XrA
cos^nA
= n [i +3 +
n
w
.r
&lt;/)
...],
(8)
As we
:
X sin q x =
h
find in a similar
J
ap sin (p h
6,,
4
cos (p
q)
x
sin (p ?) ^ bp cos ( p h r/)
,,
:r
.r,
way:
2^
^^
If
sin ^
^ = IT t
J
~
b&lt;
i
bn
i
+ ba+ ~
i
b
*"
i ~*~
&gt;2
"
+l
3
C9 ^
we
take
portion to the
for n a sufficiently large number in pro convergence of the series, so that we can ne
now
of the equations (6) to (9) all terms glect on the right side the first, we may determine by these equations the except
coefficients of the cosines
efficients
from q
of the sines , gives The larger we only a repetition of the former equations. take M, the more accurate shall we find the values of the coefficients whose index is small, while those of a high in
1
to
q = \n
to q as
= \n
and the co
a larger q
For instance when dex remain always inaccurate. and q we have the equation 4,
=
n=l2
:
2K cos 4 x = G (a
4
H
8
+
),
;
hence the value of 4 will be incorrect by the quantity 8 but if we had taken w 24, this coefficient would be only
=
incorrect
by a M
.
From
the above
we
find then the following equations:
2
ap
=
n
^? XrA cos rpA,
&gt;.
*"
V ~ X,A sin rp A,
,
=o
with these exceptions, that for
L
and
/&gt;
p=\n we
must take
n
instead of the factor
n
always of some advantage to take for n a number divisible by 4, as in this case each quadrant is divided into
It is
parts and therefore the same values of and cosines return only with different signs. As the cosines of angles, which are the complements to 360, are the same, we can then take the sum of the terms, whose
a certain
number of
the sines
indices are the complements to
360
and multiply
it
by the
67
but the terms of the sine, whose indices are the com must be subtracted from each other. If plements to 360
cosine
;
we
denote then the
(n
sum of two such
,
quantities, for instance
X A +X
i)A
by
XA
4
and the difference
r=$
XA
X
ln
_i
M
by
XA
,
we have:
cip
= =
2 n
*~ X,A cos +
r
^
=
rpA,
2 n
bp
^j X, A ^j
sin r p
A.
Again denoting here the sum or the difference of two terms of the cosine, whose indices are the complements to
180
ft
,
by X,A and
14
X,.^,
4
and the sum or difference of two
terms of sines , whose indices are the complements to by X r and X r 4 , we have:
_,
.
180,
h
r=in
ap =
11
^ X,ACOsrpA,
^j i_
when p
is
an even number,
(10)
with the two exceptional cases mentioned before:
j^ X,A cos rp J,
when p
is
an odd number,
(11)
&/,
=
2
x?
&gt;j
JTr^sinrp^,
when
/?
is
an even number,
(12)
^,
r=l
If for instance
X,^ sin
rpA,
when p
is
an odd number.
(13)
n
*0
is
equal to 12,
we
find:
TT
a
~~
3
~~
6
~~ 9
f
i
i
\
X
++
f
X
^
3
cos 30
X
X
6
cos 60
&gt;
,
"2
=
etc.
^
(
^C 4
++
3
cos GO
+4
6
cos 60
+
,
&gt;i
=
etc.
ff
\
X30 sin 30 h^60 sin604X90

(4
4
4
j
5*
68
to develop a periodical function up to a of the angle, it is necessary that as many numerical values are known as we wish to determine coef
28.
If
we wish
certain multiple
the given values are perfectly correct, we shall find these coefficients as correct as theory admits, only the less correct, the higher the index of the coefficient is
ficients.
If then
compared
the values
is
to
But in case that the given number of values. it of the function are the result of observations
,
advisable in order to eliminate the errors
of observation
to
use as
many
observations
as
possible,
therefore to use
many more observations than are necessary
coefficients.
for determining the
according to the
see, that this
In this case these equations should be treated method of least squares but one can easily
;
method furnishes the same equations for deter mining the coefficients as those given in No. 27. We see therefore that the values obtained by this method are indeed the most probable values. XA X^ A ... X(H i)* are given, For if the n values X
()
,
,
we should have
function
itself:
the following equations, supposing that the contains only the sines and cosines of the angle
= X H +,, = XA + a cos A f&isin^4, = XZA+2 A, cos 2 A
"+
\
~+~
i
f 6
1
sin
=
and according
for the
X(i)Ala
to the
\a
t
cos(n
1)^4
+
6, sin(n
I) A,
method of
least squares
we should
find
notes the
equations of the minimum, when [cos A] again de sum of all the cosines of A, from A to A n 1,
=
=
the following: na f[cos^l]a [sin A] a
j
[cos
A] a
2
,
+ [sin f [sin +
A]
b
t
 pG]
A]
b
,
=
0,
h[cos^ ]a,
[cos
A
.
cos
]
[XA cos A]
[XA
sin
A sin A] a,
2
[sin^L
6,
A]
= =
0,
(14)
0.
But and (5)
if
we
take into consideration the equations (3), (4)
in
No. 26 we see, that these equations are reduced
to the following:
a,
b
,
= =
ACQB A],
2
n
[XA sin A],
69
which entirely agree with those found
for
in
No.
is
27.
What
is
shown here for the three any number of them.
first
coefficients,
of course true
can also find the probable error of an observation is the sum of the squares For if [v which remain after substituting the of the residual errors,
We
and of a coefficient.
i&gt;]
most probable values in the equations of condition, the pro bable error of one observation is
= 0.67449
n
3
and that of a
An
example
will
be found in No. 6 of the seventh section.
Note.
Consult Encke
s
Berliner Jahrbuch
fiir
1857 pag. 334 and
seq.
Leverrier gives in the Annales tie 1 Observatoire Imperial, Tome I. another method for determining the coefficients, which is also given by Encke in the
Jahrbuch for 1860
in a different form.
SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY.
FIRST SECTION.
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE AND ITS DIURNAL MOTION.
In spherical astronomy
stars
we
consider the positions of the
projected on the celestial sphere, referring them by spherical coordinates to certain great circles of the sphere. Spherical astronomy teaches then the means, to determine the
positions of the stars with respect to these great circles and the positions of these circles themselves with respect to each
other. must therefore first make ourselves acquainted with these great circles, whose planes are the fundamental planes of the several systems of coordinates and with the means by which we may reduce the place of a heavenly
,
We
body given
for
one of these fundamental planes to another
system of coordinates.
Some of these coordinates are independent of the diurnal motion of the sphere, but others are referred to planes which do not participate in this motion. The places of the stars
therefore,
tinually
when
change and
referred to one of the latter planes, must con it will be important to study these chan
ges and the phenomena produced by them. As the stars be sides the diurnal motion common to all have also other, though
more slow motions, on account of which they change
which are independent of the diurnal motion,
ficient,
is
it
also
their positions with respect to those systems of coordinates,
is
never suf
to
also
know merely the necessary to know
correspond. either alone or combined with the motion of the sun
as a
We
place of a heavenly body lyt it the time, to which these places must therefore show, how the daily motion
is
used
measure of time.
71
I.
THE SEVERAL SYSTEMS OF GREAT CIRCLES OF THE
CELESTIAL SPHERE.
appear projected on the concave surface of a sphere, which on account of the rotatory motion of the earth on her axis appears to revolve around us in the op
1.
The
stars
posite
at
namely from east to west. on the surface of the earth a any place
direction
If
line
we imagine
drawn par
the axis of the earth, it will generate on account of the rotatory motion of the earth the surface of a cylinder, whose base is the parallel  circle of the place. But as the
allel to
distance
of the
stars
may be regarded
this
line
as infinite
compared
to the diameter of the earth,
itself will
remaining parallel to
sphere always in the
appear to pierce the
axis
celestial
same points as the appear immoveable in the
of the earth.
celestial
These points which
sphere are called the Poles
of the celestial sphere or the Poles of the heavens, and the one corresponding to the NorthPole of the earth, being there
fore visible in the northern
hemisphere of the earth
is
called
the NorthPole of the celestial sphere, while the opposite is If we now imagine a line parallel to called the SouthPole. the equator of the earth, hence vertical to the former, on account of the diurnal motion describe a plane,
it
will
whose
intersection with the celestial sphere coincides with the great circle, whose poles are the Poles of the heavens and which
is
called
the Equator.
different
from 90
"
Any straight line making an angle with the axis of the earth generates the
surface of a cone, which intersects the celestial sphere in two small circles, parallel to the equator, whose distance from
the poles is equal to the angle between the generating line and the axis. Such small circles are called Parallelcircles.
A
the
plane tangent to the surface of the earth at any place
intersects the celestial sphere in a great circle, rates the visible from the invisible hemisphere
which sepa and is called
Horizon: The inclination of the axis to this plane is The straight line tan equal to the .latitude of the place. gent to the meridian of a place generates by the rotation of
earth the
lestial
the
surface of a cone, which intersects the ce sphere in two parallel circles, whose distance from the
72
nearest pole is equal to the latitude of the place and as the plane of the horizon is revolved in such a manner, that it remains
always tangent to this cone, these two parallel circles must include two zones, of which the one around the visible pole remains always above the horizon of the place, while the
other never rises above
it.
All other stars outside of these
zones
circle
rise
or set and
move from
making
in general
east to west in a parallel an oblique angle with the horizon. A
line vertical to the plane of the horizon points to the highest point of the visible hemisphere, which is called the Zenith, while
the point directly opposite below the horizon is called the Na The point of intersection of this line with the celestial dir.
sphere describes on account
whose distance from the pole is equal the place; hence all stars which are
the
of the rotation a small circle, to the co latitude of
at this
distance
from
As the line pole pass through the zenith of the place. vertical to the horizon as well as the one drawn parallel to
axis
the
the plane of the meridian of the place, this plane intersects the celestial sphere in a great circle, passing through the poles of the heavens and through
are in
of the
earth
the zenith and nadir, which
star passes
is
also called the Meridian.
Every
during a revolution of the The part of the meridian from the visible pole through sphere. the zenith to the invisible pole corresponds to the meridian of
through
this plane twice
the place on the terrestrial sphere, while the other half cor responds to the meridian of a place, whose longitude differs
180
in
its
or
12 hours from that of the former.
first
When
it
a star
passes over the
part of the Meridian,
is
said to be
cond part
stars
upper culmination, while when it passes over the se it is in its lower culmination. Hence only those
visible at their
are
upper culmination, whose distance
is
from the
pole greater than the latitude of the while only those can be seen at their lower culmi place, nation, whose distance from the visible pole is less than the
invisible
latitude.
The
is
arc of the meridian between the pole and the
horizon
called the altitude of the pole and is equal to the latitude of the place, while the arc between the equator and
is
the horizon
complement
called the altitude of the equator. of the other to 90 degrees.
One
is
the
73
2.
lestial
In order to define the position of a star on the ce sphere, we make use of spherical coordinates.
We
imagine a great circle
drawn through the
star
and the zenith
to the horizon. If we now take the point of intersection of this great circle with the horizon and count the number of degrees from this point upwards to the star and also the number of degrees of the horizon from this point
and hence vertical
to the meridian, the position of the star is defined.
circle
great passing through the star and the zenith is called the vertical circle of the star; the arc of this circle between the
The
horizon and the star
is
called the altitude, while the arc
is
between
the vertical circle and the meridian
the azimuth of the star.
The
latter
angle
etc.
is
reckoned from the point South through
to
is
West, North
of a star
its
from
360.
Instead of the altitude
often used, which is the arc of the vertical circle between the star and the zenith, hence equal to the complement of the altitude. Small circles whose
zenithdistance
plane is parallel to the horizon are called almucantars. Instead of using spherical coordinates we may also de fine the position of a star by rectangular coordinates, refer
red to a system of axes, of which that of z is vertical to the plane of the horizon, while the axes of y and x are situa ted in its plane, the axis of x being directed to the origin
of the azimuths, and the positive axis of y towards the azi or the point West. Denoting the azimuth by A, the altitude by h, we have:
muth 90
x == cos h cos
Note.
A
,
y
= cos
h sin
A
,
z
=
sin h.
corresponding to
consists in
its
For observing these spherical coordinates an instrument perfectly them is used, the altitude and azimuth instrument. This
essential parts of a horizontal
it
divided circle,
resting on three
screws, by which
can be levelled with the aid of a
In
its
spiritlevel.
This circle
represents
the
plane of the horizon.
centre stands a vertical column,
which therefore points to the zenith, supporting another circle, which is par allel to the column and hence vertical to the horizon. Round the centre of
this
second circle a telescope
vertical
is
moving connected with an index, by which
moves with the
The vertical column, which and the telescope, carries around with it an other index, by which one can read its position on If horizontal circle. then the points of the two circles, corresponding to the zenith and the point
the direction of the telescope can be measured.
circle
"the
the instrument
South, are known, the azimuth and zenithdistance of any star towards which is directed, may be determined.
74
Besides
altitudes.
this
These are
instrument there are others by which one can observe only called altimeters, while instruments, by which azimuths
alone are measured, are called theodolites.
The azimuth and the altitude of a star change on 3. account of the rotation of the earth and are also at the same
instant different for different places on the earth. But as it is necessary for certain to give the places of the purposes
by coordinates which are the same for different places and do not depend on the diurnal motion, we must refer the stars to some great circles, which remain fixed in the ce
stars
lestial sphere. If we lay a great circle through the pole and the star, the arc contained between the star and the equator is called the declination and the arc between the star and
the pole the polardistance of the star. The great circle itself is called the declination circle of the star. The declination
is
positive,
gative, and the polar distance are the complements of each other. They correspond to the altitude and the zenithdistance in
when the star is north of the equator and ne when it is south of the equator. The declination
the
system of coordinates. arc of the equator between the declinationcircle of the star and the meridian, or the angle at the pole measured
first
The
is
by
it,
second coordinate and
to
called the hourangle of the star. It is used as the is reckoned in the direction of the
apparent motion of the sphere from east to west from
360. The
declination circles
correspond to the meridians on
is
it
the terrestrial globe and it on the meridian of a place,
evident, that when a star is has at the same moment at a
place, whose longitude east is equal to &, the hour angle k and in general, when at a certain place a star has the hour
angle
,
it
has at the same instant at another place, whose
t
longitude
is
hour  angle
clination
k (positive j k
.
when
east, negative
when west)
the
Instead of using the two spherical coordinates, the de and the hourangle, we may again introduce rectan coordinates if we refer the place of the star to three gular
which the positive axis of z is directed to the Northpole, while the axes of x and y are situated in the plane of
axes, of
75
the equator, the positive axis of x being directed to the me ridian or the origin of the hour angles while the positive axis of y is directed towards the hourangle 90. Denoting
then the declination by
x
Note.
class
= cos
d,
?,
the hourangle
y
cos
= cos
class
sin
t,
z
=
by
,
we
have:
sin S.
of instruments,
circle,
is
a second Corresponding to this system of coordinates we have which are called parallactic instruments or equatorials.
Here the
horizon,
which
in
the
first
of instruments
is
parallel
is
to
the
vertical parallel to the equator, so that the
column
parallel to
the axis of the earth.
The
If the
circle parallel to this
column represents therefore
corresponding to the
a declination
circle.
points
of the circles,
me
are known, the ridian, being the origin of the hour angles, and the pole, hour angle and the declination of a star may be determined by such an in
strument.
4.
In this latter system of coordinates one of them,
the declination, does not change while the hour angle in creases proportional to the time and differs in the same mo
ment
at
different
places
ference
of longitude. ordinate invariable, one has chosen a fixed point of the equator as origin, namely the point in which the equator is intersected
on the earth according to the dif In order to have also the second co
by the great
circle,
which the centre of the sun seen from
the centre of the earth appears to describe This great circle is called the ecliptic and
the equator,
among
its
the stars.
inclination to
about 23 degrees, the obliquity of the of intersection between equator and eclip ecliptic. points tic are called the points of the equinoxes, one that of the
is
which
The
vernal the other that of the autumnal equinox, because day and night are of equal length all over the earth, when the
sun on the 21 st of
those points
*).
March and on the 23 d of September reaches The points of the ecliptic at the distance of
90 degrees from the points of the equinoxes are called sol
stitial points.
The new coordinate, which is reckoned in the equator from the point of the vernal equinox, is called the rightascension of the star. It is reckoned from to 360 from
For as the sun is then on the equator, and as equator and horizon each other into equal parts, the sun must remain as long below as
)
divide
above the horizon,
76 west to east or opposite to the direction of the diurnal motion. Instead of using the spherical coordinates, declination and rightascension, we can again introduce rectangular coordi
nates, referring the place of the star to three vertical axes, of which the positive axis of z is directed towards the Northpole, while the axes of x and y are situated in the plane of the equator, the positive axis of x being directed towards the origin of the rightascensions, the positive axis of y to the point, whose rightascension is 90 Denoting then the right.
ascension by a
x"
= cos S cos
,
we have
,
:
y"
= cos
sin
,
z"
=
sin d.
coordinates a and d are constant for any star. In order to find from them the place of a star on the apparent
The
any moment, it is necessary to know the of the point of the vernal equinox with regard to position the meridian of the place at that moment, or the hourangle of the point of the equinox, which is called the sidereal time,
celestial sphere at
while the time of the revolution of the celestial sphere is called a sidereal day and is divided into 24 sidereal hours.
It is O h sidereal time at
any place or the sidereal day com
mences when the point of the vernal equinox crosses the meridian, it is P when its hourangle is 15 or P etc. For this reason the equator is divided not only in 360 but also
into
24 hours.
Denoting the sidereal time by 0, we have
&lt;
always:
hence
/
=
=
,
a.
190 20 and the sidereal time 130 20 east.
If therefore for instance the rightascension of a star is h is 4 , we find t 229 40 or
=
From
the
equation for
t
follows
=a
when
t
=
0.
Therefore every star comes in the meridian or is culminating at the sidereal time equal to its rightascension expressed in
time.
Hence when
is
the
culminating,
also
known,
it*).
right ascension of a star which is the sidereal time at that instant is
known by
*)
If
into time, we must multiply by 15 and multiply the remainder of the degrees, minutes and seconds by 4, in order to
The problem to convert an we have to convert an arc
arc into time occurs very often.
convert them into minutes and seconds of time.
77
If the sidereal time at any place
is
longitude sitive or negative
first
stant the sidereal time at another place, is /?, must be f &, where k
if
0, at the same in whose difference of
is
to be taken
po
the second place
is
East or
West
of the
place.
Note.
The
of the second class,
ordinates
the star
coordinates of the third system can be found by instruments In one case these co if the sidereal time is known.
may be even found by
is
instruments of the
first
class
,
namely when
by
crossing the meridian, for then the right ascension is determined the time of the meridian passage and the declination by observing the
if
is
meridianaltitude of the star,
the latitude of the place
is
known.
is
For such
observations a meridiancircle
used.
If
such an instrument
not used for
measuring altitudes but merely for observing the times of the meridian pas sages of the stars, if it is therefore a mere azimuth instrument mounted in
If we observe by such an meridian, it is called a transit instrument. instrument and a good sidereal clock the times of the meridian passages we But as the get thus the differences of the right ascensions of the stars.
the
point from which the rightascensions are reckoned cannot be observed it is more difficult, to find the absolute rightascensions of the stars.
itself,
5.
Besides these systems of coordinates a fourth
is
used, whose fundamental plane is the ecliptic. Great circles which pass through the poles of the ecliptic and therefore are vertical to it, are called circles of latitude and the arc of such a circle between the star and the ecliptic is called
the latitude of the star.
is
It is positive or
negative
if
the star
North or South of the ecliptic. The other coordinate, the longitude, is reckoned in the ecliptic and is the arc be tween the circle of latitude of the star and the point of the vernal equinox. It is reckoned from to 360 in the same
direction
as
the right ascension
or
contrary to the diurnal
Thus we have 239
= 15 = 15
18
h
,
46".
75
4
X
14
h
57m
1 minutes, 15s. 117.
+
4x343
seconds and
s.
117
If on the contrary we have to convert a quantity expressed in time into an arc, we must multiply the hours by 15, but divide the minutes and se conds by 4 in order to convert them into degrees and minutes of arc. The
remainders must again be multiplied by 15. Thus we have 15 h 57 m 15 s 117
= 225 h 14 = 239 18
.
degrees, 15 f 3 minutes and 46.75 seconds
75.
46".
78
motion of the
longitude
that,
is
celestial
is
sphere *).
The
circle of latitude
whose
whose
called the colure of the equinoxes and zero, longitude is 90, is the colure of the solstices.
arc of this colure between the equator and the ecliptic, likewise the arc between the pole of the equator and that of the ecliptic is equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic.
The
The
by
ft
longitude shall always be denoted
ecliptic
by
A,
the latitude
and the obliquity of the
by
s.
express again the spherical coordinates ft and A by rectangular coordinates, referred to three axes vertical to each other, of which the positive axis of z is vertical to
If
we
the ecliptic and directed to the north pole of it, while the axes of x and y are situated in the plane of the ecliptic, the
axis of x being directed to the point of the vernal th equinox, the positive axis of y to the 90 degree of longitude, we have:
positive
x
"
= cos
ft
cos I
"
,
y
= cos
/3
sin
^,,
z"
=
sin
ft.
These coordinates are never found by direct observations, but are only deduced by computation from the other systems
of coordinates.
Note.
As
the motion of the sun
it
is
merely apparent and the earth really
to define the
meaning of the circles moves round the sun in a plane, which passes through the centre of the sun and inter sects the celestial sphere in a great circle called the ecliptic. Hence the lon from that of the gitude of the earth seen from the sun differs always 180 sun seen from the earth. The axis of the earth makes an angle of 665is
moving round the sun,
introduced above also
expedient,
case.
for
this
The
centre of the earth
with this plane and as
the
sun
it
describes
is
in
linder,
whose base
of the
remains parallel while the earth is revolving round course of a year the surface of an oblique cy the orbit of the earth. But on account of the infinite
it
the
distance
celestial
sphere the axis appears in these different positions
the
to intersect the sphere in
same two
points,
whose distance from the poles
of the ecliptic
allel
to itself
Likewise the equator is carried around the sun par and the line of intersection between the equator and the plane
is
23^
.
ecliptic, although remaining always parallel, changes its position in course of the year by the entire diameter of the earth s orbit. But the intersections of the equator of the earth with the celestial sphere in all the
of the
the
different positions to
which
it
is
carried appear to coincide on account of the
*)
has
30.
The longitudes of the Thus the longitude
stars are often given in signs, each of which 6 signs 15 degrees is 195.
=
79
infinite
whose poles are the poles of intersections between the plane of the equator and that of the ecliptic are directed towards the point of intersection between the two great circles of the equator and the ecliptic.
distance of the stars with the great circle,
of the heavens
and
all
the
lines
II.
THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF
COORDINATES.
In order to find from the azimuth and altitude of
its
6.
a star
declination
axis of z in
the
first
and hour angle, we must revolve the system of coordinates in the plane of
to the positive
(p
x and
side
from the positive side of the axis of x of the axis of z through the angle 90
z
(where
cp
latitude), as the axes of y of both systems have therefore according to formula (la) for coincide. the transformation of coordinates, or according to the for
designates the
We
mulae of spherical trigonometry zenith, the pole and the star*):
sin
in the triangle
formed by the
8
t
cos
sin
=
=
sin
&lt;f&gt;
sin k
cos
&lt;p
cos h cos
A
cos 8 cos
Iii
t
=
cos h sin
sin h cos
A
fy&gt;
cos h sin^P cos A.
order to render the formulae more convenient for lo
garithmic computation,
we
will put:
sin h
cos h cos
A=m
sin
= m cos M
sin
M,
M")
and find then:
sin 8
cos 8 sin cos 8 cos
t
t
=m = cos h = m cos
(&lt;p
sin
(y&gt;
A
M}.
These formulae give the unknown quantities without any For as all parts are found by the sine and co ambiguity. sine, there can be no doubt about the quadrant, in which they
lie,
proper attention is paid to the signs. The auxiliary angles, which are introduced for the transformation of such
if
formulae, have always a geometrical meaning, which in each case may be easily discovered. For the geometrical con
struction
amounts
to this, that the oblique spherical triangle
*)
The
(f
three sides of this triangle are respectively 90
t,
/?,
90
8 and
90
and the opposite angles
180
A
and the angle
at the star.
80
is
either
addition
divided into two rightangled triangles or by the of a rightangled triangle is transformed into one.
In the present case
we must draw an
to
from the star perpendicular and as we have:
tang h
it
the
arc of a great circle opposite side 90 y,
= cos A cotang
3/,
from the third of the formulae (10) in No. 8 of the introduction, that M is the arc between the zenith and the
follows
perpendicular arc, while m according to the first of the for is the cosine of this perpendicular arc itself, since we have:
mulae (10)
sin h
= cos P cos
11
44".
3/,
if
we denote
We
&lt;p
= 52
the perpendicular arc by P. will suppose, that we have given:
30
16".
0,
A
=16
make
and
A = 202
4
15".
5.
Then we have
to
the following computation:
cos ^4 9.9669481,,
cos h 9.9824139
sin
m m
sin
cos
3/9.9493620. 3/9.4454744
A
9.5749045,,
3/=
sin
7^35*54^61
3/9.9796542,,
&lt;p
3/=1256
cos S sin
t *
10".61
sin (y
3/) 9.9128171
9.5573184,,
9.7294114,.
1
sin
S 9.8825249
_
m
cos
(&lt;p
9.9697078
3/) 9.7597036,,
cos
&lt;?
cos
t
=2
cos S 9.8104999
3 56 2.22
3
= +49 43
46.~00
cos* 9.9189115..
7.
More
frequently occurs the reverse problem, to con
star
vert
the
hour angle and declination of a
altitude.
into its azi
to
muth and
In this case
we have again according
cos
&lt;p
formula (1) for the transformation of coordinates:
A = cos S sin cos h cos A == cos (p sin
&lt;p
sin h
=
sin
sin
8
+
cos S cos
t
cos h sin
t
S
4 sin
y&gt;
cos S cos
t,
which may be reduced
cing an auxiliary angle.
to a
more convenient form by introdu For if we take
:
cos S cos
sin
we have:
cos h sin cos h
= m cos 3/ = m 3/ S h = m cos A = cos cos A =
t
sin
sin
(&lt;p
3/)
t
sin
(&lt;p
in
sin
3/)
81
tang A
tang h
cos =  3/tang M
sin
(cp
t
or
:
)
=
cos
A
M)
is
*).
tang (cp
When
sin h
the zenith distance alone
to be found, the fol
lowing formulae are convenient.
From
cp cp
the first formula for
2
,
we
find
:
QOS z
or
:
sin
T2
2
= cos = sin^
:
(cp
(cp
8)
2
2 cos
fcos
cos 8 sin
$)
cos 8 sin
2
/
.
If
we
take
now
we have
:
sin
j z*
= \ S = YCOS cos m = n f Hn
sin
(cp
cp
)
8,
1
2
,
sin j
*
1
\
or taking
 sin
t
sin 4 z
= tang A = COS A
it
If sin A. should be greater than cos A, venient to use the following formula:
sin
.T
is
more con
z
=
m
,
sin A
sin ^
t.
In the formula by which n
if
is
the star culminates south of the
found, we must use (p zenith , but ti if the qp
as
will
,
star culminates
north of the zenith,
be afterwards
shown.
Applying Gauss s formulae to the triangle between the star, the zenith and the pole, and designating the angle at the star by /?, we find:
cos
\
z
.
sin 4
(A
(4
cos j z
sin
.
COSY
T
2
.
sin  (^4 f
sin 4 2
.
cos^
= = cos = ^ p) = cos (A Hp)
p)
sin
7^
t
.
sin
(cp f(77
8}
,y
.
cos T cos I
sin
^
$)
sin
Z
.
(9?
(9?
H
8)
$).
/?)
7
z
.
If the azimuth should be
as
it
reckoned from the point North,
star,
is
done sometimes for the polar
instead of
cos
cos
T
we must
cp)
introduce
180
A
A
sin
in these
{
formulae and obtain now:
t
t
.
z
.
(p\(
5 z
.
COSTJ
p f A)
sin \ z sin
.]
.
sin
A(/&gt;
z
.
cos
15
(p
= cos^ = = cos A) =
A)
4)
cos^j (8
sin 5
\
.
sin
(Sicp")
t
.
sin  (8
cp)
sin
5
t
.
cos
A
($49?).
*)
As
the azimuth
last
hour angle, these
is always on the same side of the meridian with the formulae leave no doubt as to the quadrant in which it lies.
6
82
Frequently the case occurs, that these computations must be made very often for the same latitude, when it is desirable
to construct tables for facilitating these computations *). In this case the following transformation may be used. had
We
:
(a) (6) (c)
cos h sin
cos h
A = cos S sin cos sin cos A =
t
y&gt;
sin h
sin
y
sin
f
cos
cp
cos
cos
t
8
+ sin cp
cos
cos
/.
If
we
designate
now by A
in
and
to
which substituted zero, we have
#,
:
and d those values of A the above equation make h equal
$
2
(d)
(e)
sin y4
(/)
= .= cos $ cos cos A =
sin
(p o
sin
f
cos
9?
cos S
cos
t
sin
90
sin
$
cf
j sin 9?
cos $
(i
cos
if.
and subtracting from it further mul equation (rf) after having multiplied it by sin and adding to it equation (c?), equation (/*) by sin tiplying after multiplying it by cos .7, we find:
Multiplying
(/")
now
by cos
&lt;y,
&lt;f
cos
cos
AQ A
cos
sin
95 95
sin ^4
= = cos $ = cos ^
sin
sin
S
cos
sin
t
.
/.
Taking then:
sin
(p
t
cos
cos
9?
cos
sin
f
= y cos B = siny = cos
sin Z?
y,
we
or:
find
from the equation
=
(d) the following:
sin
&lt;?&lt;,
y
sin
(&lt;?
f
=y sin ($
f
B)
and from
(a):
sin A
=
sin
JB\
(/")
subtracting from the product of equations (6) and the product of the equations (c) and (e) we get:
Then
and likewise adding
(/")
sin (S + B} product of the equations (c) and the product of the equations (6) and (e) and that of the
cos h sin
(
A
A
)
= cos
sin
&lt;p
sin (d
^
)
= cos y
to the
equations (a) and (d):
cos h cos (yl
^1
)
= cos $ cos
if
&lt;?
sin
1
t
+ sin
sin
t&gt;"
+ cos S cos $
cos
2
i
*)
For instance
one has
to
set
an altitude and azimuth instrument
at objects,
whose place is given by their right ascension and declination. Then one must first compute the hour angle from the right ascension and the side
real time.
83
Hence
the complete system of formulae
is
as follows:
= y cos B B cosy cos = y = cos y cos B = cos cos cos 5 cos = cos A y = A cos A = y
sin
cp
sin
\
t
sin
sin
(1)
fp
sin
t
sin
4
gp
\
sin
(2)
.B sin
sin
sin sin
n
sin ($ f
B)
\
cos h sin (4
^4
)
= cos y
sin ($ f
These formulae by taking
,4 ^4
=u
D
cp
=
B)
)
sin y
,
C
= cos /
and
are changed into the following:
tang tang
B = cotg
cos
A
7i
sin
tang u
= = C tan
&gt;
=
sin
y tang t sin (B f
5)
where
is
D
and
C
are the sine
and cosine of an angle
tang
t
; ,
which
found from the following equation
cotang y
=
sin
B
= cotang
*)
:
cp
sin
A
.
These are the formulae given by Gauss in ,,Schumacher s Hulfstafeln herausgegeben von Warnstorff pag. 135." If now the quantities C, B and A are brought into tables whose is f, the computation of the altitude and the azi argument muth from the hour angle and the declination is reduced to
Z&gt;,
(}
the computation of the following simple formulae
:
= Dsin(B tang u = C tang (B 4A=A
sin/i
\ u.
h 8)
S)
Such tables for the latitude of the observatory at Altona have been published in WarnstorfFs collection of tables quoted above. It is of course only necessary to extend these tables
from
t
tang A
()
= =
f,
to
sin
(f
t
=6
h
.
For
it
follows
from the equation
1
tang
/,
that
A
()
lies
always in the same qua
t that therefore to the hour angle 12 belongs the azimuth 180 A. Furthermore it follows from the equations
drant as
for B, that this angle
becomes negative, when
is
t
;&gt;
6 h or
^&gt;
90
,
that therefore if the hour angle be used. The quantities
*)
12
h
t
the value
B must
For we have according
cotang
&lt;p
to
the formulae (2)
sin
A
=
sin
B tang
t.
84
C= cosy
are not
s
mt
t
and
t
D = J/sin
2 y&gt;
changed
if
180
lies
instead of
t
is
substituted in these
1
expressions.
tation
When
between 12 h and 24
,
the
compu
to
its
must be carried through with the complement of t 24 h and afterwards instead of the resulting value of A must be taken. complement to
360"
It is
easy to find
iliary angles.
As
r)
the geometrical meaning of the aux represents that value of f), which sub
to zero,
first of the original equations makes it equal the declination of that point, in which the de o clination circle of the star intersects the horizon; likewise is
stituted
in
&lt;y
the
is
Fig. i.
A the azimuth of this more as we have B is the arc S F Fig. 1
In
the
is
=
*
point.
Further
,
J
B j
ti
)
of the decli
nation circle extended to the horizon.
right angled
triangle
FOK^
which
formed by the horizon, the and the side FK equator B, we have to the sixth of the formu according
=
lae (10) of the introduction, because the angle at is equal to 90 : cf
sin
(p
= cos B
(f
7
But
as
we have
ulso sin
= D cos #,
C
sin
FK.
we
see, that
D
is
the sine of the angle O
OFK.
therefore
its
cosine.
At
last
we
easily see that
We
and FG equal to u. is equal to A can iind therefore the above formulae from the three
FH
right angled triangles
PFH,
A
OFK
t
and SFG.
The
first tri
angle gives
the second:
:
tang
= tang
sin
P,
tang
cotang y
B = cotang cos = sin B tang = cotg
cp
t
t
sinA
&lt;f&gt;
,
and the third:
sin h
tang u
= y (B = cos y tang (B
sin sin
+ S)
+ 8).
may be used for solving the inverse problem, given in No. 6, to find the hour angle
auxiliary
quantities
*) In this figure
The same
P
is
the pole,
Z
the zenith,
OH the
horizon,
A
the
equator, and
S
the star.
85
and the declination of a star from its altitude and azimuth. For we have in the right angled triangle SKL, designating AL by A H and the cosine and sine of LG by #, LK by SLK by C and D: the angle C tang (h B] = tang u
^&lt;,
D
and
sin (h
t
=A
sin
)
=
sin
#
w,
where now:
tang
.
tang A
= cotang cos = y tang
(p
.4
^l
and where D and C are the sine and cosine of an angle which is found by the equation:
cotang y
;,
=
sin
B tang A.
use therefore for computing the auxiliary quantities the same formulae as before only with this difference, that
in
We
the
these
A
occurs in the place of
tables as before,
into time.
t;
we can
use therefore
azi
also
same
taking as
argument the
muth converted
8.
The cotangent of the angle ; which Gauss denotes can be used to compute the angle at the star in the by .E, triangle between the pole, the zenith and the star. This angle
,
between the
is
vertical circle
and the declination
is
circle,
of.
which
If
called the parallactic angle
often
made use
we
have tables, such as spoken of before,
angle
E, we
find
which give also the the parallactic angle, which shall be de
noted by p, from the following simple formula:
as
is easily seen, if the fifth of the formulae (10) in No. 8 of the introduction is applied to the right angled triangle
1.
SGF
one has no such tables, the following formulae Fig. which are easily deduced from the triangle SP Z can be used:
if
cos h sin cos h cos
But
p p
= cos = cos
(p
sin
&lt;p
t
sin
&lt;p
sin
8 cos
(p
cos
t,
or taking:
cos
cos
sin
t
(f
= N = n cos N,
n sin
the following formulae, which are rithmic computation
:
more convenient
sin
t
for loga
cos h sin
p
cos h cos p
= cos = n cos (+N).
(p
86
The
the effect
parallactic
which
angle is used, if we wish to compute small increments of the azimuth and al
titude produce in the
we
nith
have, applying
to the triangle
For declination and the hour angle. between the pole, the ze
and third of the formulae
h cos /* sin p dA S .dcp f cos h cos p. d A
.
and the
star the first
(9) in
No. 11 of the introduction:
dS
cos Sdt
= cos p dh H cos =
sin/&gt;c?A+
t
dfp
t
sin
sin
and likewise:
dh
cos lid
A=
= cos pdS
sin
cos
sin
pd S
A d(p cos S sin/) dt A sin hdcp + cos 8 cospdt.
.
9.
In
order to
convert the right ascension and decli
its
nation of a star into
volve the axis
and longitude, we must re through the angle s equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic in the direction from towards the positive axis of the positive axis of As the and x of the two systems coincide, we find ac axes of cording to the formulae (1 a) in No. 1 of the introduction:
latitude
ofss"
*) in the plane of
z"
y"
z".
y"
"
x"
cos
/? j3
cos A
cos
sin A
sin
= cos S cos = cos 8 a cos a cos 8 p=
sin
sin
e f sin
8 sin
e
f
.
sin f
H
sin
8 cos
These formulae may be also derived from the triangle between the pole of the equator, the pole of the ecliptic and the star, whose three sides are 90 d, 90 ft and s and the opposite angles respectively 90 A, 90 j a and the
angle at the star. In order to render these formulae convenient for loga rithmic computation, we introduce the following auxiliary
quantities
:
AT M cos zV = cos o sin a,
TUT
S&gt;
M
sin
N=
sin
8
(&)
by which the three
following:
cos
cos
original equations are
cos A
sin A sin
{3
changed
into the
/3 /?
= cos 8 cos a = Mcos (N = M (N
sin
e)
s ),
or
for
if
we
its
find all quantities
by
cos
their
tangents and substitute
M
*)
value
cos 8 sin
N
See No. 4 of
this Section.
87
we
get as final equations
tang
:
A=
=!
tang
sin
cos
(N
"
e)
tanga
I
tang
ft
= tang (N
e) sin
us a and d without any am original formulae give but if we use the formulae (6) we may be in doubt biguity; However it as to the quadrant in which we must take /,. from the equation: follows
The
cos
ft
cos k
= cos 3 cos a
that I must be taken in that quadrant, which corresponds to the sign of tang I and at the same time satisfies the con
dition, that cos a
and cos
of the
h
must have the same
sign.
As
a check
computation the following equation
e)
may
be used:
cos
(N
cos
N
/t
_ cos
{3
sin h
.
cos S sin
which we
find
by dividing the two equations: Mcos (N e) cos ft sin
cos
sin
a
= = Af cos
.2V.
The geometrical meaning of the auxiliary angles is easily found. A is the angle which the great circle passing through the star and the point of the vernal equinox makes with the
7
equator, and
M
fl
is
the sine of this arc.
Example.
If
we have:
33
29".
=6
.
e
= 23
30
S
=
31".
16
72,
22
35".
45
27
the computation of the formulae (6) and (c) stands as follows: 9 0605604 9 9820131 cos tang
.
tang&lt;?
9.4681562,,
9
._057709_3
cos N
88 72
60
CoS
9
.
0292017,,
17
,
sin
jV
=
a
1 = 359
43".
91
68
45 4 27 31
1".
tang
R Q (#)!. 4114653
.
 =  92
.
sin^
13 13
.
S.OS97293*
cos(,Y )8.5882086 n 9 5590069 cos
N
^
=9
1^8^37
.
979 1948
.
cos
ft
sin;,
cos S sin a
= 8 .0689241. = 9. 0397224
9
.
0292017*
^^
TTK
^
,
ITY
88
If we apply Gauss s formulae to the triangle between the pole of the equator, the pole of the ecliptic and the star and denote the angle at the star by 90 E, we find:
sin (45 sin (45
 ft)
4/?)
sin
cos^ (E
sin
cos(45
cos (45
$
ft)
j/5)
= (45 +J cos [45 (45 !) \ (JEM) = [45 = cos (45 + cos [45 cos
X)
i (E
A)
cos
sin
(45+4)
sin [45
(eh&lt;?)]
I (s
)]
sin
sin
$(
?(e
)]
I (JF4)
a)
+
8)].
These formulae are especially convenient, besides ft and A also the angle 90 E.
Note.
if
we wish
to find
Encke has given
in the Berlin
Jahrbuch for 1831
tables,
which
are very convenient for an approximate computation of the longitude and la titude from the right ascension and declination. The formulae on which they are based are deduced by the same transformation of the three fundamental
equations
in
No. 9 as that used in No. 7 of
this
section for equations of a
similar form.
More accurate
tables have been given in the
Jahrbuch
for 1856.
10.
The formulae
for the inverse
problem, to convert
the longitude
and latitude of a
similar.
and declination, are
We
cos /
star into its right ascension get in this case from the
formulae (1) for the transformation of coordinates or also
from the same spherical triangle as before:
cos
d
cos a
cos 8 sin a
sin
= cos = cos S = cos
ft ft ft
sin A cos E
sin
ft ft
sin s
sin A sin e + sin
cos
e.
can find these equations also by exchanging in the three original equations in No. 9 ft and I for $ and a and
We
we can deduce from
conversely and taking the angle s negative. In the same the formulae (//) the following:
way
tang tang 8
=__
cos
(.TV
sn
he)
tang I
sin
=
tang (N+
s)
a
and from
a check:
(r) the following formula,
which may be used
a
as
cos
(N {cos
s~)
N
_ cos S
cos
ft
sin
sin I
Here
the
is
N
star
the angle, which the great circle passing through and the point of the vernal equinox makes with
s
the ecliptic.
Finally Gauss
equations give in this case:
89
sin (45
\
}
sin (45
3)
?
&lt;?)
cosOEH) = cos(45 MA)
sin 4
sin \
(E\a]
=
sin (45
+
4
A) sin
[45"
(e
+/?)]
cos [45
(,#)]
(e

cos (45 cos (45
4&lt;?)
cos 4
(_) =
(E
a]
cos (45
sin (45
h
\
A) sin [45
/?)]
H A) cos [45
(s\ft)].
2Vote. As the sun is always in the ecliptic, the formulae become more of the sun by L, its right simple in this case. If we designate the longitude ascension and declination by A and D, we find: tang L cos e tang A
or
:
= = L = tang tang D
sin I)
sin
sin e
e sin ^4.
the star in the triangle between the the pole of the ecliptic and the star, equator, pole or the angle at the star between its circle of declination and its circle of latitude, is found at the same time with A and /?,
11.
The angle
at
of the
if
Gauss
s
noting
this
equations are used for computing them, as, de But if we 90 E. angle by r\ , we have
&gt;/
=
wish to
find
this
it
angle without computing those formulae,
we can
obtain
from the following equations:
ft ft
cos
cos
sin
77
cos
77
= cos = cos
a.
sin e
e
cos S
+ sin e sin
sin
a
or:
cos S sin
cos S cos
77
i]
or taking:
cos
sin f sin
= cos A = cos cos = m cos M =m
e
sin e
ft
sin E sin
ft
sin A,
sin
/If
or:
cos s
sin
sin A
= n cos 2V
=n
sin
N
:
we may
or:
find
it
from the equations
ft
cos cos
sin
rj
ft
cos
77
cos
sin
77
cos S cos
77
= cos a = w cos (M = cos = cos
sin
8)
A sin
n
(2V f
/?).
The angle
tj
is
/&gt;
used to find the
effect,
&lt;)
crements of A and
have on a and
which small in and conversely. For
we
get by applying the first and third of the formulae (11) in No. 9 of the introduction to the triangle used before:
dft
cos
ft
o?A
= cos =
sin
77
77
d d8
*
cos S sin
77
.
cos $ cos
77
.
da da
sin A
+
de
ft
cos A sin
de,
and
also:
dS=
cos $o?
=
cosr]dft\cosftsmrj.dhtsmad
sin rjdft + cos/? cos
77
.
c?A
cos
sin
$
.
c/.
90
is always sun on account of the per turbations produced by the planets has generally a small latitude either north or south, which however never exceeds one second of arc. Having therefore
Note.
The
supposition
made above
that the centre of the sun
moving
in the ecliptic is not rigidly true, as the
right ascension and declination by the formulae given in the note No. 10, we must correct them still for this latitude. If we designate it by dB, we have the differential formulae
computed
to
:
=  COS U,. dB y dJj = cos dB,
sin
&lt;M
,
i]
.
or
if
ft
.
we
cos
substitute
77
the
values
77
of sin
r]
and cos
77
from the formulae for
find:
cos
and cos S cos
cos
D dA =
after having taken
cos
A sin e
.
/?=0, we dB,
cos
D...
12.
into
for converting altitudes and azimuths and latitudes may be briefly stated, as they longitudes
The formulae
of.
are not
made use
have
first
We
the coordinates with respect to the plane
of the horizon:
= cos A cos A cos y = =
x
sin
z
sin h.
h, h,
If
we
revolve the axis of
(f
x
in the
the angle 90 of the axis of
in the direction
plane of x and z through towards the positive side
coordinates:
cos
(jp,
3,
we
find the x y
z
new
z (f \
=x
=y.
sin
=
z sin
(p
x cos
cp.
in the plane of x and the plane of the equator, through the angle &, so that the axis of x is directed towards the point of the vernal equinox, we find the following formulae, observing that
If
we then
is
revolve the axis of
x
t/,
which
the positive side of right ascension is
y"
90"
must be directed towards a point whose and that the right ascensions and hour
angles are reckoned in an opposite direction:
x"
y"
z"
= x cos & = y COS =
z
e
r
y x
sin
sill
If
we
finally
revolve the axis
of
y"
in the plane of
y"
and
z"
through the angle
of the axis of
in the direction
towards the pos
itive side
a",
we
find:
91
!
y"
"
z
and as we
also have:
= cos = y x = cos p cos I = cos =
y"
4
z"
sin s
sin s + z
cos
,
"
!
y"
fi
sin k
"
z
sln/3,
we can
express A and
eliminating
x
,
y
,
/? directly as well as
by 4,
a".
ft,
&lt;f
,
and
e
by
a?",
#",
III.
THE DIURNAL MOTION AS A MEASURE OF TIME. SIDEREAL, APPARENT AND MEAN SOLAR TIME.
13.
The
diurnal revolution
of the
celestial
sphere or
rather that of the earth on her axis being perfectly uniform, it serves as a measure of time. The time of an entire revo
lution of the earth
on
its
axis or the time
between two suc
cessive culminations of the same fixed point of the celestial sphere, is called a sidereal day. It is reckoned from the mo
ment the point of the vernal equinox
dian,
h
,
is
when
2h ,
it
is
O h sidereal time.
or
l
h
,
Likewise
crossing the meri h h h it is l , 2 , 3 etc.
sidereal time,
is
l
when
is
3 h etc.
the hour angle of the point of the equinox when the point of the equator whose
right ascension the meridian.
2h
,
3 h etc. or 15
,
30",
45
etc.
is
on
We
shall see hereafter, that the
two points of the equi
noxes are not fixed points of the celestial sphere, but that they are moving though slowly on the ecliptic. This motion
is
rather the result of
tional to the time
two motions, of which one is propor and therefore unites with the diurnal mo
tion of the sphere, while the other is periodical. This latter motion has the effect, that the hour angle of the point of
the vernal equinox does not increase sidereal time is not strictly uniform.
uniformly, hence that But this want of uni
formity is exceedingly small as nineteen years only to =1= 1 s
.
it
.
amounts during a period of
14.
The sun being on
it
the 21 th of
March
at the vernal
si
equinox
crosses the meridian on that day at nearly O h
92
dereal time.
But
at
it
moves
in the ecliptic
and
is
at the
d point of the autumnal equinox on the 23 of September, hav h it culminates on this day at ing the right ascension I2
,
sidereal time. Thus the time of the culmination nearly 12 of the sun moves in the course of a year through all hours of a sidereal day and on account of this inconvenience the
1
time would not suit the purposes of society, hence the motion of the sun is used as the measure of civil time.
sidereal
The hour angle
of the sun
is
called the apparent solar time
and the time between two successive culminations of the sun
an apparent solar day. It is O h apparent time when the centre of the sun passes over the meridian. But as the right
ascension of the sun does not increase uniformly, this time is also not uniform. There are two causes which produce
sun s right ascension, namely the and the variable motion of the sun obliquity ecliptic in the ecliptic. This annual motion of the sun is only ap parent and produced by the motion of the earth, which ac cording to Kepler s laws moves in an ellipse, whose focus is occupied by the sun, and in such a manner that the line joining the centre of the earth and that of the sun (the ra
this variable increase of the
of the
If
dius vector of the earth) describes equal areas in equal times. we denote the length of the sidereal year, in which the earth
orbit,
performs an entire revolution in her
the areal velocity the ellipse
is
by
,
T
we
the
find for
F
of the earth
2
,
as
area
of
equal to
a*nVl
e
or
if
we take
the semi
major
axis of the ellipse equal to unity
r/&gt;,
and introduce instead
e
of e the angle of excentricity
given by the equation
=
si
we
find:
If we call the time, when the earth is nearest to the sun or at the perihelion T, we find for any other time t the sector, which the radius vector has described since the time
of the perihelion passage equal to
is
F(t,
T). V
But
e?j/,
this sector
also expressed
by the
definite integral \ Ir 2
o
where
r des
ignates the radius vector and v the
angle, which the radius
93
vector makes with the major axis, or the true anomaly of the have therefore the following equation: earth.
We
2F(tT)=j
As we have
integral
r

tor the ellipse r
n
,1
IT
=
a

(1
e
2 )
Hficos^
a cos y = l+ecosv
,
2
,
.
*
tnis
would become complicated.
;
We
can however in
troduce another angle for r for as the radius vector at the a a\ae, we may ae, at the aphelion perihelion is assume r a(\ icos E) where E is an angle which is equal
=
=
to
zero
at the
equation for
same time as v. For we get the following determining E from the two expressions of r:
cos
h
v = lje
cos

+ e
,

cos v
from which we see, that
right side
is
E
has always a real value, as the
=f= 1.
always
cos
1
less
than
By
a simple transformation
we
cos

get also
sin
:
E
e

= cos v
dv
w
E
for
and
sm v
r,
ecosh
1
ecos/t
and
differentiating the
two expressions
a cos
r
cp
we
find:
Introducing
integral,
2 F(t
now
the variable
E
E
into the above definite
we
7
find:
J)
=a
2
cos
y
o
1(1

e
cos
E} dE
a~ cos ip
(E
e sin
E),
hence taking again the semi major axis equal to unity and substituting for F its value found before we obtain:
where
is
w
is
the
mean
sidereal daily motion of the earth, that
the daily motion the earth would have if it were perform ing the whole revolution with uniform velocity in the time T.
The
first
member
of the above equation expresses therefore
which such a fictitious earth, moving with uniform This angle is T. would describe in the time t velocity, called the mean anomaly and denoting it by M, we can write
the angle,
the above equation also thus:
94
M= E
e sin
E,
,
and having found from this the auxiliary angle the true anomaly from the equation:
tang
we
get
r mE r= cos y cos
s
~
.
hi
e
more con venient, to develop the difference between the true and mean Several elegant methods have been anomaly into a series. given for this, whose explanation would lead us too far, but as we need only a few terms for our present purpose, we can M As we have v easily find them in the following way.
in case that the excentricity is small
it is
But
when
where
e
=
,
=
0,
we can
etc.
take
:
v
?
i&gt;"
= M+ v\.e +
\
v\
.e 2
+
l
v&gt;\
.
e
3
4
.
..
,
designate the
first,
second
etc.
differential
e
coefficient of v with respect to e in case that
we
c s
,
take
]
=
0.
If
we
differentiate the equation sin v
=

1
cos
E
written
logarithmically, we find: cos v cos E _ dE
sin*
sin.E
1
e
dy
cosy
v
ecosE
sin
.
1
cosE e ecosE
T
or:
dv=
if
s
mr
.
and
only
we
and
dv 
cosy differentiate also the equation for
e as variable,
sin
sin
vd&lt;p
sinE
^.dE\
dy
= a cos y dEir
sin
v
dy,
cosy
M,
considering
E
we
find:
dE =
=
v
(2 f e cos v)
dy
COS9P
Taking here
e
=
and de
i/
dv
=
sin
 
v
(2
f e
cos v).
0,
we
get
=2
cosy
sin
M.
In order to find also the higher differential coefficients
we
will
put P
= cosy
.,
1
and Q
= 2 h
e
cos
v.
We
find then
after
denoting the differential coefficients of having taken e by P , () etc. P cos sin 2 J/, v\ cos M, Q
easily,
=
.
P and Q
= =
==
M
=
v"
p"
Q"
= cos J/. = 2
S in
^=
sin
M. Q
^"
H
sin
2P = 4 sin 2 M. v\ + 2 sin il/=
il/, 2
sin
M. v\
Q"
=
f
sin 3
M h { sin M,
f
sin
4
.
sin
Jf 2
,
v
"
M.
h 2
Q
P
+
?
2P"
=V
J/4
3
sin
3 If
M.
Hence we
get:
(2 e
= 3/h
1 e ) sin
3
3/4
e
2
sin 2
[^
e
3
sin 3
J/ 4
...
95
The
is
0.0167712.
excentricity of the earth s orbit for the year 1850 If we substitute this value for e and multiply
all
terms by 206265 onds of arc, we find:
v
m
sin
order to get
v
M
expressed in sec
05
sin
= M+
G918"
.
37
M+
72"
.
52
sin 2
M
f
1"
.
3M,
where the periodical part, which is always to be added to the mean anomaly in order to get the true anomaly, is called
is equal to the angular motion of the earth around the sun, we obtain the true longitude of the sun by adding to r the longitude n which the sun has when the earth is at the perihelion and
the equation of the centre. As the apparent angular motion of the sun
M\n
the
is
the longitude of the fictitious
mean sun
,
which
is
supposed to move with uniform velocity
in the ecliptic,
or
mean longitude of the sun. Denoting the first by A, the other by L, we have the following expression for the true longitude of the sun:
I
= L f 69
18".
37
sin
M+
72".
52
sin
2M+as
1".05
sin
3
or
if
we
rc
and
= 280
A
introduce
21
L
instead of
M
,
we have
56 cos
cos
M= L
M*\
n
41".0:
=
ZM244". 31 sin
f
6805".
67. 82 sin 2L 54sin3
.
+
25. 66
.
L 2Z
90 cos 3 L.
its
longitude,
In order to deduce the right ascension of the sun from we use the formula:
tang
A = tang A
.
cos
e,
which by applying formula (17) is changed into:
in
No. 11 of the introduction
4
^
A=k
tang
TT
e~ sin 2 1 f ^ tang
sin
4^
...
where the periodical part taken with the opposite sign
is cal
led the reduction to the ecliptic. If we substitute in this formula the last formula found
for /
and develop the
sines
we
find after the necessary reductions 15 in order to get the right ascension
and cosines of the complex terms and after dividing by
expressed in seconds
of time:
*)
To
this
the
perturbations
of the
longitude produced by the planets
must be added
as well as the small motions of the point of the equinox.
96
A=L
f
86s 53 s n L 596 .64sin2L
.
i
__
4348
1
.
15 cos
JS
h

.69 cos 2
.
3 .77 sin 3/i
18
77cos3L
19cos4
82 cos 5
h
f
13
.
23 sin 4
5
L
h
.
0.16 sin
.
.
L
36
sin 6
L
f
.
02 cos 6
L
.01 sin?
.04 cosl L.
the right ascension of the sun does not increase at a uniform rate, the apparent solar time, being equal to the hour angle of the sun, cannot be uniform. Another uni
15.
As
form time has therefore been introduced, the mean solar time, which is regulated by the motion of another fictitious sun, supposed to move with uniform velocity in the equator while
the fictitious
sun used before was moving in the ecliptic. The right ascension of this mean sun is therefore equal to
longitude
,
the
any place
L of the first mean sun. when this mean sun is on
It is
mean noon
,
at
the meridian
hence
the sidereal time is equal to the mean longitude of the sun and the hour angle of this mean sun is the mean time which for astronomical purposes is reckoned from one noon
when
to the next
from O h
to
to
24 h
.
Hansen the mean right ascension L of According sun is for 1850 Jan. O h Paris mean time:
18
the
39
9s. 261,
and as the length of the tropical year that is the time in which the sun makes an entire revolution with respect to the vernal equinox is 365 2422008, the mean daily tropical mo
.
tion of the sun
is:
9AO
its its
59 8. 38 o, 8 56365. 2422008 motion in 365 days 23 h 59 m 2 706 motion in 366 days 24 2 59 261


.
555
ta
tim.,
.
= =
.
.
= 57 = 42
294,
59 261.
By
this
we
are enabled to compute the sidereal time for
any other time. In order to find the sidereal time at noon for any other meridian, we have the sidereal time at noon
for Jan.
1850 equal
18 h
to:
"
39
9s
.
261 h
X 3m
56
.
555,
where k denotes the
positive
*)
difference of longitude
from Paris, taken
when West,
negative
when East*).
Here again the small motion of the vernal equinox must be added.
97
The
relation
from the formula
of the real
between mean and apparent time follows The mean sun is sometimes ahead sometimes behind according to the sign of sun,
for A.
the periodical part of the formula for A.
we compute L for mean noon at a certain place, the L A given by the above formula is the hour angle of the sun at mean noon, as L is the sidereal time at mean noon*). Now we call equation of time the quantity, which must be added to the apparent time in order to get the mean A time. In order therefore to find from the expression for L the equation of time x for apparent noon, we must convert A into mean time and take it with the the hour angle L o But if n is the mean daily motion of the sun opposite sign.
If
value of
and ntw the true daily motion on that certain day, w hours of apparent 24 hours of mean time are equal to 24 hence we have: time,
in time
x
or
:
A
L == 24 h
:
24 h
w,
x
= (AL}~24
24 h
h
w
the equation for A we can easily see how the of time changes in the course of a year. For if we equation L take A , retaining merely the three principal terms,
From
=
we have
the equation:
= 8G.5
sin
L
596.6 sin 2
L
+
434.1 cos L,
from which
tion of time
we can
is
,
find the values of L, for
L = 16015
December.
of time
get the
on
is
L = 2733
we
equal to zero,
,
namely L
= 23
which the equa
16
,
L
= 83
26
,
th April, the 14
which correspond of June, the 31 st of August and the 24 th of
to
the 15 th of
Likewise
a
find the dates,
maximum, from 4 maxima:
31s, 3 m 53s,
Febr. 12,
when the equation the differential equation and we
H6 m
12s,
H14 m

16
IS*
May
solar
14,
July 26*
is
Nov. 18.
The apparent
*)
day
for
the longest,
when
the variation
The above expression
L
A
and
is is
must be found from the
solar tables
only approximate. The true value equal to the mean longitude mi
nus the true right ascension of the sun. The latest solar tables are those of Hansen and Olufsen (Tables du soleil. Copenhagen 1853.) and Leverrier s tables in Annales de 1 Observatoire Imperial Tome IV.
7
98
of time in one day is at its maximum and This occurs about Dec. 23 when the variation is positive. 30 s hence the length of a solar day 24 h O rn 30 s On the Con
of the
equation
,
.
trary the apparent day is the shortest, when the variation of the equation of time is negative and again at its maximum. This happens about the middle of September, when the va
riation
59"
is
s
.
21 s , hence the length of the apparent day 23 h
of these three different times can
it
39
The transformation
treat the several
now be
performed without any difficulty, but
16.
will
be useful, to
problems separately. To convert mean solar time into sidereal time and As the sun on account conversely sidereal into mean time. of its motion from West to East from one vernal equinox to the next loses an entire diurnal revolution compared with the fixed stars, the tropical year must contain exactly one
more
fore
:
sidereal
day than there are mean days.
We
have there
and a mean
= 365.242201 366. 242201 = a mean day 366.242201 day = TTTT^T 060. 242201 36042201
ay
J
mean
^
mean
time,
3 in 55 s .909
sidereal day, Sldereal da
*
.
a sidereal day
+
3 m 56 s 555
sidereal time.
Hence
time and
fy,
if
designates the sidereal time at
(~)
the
sidereal
time,
M
the
:
mean
mean noon, we have
and
24fa 4
3
50s
.
555
0o H
"24iT~
The
sidereal
time at
mean noon can be computed by
it
the formulae given before, or
can be taken from the astro
nomical almanacs, where
it
is
given for every
mean noon.
To
facilitate the
computation tables have been constructed,
24 h
3
which give the values of
"
55s
.
9Q9
24 h
and
24 h
4
3 U1 56 s
.
555
99
for
Such tables are published also in the any value of t. almanacs and in all collections of astronomical tables. Given 1849 Juny 9 14 b 16 36 s 35 Berlin Example.
.
sidereal time.
To
convert
it
time at
According to the Berlin mean noon on that day
5 h 10
"
mean time. Almanac for 1849
into
is
.
the sidereal
48 s 30,
hence
05 sidereal time have elapsed between noon and the given time and this according to the tables or if
9 5 in 48 s
1
.
we perform
the multiplication by 24 h 3 m 55s
24*&gt;
.
909
h in s 63 mean time. If the mean time had equal to 9 4 18 been given, we should convert it into sidereal hours, minutes and seconds and add the result to the sidereal time at mean
is
.
noon
to the
in
order to find the
time.
sidereal
time which corresponds
into
given mean
17.
To convert apparent solar time
into apparent time.
mean time and
mean time
time into
mean time, we
this
In order to convert apparent take simply the equation of time
corresponding to
it
apparent time from an almanac and add
algebraically
to the given time.
According
to the Berlin
Almanac we have noon the following
for
the equation of time at the apparent values:
I.
Diff.
S
II. Diff.
1849 June 8
9

1 "20.73
1
10
9.37 57.74
+
.
^+
s
.
s.27.
Therefore
if
the apparent time given
s
is
June 9 9 h 5 m 23 s
.
.
m 4 we find the equation of time equal to l 98, hence mean time equal to 9 4 m 18 .62. In order to convert mean time into apparent time,
60, the
the
is
same equation of time
is
used.
But as
this
sometimes
given for apparent time, we ought to know already the ap parent time in order to interpolate the equation of time. But on account of its small variation, it is sufficient, to take first
an approximate value of the equation of time, find with the approximate apparent time and then interpolate with
a
this this
new
s
.
18
value of the equation 62 mean time is given,
of time.
For instance
take
first
if 9 h
4m
we may
the equation
7*
100
m and then find for 9 h 5 m 18 s .6 l of time equal to apparent I m 4 8 .98, hence the exact ap time the equation of time 5 m 23 s 60. parent time equal to
9"
.
In the Nautical Almanac
we
find
besides the equation
of time for every apparent noon also the quantity
L
A
for
given, which must be added to the mean time in order to find the apparent time. Using then this
every mean noon
quantity, if
we perform
18.
to convert mean time into apparent time, a similar computation as in the first case. To convert apparent time into sidereal time and con
we have
versely sidereal into apparent time. equal to the hour angle of the sun,
As the apparent time is we have only to add the
right ascension of the sun in order to find the sidereal time. According to the Berlin Almanac we have the following right ascensions of the sun for the mean noon
:
1849 JuneS
9
5h 5 m 3Qs,79
9
38. 75
46 .98
+
,
f ^+0s.27.
10
13
s
.
60 apparent time on June 9 is to be Now if converted into sidereal time, we find the right ascension of the sun for this time equal to 5 h 11 "12 s 75, hence the si dereal time equal to 14 h 16 m 36 s 35. In order to convert sidereal time into apparent time we
h
.
9 5 m 23
.
must know the apparent time approximately for interpolating the right ascension of the sun. But if we subtract from the sidereal time the right ascension at noon, we get the number of sidereal hours, minutes, etc. which have elapsed since noon.
These
sidereal hours, minutes, etc. ought to be converted into apparent time. But it is sufficient, to convert them into mean
time.
time and to interpolate the right ascension of the sun for this Subtracting this from the given sidereal time we find
the apparent time. On June 9 we
noon equal
h
to
5 h 9 m 38 s
.
have the right ascension of the sun at h m s 60 sidereal 75, hence 9 6 57
.
.
mean time have elapsed between noon and If we interpolate the given sidereal time 14 h 16 m 36 s 35. for this time the right ascension of the sun, we find again h m 5 h ll m 12 s 75, hence the corresponding apparent time 9 5
. .
time or 9 5 m 28 s 00
23 s 60.
.
101
from the sidereal time the from this with the aid of the corresponding mean time and equation of time the apparent time.
Instead of this
find
Note.
we might
In
order
to
make
these computations for the time
t
of a meri
dian, whose difference of longitude from the meridian of the almanac is k, must interpolate the quantities from positive if West, negative if East, we
the almanac, namely the sidereal time at noon, the equation of time and the
right ascension of the sun for the time
t
+ k.
IV.
PROBLEMS ARISING FROM THE DIURNAL MOTION.
In consequence of the diurnal motion every star 19. comes twice on a meridian of a place, namely in its upper
culmination, when the sidereal time ascension and in its lower culmination,
is
is
when
equal to its right the sidereal time
The time greater by 12 hours than its right ascension. culmination of a fixed star is therefore immediately of the known. But if the body has a proper motion, we ought to
know
already the time of culmination in order to be able to
for that
compute the right ascension
moment.
By the equation of time at the apparent noon, as given in the almanacs, we find the mean time of the culmination
of the sun for the meridian, for which the ephemeris is pub lished, and the equation of time interpolated for the time k
gives the time of culmination for another meridian, whose difference of longitude is equal to k. The places of the sun, the moon and the planets are given in the almanacs for the mean noon of a certain meridian.
let
Now
f(a) denote the right ascension of the body at noon, expres sed in time, and t the time of culmination, we find the right
ascension at the time of culmination by Newton s formula of interpolation, neglecting the third differences, as follows:
/(a)
f
tf
(a
+
)
H
i~~2~/"
()
or a
little
more exact:
/(a) H tf (a
+ ) +  {Y /
(

(
+
*)
As
this
must be equal to the sidereal time
at that
mo
102
merit,
we
the sidereal time at
obtain the following equation, where & designates mean noon and where the interval of the
f(ci) is
56s
.
arguments of
4
assumed
to
be 24 hours:
(
t (24h;&gt;
56)
=/() + //
+ ft H"
^^
f"
(
h
*),
hence
:
&lt;==
_
56".
_._/M.!?o
1
._J^3
SGrCaH*)]
/ (+*)
The second member of this equation contains it is true f, but as the second differences are always small, we can in computing t from this formula use for t in the second memher the approximate
The
at
quantity
if
6J
f(a)
for
is
noon
for the meridian
the hour angle of the body which the ephemeris has been
computed;
k
if
is
the
longitude
of
another place,
at this place
again
taken positive be O f(a)
tt
West, the hour angle
k
,
would
this
place but in time of the
hence the time of culmination for first meridian is
24
3
"
56s
.
5G
/
(
+
)
_
2i
f
k.
and the
local time of culmination
t=t
Example.
The
are given for Berlin
1861 July 14.5
15.0
15.5 16.0
following right ascensions of the mean time:
moon
/()
13"
7
5*
.
3
"
Z&lt;
13 34 22 .9
14
V;*
2
21
.
7
1431
at
4.0
? ^^
+4
i k2
;
43.5
and the sidereal time
7s
.
mean noon on July 15
r&gt;
=7
h
33 m
for
9.
To
As
find
the time of the culmination of the
moon
Greenwich.
34 s
.
the difference of longitude in this case is k 53 m the numerator of the formula for t becomes 6 h 54 m 49 s 9, 9,
.
=
*) If the interval of the arguments of / () were 12 hours instead of 24 hours, the first term of the denominator in the above formula would be 12 h l m 58 s 28, and if we start from a value /(), whose argument is midnight, we would have to use H 12 h l m 58 s 28 instead of
. .
6&gt;
.
103
the
first
terms
of the
denominator
become
.
ll h 33 m 59 s
.
5,
hence the approximate value of t is 0.59775; with this we s 5 and the cor find the correction of the denominator f 8 h m 17 s rected value of t equal to 0.59762 or 7 10 .O, hence h 42 s 1. the local time of the culmination equal to 6
16"
.
For the lower culmination we have the following equation, where a again designates the argument nearest to the lower
culmination
Ht (24"
:
3
56"
.
G)
= 12
H/(a)
I
*/(aH)
+
^"^
/ (+*),
&,
is
:
hence the formula for a place whose longitude
is
24*3 56*
.
56/
is
1
or in case the interval of the arguments
,
2 hours
:
t
=
_
12"
1".
58s
.
+k 3 _/ + ;) _ i/
12
if(a}0
(
&lt;
(a
4.
)
lower cul from July 15.5. Hence the numerator becomes 7 h 20 m 50 s .4, the first terms of the denominator become II 33 m 16 0, hence the aproximate value of t is equal to 0.6359 and the corrected value
Example.
If
we wish
to find the time of the
mination at Greenwich on July 15,
1
we
start
s
.
0.63577 or 7 h 37 m 45 8 .l. The lower culmination occurs there fore at 19 h 37 m 45 s 1 Berlin mean time or at 18 h 44 m 10 s .2
.
Greenwich time.
20.
In No.
7^
we found
sin h
=
the following equation
8
\
:
sin
y&gt;
sin
cos
,
If the star
is
in the horizon
J^j therefore h equal to zero,
cp
cos $ cos
t.
I*
we
have:
=
hence:
sin
&lt;f
cos
=
sin
f
cos
cp
cos S cos
8.
t
Q
.
tang
y tang
By
this
formula
we
find for
any latitude the hour angle
in d.
at rising or setting of a star,
whose declination
This
hour angle taken absolutejjL^alled the semiupper diurnal arc of the star. If we know the sidereal time at which the star
passes the meridian or its right ascension, we find the time of the rising or setting of the star, by subtracting the ab solute value of t from or adding it to the right ascension.
()
104
From
the
sidereal
time
we can
find the
mean time by
the
method given
Example.
sets at Berlin.
before.
To find the time when Arcturus rises and For the beginning of the year 1861 we have
the following place of Arcturus: a=14 h9m iQs.3
=
f
19
54
29".
and further we have:
tf
= 52
10
1".
30
16".
With
this
we
find the semidiurnal arc:
to
= Ug
3
= ?h 52m 4Qs
.
Hence Arcturus
sidereal time.
rises at 6 h 16 m
39 s and sets at 22 h
l m .39
s
In order to find the time of the rising and setting of a moveable body, we must know its declination at the time of
rising
and setting and therefore we have
to
make
the
com
In the case of the sun this is simple. putation twice. first take an approximate value of the declination and
We
com
pute with it an approximate value of the hour angle of the sun or of the apparent time of the rising or setting. As the declination of the sun is given in the almanacs for every ap parent noon, one can easily find by interpolation the decli
nation for the time
of the
rising or setting
and repeat the
computation with this. In the case of the moon the computation is a little longer. If we compute the mean time of the upper and lower cul
minations of the moon,
we can
find the
mean time
corres
ponding to any hour angle of the moon. We then find with an approximate value of the declination the hour angle at the time of the rising or setting, find from it an approximate value of the mean time and after having interpolated the de
clination
of the
is
moon
found
for this time repeat the computation.
An
ting
example
Note.
in
No. 14 of the
third section.
may
The equation for the hour angle at the time of the rising or set be put into another form. For if we subtract it from and add it
to unity,
we
find
by dividing the new equations
,
:
2
_ cos =
(90
$)
21.
The above formula
for cos
rising
rious
phenomena, which the
embraces all the va and setting of stars actQ
105
to the equator present cording to their positions with respect on the surface of the earth. at place
any
If d
is
is
which have a northern latitude; negative and the star therefore in this case is greater than 90 f remains a longer time above than below the horizon. On the contrary for stars, whose declination is south, t becomes less than 90, therefore these remain a longer time below
than above the horizon of places in the northern hemisphere. is negative, In the southern hemisphere of the earth, where it is the reverse, as there the upper diurnal arc of the sou
&lt;f&lt;
positive or the for all places
star is north of the equator, cos
&lt;
thern stars
is
90
0, t greater than 12 hours. If we have for any value of J; therefore at the equator of the
is
&lt;y/
=
earth
If
,
all
stars
we have
hence
8
=
remain as long above as below the horizon. for any value of is also equal to 90 0, t
(}
on the equator remain as long above the horizon of any place on the earth as below. Therefore while the sun is north of the equator, the days are longer than the nights in the northern hemisphere of the earth, and the reverse takes place while the sun is
stars
south of the equator.
But when the sun
at
is
is
in the equator,
days and night are equal x places on the equator this
It is
places on the always the case.
all
earth.
At
t is only possible while we Therefore if a star rises or sets d 1. cp tang at a place whose latitude is rjp, tang 3 must be less than If 8 90 we find t == 180 90 ff. cotang y or d
obvious that a value of
&lt;t
have tang
&lt;
=
r/&gt;,
and the star grazes the horizon at the lower culmination. If we have d the star never sets 90 and if the (p , south declination is greater than 90 the star never rf
;&gt;
,
,
rises.
As
limits
the
s
declination of the
+e,
sun
lies
always between the
those places on the earth, where the sun does not rise or set at least once during the year, have a latitude north or south equal to 90 e or 66^. These
and
The places within places are situated on the polar circles. these circles have the sun at midsummer the longer above and in winter the longer below the horizon, the nearer they are
to the pole.
106
Note.
if
A
point of the equator rises
right
if
when
its
hour angle
is
6h
.
Hence
rise
we
call the
ascension of this point a,
we
find the stars,
which
at the
same
time,
we
lay a great circle through this point
of the sphere, whose right ascensions are
clinations
6h
and
4O h
tp).
and the points and whose de
are
respectively
(90
&lt;p)
and 4 (90
Likewise we find
the stars, which set at the
the
same time
as this point of the equator, if
we
lay
great
Gh
a
46 h and through the points, whose right ascensions are and whose declinations are respectively and 90 (90 90)
circle
&lt;f&gt;.
The
in
point,
which
at the time of the rising of the point
is
was
in the horizon
at
its
lower
culmination,
2&lt;p.
therefore
now
in
its
upper culmination
an
Hence at the latitude of 45 the constellations make equal to a turn of 90 with respect to the horizon from the time of their rising to the time of setting, as the great circle which is rising at the same time with a
altitude
certain
setting.
point
of the equator,
is
vertical
to the horizon,
rise at the
when
this point is
On
the equator the stars,
which
same
time, set also at
the
same
instant.
22.
In
order to find the point of the horizon, where
a star rises or sets,
sin
we must make
sin
y&gt;
=
in the equation:
cos h cos A,
sin h
cos
y&gt;
which was found
in
No.
COS
6,
h equal to zero and obtain:
(l&gt;).
AQ
=
cos
{}
cp
The negative value of A
rising,
is
the azimuth of the star at
its
the
distance
The positive value that at the time of setting. of the star, when rising or setting, from the east
and west points of the horizon is called the amplitude of the star. Denoting it by A n we have: A =90 4 A
hence
:
sin
A
t
= COS d

sin
(c),
(p
where A
sets,
tive
is
l
positive,
when
the point
where the
star rises or
on the north of the east or west points, nega when it lies towards south.
lies
The formula
different shape.
(c) for
the amplitude
may
be written in a
For
1
as
4
we
A A
{
have:
sin
t/j
sin
sin
4
sin sin
1
when
ifj
= 90
t
sin \p
:
8
y,
we
find
tang
w~ r
8

tang
107
For Arcturus we
before:
23.
find with the values of d
^1
/
and
r^,
= 340
sin
given
.9.
If
we
write in the equation:
sin h
=
sin
&lt;f&gt;
S
f,
{
cos
&lt;p
cos S cos
t
1
2 shir}/ 2 instead of cos
sin h
we
*2
= cos
get:
9?
(9?
8}
cos
cos S sin \t^
.
this we see, that equal altitudes correspond to As the hour angles on both sides of the meridian. second term of the second member is always negative, h has and the maximum itself is found its maximum value for t
From
equal
=
from the equation:
COS Z
= COS (&lt;JT
S)
((/),
from which we get:
z
=
&lt;p
S or
=S
(f&gt;.
If
we
take therefore in general:
z
=S
y&gt;,
we must take the zenith distances towards south as negative, because for those star, which culminate south of the zenith,
&lt;)
is
less
than
the
(f.
/*
On
nation
contrary
is
a
as
minimum
is
at the
lower culmi
seen, when we introduce instead of , reckoning therefore t from that part 180of the meridian, which is below the pole. For then we
or
when
=180,
have
:
sin h
=
sin 1
rp
sin
S
cos
2
rp
cos 3 cos
t
.
or introducing again
sin h
= cos [180
2 sin \t
instead of cos
t
2
.
:
=F
(T
+
8}] \ 2 cos
y
cos S sin
j*
As
the
second term of the second member
is
always
positive, h is a
culmination.,
minimum when when we have:
cos z
t
equals zero or at the lower
=F
4
= cos [180
(&lt;F
S)].
As
its
c)
z is
always
less than
90, when
the star
is
visible in
lower culmination, we must use the upper sign, when cp and are positive, and the lower sign for the southern hemi
sphere, so that
we have:
for places in the northern hemisphere, and:
z f 8} (180 for places in the southern hemisphere.
&lt;p
=
+
108
The
for
declination of a
Lyrae
d
qp
the latitude of Berlin
is therefore at its
=
is
38 39
,
13 51
hence we have The star a
.
upper culmination at Berlin 13 51 Lyrae south of the zenith, and its zenith distance at the lower cul d is 88 51 mination equal to 180 cp
.
24.
its
A
body reaches
its
greatest altitude at the time of
culmination only if its declination does not change, and in case that this is variable, its altitude is a maximum a little
before or after the culmination.
If
we
cos
differentiate the for
mula
:
cos z
=
sin
cp
sin
+
cos
&lt;p
cos
t,
taking
,
d and
zdz
t
sin
=
as variable,
cos 8
&lt;p
we
sin
find:
cos
t]
[sin
cos
y
dS
cos
cp
cos S sin tdt
and from this we obtain or dz 0: d8 
=
in
the case that z
is
a
maximum
sm
t
=
r
[tang
y
tan g
s
"
cos
*J
This equation gives the hour angle at the time of the
7
ft
greatest
altitude.
is
the ratio of the change of the decli
the change of the hour angle, or if dt denotes a second of arc, it is the change of the declination in T^ of a
nation to
As this quantity is small for all heavenly bodies, and as we may take the arc itself instead of sin t and take cos t equal to unity, we get for the hour angle corresponding to the greatest altitude:
second of time.
t
= dS [tang
r
,,206265
&lt;p
j
tang
8]
~^
(g\
7
V&lt;
where
time and
is
t
the change of the declination in one second of
is
found in seconds of time.
This hour angle
must be added algebraically
If the
to the time of the culmination,
in order to find the time of the greatest altitude.
body
is
culminating south of the zenith and ap7
S&gt;
proaching the north pole, so that
altitude
is
positive, the greatest
is
y&gt;
occurs after the culmination
is
if
the
decreasing, greatest The reverse takes place, before the culmination.
declination
the
positive; but if altitude occurs
if
the
body
culminates between the zenith and the pole.
109
25.
If
we
differentiate the formulae:
cos h sin cos h cos
A = cos 8 sin A = cos 90 sin 8 f sin
t,
90
cos
cos
/,
we
find:
sin h
cos A
r
= cos 3 = cos S = =
[sin cp cos ^4 sin
t
cos
t
sin A],
[cos
^
cos
/
f sin cp sin
t
sin .4],
or:
dh
,
cos o
sm p
.
=
cos
90
sin
A,
cos A
t
a
cos $ cos p.
(A)
Frequently
coefficient.
For
we make use this we find:
d h
cos
l
also of the second differential
=cosycos^.
9?
t
dA
,
cos S cos J. cos p
cos A
Likewise
we
have:
t/z

c?
2
z
= cos _ cos
~
o
sm p
.
=
cos
cp
cos S cos ^4 cos
~~
S
+
9?
sm ^4,
p
Furthermore we find from the second of the formulae
d2
cos /r
c/&lt;
(/&)
:
A=
2
cos h cos o
sm * dp p dt
f
cos o cos p
sm
h
dh dt
But we get
also, differentiating
cp
the formula:
/&gt;,
sin
=

sin h sin

cos A cos S cos
sin h cos
cos h cos $ sin p
=
dt
[cos A sin 8
8 cos

]
at
Hence we have:
cos A
2
^
=
2
+ [cos
A sin ^
2 cos 8 sin A cos p] cos # sin p,
or, if
we
introduce
2
A
instead of p:
cos
95
d*
cos A
A= 
sin J. [cos A sin
8
f
2 cos
9?
cos
vlj.
26.
As we have
:
we
find
sin
have
A
= =
dh 
=
cos
95
sm A,
or
0, or A is a
maximum
is
minimum, when we
or
when
the star
on the meridian.
110
We
The
c
1

find also that
is
a
maximum, when
sin
A
= =t
1,
hence when
A=
90 or
= 270.
when
270.
changes therefore most rapidly, crosses the vertical circle, whose azimuth is 90 or This vertical circle is called the prime vertical.
altitude of a star
it
In order to find the time of the
passage of the star
across the prime vertical as well as its altitude at that time, we take in the formulae found in No. 6 A 90 or we con
=
right angled triangle between the and the pole and find:
sider the
star,
the zenith
cos
/
= tang S
tang
rp
.
sin sin
8
(f
^
Finally
we have:
sin
p
COS = cos
t
(f
o
^
If
we have
the
&lt;)
;&gt;
&lt;f&gt;,
cos
would be greater than
unity,
therefore
star
but
culminates
cannot come then in the prime vertical between the zenith and the pole. If S is
negative, cos t become negative; but as in northern latitudes the hour angles of the southern stars while above the horizon are always less than 90, those stars cross the prime vertical
below the horizon. For Arcturus and the latitude of Berlin we
t
find
:
h
= 73 = 25
52
.
1
=4
h
55
28
24
.
9.
Arcturus reaches therefore the prime vertical before its culmination at 9 b 13 m 51 s and after the culmination at 19 h 4 in 47 s
.
If the hour angle is near zero, we do not find t very accurate by its cosine nor h by its sine. But we easily get from the formula for cos t the following:
,
2
sin
(cp
$)
+
sin
(y&gt;
S)
and
for
computing the
altitude
cotang h
= tang
we may
t
use the formula:
cos
(p.
27.
As we have:
dA
dt
cos S cos cos h
p
Ill
we
see that this differential coefficient
becomes equal
to zero,
or that the star does not change its azimuth when we have cos p o, or when the vertical circle
=
for an instant,
is
ver
tical to
the declination circle.
cos p
But

as
we have
S
:
=
sin
&lt;p
sin h sin
cos h cos d
(c
V
this
must occur when
sin
=
&
n
! f . sin d
It
happens therefore
only to circumpolar stars, whose declination is greater than the latitude, at the point where the vertical circle is tangent
to
The star is then at its greatest dis the parallel circle. tance from the meridian and the azimuth at that time is given by the equation:
sm
A=
cos S

cosy
and the hour angle by the equation:
cos
t
tang (p h tang o

34
6"
For the polar and for the
^
star,
whose declination
for
1861
is
88
4
= =
latitude of Berlin,
0"
we
find:
88
2
8
9"
=5
52^ 32s
21
reckoned from the north point, A
= 5231
.7.
28. Finally we will find the time, in which the discs of the sun and moon move over a certain great circle.
If /\n
is
two consecutive culminations expressed
the increment of the right ascension between in seconds of time,
we
find the number of sidereal seconds #, in which the body moves through the hour angle t from the following proportion: x: 86400 A: 86400 as we may consider the motion of the sun and moon during the small intervals of time which we here consider, as uni
t
=
form; hence
we have:
1
86400 4 A
or denoting the second term of the denominator, which is equal to the increment of the right ascension expressed in
time in one second of sidereal time, by A:
112
When
the western limb of the
is
*
body
t
is
on the meridian,
the hour angle of the centre,
cos
R = sin
^
found from the equation:
cos S* cos
f
where
R
designates the apparent radius, or from:
sin
R = cos 8 sin \
t.
Hence, as
t
is
small, this
hour angle expressed
in time is:
R
15 cos S
therefore the sidereal time of the semi  diameter passing the
meridian
:
2R
1
~15.cos.Tlr
When
dt
the upper limb of the
is
depression of the lower limb
body is in the horizon, the equal to 272, and as we have:
hour angles of the up
= cos d
sin p, the difference of the
is:
per and lower limb in time
15
.
cos d sinp
hence the sidereal time of the diameter rising or setting:
2R_
15 cos S sin p
.
I
1
A
where p
is
found from the equation:
cos
= cos
sin
(p

o
If
we imagine two
vertical circles one
through the centre,
the other tangent to the limb, the difference of their azimuths is found from the equation:
sin
^
R = cos
h sin

a
or, as
R
is
small, from the equation:
R = cos A
.
a.
But
as
we have dt
=
2R
coshdA~
cos o cos
we
find for the sidereal
p
time in which the diameter passes over a vertical circle:
J^
1
15 cosd.cosp
A
cos
q&gt;
where
=
cos S sin
sin S cos
&lt;f
t
COS
ft
SECOND SECTION.
ON THE CHANGES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANES, TO WHICH THE PLACES OF THE STARS ARE REFERRED.
As
the two poles do not change their place at the sur
face of the earth, the angle between the plane of the hori zon of a place and the axis of the earth or the plane of the equator remains constant. Likewise therefore the pole and
equator of the celestial sphere remain in the same po with respect to the horizon. But as the position of the axis of the earth in space is changed by the attraction
the
sition
of the sun and moon, the great circle of the equator and the poles coincide at different times with different stars, or the
appear to change their position with respect to the equator. Furthermore as the attractions of the planets change the plane of the orbit of the earth, the apparent orbit of the sun among the stars must coincide in the course of years
latter
two planes, and that of the earth s namely equator orbit produce a change of the angle between them or of the obliquity of the ecliptic as well as a change of the points of intersection of the two corresponding great circles. The and latitudes as well as the right ascensions and longitudes declinations of the stars are therefore variable and it is most
stars.
with different
that
Hence
the motion of these
of the
earth s
important to know the changes of these coordinates. In order to form a clear idea of the mutual motions of
the equator and ecliptic, we must refer them to a fixed place, for which we take according to Laplace that great circle, with which the ecliptic coincided at the beginning of the year
1750.
Now
of the sun and
Physical Astronomy teaches, that the attraction moon on the excess of matter near the equator
114
of the spheroid of the earth, creates a motion of the axis of earth and hence a motion of the equator of the earth with respect to the fixed ecliptic, by which the points of in tersection have a slow, uniform and retrograde motion on
this
the
fixed plane and at the same time a periodical motion, the depending on the places of the sun and moon and on
position of the the orbit of the
moon s nodes viz. of the points in which moon intersects the ecliptic. The uniform
motion of the equinoxes is called Lunisolar Precession, the other periodical motion is called the Nutation or the Equation of the equinoxes in longitude. Besides this attraction creates
a periodical change of the inclination of the equator to the fixed plane, dependent on the same quantities, which is called the Nutation of obliquity.
the mutual attractions of the planets change the in clinations of the orbits with respect to the fixed ecliptic as
well
As
of position of the line of the nodes, the plane its position with respect the orbit of the earth must change to the plane, with which it coincided in the year 1750 or
as
the
the fixed ecliptic. This change produces therefore a change of the ecliptic with respect to the equator, which is called the Secular variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic and the
motion of the point of the intersection of the equator with the apparent ecliptic on the latter, which is called the General Precession differs from the motion of the equator on the fixed
ecliptic,
which
this
But
other
called the luni solar precession*). change of the orbit of the earth has
is
still
an
effect,
For
sun and the moon
is
as by it the position of the orbit of the with respect to the equator of the earth
this
changed, though slowly,
must produce a motion
of
the equator similar to the nutation only of a period of great length , by which the inclination of the equator with respect to the ecliptic as well as the position of the points of inter
These changes on account of their long is changed. can be united with the secular variation of the obli period Hence the quity of the ecliptic and with the precession.
section
*)
The
periodical
terms, the nutation,
are the
same
for the fixed
and
moveable
ecliptic.
115
motion of the equator, indirectly produced by the perturbations
of the planets, changes a little the lunisolar precession as well as the general precession and the angle, which the fixed
and the true
ecliptic
make with
the equator
*).
I.
THE PRECESSION.
1. Laplace has given in .44 of the sixth chapter of the Mecanique Celeste the expressions for these several slow motions of the equator and the ecliptic, which can be applied
to a time of
1200 year before and after the epoch of 1750, secular perturbations of the earth s orbit are taken into consideration so as to be sufficient for such a space of
as
the
time.
Bessel has
the powers of the time which
developed these expressions according to elapsed since 1750 and has
given in the preface to his Tabulae Regiomontanae these ex pressions to the second power. According to this the an nual lunisolar precession at the time 1750 f t is:
^
or the
=
50".
37572
0".
000243589
t
amount of the precession
in the interval of time
from
1750 to 1750
M:
lt
=
t.
50".
37572
2
t
0".
0001 2 17945.
the arc of the fixed ecliptic between the points of intersection with the equator at the beginning of the year 1750 and at the time 1750 M.
is
This therefore
Furthermore the annual general precession
is
:
= ^j
to
50".
21129
+
0".
0002442966
t
and the general precession 1750 M:
in the interval of time
from 1750
l=t
and
50".
21 129
M
2
0".
0001221483,
this is the arc of the
apparent ecliptic between the points
of intersection with the equator at the beginning of the year 1750 and at the time 1750 1 t.
*)
In
the
2
t
expressions developed
.
in
series they
change only the terms
dependent on
116
Finally
ecliptic
is
the
angle between
the
equator and the fixed
0000098423
ecliptic at the time
at the time
o
1750f:
28
18".
= 23
4
t*
0".
and the angle between the equator and the
1750M
tation),
e
(if
we
which
= 23
neglect as before the periodical terms of is called the mean obliquity of the ecliptic, 2 z 00000272295 *), t 48368 28 18".0
0".
nu
is
:
0".
so that
we have:
dt
d
dt
f
(}
=
0".
48368
0".
0000054459
t.
the n Fig. 2 represent the equator and and let A A ecliptic both for the beginning of the year 1750, and E E represent the equator and the obliquity of the ecliptic
let
Now
AA
EE
1
for
1750M;
t
then the arc
BD
the equator has retrograded on
in
of the ecliptic, through which it, is the lunisolar precession
years, equal to /,. Further are ively the inclination of the true ecliptic
ecliptic
and A BE respect and of the fixed If of 1750 against the equator, equal to s and
.
BCE
*) Bessel has changed a little the numerical values of the expressions given in the Mecanique Celeste, as he recomputed the secular perturbations of the earth with a more correct value of the mass of Venus and determined
the term of the lunisolar precession
/,,
which
is
multiplied by
obliquity
t,
from more
recent observations.
as
The
secular
variation
of the
of the ecliptic
deduced from
it
the
latest observations differs
is
from the value given above,
as
is
0".4645.
But the above value
77,
retained for the computation of the
quantities
n
and
to the fixed plane, as
which determine the position of the ecliptic with respect it must be combined for this purpose with the value of
dt
,
based on the same values of the masses.
The terms
multiplied by t~,
are based on which depend on the perturbations produced the values of the masses adopted by Laplace and need a more accurate de
by the planets,
termination.
Peters gives in his work ,,Numerus constans nutationis" other values com These are, reduced to the year puted with the latest values of the masses. 1750 and to Bessel s value of the lunisolar precession as follows:
l
t
I
s
= = 50V214S4 h = 23 28 17
t
50".37572
t"
0".0001084 0".0001134
2
z
t
.9 4 0".00000735
0".4738
t
f2
0".00000140
2
t
.
= 23
s
28
17".9
But as Bessel
values are generally used,
they have been retained.
117
Fig. 2.
then S represents a star and to the fixed and to the true
SL and SL
are
is
drawn
vertical
the longitude ecliptic, of the star for 1750 and CL the longitude of the star for 1750M. If further D denotes the same point of the true
ecliptic
DL
which
the
in the fixed ecliptic
was denoted by D, the arc
general precession, being the arc of the true ?. ecliptic between the equinox of 1750 and that of 1750 This portion of the precession is the same for all stars, and in
is
CD
+
add to
order to find the complete precession in longitude, we must it D L DL; which portion on account of the slow
change of the obliquity
true
position respect to the fixed ecliptic, which is given by the secular perturbations and may also be deduced from the expressions given before. For if we denote by // the
computing
this
portion
is much less than we must know the
the other.
For
of the
ecliptic
with
fixed
longitude of the ascending node of the true ecliptic on the ecliptic (or that point of intersection of the two great
circles
out from which the true ecliptic has a north latitude) and if we reckon this angle from the fixed equi nox of the year 1750, we have and 180  // /,  // CIS 180 /, as the longitudes are reckoned in the
setting
=
BE
=
is
direction from
B
towards
D
and as
E
the descending node
of the true ecliptic, hence If 180 //. the inclination of the true ecliptic or the angle we have according to Napier s formulae:
DE
we denote
by
n,
EEC
118
. sin frr II}j
tang 4
7t
.
4tJi
j
(
tang ^
7t
.
cos
I,*
I
\
j/7f
= =
sin t
.
l
l


tang
*f*o ,
l
cos
t
l
s
j
^
tang

,
the same point of the equator which in the year is the arc of the equator, through which the point of intersection with the ecliptic has moved on the equator from west to east during the time t. If we denote
is
As 5
1750 was
at
Z&gt;,
BC
this arc,
by
a,
which is the Planetary Precession during the time we find from the same triangle:
tang Y a
.
,
cos


= tang
T

(lt
/)
cos


From these equations we can develop a, as well as n // into a series progressing according to the powers of and
t.
From
the last equation, after introducing:
o
+T
(
o)
instead of


and taking instead of the sines and tangents of the small a and e the arcs themselves, we find: /, angles
/,
/,
B
206265
or
if
we
substitute for
/,,
/
and
s
2
,
their expressions,
,
which
are of the following form A,f A we obtain:
co
Kt
\
K
2
t
and
So
t.
(
cos
8
o
206265
cos fo
2
or if
we
substitute the numerical values:
d
= = dt
a
"
0.17926
0.17926
1
t
0".0002660393,
0".0005320786.
t
.
In addition
we have:
l l
tang
\n+
I

}
= tang +2

.
sin
,J ~
S
2
,
and
tang
T}
7T
2
=
(
tang
j
L
P
~^~
2
)
tang
h tang
as before
]
cos
j
/,
I
^
or proceeding in a similar
tang
\
way
:
iJT+lft
2
+ Oj =";; + ^^
2
7T
==a 2
sine
+
2
(
o)
+a
2
sin f o cos
o
(e
)
206265
119
Substituting here also for
e
:
and a the expression
_ r j 2 and at j
\
a f%
we
find
sin e
7?
n 4 4
(/
h
= arc tang
2062boh .cos
7i
_
cos7Z
=
t
\
a? sin
2
H
2
?7
f
 \aa sin
f
?
f
rj
v/

206265
or substituting the numerical values:
77=171
7t
=
36 10
*.5".21
a
*
0".
t.Q".
48892
0000030715
^=
rf&lt;
0".
48892
^.0".
0000061430.
2.
The mutual changes
easily
sitions of the stars are referred,
of the planes, to which the po having thus been determined,
we can
the
stars
find
the
themselves.
star
resulting changes of the places of If A and ft denote the longitude and
to
latitude
of a
referred
the ecliptic of 1750
+
,
the
coordinates of the star with respect to this plane, if we take the ascending node of the ecliptic on the fixed ecliptic of 1750 as origin of the longitudes, are as follows:
cos
ft
cos (A
77
/),
cos
ft
sin (h
77
J),
sin
ft.
If further
L and B
are the longitude
and
latitude of the
star referred to the fixed ecliptic of 1750, the three coordi
nates with respect to this plane and the same origin as be
fore are:
cos
B cos (L
77),
cos
B sin (L
77),
sin
B.
the fundamental planes of these two systems of co ordinates make the angle n with each other, we find by the
As
formulae
cos
cos
ft ft
(1 a) of the introduction the following
77 77
sin
I) /)
cos (A
sin (1
ft
= = =
equations
:
cos
B cos (L cos B sin (L cos B sin (L
77)
77) cos
77) sin
n + sin B sin n n f sin B cos n.
(A)
we differentiate these equations, taking L and B as constant, we find by the differential formulae (11) in No. 9 90 of the introduction, as we have in this case a ft,
If
6=90
d
(I
B, c=7r,
77
/)
4 = 90fL
flH
77,
ft
5 = 90
77
=
(I
dll
II
I}:
=
+ n tang
(A
sin (A
(/I
/)
/)
dft
=
H tang ft cos
J
77
dn
77
I)
n cos
77
/)
c/77
sin (7
dn.
120
Dividing by dt and substituting
coefficient
&lt;///,
t
instead of n in the
of we obtain from these the following for mulae for the annual changes of the longitudes and latitudes
of the stars:
dl
dt
=
di
t
dt
,
f
tang B cos (/ \
f
. I
/.
II
dn
I
\d7t
dt
t\ )
dt
dS

=
//
d
1
sin
/
dt
\
n
dn
I
\
t]
dn
dt
J dt
MO".
or, as
we have
ZTf
+
_ ~
d
^t =
171 36
36
10"
10"
42, taking:
^+dt
1= 171
dl
dt
+
t
39".79
= M,
d^
dt
where the numerical values
for
dt
and
dt
as
given in the
preceding No. must be substituted.
Let L and B again denote the longitude and latitude of a star, referred to the fixed ecliptic and the equinox of 1750, then the longitude reckoned from the point of inter section of the equator of 1750fwith the fixed ecliptic, is
equal to L + /,, when /, is the lunisolar precession during the interval from 1750 to 1750 f 1. Hence the coordinates
of the star with respect to the plane of the fixed ecliptic and the origin of the longitudes adopted last are:
cos
B cos (L fstar,
/,),
cos
B sin (L +the
/,)
and
sin
B.
If
now a and
of the
8 denote the right ascension and decli
referred to
equator and the true equinox at the time 1750f, the right ascension reckoned from the origin adopted before, is equal to have + a.
nation
We
therefore
the
coordinates
of the
star
with respect to the
and sin
8.
plane of the equator and this origin as follows:
cos cos
(
f a),
cos S sin (a
f
)
c
,
As the angle between the two planes of coordinates we find from the formulae (1) of the introduction:
cos 8 cos
(
is
f a)
cos
sin (a \ a)
= cos B cos {L = cos B (L
sin sin
\ /,)
+
/,)
cos e
sin
sin
f sin
sin
S= cos B
(L
f
/,)
B sin e B cos s
(C)
.
_
I
UNIVEF
^kJ"*.
1
r*.
_
we differentiate these equations, taking L and B as constant, we find from the differential formulae (11) of the introduction, as we have in the triangle between the pole of
If
the ecliptic,
b
= 90
d
(a
that
4
)
dS
= 4= cos (a 4[cos f
B, c
=
of the
,
A
= 90
t
equator and the star a
(L h 0,
5 = 90
= 90
&lt;)
,
sin e
e
a) sin
tang sin (a 4 )] dl 4~ sin (a 4 a) ds
^
cos (a 4 a) tar
.
find therefore for the annual variations of the right ascensions and declinations of the stars the following for
We
:
mulae
da
.
=
da
h
4
[cos
(
1
.
4 sm
dl, e

tang o
sm
a]
~
dl 

a
sm
 de 
\ ?
tang o cos
,
rfe
1
sm
,
or
its
neglecting the last term of each equation on account of being very small *)
:
da
,
=
cos
da at
sin
at
r
[cos
f sin e
t)
tang o
sm
.
dl,
1
,
dt
~= dt
d If
,
we
take here:
cos
rfJ,
rfa
= m.
dt
8
dt
rf&lt;
we
find simply:
cfa


= m 4= n cos
n tang o sin
,
,
where the numerical values of
tuting the numerical values of
m
g
,
and

w,
obtained by substi
/tt
,
&lt;Y
w
*
and
are:
t
m
n
= =
46"
.
20" .
02824 406442
0"
.
0"
.
0003086450 0000970204
t
t.
or
in
In order to find the precession in longitude and latitude right ascension and declination in the interval from
*)
The numerical
t.
value
of the coefficient
a sin
,
is
only
0.0000022471
122
1750
M
t
.
to
1750M
can find
integral
of the
equations
and
the
We
time
are
would be necessary to take the (D) between the limits t however this quantity to the terms of
,
it
(JB) or
second order inclusively from the

differential
coefficient
at the
and from the
interval of time.
/"(
For
)
if
and
/"(Y)
two functions, whose difference
:
f(f)
is
required, (in our case therefore the precession during the time t ), we take
(
+ =
*)
*(*
)
= A*.
2
/"
*,
Then we have:
/(O =/(* /(*0=/(*
 A*) =/(*)  A*/ GO + A* + A*) =/(*) + A */ IA*
4
(*),
(*) f
2
/"
CO,
where
/"
(a?)
and
f"
coefficient of f(x).
(x) denote the first and second differential From this we find:
/(O /(O
=
2
A*/(aO
= O
(
during the inter only necessary to compute the dif ferential coefficient for the time exactly at the middle and
val
Hence
in order to find the precession
t
,
of time
it
is
it by the interval of time. By this process only terms of the third order are neglected. For instance if we wish to find the precession in lon gitude and latitude in the time from 1750 to 1850 for a
to multiply
star,
whose place
for the year
A
1750
/?
is:
= 2100
,
=

+
34
we
find the following values of
=50".
,
and
dt
dt
M
9
for 1800:
dt
22350,
^=0". 48861, dt
M= 172
20".
find the following place for 1800, com puting the precession from 1750 to 1800 only approximately: /l 210 42 .l, 5 f33 59 .8
With
these
we
=
/
=
from the formulae (5) we find then the annual variations for 1800:
^= dt
in longitude
t
50".
48122,
^=
dt
0".
30447,
hence the precession
in the interval
1
from 1750
to
45.
1850:
+
24
8".
12 and
in latitude
30".
123
If
we wish
to find the precession in right ascension
and
declination from 1750 to 1850 for a star, sion and declination for 1750 is:
whose
right ascen
= 220
we have
for
1
24",
^
= + 20
21
15"
1800:
m
=
46".
04367, n
=
20".
05957,
and the approximate place of the
== 220 35
.
star at that time:
8
.
8,
&lt;?
= j20
sin
6
hence
we have according
tang
sin
to
formulae (D):
9
.
56444
81340.
37784,,
n tang
a 9
9
.
tang 8 sin a
cos a
=
.
n=l. 30232
therefore the
to
= 9. 88042,,
precession in
8
= + 46 da = + 41 dt  = 15 at
m
a
=
4
.
78806 04367
25561
.
.
.
2314
the interval
of time from 1750
1850
in right ascension 1
45".
56 and
in
declination
25
23".
14.
its
In the catalogues of stars we find usually for every star annual precession in right ascension and declination
for the
its
riatio annua) given
sides this
variation in
(vaepoch of the catalogue and be one hundred years (variatio sae
t, denotes the epoch of the catalogue, the precession of a star according to the above rules equals:
cularis).
If then
(
t
t
variatio
annua
f
~
n
A(J(J
)
OAr
r"
variatio saecularis
(*
*)
If
we
differentiate the
two formulae:
+
da
=m
n tang o sin a,
dS d&lt;
=cos,
and denoting the
ri,
taking
quantities as variable variations of and n by and
all
annual
m
m
~*
we
find:
d a
dt 2
77^
*
==
n2
.
.
^7
Sin
"
**"
tang
^

mn
tan S ^ cos a H
m
f
n tang 8 sin n,
=  sm a
.
2
tang 8
sin
a
f
n cos a,
where
number 206265, and multiplying these 100 we find the secular variation in right asequations by
signifies the
w
124
cension and
declination.
For the
:
star
used before we find
from
this the secular variation
in
right ascension
in declination
= =
f
0".
f
0".
0286, 2654.
3.
used
pole.
if
The differential formulae given above cannot be we wish to compute the precession of stars near the
Let
star,
In this case the exact formulae must be employed. A and ft denote the longitude and the latitude of a
ecliptic
and the equinox of 1750 + /, longitude and latitude L and #, referred to the "fixed ecliptic of 1750, from the following equations, which easily follow from the equations (.4) in No. 2:
referred to the
we
find
from these
the
cos
cos
B cos {L B sin (L
77)
77)
sin
= cos = cos B = cos
/9
cos (A
sin (A sin (A
II
77
77
I)
/?
/?
/)
f)
cos
sin
n n
sin
/?
sin
n
7t.
+
sin
ft
cos
to find now the longitude and latitude A referred to the ecliptic and the equinox of 1750 \t\ we get these from L and B by the following equations, in which 77 , n and / denote the values of 77, n and / for the
If
we wish
and
ft
,
time
t
:
cos cos
/?
cos (A
sin (A
77
/ ) I )
= cos B cos (L
77
)
)
$
77
sin
/?
=
cos
B
sin
(L
(7L
77
cos
)
n
1
f sin
B
sin
n
.
cos 73 sin
77
sin
n
+ sin
B
COSTT
If
find A
we
eliminate
L and B from
of
/,
and /? expressed directly by 77 and n for the times t and f
these equations, we can and the values A and
/ .
and declination If a and 8 are the right ascension and decli are similar. nation of a star for 1750 f f, we find from them the longi tude and latitude L and J5, referred to the fixed ecliptic of
The exact formulae
for the right ascension
1750, by the following equations*):
cos cos
B cos {L +B sin (L h
Z,)
/,)
sin 73
= cos cos (a = cos 8 = cos $
sin
(
f+
a)
)
cos s
+ sin
S sin
8 cos
.
sin (a + a) sin
+ sin
If
we wish
and
S
to
know now
1750 4f
nation a
for
the right ascension and decli we find these from L and 7? ,
*)
These equations are
easily
deduced from the equations (C)
in
No.
2.
125
by the following equations, in which for the time t values of /,, a and cos B cos (X 4 Z cos 8 cos (a 4 )
1
l
fl
:
a and
denote the
cos
&lt;?
sin
(
4sin
= = cos $ = cos B
)
,)
,)
Z? sin
(Z 4
/
cos s
sin e
sin
sin
(L 4
Z
,)
4
sin
B sin s B cos s
.
If
we
eliminate
equations and observe
cos
L and 1? from that we have:
4)
the
two
systems of
cos cos
B sin L =
cos S cos (a
sin
Z,
4 cos 8 sin (a 4Z,
)
Z,
cos 7? cos
L=
4 sin $
cos $ cos
(
sin s cos
Z
/
4
)
cos
sin
)
4 cos $ sin
e sin
Z,
(
4
a) cos e sin
Z,
sin
B=
1
4~
cos $ cos (a 4
$ sin
sin e + sin
&lt;?
cos
e,
we
easily find the following equations: cos S cos (a 4 ) cos $ cos (a 4 a) cos (Z
=
,
/,)
cos $ sin (a 4 a) sin
cos $ sin
(Z
,
Z,)
cos
e,,
(
4
)
cos $ cos (a 4 a) sin (Z 4 cos #sin( 4 fi) [cos (Z
,
=
sin
$ sin
(Z
,
Z,)
sin e
,
Z,)
Z,)
cos e cos e
cos e
4sin
sin e
]
4 sin$[cos(Z
sin
,
Z,)sine
(Z/
/
cose
cose sine
]
S
cos S cos
(
4 a) sin
Z ) (
sin e
4 cos
&lt;?sin(4)[cos(Z
Z,)cose
Z,)sine
sinf
sin
o
sine
cose
]
4
sin
&lt;?[cos(Z
,
4cos
cose
,,].
If
/
,
we imagine
90
z
/,,
and 90
a spherical triangle, whose three sides are f z whilst the angles opposite those
1
sides are respectively 0, and 180 the coefficients of the above equations,
g
,
we can
/
;
express
/,
()
containing
and
e H
by 0,
(
^
and
)
s
and we
(a
find:
a) [cos
cos 5 cos
4
= cos 8 cos
4
cos 2 cos z
sin 2 cos 2
sin 2 sin
z]
]
cos S sin (a 4 a) [cos
cos 5 sin (a 4 a
4 cos 2
]
sin 2
)
=
sin
8 sin
cos z
cos 8 cos (a
cos $ sin (a
sin
4 a) 4 a)
[cos
cos 2 sin z 4 sin 2 cos z
sin z sin 2
1
] ]
[cos
cos z cos 2
sin 5
= cos 8 cos (a 4cos 8 sin (a 4
S
sin (9 sin 2
a) sin
)
cos 2
6&gt;
sin
sin 2
4
sin
8 cos
&lt;9.
Multiplying the first of these equations by sin * the second by cos z and subtracting the first, then multiplying the first by cos * the second by sin z and adding the pro
, ,
ducts
we
(
cos S sin
cos 8 cos
(
get: 4 a 4sin
z)
2
)
= cos 8 4 a 4= cos S cos (a 4 a 4S = cos ^ cos (a 4 a 4sin
(
2)
2) cos
2) sin
sin
^ sin
6&gt;
(a),
4
sin
# cos 0.
126
These formulae give a and if expressed by #, a, a and the auxiliary quantities z, z and Q. These latter quanti ties may be found by applying Gauss s formulae to the spheri
,
cal triangle considered before, as
sin
4
we have:
l ) (
I,}
cos \
1
(z
sin \
sin ^ (2 sin
cos cos ^
^

(2
cos
(2 f 2)
= = cos + = ^ = cos ^
~)
sin

(l\
sin
^
(e
f c ()
)
2)
j
(f {
(//
(7/
sin \ (e\
)
2)
sin
I,)
li)
cos ^ (V cos i
(e
+
)
s
)
As we may always
and
sin f (Y
take here instead of sin
\
(z
z)
and the corresponding co ) the arc itself sines equal to unity, we find the following simple formulae for computing these three auxiliary quantities:
tang
= cos 4 + tang  = c  cotangji/  iT,v^.r i u 9 = tang + + tang
4
(z
f
z)
(e
o)
\ (l
,
l
t
t
)
l ) (
*)
i
.
.)
4
.}
(e
e
)
sin
(
.2).
The formulae () can be rendered more convenient
for
computation by the introduction of an auxiliary angle or we may use instead of them a different system of formulae de
rived
from Gauss
(a)
if
mulae
we
For we arrive at the for equations. apply the three fundamental formulae of
s
sides are 90 rV, spherical trigonometry to a triangle, whose and 0, whilst the angles opposite the two first sides 90 If we a j z a f z and 180 are respectively
+
.
now apply
we
find:
cos cos
to the
same
c,
triangle
Gauss
s
formulae and denote
the third angle
by
a +a+z by
A and
J
4
a \a
z
by A,
(90
4 S ) cos
I
(X I (4
(90
S
)
sin
sin 4 (90
4 5 ) cos $ (A
sin
 (90
it
+
&lt;?
)
sin
(4
+ = cos = =
c)
c)
= cos
sin
[90
[90
h H 0] cos 4 8 0] sin
&lt;?
4
%A 4
(ft)
c) c)
[90
4
f
&lt;?
+ 0] cos
.4
sin
[90
4 S
0] sin ^ A.
As
is
even more accurate to find the difference
A
A
instead of the quantity A itself, we multiply the first of the subtract equations (a) by cos A , the second by sin A and
them, then we multiply the first equation by sin A, the cond by cos A and add the products. We find thus:
cos
&lt;?
se
sin
1
(A
cos S cos
(A
A A) = cos 8 = cos S cos 8 cos A A)
1
sin
sin
[tang S f tang
sin
cos A] cos
^L],
[tang S + tang
hence
:
1
sin ^4 sin
[tang S f tang ^
&lt;9
cos 4]
coi
4 sin
[teng
* H tang *
cos 4]
127
and from Gauss
cos
4
s
c.
.
equations
sin
1
we
)
find:
sin
\
(S
COS
T}
C
.
COS ? (S
S)
= } = COS 4
+
tang 
cos ^ (A h
1
COS Y (A 
If
we put
therefore:
p
=
sin (9 [tang
d
cos
.4]
we
have:
tang
(^4
A)
= p
1
sin J.
1
p cos
^
and:
the formulae (A), (5) and (C) we are enabled to compute rigorously the right ascension and declination of a star for the time 1750 + t , when the right ascension and decli
By
nation for the time 1750
are given. Example. The right ascension and declination of a Ursae minoris at the beginning of the year 1755 is:
+t
= 10
55
59
44".
955
12.
and
If
#=87
we wish
I,
41".
compute from this the place referred to the equator and the equinox of 1850, we have first:
to
a
o
= 4 8756 = 8897 = 23 28 0002
11".
0".
/
,
18".
e
= 23 = = 23 28
1
56".
3541
0984.
15".2656
18".
With
I
this
(z
we
)
find
36
H
=o
from the formulae (A):
34".
314
J
(z
z)=
10".
6286
hence:
z
2
=
=0
36 36
31
23".
685
943
44".
and:
therefore:
If
=
we compute then
45".
600
Q
A=a + a + z = ll
the values of
32
9".
530.
A
A and
d from
the formulae (#) and (C),
log/;
we
find:
= 9,4214471
J
and
:
A
hence:
A=4
4
17".
710,
(?
S)
=
1
5
26".
780
4 =153G
and
at last:
S
27".
240
917
680.
= = 88
16&lt;&gt;
12
56".
30 34
.
128
As the point of intersection of the equator and the has an annual retrograde motion of 2 on the lat ecliptic the pole of the ecliptic describes in the course of time ter,
4.
50".
a small
is
circle
around the pole of the
ecliptic,
whose radius
The pole of the equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic*). coincides therefore with different points of the ce equator lestial sphere or different stars will be in its neigbourhood
at different times.
At
present the extreme star in the
tail
of the
Lesser Bear
Ursae minoris) is of all the bright stars nearest to the northpole and is called therefore the polestar. This will approach still star, whose declination is at present 88f nearer to te pole, until its right ascension, which at present Then the declination will reach is 17, has increased to 90. its maximum 89 32 and begin to decrease, because the pre cession in declination of stars whose right ascension lies in
(
,
the second quadrant, is negative. In order to find the place of the pole for any time , we must consider the spherical triangle between the pole of the ecliptic at a certain time t and the poles of the equator
P and P at the times t and t. If we denote the right ascen sion and declination of the pole at the time t referred to the and the equator and the equinox at the time t (n by a and
&lt;?,
obliquity of the ecliptic at the times we have the sides P P J, 90 { a and the angle at angle at P
f
=
=
and
,
t
90"
EP=
E
t 1
;
by
s
EP
=
and
s
,
?,
the
ral precession in the interval of
time
equal to the gene we have there
tri
fore
according to the fundamental formulae of spherical
:
gonometry
cos 8 sin
cos 8 cos a
sin
= = S=
sin e cos e
sin e sin
I
cos
I
cos e sin
sin e sin e
cos
I
+
cos
cos
.
as
we wish
This computation does not require any great accuracy, to find the place of the pole only approximately
ecliptic
is
and although the variation of the obliquity of the
for
short intervals of time
may
take
s
=
proportional to the time,
:
we
and get simply
tang a
=
cos e
tang ^
I
*) This radius
is
strictly
speaking not constant, but equal to the actually
existing obliquity of the ecliptic.
129
and:
cos o
=
sin
sin
I
cos
a
found by means of a tangent, we find nev ertheless the value of a without ambiguity, as it must satisfy the condition, that cos a and cos I have the same sign.
Though a
is
If we wish to find for instance the place of the pole for the year 14000 but referred to the equinox of 1850, we have the general precession for 12150 years equal to about 174,
hence we have:
= 27316
right ascension
a
and d
= H43
7
.
This agrees nearly with the place of a Lyrae, whose
and declination for 1850
is:
=
277"
58 and
= + 38
39
.
Hence about
On
the year 14000 this star will be the polestar. account of the change of the declination by the pre
cession stars will rise above the horizon of a place, which before were always invisible, while other stars now for in stance visible at a place in the northern hemisphere, will move so far south of the equator that they will no longer rise at
this place.
Likewise
stars,
which now always remain above
the horizon of the place, will begin to rise and set, while other stars will move so far north of the equator that they
become circumpolar
stars.
The precession changes
therefore
essentially the aspect of the celestial sphere at any place on the earth after long intervals of time.
The
latest tables
dereal year,
that
is,
the
of the sun give the length of the si time, in which the sun describes
exactly 360 of the celestial sphere or in which it returns to same fixed star, equal to 365 days 6 hours 9 minutes and As the points of the 9 s 35 or to 365.2563582 mean days.
.
in
equinoxes have a retrograde motion, opposite to the direction which the sun is moving, the time in which the sun re
turns to the same equinox or the tropical year must be shorter than the sidereal year by the time in which the sun moves
through the small arc equal to the annual precession. But we have for 1850 /= 2235 and as the mean motion of
50".
the sun
is
59
8".
33,
we
find for this time
hence the length of the tropical
0.014154 of a day, year equal to 365.242204
9
130
days.
As
the precession
0".
is
variable and the annual increase
is
amounts to and the annual change equal
0002442966, the tropical year
to
also variable
If
0.000000068848 of a day.
express the decimals in hours, minutes and seconds, find the length of the tropical year equal to:
we
we
365 days 5& 48
46
.
42
.
00595
(t
1800).
II.
THE NUTATION.
we have neglected the periodical change with respect to the ecliptic, which, as was equator stated before, consists of a periodical motion of the point of intersection of the equator and the ecliptic on the latter as
5.
Thus
far
of the
well as in a periodical change of the obliquity of the ecliptic. The point in which the equator would intersect the ecliptic,
there were no nutation, but only the slow changes consid ered before were taking place, is called the mean equinox and the obliquity of the ecliptic, which would then occur,
if
the
which the equator
is
The point however, in obliquity of the ecliptic. intersects the ecliptic at any time really called the apparent equinox while the actual angle between
mean
is
the equator and the ecliptic at any time
obliquity of the ecliptic.
called the apparent
The expressions
to
for
the
equinoxes and the nutation
the latest determinations
equation of the points of the of the obliquity are according of Peters in his work entitled
:
,,Numerus constans
nutationis"
AA
=

17".
1".
Ae
=
sin (0 4P) 4 0".0677 sin (([ 0897 cos 2 Jl 2231 cos $1 40886 cos 2 ([ 5509 cos 2 4h 4 0".0093cos(04P),
0"
.
2405 2692 1279
sin
sin
O+ 2 O
0".
2073 sin 2 2041 sin 2 ( 0213 sin P)
0"
.
O
0".
(0 4 P)
(A)
9".
0"
0"
.
0" .
where
orbit,
$1 is the longitude of the ascending node of the moon s and (L are the longitudes of the sun and of the
moon and P and P
the
are the longitudes of the perihelion of
sun and of the perigee of the moon.
The
expressions
131
given above are true for 1800, little variable with the time and
but the coefficients
are a
we have
0". 0".
for 1900:
AA
h
17" .
2577
sin
1"
.
0".
2693 1275
sin 2
sin
sin
D O
(O
+
2073 sin 2 ft 2041 sin 2 (C
0".0213
P)
)
sin
A
= h
H
4
0".
0677
((CP
h
9".
0"
.
2240 cos 41 5506 cos 2
0".
0" .
0896 cos 2 SI 0885 cos 2 (
h
0"
.
0092 cos
(0
h P).
In order to find the changes of the right ascensions
declinations of the stars, arising from this,
and
we must
observe,
that
we have
da
,
:
da
()
and
:
But we have according to the differential formulae in No. 11 of Section I, if we substitute instead of cos ft sin 7; 8 and and cos ft cos i] their expressions in terms of
:
&lt;*,
rf
TJ
a/.
rfa 7C/
= =
=
&lt;*&lt;?
cos
f
sm
e
tang o sin a
aA
y
rf^
cos a tang o

= cos a sm = sm
,
e
&lt;/
from which we find by
(
(
differentiating:
a h cotang
e cos
d 32 /
r*
)
sin
2
[5
sin 2
a tang
sin
f sin
2
tang$
2
]
= (~\ =
J
sin
[cos
a2
H
cotang s tang
sin 2
a
+
tang 8* cos
2]
[% sin 2
a tang ^ 2 ]
f
f
f

= = (v / =
;,
2
sin f
2
sin
J
a [cotang
tang S sin
]
,
J
sin e cos
a [cotang
2
h
sin
a tang
S]
c?
2
)
cos a
tang
$.
If
we
substitute
these
and introduce instead of
fore
A A and A
expressions in the equations (a) their values given be
the mean obliquity by the equations (4) and take for of the ecliptic at the beginning of the year 1800 23 27 2, we find the terms of the first order as follows
=
:
54".
9*
132
=
+
15".
8148 sinO
1 1
[6".
0" .
"
1
.
642 sin 20 
902 sin 2O +
[0".
[0".
8650 sin sin a h 0825 sin 2Q sin 5054 sin 20 sin
O
9".
+0".
2231 cos cos a] tang 5 0807 cos2^ cosaj tang S
O
+0".
5509 cos20 cos] tan (V

0".1872sin2([[0".0813sin2((sin+0".0886cos2([cos]tang^

0".0195sin(04P)
[0".
4h
&lt;?
[0".
0085 sin (0 + P) sin 0621 4 0".0270 sin
0509
sin
+
0".
0093 cos
sin
&lt;?]
tang S] sin
[0"
.117340".
a tang
9".
(0+P) cos P) (0 P),
((
]
tang S
(B]
(?=
H
G".
8650 5054 0813
sin
0".OS25
0"
.
sin 2 sin 2
O cos a 4^ cos a
cos
2231 cos
O
sin
a
0".0897
0"
.
cos 2 f} sin
sin
([
4
0".
sin 2 ([
cos a H
0"
.
5509 cos 2 0886 cos 2
0" .
(C)
sin
0"
.
4
0".
4
0" .
0085 sin (0 H P) cos a 40270 cos sin ) 0509 cos a sin (0 P).
0093 cos
(0
4 P)
sin
((TP
for 1800; for 1900 they are but the change is only of some amount for different, the first terms depending on the moon s node. These are
These expressions are true
a
little
for 1900:
in
a
a:
:

15".8321
sin^ [6".S683 sin
} sin a+9".2240
cos
inS
6^8683 sin
O cos a 4
O cos a] tang S
are
9".
2240 cos 1 sin a.
Of
AC.
If
the terms
of the
arise
second
order
only
those
of
any amount, which
from the greatest terms in
2231 cos
sin
AA
and
we
put for the sake of brevity:
and
 sin s A A =
Ae
=
9"
.
6"
.8650
O= ft =
cos
b sin
}
$1
,
these terms give in right ascension:
a
= 4[
sin 2
a [tang S 2
+ ^]
+
tang
cos a cotang s
2 cotang e sin a tang S\ tang d cos 2 a 4 1 cos 2 a]

sin 2
ft
2 tang $ sin 2 a 4
^r
tangdcosacotge 4
~
sin2 a! cos
2i")
and
in declination:
a a
o
[tango^ sin 2
o
cosz(
/
j
.".:*..
tango
sin
4
sin 2
cotang
e
a 4 2 cotang
s cos a]
U

4

o
cos2J
tango"
sin
a cotang
e
cos
Those terms which
are independent of
&lt;O
change merely
133
the
mean
~
place of the stars and therefore
part,
f

may be
neglected.
Another
sin 2
namely:
cotang e sin a sin 2 ,Q
f
cotang s cos a cos 2 ,Q
J
tang
and
cotang
s sin
2
")
cos a f
cotang
E sin
a cos
can be united with the similar terms multiplied by sin 2O and cos 2 of the first order, which then become equal to in right ascension
H
:
and
h
in declination
(/&gt;)
.
0"
0822 sin
2 f\ cos
0"
.
0896 cos 2
^
sin
.
The remaining terms
in right ascension H0".
of the second order are as follows:
2
&lt;?

0001 535 [tang
0001 60
[tang
f
]
sin 2
2
&lt;?
0".
+ j]
cos 2
H cos 2 O 2
sin
and
in declination
0"
(^)
.
.
[0"
0000768 tang 8 sin 2 a sin 2 000023 f000080 cos 2
0"
.
O
a] tang
s
.
8 cos 2
O
01 only when the declination is 88 10 and as the others equal 0".01 only when the declination is 89 26 , they are even in the immediate neighbourhood of the pole of little influence and can be ne glected except for stars very near the pole.
as
But
the
first
terms amount to
6.
We
sions (E)
shall hereafter use the changes of the expres and (C) produced by a change of the constant of
is,
nutation, that
of the coefficient of cos ,Q in the nutation
different for the in
of obliquity.
These are
terms of the lunar
and solar nutation.
given by theory
plied
all
For
the formula of the nutation as
terms of the lunar nutation are multi
which depends on the moments of in on the mass and the mean motion of the moon, while the terms of the solar nutation are mul tiplied by a similar factor, which is the same function of the moments of inertia of the earth and of the mass and mean motion of the sun. But as it is impossible to compute the
by
a factor
N
ertia of the earth as well as
moments of
and
JV
inertia
must be determined from observations.
of the earth, the numerical values of Now the co
N
134
of the nutation of obliquity, which is If we take multiplied by sinO, is equal to 0. 765428 IV this equal to 2231 (1H), where 2231 is the value of the constant of nutation as it follows from the observations,
efficient
.
9". 9".
of the term
while
9".
2231
i
is
its
correction,
we have
2231(1
therefore:
0.765428
N=
9".
+ 0.
tities
(50".
N
But the lunisolar precession depends on the same quan N and N and the value determined from observations 36354 for 1800) gives the following equation between and IV
:
17 .469345
= Nt 0. 991988 JV,
(1
from which we get
Therefore
9".
in
N=
connection with the former equation:
5.
516287
2 16687
i).
if
2231
(1 + i)
we take we must
and
the
constant of nutation equal to multiply all terms of the lunar
nutation
1
by 2. 16687
j
1 f i
i.
terms of the solar nutation by 2235 i dv, we have: Taking therefore
all
9".
=
d^ ;
_ ~t
1.8702
sin
4 0.2981 sin
2
n+ 0.0225 2O 0.0221 2 (1+0.0073 sin(([P 0.0300 (Q P) + 0.0050 (Q P)
sin
sin
)j
i
sin
sin
+
&lt;/A*=[cosO
0.0097 cos 2^10.0096 cos 2 ([
0.1294 cos
2Q
5:
]
0.0022 cos (0hP)] dv
and from
this
we
find in the
same way
} sin
as in
No.
^.~_
dv
a)_
_i.7t56sinO
+
[0.7445 sin
H1 0000 cos
O cos
tang
0.0206 sin 2^ 0.0203 sin 2 (L
+ [0.0090 sin 2^ snuH0.0097 cos2~} cosa] tang
[0.0088 sin 2 ([sin
h 0.0067 sin (((
P
)
h [0.0029 sin (([
+0.0096cos2 ) sin a
P
([ cos]tang&lt;?
}
tang 8
40.2735 sin20f[0.1187sin20sina+0.1294cos20 cosa] tang&lt;? 0.0275 sin (0 P) sin P) [0.01 19 sin (0 jtangc?
4 0.0046 sin (0
f
P) H [0.0020 sin (Q +P) sin a HH 0.0022 cos (0hP) cosa] tang 8
sin
^~^=
dv
i
0.7445 sin
O cos a hi. 0000 cos O
0.0097 cos
a
0.0090 sin 2^^ cos a 0.0088 sin 2 ([ cos a
2O sin a
(
+
0.0096 cos 2
sin
hO.0029 sin ((I
P ) cos a
0.1294 cos 2 0sin H0.1187sin20cos 0.01 19 sin (0 P)cos
h 0.0020 sin (0 H P ) sin
0.0022 cos (0 h P) sin
.
In order to compute the nutation in right ascension 7. and declination it is most convenient to find the values of A^ and A* from the formulae (4) and (AJ and to compute
135
the numerical values of the differential coefficients ^L A etc. Cl A d
But the labor of computing formulae (J?) and (C) has been of tables. First the greatly reduced by the construction
terms
:
15".82sinO
=
c
and
1".
16 sin 2
Q=g
have been brought in tables whose arguments are ft and 2 0. The several terms of the nutation in right ascension
multiplied by tang 5 are of the following form:
a cos
ft
cos a
+ b sin ft sin
a
=A
[h
cos
ft
cos a
+ sin ft sin a].
any expression of this form the following form:
a:
Now
may be reduced
to
cos
[ft
a\y],
develop the latter expression and compare it the former, we find the following equations for determin with
For
if
we
ing
x and
y:
A h cos ft == x [cos ft cos y A sin ft = x [sin ft cos y +from which we find:
sin
ft ft
sin y]
cos
sin #]
x*=A*[l(l
and:
(1
ft)
^
sin
2
)
cos cos
2
/?
]
ft
ff
where x and t/ are always real. If we have now tables for x and ?/, whose argument is /9, we find the term of the nu
tation in right ascension, multiplied by tang d x cos [ft \ y a]
by computing:
while
:
( c ),
For
gives the term of the nutation in declination depending cos as these terms have the form:
fi.
A
[
h cos
ft
sin
f sin ft
cos a]
)
,
we
find taking it equal to x sin (fiy (6) for determining x and y. Such tables have been computed
in the collection of tables
the same equations
ven
fore.
by Nicolai and are gi by Warnstorff, mentioned be
These give besides the quantity c the quantities log b with the argument O, and with these we find the terms of the right ascension depending on cos 1 and sin O by computing:
and
B
c
b
tang S cos (ft
f
B
a)
136
and the corresponding terms of the decimation by computing:

b sin
GO
+B
a)
(&lt;0
This part of the nutation together with the small terms
P , is the lunar nutation. depending on 2O, 2 ([ and d A second table gives the quantities #, log f and F with the argument 20, by which we find the terms depending on
2O, which
and
for right ascension are: g
/tang S
cos [2
Q
+
F
a]
( e)
for declination:
This part of the nutation together with the small terms
depending on 0fP and
P
is
the solar nutation.
No
separate tables have
been computed for the small
and For these may terms depending on 2 (L , 2 f P. be found from the tables of the solar nutation, using instead of 20 as argument successively 2d, 180f2,O (because these terms have the opposite sign) and 0fP, and multiplying
the values obtained according to the equations (e) respectively 6 i , as these fractions express approximately the by  , 3 ~ and
ratio
O
of the
coefficients of these
terms to that of the solar
nutation.
The form
is
of the terms multiplied by
(I
P and
P
different, but analogous to the annual precession in right ascension and declination; they are therefore obtained by multiplying the annual precession in right ascension and de
cimation by
ji^ sin
(&lt;L
P
)
and
^
sin
(0
P).
If we 8. we can render
consider only the largest term of the nutation its effect very plain. have then:
A&gt;1
A
= =
We
17".
25 sin
O,
f
9".22cosl,
or rather according to theory: 05 cos 2 sineA*
Ae
= =
10".
f. sin
O,
10".
05 cos
e. cos Jl
Now
the
pole
of the
equator on account of the luni
solar precession describes a small circle, whose radius is , about the pole of the ecliptic. If we imagine now a plane
tangent to the mean pole at any time and in it a system of axes at right angles to each other so that the axis of x is tangent to the circle of latitude, we find the coordinates of
137
sin s A^? the apparent pole (affected by nutation) y therefore according to the expressions and we have above the following equation:
2
?/
=
X=&B
given
=e
2
.
cos 2
2
C
~^r x* COS
2
,
where
C=
10".
05.
the
The apparent pole describes mean pole, whose semimajor
axis
is
whose semiconjugate
is
C
therefore an ellipse around axis is C cos e 22, and 86. This ellipse cos 2 e
=
=
9".
6".
In order to find the place of the pole on the circumference of this ellipse, we imagine a circle described about its centre with the semimajor axis
called the ellipse of nutation.
Then it as radius. must move through
revolution of the
is
it
moon
obvious, that a radius of this circle in a time equal to the period of the s nodes with uniform and retrograde
motion*), so that it coincides with the side of the major axis nearest to the ecliptic, when the ascending node of the moon s
orbit
coincides with the vernal equinox.
If
we now
let fall
from the extremity of this radius a line perpendicular to the major axis, the point, in which this line intersects the cir cumference of the ellipse, gives us the place of the pole.
*)
As
the motion of the
moon
s
nodes on the
ecliptic is retrograde.
THIRD SECTION.
CORRECTIONS OF THE OBSERVATIONS ARISING FROM THE POSITION OF THE OBSERVER ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH AND FROM CERTAIN PROPERTIES OF THE LIGHT.
The astronomical
tables
and ephemerides give always the
places of the heavenly bodies as they appear from the centre For stars at an infinite distance this place of the earth. agrees with the place observed from any point on the surface
of the earth.
ratio
But when the distance of the body has a
radius
centre
finite
to
the
of the
seen from the
the place of the body must differ from the place seen from
earth,
any point on the surface. If we wish therefore to compare any observed place with such tables, we must have means by which we can reduce the observed place to the place
which we should have seen from the centre of the
earth.
observed place conversely with respect to the horizon in connection for instance with its known position with respect to the equator for the com putation of other quantities, we must use the apparent place seen from the place of observation, and hence we must
if
And
we wish
to
employ the
convert the place seen from the centre , which is taken from the ephemeris, into the apparent place. The angle at the object between the two lines drawn from
the centre of the earth to the
face
is
body and
to the place at the sur
need therefore called the parallax of the body. which we can find the parallax of a body at any means, by time and at any place on the surface of the earth.
We
Our
the
earth
is
surrounded by an atmosphere, which has
therefore do not property of refracting the light. see the heavenly bodies in their true places but in the di rection which the ray of light after being refracted in the
We
139
of atmosphere has at the moment, when it reaches the eye The angle between this direction and that, the observer. in which the star would be seen if there was no atmosphere,
is
called the refraction. In order therefore to find servations the true places of the heavenly bodies,
from ob we must
have means to determine the refraction for any part of the sphere and any state of the atmosphere. If the earth had no proper motion or if the velocity of
were infinitely greater than that of the earth, the latter would have no effect upon the apparent place of a star. But
light
as the velocity of the light has a finite ratio to the velocity of the earth, an observer on the earth sees all stars a little
is
ahead of their true places in the direction in which the earth This small change of the places of the stars moving. caused by the velocities of the earth and of light, is called
the
In order therefore to find the true places of the heavenly bodies from observations, we must have means, to correct the observed places for aberration.
aberration.
I.
THE PARALLAX.
1.
that
is
on
its
The earth is no perfect sphere, but an oblate spheroid a spheroid generated by the revolution of an ellipse conjugate axis. If a denotes the semi major axis, b
the semi minor axis of such a spheroid, and a is their dif ference expressed in parts of the semimajor axis, we have:
a_b
a
_
l
_b_
a
the excentricity of the generating ellipse or of the ellipse, in which a plane passing through the minor axis intersects the surface of the spheroid, also expressed in
If then
is
parts of the semimajor axis,
we have:
therefore:
= V\
=1
e
2
and
likewise
:
^l
a
2
e
=
]/%
.
140
The
ratio "
is
for
the
earth according to BesseFs in;
vestigations:
g^g
1
^ ^
/
and expressed
in toises:
a
= 3272077. 14
6=3201139.33
log a log b
= 6. 5148235 = 6. 5133693.
toise as unit
s
However
but the
in
astronomy we de not use the
orbit.
we denote then by 71 the angle at the sun subtended by the equatoreal radius of the earth and by R the semi major axis of the earth s orbit or the mean distance of the earth from the sun,
semi major axis of the earth
If
we
have:
a
"
=R
sin
n
= 2^265
to:
8".
The angle n
sun
is
or the equatoreal horizontal parallax of the
according to
Encke equal
57116.
angle at the sun subtended by the radius of a on the equator of the earth when the sun at this place place
It is the
is
rising or setting.
In order to compute the parallax of a body for any place at the surface of the earth, we must refer the place on the spheroidal earth to the centre by coordinates. As the
Fig. 3.
first
coordinate
we
use
the sidereal time or the
angle,
which a plane pas
sing through the place of observation and the minor
axis *)
makes with the
plane passing through the
same axis and the point of the vernal equinox. If then OA C Fig. 3 repre
sents the plane through
*)
This plane
is
the plane of the
meridian,
as
it
passes through the
poles and the zenith of the place of observation.
141
the axis and the place of observation, we must further know distance A o from the centre of the earth and the
the
=
angle
AOC,
which
is
called the geocentric latitude.
But these
always be computed from the latitude which the horizon of A makes with the axis of the earth or which the normal line AN at the of
place
observation makes with the equator) of the spheroid.
quantities can (or the angle
ANC
and from the two axes
For
if
x and
y are
the
coordinates of
A
with respect
to the centre 0, the axes of the abscissae
OC
and OB, we have the
and ordinates beinofollowing equation^ as A is a point
of an ellipse, whose semi major and semi minor axes are a
and 6:
fl&gt;H
v6 1
,
ra*6.
the geocentric latitude
Now we
by
and
&lt;/)
have
also, if
we denote
y
:
also
:
tang
is
y
=
because the latitude y
at
A
dy the angle between the normal line and the axis of the abscissae. As we have then from
the differential equation of the ellipse:
x
1
a"
dy
r/
we
find the following equation
}
between
tang
&lt;p
and
r/&gt;
:
tang
Ill
tp
=
we
(a).
order to compute Q
have:
COS
&lt;p
and as we obtain from the equation of the
ellipse:
we
find:
_ _=a
1/1
cos
y
90)
h tang y tang y
cos y cos (y
If therefore the latitude
y of
a place
is
given,
(f&gt;
we
can
compute by these formulae the geocentric
radius
o.
latitude
and the
142
For the coordinates x and y we
easily get the following
formulae, which will be used afterwards:
_
J/cVs
a cos
cp
y
2
Kl
90
)
sin
7&gt;
2
a cos
and
y x tang y
= x j tang =
6
90
2
...
.r
(I
*) tang
^
9?
develop y in a series of the multiples of y, for progressing according to the sines we obtain by the formula (16) in No. 11 of the introduction:
From
the
formula (a)
we can
or taking
a a+b
b
_ ~
2
we
find:
sin 4
y
etc.
If we compute the numerical values of the coefficients from the values of the two axes given above and multiply
them by 206265
(p
in order to find
11
30".
them
in seconds,
we
get:
(&lt;?),
=
y)
65 sin 2
yH1".
16 sin
49?...
from which we find for instance for the latitude of Berlin .== 30
52"
16".
&lt;f
= 52
19
8".
3.
y&gt;
Although
elegant series,
Q
itself
we
cannot be developed into an equally For we get can find one for log *).
from formula
(6):
cos
2
o&gt;
1
H
2
17
tang
2
c//
o&gt;
L
If
J
its
we
substitute here for cos
a4
a*
f 6
4
value
tang
y
2
*)
tables,
Encke
in
the Berliner Jahrbuch
9?
fur
from which the values of
and log Q
may
1852 pag 326. He gives also be found for any latitude.
143
we
find:
a 4 cos
2
a&gt;
sin 4 b* 
2
cp
+
6
a2
f 6
2

+
2
(a
6
2
2
)
cos 2
j
ip
2
=
hence
:
(a
4
6
2
)
2
H2
(a
6
2
)
+2
4 2
(a
(a
4
6 ) (
2
2
6
6)
2
)
cos 2
?
(a h
6)
4
2
(a
2
6)
4
b) (a
cos 2
y
_h ,^
6
2
(o+ft)
If
r./a
L
^"*"("
6\ 6
2
~~r) Va h It/
_a +2a
i
T
+
b
cos 2 OP T
HI P
_\
write this formula in a logarithmic form and de the logarithms of the square roots velop according to for mula (15) in No. 11 of the introduction into series progress
we
ing according to the cosines of the multiples of 2
log hyp ?
y,
we
find
:
= log hyp
a a +6 2
j ft
+
,
U

2
.
a2
b)  a ^
6
2
cos 2
62
y
cos49P
a
6\;
6
2
\
3

etc.
or using
common
logarithms and denoting the quantity
a
b
a\b
by H, we get:
= log (a +
}
;;")
+ u\ (j
^"
n2
)
etc.
where hence
M
:
denotes the modulus
of the
common
logarithms,
log
if =9. 6377843.
If
ficients
log q
we compute
and take a
=
again the numerical values of the coef
1,
=
we
find:
y&gt;
9
and from
9992747 40.0007271 cos 2 y 0.0000018 cos 4 (F) this we get for instance for the latitude of Berlin:
.
log
=
9. 9990880.
144
If
we know
therefore the
latitude
of a place,
we can
compute from the two series (C) and (F) the geocentric la titude and the distance of the place from the centre of the earth and these two quantities in connection with the sidereal
time define the position of the place with respect to the centre If we now imagine a system of the earth at any moment. of rectangular axes passing through the centre of the earth,
the axis of z being vertical to the plane of the equator, whilst the axes of x and y are situated in the plane of the equator
x is directed towards the point the positive axis of y to the point equinox, whose right ascension is 90", we can express the position of the place with respect to the centre by the following three coordinates
so that the positive
axis of
of the vernal
:
x
y
2
= o cos = $ cos y =
sin
(&gt;
90
cos
sin
(6?).
cp
3.
The plane
in
which the
lines
drawn from the centre
of the earth and from the place of observation to the centre of the heavenly body are situated, passes through the ze nith of the place, if we consider the earth as spherical, and
intersects therefore
the
celestial
sphere in a vertical
circle.
that the parallax affects only the altitude of the heavenly bodies while their azimuth remains unchanged. If A (Fig. 3) then represents the place of observation, Z
Hence
it
follows
its
zenith,
S the heavenly body and
is
the centre of the
and Z AS the apparent zenith distance z seen from the place at the surface. Denoting then the par z by p we have: allax or the angle at S equal to z C sin z j sin p ^i
earth, centre of the earth
ZOS
the
true zenith distance z as seen from the
=
,
of the body from the earth, where A a very small angle except in the case and as p is always of the moon, we can always take the arc itself instead of
denotes the
distance
the sine and have
:
X = f sin z a
Hence
.
206265.
the parallax is proportional to the sine of the ap zenith distance. It is zero at the zenith, has its maxparent
145
imum
in
the altitude of the object.
/&gt;
the horizon and has always the effect to decrease The maximum value for z 90
=
= 4 206265
u
is
called the horizontal parallax
and the quantity
=
/&gt;

206265,
s
where a
is
the
radius of the earth
equator,
is
called the
horizontal equatoreal parallax.
Here the earth has been supposed
as
it
to be a sphere;
but
a spheroid, the plane of the lines drawn from really the centre of the earth and from the place of observation to
is
the
object does
tlie
not pass
in
point, the earth to the place intersects the celestial sphere. Hence the parallax changes a little the azimuth of an object and
but through
which the
through the zenith of the place, line from the centre of
the rigorous expression of the parallax in altitude differs a from the expression given before.
little
If we imagine three axes of coordinates at right angles with each other, of which the positive axis of z is directed towards the zenith of the place, whilst the axes of x and y
in the horizon, so that the positive axis of x directed towards the south, the positive axis of y towards the west, the coordinates of the body with respect to these
are situated
is
axes
are
:
A sin z cos A A sin z sin A and A cos z where A denotes the distance of the object from the place and z and A are the zenith distance and azimuth seen from
,
,
the place.
the same object with respect to a system of axes parallel to the others but passing through the
centre of the earth are:
The coordinates of
A sin z cos A, A sin z sin A and A cos z, where A denotes the distance of the object from the centre and z and A are the zenith distance and the azimuth seen from the centre. Now as the coordinates of the centre of
the earth with respect to the
g sin
(9?
9? ),
first
system are:
^ cos
(90
y&gt;~)
and
we have
the following three equations:
10
146
A A A
or
:
sin z cos sin 2 sin
A A
r
cos z
A A A
If
sin z sin
(A
sin 2 cos (.4
cose
= A cos A g =A = A cos cos A) = Q =A = A cos Q
sin z sin z sin .4
2
(&gt;
sin
(9?
95 )
(90
9?
)&gt;
sin (9?
9?
) sin 4
(9?
&lt;/&gt;
.4)
sin 2 z
sin
)
cos
yl
(a)
cos((f&gt;
9? )
we
multiply the
second by cos
(X
4), the equation by sin (4 and add the two products, we find: A)
first
A
cos 2
= A cos
2
o cos
1
(9?
cp ).
Then
putting:
tang y
= cos COS
4
(A
\^*
+
A)
r^ tang
^*)
(&lt;f&gt;
..
^r,
l
9? ),
/7N (o)
we
or:
find:
A A A
M A
sin 2
cos 2
=A = A cos
2)
(&gt;
sin 2 2
^ cos o cos
(cp
cp )
gp )
tang y
(95
sin (2
cos r (2
\
2)
= cos =A Q
(cp
cp )
cos
r
,,
y&gt;)
cos (2
7)
(cp
( \
and besides if we multiply the first equation by sin the second by cos J ( z) and add the products cos [ (2 H z) cos (cf y] cp )
:
1 ,
 (
ss),
cos y
If
we
divide the equations (a), (6) and (c)
by
A
and put:
s equator equal to unity, so the horizontal equatoreal parallax, we obtain by the p aid of formulae (12) and (13) in No. 11 of the introduction:
taking the radius of the earth
that
is
cos
,
sin
A sin A tang 4 A sin ^ cos { (A f 4)
(cp
9? )
1
(95
90 )
(4
4)
,
(y
.
9? )

*.)
We
have:
Substituting here for tang
(
the series
8 rry)4{Sp 9P ) ~K
we can
easily
deduce the expression given above.
147
sin
(&gt;
p
cos
(9?
y

]
sm
cos y cos/
^2
2
y
.
)
4 4
I
)\ Sfsmpcos (p 9?
\
cos y
/
)
sin 0/ 2 (2
.
y) H
.
.
.
.
iyp
A
= log hyp A
(
cos
(z
y)
V
cos
y
/
)
cos 2
(c
y)
...
We
sin
p
((fj
have therefore neglecting quantities of the order of which have little influence on the quantity ; (f/)
:
y=
(99
9? )
cos
A
hence the parallax in azimuth
is:
rigorous very small:
/
or
its
expression, which
o sin p sin
Al 1
must be used when
(9?
z is
cp)
.
tang (A
4) = 
sin
Sln Z
_
sin 2
cos
^
Furthermore as:
cos
(9?
tp)
_
cos 4
cos y
is
cos
1
Jr
(A
A)
sin
y
always nearly equal tance is:
2
to unity,
sin sin [z
it
the parallax in zenith dis
cos A}
z
=
z)
()
p
(&lt;p
9? )
,
and the rigorous equations for
 sin (z
are:
(y
9? )
=
(&gt;
sin
p
sin [z
cos A]
cos (z
2)
=1
(&gt;sinpcos[2
(cp
cos
&lt;f&gt;)
4].
Hence
azimuth
is
if the object is on the meridian, the parallax in zero and the parallax in zenith distance is z 2 sin p sin [2 9? )](95
:
&lt;)
4.
In a similar
way we
obtain the expressions for the
parallax in right ascension and declination. The coordinates of a body with respect to the earth s centre and the plane of the equator are:
A cos
8 cos a,
A
cos
sin
a and
A sin
8.
coordinates as they appear from the place at the surface with respect to the same plane are:
The apparent
A
cos 8 cos
,
A
cos 8 sin
and
A
sin
8
.
10*
148
Since the coordinates of the place at the surface with re spect to the centre referred to the same fundamental plane are:
cos
^&gt;
cp
cos 0,
(&gt;
cos
cp
sin
and
(&gt;
sin
cp
we have
and 8
:
the following three equations for determining
A
?
A A A
cos
cos
cos d sin
sin $
= A cos 8 cos a =A a =A $
cos
sin sin
(
)
o cos
o cos
y
9?
cos
sin
.
(a)
Q sin
y
by
the second If we multiply the first equation by sin , cos a and subtract one from the other, we find:
A
cos S sin
=
cos
(&gt;
sin
&lt;p
(0
).
But
cond by
if
we
multiply the
first
equation by
find:
cos
(&gt;
cos
,
the se
sin
a and add them,
We
A cos cos ( a) have therefore:
.
= A cos $
Q cos
gp
we
cp
cos
(0
).
,
_
A
cos
sin (a
90
6&gt;)
cos
(&gt;
cos
(
)
o cos
(f&gt;
.
\ cos ^ o A
o cos
1

sin
(a
6&gt;)
90
~
A cos
or developing a
?
o
cos (a
0)
a in a series ,
sin (,
we
find
:
C
S
A
cos d
 8) +
}
rin 2
^ VAcosd/
(
 0)
excepting the moon it is sufficiently accu only the first term of the series. Taking then the radius of the earth s equator as the unit of o and writing
In
all
cases
rate
to
take
in
n as factor (where 11 is the equatoreal sun) in order to use the same unit in the numerator as in the denominator, namely the semi major axis of the earth s orbit, we get:
the numerator sin
parallax
of the
a
,
a
=o

sin 7t cos
&lt;p
.
sin (a 
0}
j
.
A
cos o
(JB)
where a
is the east hour angle of the object. The parallax therefore increases the right ascensions of the stars when east of the meridian and diminishes them on the west side of the
meridian.
If the
is
object
zero.
is
on the meridian,
its
parallax in
right ascension
149
In order to find a similar formula for 6
write in the formula for:
#,
we
will
A
cos S cos
(
)
now
1
2sin(a
COS
(
2
)
instead of
a),
and obtain:
A
If
cos
= A cos S
cos
(&gt;
cos
&lt;p
(0
)
+
2
A
cos $ sin
2
JS
(
)
.
we here multiply and divide the last term by cos and make use of the formula: sin A cos S sin ( ) ) Q cos
\
(a
)
=
&lt;p
(6&gt;
we
easily find:
A
cos
y
= A cos  f cos y
,?
C 5
*
j*
,gffl
/?
.
()
;
Introducing now the auxiliary quantities the following equations: by
/?
and
given
= cos cos y = sin
y
sin
y&gt;
&lt;p
cos [0
cos V/J I (a
I
(
)
H
)]
,
(c)
we
find
from
(6):
A
cos 8
= A cos $ =
()f3
cos /
and from the third of the equations (a): A sin S A sin ^ /3 sin y. From these two equations we easily deduce the following: A sin (S S~) $) g ft sin (y cos (y A cos (S A S), 8)
1
= =
f&gt;ft
or:
tang
(
S)
=
No.
3
}
or according to formula (12) in
S
J
1
of the introduction:
$)
etc.
((7)
S
=
s
sin (y
8}
^
sin 2 (y
If
we
introduce here instead
write
again p sin n instead unit in the numerator as in the denominator, only the first term of the series:
~,
o,
value sm9P and sm y of o in order to have the same
of
ft
its
we
find,
taking
(}
sin
n sin cp A
sin (y
8)
siny
150
second of the formulae (c) and write instead of( 4), ( a) equal to unity we have the following approximate formulae for computing the parallax in right ascension and declination
If
we
further
take
in
the
cos
i
:
!
sin
7f(&gt;cos&lt;jp
(0
cos d
a)
A
tang
cp
tang y
cos
(0
&gt;
a)
s
O
sin/
its
*)
A
If the
object
has a visible disc,
distance.
7)
apparent diameter
must change with the
A
But we have:
sin (8
sin (8
=A
y)
as the semi diameters, as long as they are as the distances, we have: inversely
.
and
small,
vary
.
sin (o
y)
Example. 1844 Sept. 3 De Vice s comet was observed at 20 h 41 m 38 s sidereal time and its right ascension and declination were found as follows
at
Rome
:
=
?==_
The logarithm
time 9.27969 and
of
its
2
35
55".
5
IS
43 21
.6.
distance from the earth
was
at that
we have
y&gt;
Rome: = 4142 .5
for
and
log ?
=
9. 99936.
is
The computation
follows
:
of the parallax
then performed as
*)
If the object
is
on the meridian, we
find
:
S
8
=
^ A
sin (y
is
(?)
=$
A
sin [z
(&lt;p
y )],
hence the parallax
in declination
equal to
the parallax in altitude.
151
in arc
310 24 5
.
2
35.9
11
.
a
52
4
tangy
cos (0
sin(6&gt;
9.94999
9
.
a)
)
78749
~
9. 89765,
J.
y
y= 55 28 6 S= 18 43.4, =+7412.0
.
n^cosy A
sec 8
O^O u
i
,_
sin(y
/i
5)
.
i
9798327
_n 9
&gt;
sm&lt;p
0.02362
1
.
A
log
log (a
a)
44703
99
_ =
5=
cosec y
.
08413
54316/j
34".
t
^
a
a
=+
28" .
27".
5
93
the parallax increases the geocentric right ascen and diminishes the geocentric decli sion of the comet
Thus
nation
34".
9.
Hence
a
&lt;?
the place
of the comet corrected for
5
parallax
is:
= =
2
35
27".
IS
42 46
.7.
In order to find the parallax of a body for coordinates referred to the plane of the ecliptic, it is necessary to know the coordinates of the place of observation with respect to
the earth s centre referred to
But
if
we
I
convert
and y
first
into longitude
cording to No. 9 of the
same fundamental plane. and latitude ac section and if the values thus
the
I
I
found are
and
6,
these coordinates are:
Q COS
(&gt;
b COS
cos b sin
sin b
(&gt;
and we have the following three equations, where A //, are the apparent, A, /?, A the true longitude and latitude:
,
A
A A
cos cos
/? /?
cos A
sin A
A
from which we
sin
ft
= A cos = A cos =A
nQ
^
ft
cos A
sin 1
(&gt;
^ cos
sin 6,
b cos
I I
ft
ft
$ cos b sin
sin
finally
obtain similar equations as
cos b sin
(I
before,
namely
:
,
,,
A)
ft
A
tang
b
cos
^(ii)
7t
,
()
sin b
sin (y
ft)
A
sin
y
& and
in
are the right ascension and declination of that point, ff which the radius of the earth intersects the celestial sphere,
152
b are therefore the longitude and latitude of the same If we consider the earth as a sphere, this point is point.
/
and
the
zenith
is
and the longitude of the point of the
the
zenith
is
ecliptic
which
its
at
also called the
nonagesimal, since
distance
from the points of the
is
ecliptic
which are
rising
and setting
5.
90.
equatoreal parallax of the
,
As
the horizontal
moon
or the angle
whose
sine
is
A
being the distance of the
moon from
it
the earth, is always between 54 and 61 minutes, not sufficiently accurate to use only the first term of the series found for the parallax in right ascension and de cimation and we must either compute some of the higher terms or use the rigorous formulae.
is
If we wish to find the parallax of the moon in right ascension and declination for Greenwich for 1848 April 10
10 h mean time,
a
we have
fn
7&gt;
for this time:
.
= 43 2O = + 16 27
17m
25
9
= 115 = 169
3.
50
15
3"
.
75
22".
6&gt;=llh
QS .02
0".30
and the horizontal equatoreal parallax and the radius of the
moon:
p = 56 R= 15
57".5
31".
We
have further for Greenwich:
9,
= 51 17 4 log ? = 9. 9991 134.
25".
&lt;)
If into the
we
two
introduce the horizontal parallax p of the moon rt series found for a and j in No. 4, as
we have
sin
p
=
,
we
find
:
_ = _ 206265 P
cos o
zijpi:
sin
(
_a
)
K
,
/
cos
,
A&gt;
cosy
sin
p\
I
i
A
sin
o
.
V
cos d
/
,
(^e/
;(...
i
and:
d
si
s d
=
i^nnz 206265
f&gt;smop
smp
y
.
.
sin
sm(y
8)
153
where we must use the rigorous formula
auxiliary angle y:
tang y
for
computing the
= tang sy
first
.
^
cos 4 r
cos[&lt;9
(
&lt;p
.
(
)
i
ta)]
If
we compute
these formulae,
term:
we
find for
45".
a
a
:
from the
29
71
second
third
1 1
.
47
hence a
a
=
~~
_0
29
.
03
21
57".
and
for S
r):
from the
first
term:
36
34".
21
91
second
third
20
.
_0
S
.
12
hence
~3Q
r5c) 72l~
The apparent
is
right ascension
20
54
5
and declination of the moon
therefore:
= 115
Finally
If
6".
= 15
20.
50
27".
G6.
we
find the apparent semi diameter:
# = 15
40".
mulae,
we prefer we must
to
compute the parallax from the rigorous for
:
computation.
We
render them more convenient for logarithmic had the rigorous formula for tang ( a)
C
(&gt;
tang (
 = ,?
)
S
?!
~
&gt;
1
cos
*?,?.
(p
?.&lt;
sm p
cos (a
0) sec a
().
Further from the two equations: o sin A sin 8 A [sin S
and:
A
cos
cos (a
a)
= =A
(&gt;
1
(p
sin p]
[cos
8
o cos
y sinp
(
cos (a
sec d
(9)
&}]
we
find:
&gt;
tang
__ [sin?
1
g sin?/
cos
cp
sin/?] cos
/?
)
sin
sec 8 cos (a
Since
we
have:
A _ A
cos S cos cos $
(&gt;
(
/&gt;
a)
cos
95
sin
cos (a
(9)
we
find in addition:
.
sin /i
,
= 1
(&gt;
cos
cos
(p
cos
.
(
a) sec
5
&lt;?
6&gt;)
smp
sm
sec o cos (a
R
(c).
If
we
introduce in (a),
(6)
and
;
(c) the
following aux
iliary quantities:
cos
A=
Sin
?
^
C
S
^
cos

_^
~^
cos S
and:
sin
(7= $ sin p
sin
y
,
154
we find the following formulae which are convenient for log arithmic computation
:
tang
(
 a) =
_ sin
*)
cos o sin
A2
)
^ (8
C) cos % ($ H (7) cos (a cos 8 sin ^ A 2
and:
.
f
.4*
If
data used before,
we compute the values a a, 8 and K with we find almost exactly as before:
a
the
= 29 = 415 R = 15
57".21
50
40".
27".
68
21.
We
;
can find similar formulae for the exact computation
of the parallax in longitude and latitude and we can deduce them immediately from the above formulae by substituting /t I and b in and cp , /, ft ) ft, , , , place of ,
&lt;5
&lt;)
6&gt;
.
II.
THE REFRACTION.
The rays of light from the stars do not come to us through a vacuum but through the atmosphere of the earth. While in a medium of uniform density, the light moves in a straight line, but when it enters a medium of a different den If the me sity, the ray is bent from its original direction. like our atmosphere, consists of an infinite number of dium,
6.
But density, the ray describes a curve. of the earth sees the object in the at the surface direction of the tangent of this curve at the point where it
strata
of different
an observer
meets the eye and from
this
observed direction or the ap
parent place of the star he must find the true place or the direction, which the ray of light would have, if it had
undergone no
rections
is
refraction.
The angle between
these two di
of light appear too high on account of refraction. will consider the earth as a sphere, as the effect
called the refraction and as the curve of the ray turns its concave side to the observer, the stars
We
of the
spheroidal form of the earth upon the refraction
is
155
exceedingly small. The atmosphere we shall consider as con of an infinitely small thickness, sisting of concentric strata
taken
within which the density and hence the refractive power is In order to determine then the change as uniform.
of the direction of the ray of light on account of the refraction at the surface of each stratum, we must know the laws
governing the refraction
follows
1)
:
of the light.
These laws are as
media
If a ray of light meets the surface separating two of different density, and we imagine a tangent plane
at the point where the ray meets the surface, and if we draw the normal and lay a plane through it and through the ray
of light, the ray after on in the same plane.
its
refraction
will continue to
move
2) If
we imagine
the
normal
produced beyond the
surface, the sine of the angle between this part of the nor mal and the ray of light before entering the medium (the angle of incidence) has always a constant ratio to the sine
of the angle between the normal and the refracted ray of light (the angle of refraction), as long as the density of the
two media
is
the same.
This ratio
is
called
the
index of
refraction or refractive index.
is given for two media two media B and (7, the index of refraction for the two media A and C is the compound ratio of the indices between A and B and between B and C.
3) If the index of refraction
also
A and B and
that for
4) If
/LI
is
the index
of refraction for two media
if
the light passes from the medium A into the medium #, the index for the same media if the light passes from the
medium B
into the
let
medium A
is
f*
Fig. 4 be a place at the surface of the earth, C the centre of the earth, S the real place of a star, CJ the normal at the point J where the ray of light SJ meets the first stratum of the If we know then
Now
atmosphere.
the density of this first stratum, we find the direction of the ray of light after the refraction according to the laws of refraction and thus find a new of incidence for the
second stratum.
If
we now
angle consider the n th stratum taking
156
CJV as the line from the
centre
of the
earth
to
the point in which the ray of light meets this
stratum, and denoting the angle of incidence by ,
the
by
/",
angle of refraction the index of re
fraction for the
vacuum
stratum
and the (n
th
l)
by
/*,
the same for the
w th stratum by #.+
we
/*.
have
sin
*)
i lt
:
:
sin/n
=
[i
n+
\
.
If further
N
is
the point in
the wfl th stratum, the lines JVC and JV
we have in C by r n and
:
which the ray of light meets the triangle JVC JV denoting
,
and combining
this
r+i r, sin/ sin i,,+i formula with the one found before
:
=
r n+l
:
we
r n sin
i n fi n
=
get
:
r n +i sin
i
n+
i
/t a+ i.
into the index of refraction
Therefore as the product of the distance from the centre and the sine of the angle of in
is
cidence
constant for
all
denote this product by y and ral law of refraction:
r
.
strata of the atmosphere, we may we have therefore as the gene
ft
.
sin
i
=
y,
(a)
where
r,
u and
i
belong
to the
same point of the atmosphere.
For the stratum nearest
or the angle between of light and the normal
to the surface of the earth the angle i the last tangent at the curve of the ray
is
tance z of the star.
earth
If
we
equal to the apparent zenith dis therefore denote the radius of the
for the stratum nearest
by
a,
and the index of refraction
to the surface of the earth
by
//,
we can determine
(6)
/ from
the following equation:
aju,
sin 2
==/.
*)
nominators.
These indices are fractions whose numerators are greater than the de For a stratum at the surface of the earth for instance we have AA
f) t
^=1.000294
or nearly equal to

157
If
we now assume,
is
which the density
that the thickness of the strata, within uniform, is infinitely small, the path
of the light through the atmosphere will be a curve whose equation we can find. Using polar coordinates and denoting the angle, which any r makes with the radius CO by 0, we
easily find:
r^tehgt. dr
(c)
The
true
curve meets the eye
zenith distance
rection
direction of the last tangent at the point where the is the apparent zenith distance, but the
is
the angle,
SJ of the ray of light This c, it is true, has its vertex at a point different from the one occupied by the eye of the observer; but as the height of the atmosphere is small compared with the dis
mal.
which the original di produced makes with the nor
tance of the heavenly bodies and the refraction itself is a small angle, the angle f differs very little from the true ze
nith
the
Even in the case of distance seen from the point 0. where this difference is the greatest, it does not moon, amount to a second of arc, when the moon is in the horizon.
We
may
therefore
consider the angle
as the
true zenith
distance.
If we now draw a tangent to the ray at the point JV, to which the variable quantities i, r and // belong and if we denote the angle between it and the normal CO by we have:
= +
*
,
.
(rf)
Differentiating the general equation (a) written in a log arithmic form, we find: dr da h cotang i.di\ 
=
r
fi
and from this formula in connection with the equations and (rf) we get: .dp .,.,
rf
(c)
=
tang
i
,
f
1
or eliminating tang
tang
i
by
the equation:
sin
i
i
= ===
V1
=
2
i
()
y
sin
yVV
2
2
/
and substituting
for y its value a u
sin a;
we
find:
158
=
The
integral of this
and
=
equation taken between the limits
If
gives then the refraction.
we
put:
we can
write the equation in the following form:
I/
s z
z
(l
i
2
)}(2s /
s
2
)sin2
2
we must know how s The latter quantity depends on the density depends upon and we know from Physics, that the quantity 2 1, which is called the refractive power, is proportional to the density.
In order to integrate this formula
.
If
we
introduce
now
as a
new
i
variable quantity the density p,
given by the equation:
^2
_ = co
we
)
,
where
c is a constant quantity,
obtain:
^(1
sin.
do
c
.
(l V
or taking:
lic^J
co
1
^Wc?.?
co
c(&gt;
*
2
)sin~
;
2,
hence
4
^=2a(l V
a
A
P \ 51
o /
^
The
coefficient
sn
is
the square of the ratio of the index of refraction for a stratum whose radius is r to the index for the stratum at
But as we have u 1 at the limits of the atmosphere, and the index of the stratum at the sur
the surface of the earth.
face
is
/u
(}
=
=^ oojy
,
the ratio
IU.Q
is,
always contained between
narrow
limits.
Hence
as a
is
always a small quantity, we
may
take instead of the variable factor
159
its
mean value between
1
the
a.
1
two extreme 
limits 1
and
1
2
or the constant value
If
we put
for brevity
^
=
?,
where
w
is
a function
of
in
s,
to be defined hereafter,
and
if
we change
the sign of
dC
,
order that the formula will give afterwards the quantity, which is to be added to the apparent place in order to find
the true place,
we
get:
(1 z
2
s) sin
zdw
s
2
2
aw
4 (2s
)sinz
2
or as s
of 5
is
always a small quantity, since the greatest value supposing the height of the atmosphere to be 46 miles
is
sin
I
only 0.0115:
zdw
a
]/ cosz
*
2
2
aw j 2s sin z 2
2 aw]
a
s sin z [cos z
2
hs 2
sin z
2
2
*&
[cos*
2aw&gt;H2ssins
p
shall see afterwards, so small, that it can always be neglected. In order to find the refraction from the above equation we must integrate it with and 5 respect to s between the limits 5 J5T,
is
where already the second term, as we
=
=
where
If
H
denotes the height of the atmosphere.
put:
we now
w
= F(s)
a?,
and introduce the new variable quantity lowing equation:
given by the
fol
or taking:
aF(s)
*
= x h
(p (is),
we have according
to
Lagrange
s
theorem:
2 1.2
dx
1.2.3
hence
5
rfar
160
In order to find from this the refraction,
tiply each
we must mul
term by !

.
=
J/cos.?
2
42*
sins
2
and integrate be
tween the
limits given above.
it
But
in
order to perform these
integrations, or to find the
is
necessary to express w as a function of s law, according to which the density of the
atmosphere decreases with the elevation above the surface. Let p and r be the atmospheric pressure and the 7. temperature at the surface of the earth, p and T the same quantities at the elevation x above the surface, m the ex
(} ()
pansion of atmospheric air for one degree of Fahrenheit thermometer; then we have the following equation:
1
s
f
WT
Po
()
For
p
()
if
we
take
first
(}
a volume of air under the pressure
{)
temperature T and of the density o and change the pressure to p, while the temperature remains the same,
the density according to Mariotte
s
at the
law
will
r,
change to
.
(&gt;
Po
If then also the temperature increases to
sity will be:
the resulting den
p
1
h
mr
from which we get the equation above.
or the quotient
:
Hence
the quantity
the atmospheric pressure divided by ~7f^j^~T ) the density and reduced to a certain fixed temperature, is
Now if we denote by l the height of a column of air of the uniform density o and of the temperature T O , which corresponds to the atmospheric pressure p in we have, denoting the force of gravity at the
always a constant quantity.
()
surface of the earth
by
:
&lt;/
/
is
sity
the height which the atmosphere would have if the den and temperature were uniformly the same at any elevation
161
as at the surface of the earth,
perature of 8
Reaumur
1
= 10
and
if
we
Celsius
= 50
take for T O the tem
Fahrenheit,
we
have according to Bessel:
=4226.05
toises,
equal to the mean height of the barometer at the surface of the sea multiplied by the density of mercury relatively to that of air.
If
we ascend now
in
the
atmosphere through dr, the
decrease of the pressure is equal to the small column of air Qdr multiplied by the force of gravity at the distance r, hence we have: 2
,
dp
=
a
,
g
^.Q. dr,
(/?)
and dividing
this equation
by the equation
and putting
also reckoning the temperature
that r
from the temperature r means the temperature minus 50 Fahrenheit we
d?
Po
,
so
find:
= _/* (!_,)
^o
and from the equation
() we
have:
10).
(y)
?Po
= (l+mr)(l
If we eliminate p from these two equations, we find 1 w and hence the density expressed by s and l^mr. The latter quantity is itself a function of s; but as we do not know the law according to which the temperature decreases with the elevation, we are obliged to adopt an hypothesis and to try whether the refractions computed according to it are in
conformity with the observations.
Thus the various
theories
of refraction differ from each other by the hypothesis made in regard to the decrease of the temperature in the atmo
sphere.
If
we
take the temperature as constant,
we have:
 =
Po
1
w,
hence ?Po
=d
,
(1
w\
of the equation (7)
:
and we
find,
combining
1
this
with the
a
first
d(lw) =
w
hence
1
L
a
ds,
w=
T
11
162
as the constant quantity which ought to be This tegral is in this case equal to zero.
added
to the in
hypothesis was but is represents so little the true state adopted by Newton, of the atmosphere that the refractions computed according to it differ considerably from the observed refractions.
as
\\mr an exponential expression e h We find then by the combi arrive at BesseFs form. we
If
we
take for
nation of the two equations
d(l
w) 
(? ):
and integrating
1
w
is
equal to
LTr J*and determining the constant quantity so that = we unity when
T
5
=
\~
a
a
h~]
0,
find:
instead of
which we can use the approximate expression *=A ..
1 lv
:
=
hl
e
(SI
/
=
"
Bessel determines the constant quantity h is such a man ner that the computed refractions agree as nearly as possible
with the values derived from observations.
But the decrease
as
h of the temperature resulting from the formula 1 \rnr e for this value of h do not at all agree with the decrease
as
as
observed
near the surface
of the
earth.
For we
find
=
=hm
for s
=
0,
and as we have
also
ds
=
for s
a
=
0,
we
find:
dr_
dr
at the
1
hm
surface of the
s
earth.
is
.
Now
we
as
m
dr
for one degree of
Fahrenheit
thermometer
0020243 and as h according
find
to Bessel is
116865.8
toises,
~=~^
"2ot
.
There
to
would be therefore a decrease of the temperature equal
1
Fahrenheit
if
we ascend 237
1
show
that a decrease of
toises, whilst the observations takes place already for a change
of elevation equal to 47 toises. Ivory therefore in his theory assumes also an exponential expression for 1fmr, but determines it so that it represents
163
the observed decrease of the temperature the earth. He takes:
1
at the surface of
w
s,
= e~
"
,
where u
is
a function of
and further:
1H WT
=1
/(l_
e
)
Then we
easily get from the equations
a

(;
):
ds = (lf)du +
2fe"du,
and

.9
=
(1
/) u
f
2/(l
e
").
(*0
Taking
r
=a
o
we
find
from these two equations
l
:
dr
f
in order to
and we see that we must take f equal to equal to
  
make
at
which value represents the observations
the surface of the earth.
Several other hypotheses have been adopted by Laplace, Young, Lubbock and others. Here however we shall confine
ourselves to
those of Bessel and Ivory,
as
the refractions
computed from their theories are more frequently used, and the other theories may be treated in a similar manner.
8.
If
we
put in equation (d)
h
1
:
~
f
hi,
we have
for Bessel s hypothesis:
we have
therefore
:
sin 2
2
.
and we
find
:
tfF(*)^(^
hence as:
sin z
\
L
&
dx"
11
164
and the general term of the
differential
d
becomes:
to put for n successively all integral numbers with zero. All these terms must then be integrated beginning between the limits s and s H, instead of which we
where we have
=
=
can use also without any sensible error the limits and as eP* is exceedingly small for 5 H. As we have x
when
5
=
and x
=
GO
when
5
= =
=
oo,
GO
we must
different terms with respect to
x between
integrate the the limits and co.
All the integrals which here occur can be reduced to the functions denoted by ifj in No. 1 8 of the introduction and if
we apply formula
(8) of that No., we find the general term of the expression for the refraction:
(!), ___(,,_ 1)
.
y;(n
I)
...
or denoting the refraction by
&lt;)
,
we
find:
etc.
and as we have
:
we can
write this in the following form
*/3
:
9.
In Ivory
s
hypothesis
w
=
.F (it)
=
we have
1
:
e~
"
,
165
and taking
=
:
If
we
:
introduce here the
new
variable #,
given by the
equation
the
differential
expression
for
the
refraction
according to
equation (g) in
No. 6 becomes:
,
,
a
1
/
l/
cosz 2 H
P
where
x
=u
l

(1
e)
/M
+ 2/(l
e
).
Taking again:
F(^)
&lt;p
Or)
= =
e~ x
a/9

.
bin 2
a
(1
 e*) +/*  2/(l  e),
(/&):
we
find
from the formula
rfa:
1.2
c/^r
2
.
.
As
e
the third term
"
may be
[2e
already neglected,
we have:
,+ !M^:: J = e
t
3?
+ 5/1 s n z
i
*_.
.]+ / ( 1 _ I)e2/t2e  e].

If
we
multiply these terms by *
2
I/
a;
and
!,/cos s 2 ) 2 sin, ^
the limits
integrate we find again according to the formulae (9) of the introduction:
them with respect
to
x between
and 10)
in
and GO, No. 8
(0
where
7*=
cotang
2
l
The higher terms
term
is
so
are complicated, but already the next small on account of the numerical values of a/3
166
and /* that it can be neglected. For we have for the horizon, where the term is the greatest, putting 2 /*/?=&lt;/
*
(&lt;(XG
If
we
divide each term
by y ^ and integrate
it
between
/"Q)?
the limits s and oc
we
find, applying the formulae for
jT()
etc.
given in
a ~2
No. 16 of the introduction:
1
J/f
^f*
~ *f9 ^ ~ + y
1)
2
(1
2
J/2
+3
/3)]
and
if
we
substitute
here
the
numerical values, which are
given in
which
only
also
to
0".
find that the greatest value of this term, 10, occurs in the horizon, is 11. The next term gives 18. In the differential equation (#) in No. 6 we have
2".
No.
we
neglected the second term, as it is small and amounts about half a second in the horizon. As the sign of
latter
the
term
1".
is
negative,
if
greater
than
5
we shall we compute the
not commit an error
horizontal refraction
from formula
10.
(/).
formula
(K)
The numerical computation of the refraction from or (/) can be made without any difficulty, as the
values of the functions
can be taken from the tables or ip can be computed by the methods given in No. 17 of the in
troduction.
at the tem According to Bessel the constant quantity of 50 Fahrenheit and for the height of the baro perature meter of 29 6 English inches reduced to the normal tem
.
,
perature,
is
and
/*
= 4994, = 116865. 8
57".
hence log
toises.
,"
= 1.759785
ct
1
As we have
according
toises, we find, if we take to Bessel for a the radius of curvature for Green
/
()
= 4226.05
:
wich
to
3269805
^
toises
.
= 745
747, hence log

[/2
/?
=3
.
347295
If
we wish
distance
to
compute
for instance the refraction for the
in this case log
zenith
etc.
80, we have
7\
= 0.53210
and we
find:
167
log
9.90691
9.81382 9.72073 9.62763
9.53454
9.44145
9.34836
9.2553
9.162 9.069
The
thesis
in
horizontal rows
give
if
the
terms within the paren
formula
(&)
1
and
/
we
multiply their
sum by
the
constant quantity
_^ a
^ 2/?,
we
find 3 14". 91 exactly in con
tables. foimity with BesseFs Far more simple is the computation of Ivory In this case we have:
log a p
s
formula.
= 9.333826,
log
r 1
Ct
^2/?
= 3.354594, /= = 0690613 = 8.999757
15".
*.
If
(/),
we now compute
log I\
the refraction according to formula
we have:
=0.540098
log
T2
log
y, (1)
== 9.142394 log
y (2)
32, whilst and with this the terms independent of f give 3 The refraction is 0".12. the terms multiplied by f give therefore 315".2Q or nearly the same as BesseFs value. The refractions according to the two formulae continue to agree and represent the observed refractions about as far as to the horizon BesseFs refractions are too But nearer well.
86"
those great, while
computed by Ivory
s
theory are too small.
It is therefore best, to determine the refraction for such great zenith distances from observations and to compute tables from
those observed values, as Bessel has done. find the horizontal refraction according to Bessel,
We
as
we have
in this case:
and substituting here the numerical values we get 36
5".
168
According
SZ
1
to Ivory
V/7f
"[/I
we
U
find the horizontal refraction:
"
= a = 33
+ ^ 0/2
50",
1}
~ /(2
1/2
~ l)]
is
58",
whilst the observations give 34 the mean of the two.
a value
which
nearly
As long
as the zenith distance
is
necessary to use the rigorous formulae (/e) convenient, to develop them into series.
not too great, it is not and (/), but it is more
If
we
substitute in
formula
(/)
for
i/^(l)
and
i//(2)
the
series

found in No. 17
1 4
of the introduction and observe that
find: *)

sins 2
=
cote: s
2
,
we
105 n \
/15
105 a
1575 n
or
if
we
substitute the numerical values:
3
^=[1.759845] tang^ [8.821943] tang2
+ [6.383727] tangz
5

[4.180257] tang^
7
,
where the figures enclosed in brackets are logarithms. Furthermore the terms multiplied by f give:
75
7
1785
"
9
46305
"
M
j
or
(^,)
5
j
[5.506187] tangs;

7
[3.714510] tang2 f[1.901468]tang2 [9.018568]tang2
9
n

find from the series da 211". 39 and the on f equal to hence the refraction part depending 02, equal to 211". 37 in conformity with the rigorous formula.
0".
For 75
we
=
*
)
For we get
P 2/3v (l)
:
/
= tang.r
tangz
3
5
f
tangz
tangz
7
105
H
pi
2* J/27
tang
z
V
(2)
= tang
1
^
**
1
2
z
^
tang a
3
h
^
tangz^
g^ 3
1 tang z
105
Ivory gives in the Phil. Transactions for 1823 another series, used for all zenith distances.
which can be
169
11.
The above formulae
give the refraction for any ze
nith distance but only for a certain density of the air,
namely
Fahren that, which occurs when the temperature is 50 heit and the height of the barometer 29 6 English inches. The refraction which belongs to this normal state of the
.
atmosphere is called the mean refraction. In order to find from this the refraction for any other temperature r and height
of the barometer
6,
we must examine, how
the refraction
is
changed, when
of the
density of the atmosphere or the stand meteorological instruments , upon which it depends,
the
Let s be the expansion of air for one degree changes. of Fahrenheit s thermometer, for which Bessel deduced the following value:
= 0.0020243
from astronomical observations. If we take now a volume of air at the temperature of 50 as unit, the same volume at the temperature r will be 1M (r 50), hence the density of the air when the thermometer is r is to the density when the thermometer is 50 as 1 1 Hs(r 50). We know further from Mariotte s law, that the density of the air when the
:
barometer
as
is
b is to the density
when
the barometer
is
29.6
6:29.6.
If
we
therefore
is r
denote the density of the air
is
when
have
:
the thermometer
and the barometer
b
the density in the normal state of the atmosphere
b
by p, and we by y
(}
,
1
4
8
(r
50)
and as the quantity a which occurs in the formulae for the refraction may be considered as being proportional to the
density, at least for so small changes of the density as we take into consideration, we should deduce also the true re fraction from the mean refraction by the formula:
* ^
6
,,_
if
2976
50)
1 f e (r
did occur only as a factor, as the a in the quantity 1 divisor can be considered as constant on account of the small
ness of a.
But a occurs
"
also in the factor of
1
cr
,
which
170
shall
be denoted by
it
/
Z and
the temperature, as
is
T
upon
=
the quantity ft varies also with depends on / or when the temperature
i
[i
+
e
(
r
50)]
if
we
denote the height of an atmosphere of uniform density
at
fraction
the temperature T by /. find therefore the true re from the following formula:
We
SJ
=
.
fiH(T
=
oO;
so + rr29.6
1
d ~dr
(50)
+
;
 d
is
1
H (62
d6
J.G),
()
but as the influence of the last two terms
take for the sake of convenience:
*
small
we may
( ^
,_ ~~
U?*_
[lf. a
&lt;T
/_1V +
+"
"
50)]
V29.6/
But if we develop this we find, neglecting the squares and higher powers as well as the products of p and q:
the formulae (m) and (w) the equations for determining p and q: lowing
Thus we obtain from
fol
if
we
take in the second
member dz
instead of d~z
.
1
OQ
(r
f
+
^.
aO)
The moisture
observed
first,
diminishes also the
sphere and hence the
this
refractive power, but, as
is
density of the atmo Laplace has
decrease
by
greater moisture and quantity a therefore is hardly changed by as the effect upon the quantities p and q is very small, we shall pay no regard to the moisture in computing the re
"the
the
refractive
almost entirely compensated The power of aqueous vapour.
fraction.
we must In order to obtain the expressions for p and rl 7 /I 7  and but we shall defind the differential coefficients ,
&lt;/,
dt
db
duce these values only for Ivory s theory, as the deduction from BesseFs formula is very similar. According to formula (/)
we
have:
~
ft?
(1)
+1
}/2
y (2)
+/ Q],
171
a
takinoC&gt;
C J T1
^= L
~2
:
From
(1
this
we
obtain:
i
^ ~ a)
.
^
4 /2/?/
[/2
y (2)  v CD] y
as f does not
stand of change with the temperature and the
the barometer.
Now we have ^(1) = e~ T
*
fe~
2
dt,
where
T^cotg z
/,
t~
#2
c? ^,
where T2
and
= cotg &Vfti
2
and as
^
dl
i
=2 T, ./,(!)(/?)
2
1
^=
dl
2
.
^02) 1,
*r
3 )].
the last but one term in
d
4j
becomes:
) 4
Vzp
[(i
()
X) (ir,
y a)  1 r,
A 1/2
(T 2
2
v (2)
The
factor
consists
having the factor pression of oz.
2
is
of two terms, the first of which equal to the factor of A in the ex
A.
We
therefore embrace this in the latter term
by writing
/
2f
instead of
There remains then only
the following term
and as we find
differentiating it:
the complete expression for
.
dZ
becomes:
rf^ff
8z(\a) 
dZijf.
a
+ dl ]/2/3. A T
.
[1/2 y, (2)

y, (I)]
I

/2
~
4 (1A
As we have:
b
we
rf
find:
29.6 =  ^g  /;
e (r
 50),
172
and likewise:
p
finally
+
dft
=
/9
2o
2e(T
*o
50) 9
hencc
dl
=_
E (r
_ 50)
.
P
rfa
we have:
*&
We

hence
T=^ + f=
&lt;/&gt;l
dB
6
29.6
29; 6
2.&lt;T50).
find therefore:
%p
.
I [1/2
"
y
(2)

y, (I)]
2 A [)/2
cc
I
y, (2)
y
(1)]
(ry)
where instead of
If
852".
its
/"
value
f
has been substituted.
we compute from 79 we find:
this
p and q
for 5
= 87,
8z being
log 7\ log (I,
= 0.013175,
2
.//(I)
2
log(T2
^a.g
hence
:
=
i/;(2)
19".71,
= 8.605021, ^ = 9.081 168 log T = 0.163690, TO 1^)^2 = 9.191771,, and with 36, S*.p =
log
[tf2
V&lt;2)
(1)]
i
/0
2
this
185".
0.2173. P the zenith distance is not too great, we can find p and q also by the series given in No. 10. For differentiating
=
When
the coefficients of
i

Ct
in (/j)
and
(/ 2 )
with respect to a and
/?,
we
easily find the following series:
qSz
=
f
p ^ 2 ==
+
[7.90399] tang z h [7.9014G] tang z^ 7 3.54 172] tang z [7.90399] tang z [8.91567] tang 2*
+ +
[5.G6533] tang z
.
:&gt;
.
.
1
5 [6.70990] tang z
4
[4
567 12] tangs
7
...,
where the coefficients are again logarithms. For ^ 75 for instance we find from this 0.0020 and 0.0188. For the complete computation of the true refraction 12. from formula (m^), we must know the height of the baro meter reduced to the normal temperature. If we take the length of the column of mercury at the temperature 50 as unit and denote the expansion of mercury from the freezing
=
=
p=
173
to the boiling point equal to Oo.o
by
&lt;/,
the stand of the barois
meter observed at the temperature
*)
to the stand,
would have been observed
as
1
if
the temperature
which had been 50
+
g
(t
50)
:
1,
or the length of the column of
is:
mer
cury reduced to the temperature 50
180
If further s
is
the
180 H 7 U 50) expansion of the scale of the baro
if
meter from the freezing to the boiling point, s being 0.0018782 the scale is of brass, we have taking again the length of
as unit:
the scale at the temperature 50
Hence the height b, of the barometer observed at the temperature , is reduced to 50, taking account of the ex pansion of the mercury and the scale, by the formula:
*
180 4s (t
50)
50)
The normal length of an English inch
ferred
to
is
however not
re
the temperature 50 but to the temperature 62; hence the stand of the barometer observed at the temperature
50
is
measured on a scale which
is
too small,
^,
we must
there
get:
fore divide the value 6 50
by
1f50)
50)
so that finally
180
we
180fs(* 180 q(t
+
180~4~12s
If the scale
thermometer is mal temperature of the French inch
divided according to Paris lines and the one of Reaumur, we should get, as the nor
is
50Fahr.
=
is
13
R. and
we have
8"Reaum.:
80
4 s (t
8) 8)
80 80
80H7(*
+ 5*
mula
This embraces every thing necessary for computing for If we denote by f the temperature according to (m^).
The temperature
is
*)
t
is
observed at a thermometer attached to the baro
meter, which
called the interior thermometer, whilst the other
is
thermometer
used for observing the temperature of the atmosphere thermometer.
called the exterior
174
thermometer, by r the same according to Reau (f} and b the height of the barometer thermometer, by b in English inches and Paris lines and if we put: expressed
Fahrenheit
s
mur
s
(l)
3
_
6(0
1
180
~~
s
_^_
80480 4 q
(r
80
.v
""2976
80 41 2,
333728 8045
_ 180 4 s(f
180 4 q (/
7
50) __ 50)
8)
~~
1
1_
4B
.
_1
50)
1
(/
4f
e (r
8)
and give have
:
to the
Sz
mean
z
.
refraction the form
dz
aismgz, we
(A}
hence log Sz
= a tang (B = log a 4 log tang
/+"
.
T^+"
2
4
(1
4;&gt;)
log y 4 (1 4 7) (log
B 4 log T).
G, 1 \p
If
we have
then tables, from which
we
take log
T and log ; and any zenith distance, and log 5, log of the barometer and any height of the interior for any stand the computation of the true re and exterior
1fg for
by
thermometer, This any zenith distance is rendered very easy. has been adopted form, which perhaps is the most convenient, Bessel for his tables of refraction in his work Tabulae
fraction for
Regiomontanae.
The hypothesis which 13. deducing the formulae of refraction, namely that the atmosphere con sists of concentric strata, whose density diminishes with the
above the surface according to a certain law, can never represent the true state of the atmosphere on account of several causes which continually disturb the state of equi The values of the refraction as found by theory librium.
elevation
we have made
in
must therefore generally deviate from the observed values and represent only the mean of a large number of them, as
of the atmosphere. Bessel they are true only for a mean state has compared the refractions given by his tables with the observations and has thus determined the probable error of
the
refraction
for observations
to
made
at different zenith dis
tances.
to
According
the
table
given
in
the introduction
Tab. Reg. pag. LXIII these probable errors are at 450=1=0". 27, at 81"==1", at 85 7, at 89 30 ==20". in the neighbourhood of the hor that thus
the
+
1".
We
see,
especially
izon
we can
many
from a great only expect, that a mean obtained made at very different states of the atobservations
175
mosphere may be considered as
fraction.
free
from the
effect of re
distances not exceeding 80 it is almost in what hypothesis we adopt for the decrease of the different, density of the atmosphere with the elevation above the sur face of the earth and the real advantage of a theory which is founded upon the true law consists only in this, that the
zenith
refractions
For
very near the horizon as well as the coefficients l\p and l{q are found with greater accuracy, hence the reduction of the mean refraction to the true refraction can
be made more accurately. Even the simple hypothesis, adopted by Cassini, of an atmosphere of uniform density, when the
light is refracted once at the upper limit, represents the mean refractions for zenith distances not exceeding 80 quite well.
In
this
case
we have simply according
sin
i
to
the formulae in
No.
6:
or as
we have now
i
= f+fizi
Sz
= ^0 sin/,
1)
= (X,
tang/,
"
and since we have
/
also, as is easily seen, sin
f=
sin z,
where
is
the height of the atmosphere,
we
J^ = =
2
I
get:
2
(,,.
,/
I/
l)tang z (l? z ,). V a cos J
the value
distances
If
for
we
take
now
at
for
/&lt;
1
57".
717,
we
find
the
refraction
the zenith
45, 75
and 80
the values
57".57, 211". 37, 314". 14, whilst according to Ivory are 57". 45, 21T.37 and 315". 20. But beyond this the they error increases very rapidly and the horizontal refraction is
only about 19
.
if
The equation (/) in No. 6 can be integrated very we adopt the following relation between s and r:
easily,
For
tion
:
if
we
^
introduce a
new
variable, given
by the equa
176
the equation
(/")
becomes simply: dw_ ;== _
(2m
1)
Vlw*
limits
therefore
if
we
integrate and substitute the
"
w=
sin z
and
w
=
(1
2 a)
i
sin
ss,
we
find:
2
/
 1
2m
or:
2
1
arc sin
(12 a)
&lt;&gt;,
1
"
sin [2
(2 m
I
)
Sz]
=
(1
2 a)
sin z
,
for
which we may
write for brevity: sin [z If sin z NSz].
=
formula for refraction by which the This is Simpson may be refractions for zenith distances not exceeding 85 M and N are suitably if the coefficients represented very well, determined.
s
the last equation the identical equation sin* and also subtract it, we easily find two equa sin s the other: tions from which we obtain dividing one by
If
=
we add
to
N
or
tang (A .Sz)
s
B tang
[z
A.Sz],
which
is
Bradley
formula for refraction.
14.
fraction,
see them on account of it, when they really the horizon. The stars rise therefore earlier and are beneath set later on account of the refraction.
As the we can
altitude of the stars is increased
by the
re
We
have in general:
cos z
=
is
sin
(f
sin
+ cos
cos S cos
y&gt;
t
(r)
from which follows:
sin
zdz
= cos
cos S sin
&lt;p
t
.
dt
hence
if
the object
in the horizon:
_ ______ cos y cos S sin t
___
As
to
in this case
dz
35
,
we
find
for
is the horizontal refraction or equal the variation of the hour angle at the
rising or setting:
cos
&lt;p
cos S sin
t
177
In No. 20 of the first section we found and the latitude of Berlin:
t
for
Arcturus
=
7 h 42 m
cp
40 s
and as we have
Arcturus
&lt;?=
19 54 .5,
= 52
30
.
3,
we
find:
rises
A/o=437s. therefore so much
much
later.
at the rising or setting
in the last
can compute also with regard to refraction, if formula (r) z have then 90 35
We
and sets so directly the hour angle
earlier
=
we
:
take
.
We
8
C0
st=
cos
~
sin
(p
(p
sin
COS
COS
Zg
and adding
1
to
both members
,
we
cos
find the following
con
venient formula:
i
_
I/
cos
^s
(f
~t~
d
~+~ z)
TJ
(cp +
S
2)
COS
Cp
COS S
1,
If
ilar
we
subtract both
members from
we
d
obtain a
sim
formula:
sm
*
=
i / sin i (z jI/
cp
&lt;?)
sin
4
(z 2V
()
+
"
OP)
cos
y
cos
In the case of the
sides
moon we must
take into account be
the refraction her parallax, which increases the zenith distance and hence makes the time of rising later, that of
setting
earlier.
The method of computing them has been
in
No. 20 of the first section and shall here given already be explained by an example. only For 1861 July 15 we have the following declinations and horizontal parallaxes of the moon for Greenwich mean
time.
9
July 15
Oh
15 17 19
21
32.1
P 59 13
.
12h 16
Oh
12
51.5 55.6
59 15
59 14
42.0
59 13
required to find the time of setting for Greenwich. According to No. 19 of the first section, where the mean time
It is
of the upper and lower culmination was found, Lnnai time Mean time 6hl6
1227.5.
"^
we
have:
12
178
If
we
51
.
take
5
now an approximate
find with
cp
t
=k
17
we
.
= 51
.
value of the declination
.
28 6 and
= 89
35
.
8,
h
21 m .5 and the
If
mean time corresponding
to this lunar
time 10 h 48 m
we
of the moon,
we
interpolate for this time the declination find 17 38 2 and repeating with this
to
the former computation, we find the hour angle equal 4 h 22 m .9, hence the mean time of setting 10 h 49 m .6.
15.
The
effect of the
atmosphere on the
light
produces
For as the sun sets later besides the refraction the twilight. for the higher strata of the atmosphere than for an observer
at after
the surface of the earth, these strata are still illuminated sunset and the light reflected from them causes the
According to the observations the sun ceases to any portions of the atmosphere which are above Thus the horizon when he is about 18 below the horizon.
twilight.
illuminate
the moment, when the sun reaches the zenith distance 108 is the beginning of the morning or the end of the evening
twilight.
If
we
denote the zenith distance of the sun at the be
90"
+ c, ginning or end of twilight by at the time of rising or setting and
by by
(t
t tt
the hour angle
T the duration of
twilight,
we
have:
sin c
=
(*
sin
cp
sin
\
cos
cp
cos S cos
H
r)
hell e =
COS
+ T) = cf
&gt;***
**
(p
COS
COS
or putting
H= 90
sin
+i
*
(&lt;
4
*)
=
/ sin
f (H Hhc)
cos
cp
cosTf (H
cos
~c)
I/
from which we can find T
call
after
having computed
t ti .
the point of the heavenly sphere, which If we at the time of sunset was at the zenith and by Z that point
Z
end of twilight, we easily see that in the triangle between these two points and the pole the angle at the pole is equal to T and we have:
which
is
at the zenith at the
cos
ZZ
=
sin
y
2
+
cos
&lt;p
2
cos r.
between those two points and the sun S, ZS 90hc, Z S=90, we have also call ing the angle at the sun S: cos c cos S cos ZZ
But
as
we have
=
in the triangle
=
179
and thus we
find:
1
cos c
.
cos
2
S
2 COS
Q5
where
S, as is easily seen, is the difference of the parallactic angles of the sun at the time of sunset and at the end of
The equation shows, that T is a minimum, when S is zero, or when at the end of twilight the point, which was at the zenith at sunset, lies in the vertical circle of the sun. The two parallactic angles are therefore in that
twilight.
the angle
case equal. The duration
the equation:
of the shortest twilight
is
thus give.n by
sin
4
r
=
cos
9?
and as we have:
sin
. . sin o
,
cos
p
9? j
sin c sin
S
,
cos c cos o
we
find:
sin
S
=
tang ^ c sin
95,
from which equation we find the declination which the sun has on the day when the shortest twilight occurs. If we denote the two azimuths of the sun at the time of sunset and when it reaches the zenith distance 90(c by
A
and A\ we have:
cos
cos
95 (f
sin
sin
A A
= S sinp = cos S sinp
cos
.
sin
A = sin A
From
Hence we have
of the shortest twilight or the two azimuths are then the supplements
at
the
time
of each other to 180.
the
two equations:
sin c
and
follows also:
= =
sin
y&gt;
sin
S f cos
y&gt;
cos 8 cos
(t
+ 1]
sin
9?
sin
S
f
cos
9?
cos S cos
t
sm
If
(t
f
%
T) sin 4
r
= cos V cos
4
c
sin
4^
c
&gt;
cos
y&gt;
we
take
c=18
we
find
for
the latitude
&lt;/&gt;=81
sinr=l, hence the duration of the shortest twilight for that latitude is 12 hours. This occurs, when the declination of the sun is 9 , the sun therefore is then in the horizon
at
noon and 18
below
at midnight.
But we cannot speak
12*
180
any more of the shortest twilight, as the sun only when has this certain declination fulfills the two conditions, that
it
it
comes in the horizon and reaches also a depression of 18 below the horizon; for if the south declination is greater the sun remains below the horizon and if the south decli below the horizon. nation is less it never descends 18 At still greater latitudes there is no case when we can speak of the shortest twilight in the above sense and hence the formula for sin ^ T becomes impossible.
Consult: on refraction: Laplace Mecanique Celeste Livre X. Fundamenta Astronomiae pag. 2G et seq.  Ivory in Philosophical Bruhns in his work: Die Astronomische Transactions for 1823 and 1838.
Note.
Bessel
Strahlenhrechung has given a compilation of
all
the different theories.
III.
THE ABERRATION.
of the
earth in
16.
As
the
velocity
her orbit round
the sun has a
finite
ratio to the velocity of light,
we do
not
see the stars on account of the
direction, in
motion of the earth
but
in the
little
which they
really are,
we
t
see
them a
is
displaced in the direction,
towards which the earth
We
will distinguish
two moments of time
the ray of light able object (fixed star) strikes in succes sion the objectglass and the eyepiece of
moving. and t at which coming from an unmove
a telescope (or the lense and the nerve of the eye). The positions of the objectglass and of the eyepiece in space at the
time
t
t shall be a and 6, and a and b Fig. 5. Then the
at the time
line
a b re
presents light, whilst a b or a b\ both being parallel on account of the infinite distance of the
fixed
stars,
the
real
direction
of the ray of
gives
us the direction of the
The apparent place, which is observed. between the two directions b a and angle
ba
is
called
the
annual aberration of the
fixed stars.
181
Let
in
#, #, z
be the rectangular coordinates of the eye
,
piece b at the time
referred to a certain unmoveable point
space; then:
x
f
^ (J
/
t),
y
+^ a?
(
and
a f
(*

)
ai
the
are the coordinates of the eyepiece at the time , since during t we may consider the motion of the earth interval t
If the relative
to be linear.
with respect to the eyepiece are denoted by coordinates of the objectglass at the time ,
enters
it,
coordinates of the objectglass the i] and f , ,
when
the light
?;, , y take as the plane of the x and # the plane of the equator and the other two planes vertical to it, so that the plane of the x, z passes through the equinoctial, the plane of #, z through the solstitial points if we further denote by
are
x
f
f
ss
f ?.
If
we now
;
and the right ascension and declination of that point in which the real direction of the ray of light intersects the ce lestial sphere and by u the velocity of light, then will the
()
latter
in
the time
t
t
describe a space
:
whose projections
(t
t)
on the three coordinate axes are
a
(t
/)
cos
cos
,
{u (t
t)
cos
&lt;?sin
,
t
u
sin 8.
Denoting length of the telescope by / and a and the right ascension and declination of the point by towards which the telescope is directed, we have for the co
further
the
&lt;)
ordinates of the objectglass with respect to the eye piece, which are observed:
I
=
I
cos
cos
n.
.
//
=
I
cos
sin
,
=
/
sin d
.
direction of the ray of light is given the coordinates of the objectglass at the time t:
true
I I I
Now
the
by
cos
cos
sin
&lt;T
cos a +
sin
.r,
a \y, h z, at the time
t
:
and by the coordinates of the eyepiece
182
We
have therefore the following equation
if
we
denote
u,
cos
cos a
cos
,
&lt;?
sin
= L cos 8 = L cos
&lt;?
cos
&gt;
a
sin
a
~
,
u
{
sin
8= L sin 8
^
}
We
u,
easily derive
cos 8 cos (a
from these equations the following:
a)
= cos 8
\
sin
a
f

cos
ft
at
at
[
,
L
p
cos 8 sin (a
a)
= =
1
/u
(dy
dt
1
dx
cos
sin
dt
sec o
u,
*(dy
)
or
r :
. ,
tang (a
)
H
1
,
!
;W
cos \dt 73
i
\ (
rf&lt;
~
dx
dt
sm
:
.
* sec o
^ sm a ^
1
rf;r
,
+

cos
(/^
We
velop of the introduction, we find, if we substitute in the formula for tang ((V ) the value derived #) instead of tang(
If we de find a similar equation for tang (d ^). both equations into series applying formula (14) in No. 11
from a
a
a
a and omit the terms of the third order:
=
1
\dx sm a
.
{
dy fdt
)
cos
(
sec o
^
rf&lt;
dx
&lt;
o
=
c^

sm
.
o cos
s&gt;
p
(
dt
a H
.
,
e,
.
e
sin o sin
a
dt
o
cos o
(a)
dt
ang ^
1
(dx
(dt
.
2
cos o cos a H
s
dy cos
dt
.
9
()
sm a
.
c?z
.
_
\
sin o
fi
dt
)
^(dx sin X )
I
^ o cos
a
dt
dy + dt sm o
.
sm
dt
.
&lt;/^
cos o
(
If
we now
the sun
by coordinates
refer the place of the earth to the centre of a?, y in the plane of the ecliptic,
taking the line from the centre of the sun to the point of the vernal equinox as the positive axis of x, and the pos itive axis of y perpendicular to it or directed to the point
of the
summer
solstice
and denoting the geocentric longitude
183
of the
sun by
:
O,
its
distance from the
*
earth
by R, we
have
*)
y
= =
.Ecos,
R
sin
Q
refer these coordinates to the plane of the equa tor, retaining as the axis of x the line towards the point of
If
we
of y z to be turned through the angle of the ecliptic, we get:
y
z
the vernal equinox and imagining the axis of y in the plane g, equal to the obliquity
= =
R sin Q cos e. R sin O sir
&gt;
and from this we find, since according to the formulae in No. 14 of the first section we have the longitude of the sun
v h 7i or equal to the true anomaly plus the longitude of the perihelion: * dx dR dv __ =s co sin0
=
_
^_H_*
cos e
_
dy
at
f
= =
sm (0
sm ()
dRat
_^ R cos (O cos e
dv
dt
dz dt
sin s
dR
dt
R cos CO
dv
sin e
_
dt
But we have
of the
first
also according to the formulae in
No. 14
section:
dv
=

K
D
dE
and as we have also
dE = ~
H
d
M
 in
we
find
:
dv
~d~t
_a ~
2
cos
y
dM
~dt
R^
Further follows from the equation
nection with the last:
R=

.
^

con
dR
and from
this
~=
.
a tang y
sm v
dM
we

get:
dx
rdt
=
a
dM(
{
_
QO
sin
a* cosy
^
_.
cosy
a 7 cosy
it
&lt;/^
dt
(
R
sin
fp
sm v
cos
CO
hence observing that:
^
=
a
1 f sin
fp
cos v and ()
^
s
v
=
TT,
r
As
dt
= cos
dM ~y
rf
I
sm
.
O + sm
__
9
sm ^J
is
*)
the heliocentric longitude of the earth
180
+
Q.
184
and
 
= dz =
dt
r/i!
"
cos
cosy
a
sin s
dt
[cos
O Hf
sin
or
cos n]
(fi)
dM
dt
,
r
I
cos CO
sin
cp
cos
TT
.
If
we
cosy substitute these
the
constant terms
expressions in the formulae (a), dependent on n give in the expressions constant terms which change merely
for the aberration
also
the
If
in
mean places we introduce
which the
of the stars and therefore can be neglected. the number k of seconds, also instead of
/.&lt;
light traverses the
semimajor axis of the earth
s
orbit, so that
we
have:
we
,
find,
1 ___ k a p taking only the terms of the
first
order:
a] sec o
k
dM I
cos
cosy
S
dt
at
[cos
Q O
cos
s
cos a
f
8
=
sm ^
M sm
f
cos
(sin
sin
dcoss
cos
&lt;?sin
e)
y
cos a sin ^sinQl
The constant
quantity
*
is
called
cos

y
dt
the
constant
of aberration, and since
tion
A,
denotes the
mean
sidereal
mo
we
of the sun in a second of time, which is the unit of are able to compute it, if besides the time in which
the light traverses the semi major axis of the earth s orbit is known. Delambre determined this time from the eclipses of Jupiter s satellites and thus found for the constant of
aberration the
value
20".
255.
Struve determined this con
stant latterly from the observations of the apparent places of
the fixed stars
and found
20".
4451 and as we have
J
=
dt
== 0.041 0670 and cos
this for the time in
== 9.999939 we
find
from
axis of the earth s orbit
which the light traverses the semimajor 497 78*).
s
.
have therefore the following formulae for the an nual aberration of the fixed stars in right ascension and de
clination
:
We
*)
According
to
Hansen the length of
1),
8".
the sidereal year
is
365 days 6
hours
35 seconds or 3(55.2563582 days, 193. daily sidereal motion of the sun is 59
minutes and
hence the mean
185
n
a
8
= = 4
20"
.
4451
[cos
cos E cos a
[sin
+ sin
sin
]
sec S
s]
20".
4451 cos
sin
S cos
cos S sin
(A)
20"
.
4451
sin
cos
sin
&
The terms of the second order are so small, that they can be neglected nearly in every case. find these terms of the right ascension by introducing the values of the dif ferential coefficients (6) into the second term of the formulae
We
(a), as follows: &2 /dJl\ 2 { a fr
2
sec&lt;?
J
[cos20sin2(Hcos
2 )
2 sin 2
s
2
cos 2
cose],
where
the
small
term multiplied by sin 2 a sin
2 cos e
has been
~ sin
7
]
omitted.
For we
2
find setting aside the constant factor:
sin
2
]
2 sin 2 a [cos
2 sin 2
cos
2
[cos
from which the above expression can be easily deduced. If we substitute the numerical values taking s 23 28 we
=
,
obtain
:
h
0"
.
000932!) sec S 2 sin 2
cos 2
sin 2
0"
.
0009295
sec S* cos 2
As
the
these terms
amount
star
to
is
declination
of the
of a second of time only if 85.]", they can always be ne
T(
r&gt;
glected except for stars very near the pole. The terms of the second order in declination,
glect all terms not multiplied
if
we ne
2
)
by tang
r?,
are:
h cos
f
2
)
I
~
C ^~~T
\~Jl )
tan g S t cos 
O
( cos
2
(
1
sin
sin 2
H 2 sin 2
a cos
t].
find the term multiplied the constant factor:
sin
2
For we
by tang
^
sin 2
J,
setting aside
cos
sin
a2
+
cos
2
cos
2
cos
2
f
sin 2
express here the squares of the sines and cosines by the sines and cosines of twice the angle and omit the constant terms 1 f cos 2 as well as the term cos 2 a sin 2
if
and
we
we
easily
deduce the above expression.
Substituting again
cos 2
the numerical values
h
[0".
we
find:

0".
0000402 0004665 cos 2 a] tang 0004648 tang S sin 2 sin 2 0.
0".
As
these
terms also do not amount to
is
:
fj g
,
of a second
of arc while the declination
less
than 87 6
they are taken
into account only for stars very near the pole. In the formulae (A) for the aberration it
that
,
S and
is assumed, be referred to the apparent equinox and
186
the apparent obliquity of the ecliptic. But in com the aberration of a star for any long period it is con puting to venient, to neglect the nutation and to refer a, 3 and In the mean obliquity. the mean equinox and to take for
that
is
however the values of the aberration found in that way must be corrected. We find the expressions of these corrections by differentiating the formulae (A) with respect and and taking da, dS, dO and de equal to to a, (J,
this case
the nutation for these
to
Of course it is only ne quantities. take the largest terms of the nutation and omitcessary which ing in the correction of the right ascension all terms, and in declination all ti are not multiplied by sec tang
.
terms which are not multiplied by sin d tang #, we easily such see, since the increments dQ and ds do not produce any take the following: terms, that we need only
.
da
=
[6".
867
sin sin
ft
sin
f
9".
dS=
.
[6"
867
ft cos a h
9"
.
223 cos ft cos ] tang 223 cos ft sin a].
S.
Taking here
substitute these
tions (A):
6".867
=&
and
9".
223
=
,
we
find, if
we
quantities
into the differentials of the
equa
a
a
= tang
== tang S
sec
&lt;5
10".
2225
/
(&{
cose) sin 2 a cos
(Q 4 ft)
(0
ft)
}
\
\(b
a cos
)
sin 2
a cos a
sin
sin
&lt;?5"
.
11
12
/
I
/
(0 ft) (b 4 a cos e)cos 2 a cos (0 f ft)
(b cos
a) cos2
\
(&coseHa)sin2sinCQ4n)
+ (b
J (b
I
(
i
a cose) cos 2 a cos (O
cos
a) sin 2
O)
ft)
a
sin
(0
}
or if
we
a
substitute the numerical values:
a
= tang S
== tang S
sec S
.
I
0".0007597 sin
2 a cos
) }
(
+
(0 + ft)
,
sin
8
.
/
(0 H ft) cos (0 0".0000790 sin 2 ft) sin (0 _j_ 0".0001449 cos 2 ft) 0".0003798 cos 2 a cos (0 ift)  0".0003847 sin 2 sin (04H)  0".0000395 cos 2 a cos (0 ft) 0".0000725 sin 2 a sin (0 ft)  0".0000395 cos (04 ft)
0".0007693
cos 2 a sin
\
&lt;
&gt;
J (
\
0".000379Scos(0
ft)
187
While the decimation
than
T 5Q
is
less than
e)
85, a
is
a
is
less
of a second of time and
of a second of arc
only for declinations
greater than T J 5 exceeding 85 6
.
Hence
(c)
these terms as well as those given
(d)
and
can be
neglected except
by the equations in the case of stars
very the pole.
if
The equations for the aberration are much more simple, we take the ecliptic instead of the equator as the funda
For then neglecting again the constant terms
dx
7
mental plane.
we
find:
at
=H
a
sin
cosy
a
"cos/
*=&lt;&gt;
_ M W ddt r~
&gt;
Tt
dy s
080 77
dM
and
if
we
write K and
substitute these expressions in the formulae (a) and p in place of a and #, we find for the aberration
of the fixed stars in longitude and latitude:
A
ft
A
/?
= =+
20".
445 1 cos
4451
(/I
20".
sin (A
O) sec ft, 0) sin ft
which formulae are not changed
stead of the
if
we
use the apparent in
The
equinox. terms of the second order are:
in longitude: in latitude
:
mean
= 4=
0".
0".
0010133 0005067
sin 2
cos 2
(0 (0
/I)
sec
2
/2
,
A)
tang
f
.
ft,
where the numerical factor 0.0010133
Example.
turus
:
is
equal to
i?
^ 4^5 !!!
for
.
On
the
first
of April 1849
we have
Arc
=14h8m48s
fi
= 23
= 212
find:
S
12 .0,
= 4 19
18".
58
.
1,
= 1137 .2
27 this
.
4.
With
we
 =8
,
= 4/?
88,
65,
9".
and as
A
=
202"
= 4 30
23".
50
,
we
find also:
A I
= 4
41,
188
17.
In
ration
in
order to simplify the computation of the aber right ascension and declination, tables have been
constructed, the most convenient of which are those given Gauss. lie takes:
445 445 cos
20"
.
by
20".
= a (Q O cos = a cos (Q
sin
sin
f
A\
A).
e
and thus has simply:
=
$
&lt;?=
((
sec S cos
sin
(044
)
,
=
table
a
1
0".
(0 f A sin # sin (0 + A 222 sine cos (O
8 sin
a)
a)
#).
20".
10"
.
445 cos cos sin 222 sin e cos (0 ft&gt;
t
&lt;?)
From
The
iirst
these
formulae
gives
the
tables
have been computed.
A and
longitude of the sun, and in right ascension and the
clination
is
log a, the argument being the with these values the aberration
first
easily computed. found from another table, the angles and 8 being used as arguments. Such tables were first pub successively lished by Gauss in the Monatliche Correspondenz Band XVII pag. 312, but the constant there used was that of Delambre 255. Latterly they have been recomputed by Nicolai with the value 4451 and have been published in Warn
The second and
part of the aberration in de third part is
0M
20".
20".
storff s collection of tables.
For the preceding example we find from those A = \ 1 log o = 1.2748
,
tables:
and with
this
a
=
f18".
88
2".
and the first part of the aberration in declination 15. For the second and third part we find 3".47 and 4".03, if we enter the second table with the arguments 31 35 and 8 21. We have therefore:
3 $=9". 65.
1
18.
The maximum and minimum
of aberration in lon
is
gitude takes place, when the longitude of the star ther equal to the longitude of the sun or greater by while the maximum and minimum in latitude occurs,
the star
is
90"
ei
180, when
Very
ahead of the sun or follows
90"
after.
similar to the
for
formulae for the annual aberration are those
is
the
annual parallax of the stars (that
for the angle
189
which
lines
at the fixed star) only the occur at different times.
drawn from the sun and from the earth subtend maxima and minima in this case For if & be the distance of the
/:
fixed
star
as seen
spect to
from the sun, and ft its longitude and latitude from the sun, the coordinates of the star with re the sun are
:
x
&
cos
ft
cos
A,
y
= A cos
ft
sin /,
r
=A
sin
ft.
But the coordinates of the
of the earth are:
star referred to the centre
x == A sin A cos ft cos A y A cos ft sin A /? and as the coordinates of the sun with to the earth are: respect
,
,
=
X=RcosQ
where the semimajor
axis
and
r=/2sinQ
earth
s
of the
orbit is the unit,
we
have:
A
A
cos
1
ft /?
cos
ti
cos
sin A
sin
ft
A
= A cos = A cos =A
sin sin (A
/^
cos
/I
f
# cos
O
Q
ft
/9,
sin A j It sin
from which we easily deduce:
A A
=
=
I
*
u
ft ft
;
Q) sec ft Q)
sin
ft
.
206265,
206265.
cos
^
(/I
.
or as
^
206265
is
equal to the annual parallax n:
K
P
=
nR
Sin
(I
l3=
nR cos (A
Q) Q)
sec
sin
^
/?.
Hence we
the aberration,
see that the formulae are similar to those of
only the
after
maximum and minimum
when
the
the star
is
allax in longitude occurs,
90
sun or follows
in
90"
it,
while the
maximum
is
of the par ahead of the and minimum
latitude
occurs,
is
when
longitude
equal to that of
the sun or
For the
A A
right
greater ascensions
:
by 180.
and declinations we have the
following equations
cos cos
cos a
sin
A sin from which we find
a
$
= A cos S cos a = A cos S a 8 =A 8
sin sin
R cos Q R sin Q cos e sin e,+ + R sin
+
f
a
= ^=
in a similar
sin
R [cos T* R [cos nR cos
TT
way
sin
as before:
s
a
sin
Q cos
sin
cos
]
sec S
(Z&gt;)
sin
sin
8
.
cos S] sin
S cos
190
19.
The
is
wise an aberration which
rotation of the earth on her axis produces like is called the diurnal aberration.
smaller than the annual aberration, the velocity of the rotation of the earth on the axis is smaller than the velocity of her orbital motion.
But
this
much
since
much
three rectangular axes, one of which coin cides with the axis of rotation, whilst the two others are sit of the equator so that the positive axis uated in the
If
we imagine
plane
centre towards the point of the th vernal equinox and the axis of y towards the 90 degree of the coordinates of a place at the surface right ascension, of the earth are according to No. 2 of this section as follows
of
x
is
directed from the
:
z
y
z
= q cos =Q
gcosy
90
.
cos
sin
0,
,
sin (f
We
have therefore:
dx

dt
dy 2
= =
o cos
(f
sin
j
()
COS
(p
COS
0.
we
substitute these expressions in formula (a) in No. 16, find omitting the terms of the second order: easily If
we
a
8
a
=
fi
ft
P cos
dt
cos
y
cos
(&
a) sec
#,
8= dt
the
y
sin
(0
a) sin
8.
If
now T be
number of
of a point year, the angular motion on the axis is T times faster than the angular motion of the
earth in
its
sidereal days in a sidereal caused by the rotation
orbit
and we have: d& __ T
dt
dM
dt
Thus
as
we
have:

p
I
=k =k
sin TT
where n is the parallax of the sun, k the number of seconds in which the light traverses the semimajor axis of the earth s
orbit,
the constant of diurnal aberration is:
k
.
.
sin 7t
.
dt
T,
191
or as
we have:
jk.
^"=20".445,
7r==S".5712
0".3H3.
and 7
7
=3G6.2G
is,
take instead of the geocentric latitude simply the latitude , we find the diurnal aberration in right ascension and declination as follows:
if
&lt;/
Hence
we
&lt;f
a
S 8
= =
0".
31 13 cos
y
cos (0
sin
a)sceS,
)
0".
3113 cosy
(0
sin 5.
The when the
diurnal
aberration in
declination
is
therefore
zero,,
stars are
is
right ascension
on the meridian, whilst the aberration then at its maximum and equals:
0".
in
3113. cos
y&gt;
sec
8.
have found the following formulae for the an nual aberration of the fixed stars in longitude and latitude
20.
:
We
A
ft
= k cos (I (1 p=+k
A
sin
Q) 0)
20".
sec p,
sin/9,
where now k denotes the constant
445.
If
we now imagine
a tangent plane to the celestial sphere at the mean place of the star and in it two rectangular axes of coordinates, the axes of x and y being the lines of intersection of the parallel
circle
and of the
circle
of latitude with the plane and
if
we
refer the apparent place of the star affected with aberration to the mean place by the coordinates:
x
=
(A
K} cos
/9
and y
2
=
/?
/? *),
we
easily find
by squaring the above equations:
^
2
=P
sin/?
x l sin/5 2
.
This
axis is fore
of an ellipse, whose semi major k and whose semiminor axis is k sin ft. see there
is
the
equation
We
on account of the annual aberration de scribe round their mean place an ellipse, whose semi major axis is 445 and whose semi minor axis is equal to the
that the
stars
20".
maximum
in
of the aberration in latitude.
ft
Now
is
if
the star
is
the
ecliptic,
and hence the minor axis
zero.
Such
stars
line,
describe therefore in the
20".
course of a year a straight
star
445 on each side of the mean place. If the moving is at the pole of the ecliptic, ft equals 90 and the mi
*) For as the distances from the origin are very small we can suppose that the tangent plane coincides with that small part of the celestial sphere.
192
nor axis
therefore
Such a star describes equal to the major axis. the course of a year about its mean place a 445. circle whose radius is
is
in
20".
In order to
find
the
any
time in this ellipse,
place which the star occupies at we imagine round the centre of the
is
the major axis of the el Then it is obvious, that the radius must move in the lipse. course of a year over the area of the circle with uniform velocity so that it coincides with the west side of the ma
ellipse a circle,
whose diameter
jor axis,
when the longitude of the sun is equal to the of the star, and with the south part of the minor longitude axis, when the longitude of the sun exceeds the longitude of
the star
by 90.
If
we draw
then the radius corresponding
any time and let fall a perpendicular line from the ex tremity of the radius on the major axis, the point, in which
to
this intersects the ellipse, will
be the place of the
star.
two
If the star has also a parallax ;r, the expressions for the rectangular coordinates become:
x
.
k cos
y
=
(A
+
k sin (A
0) Q)
k
TC
n
sin
ft
sin (A
0)
cos (A
n
0)
sin
/?
or, taking:
= a cos y = H a
x
= a cos A =a A
sin
(A
A
)
sin (/
A)
sin
/3.
Hence
also
in
this
case the
star
describes round
axis
is Ftf
2
its
mean place an
ellipse,
whose semimajor
is
h77
2
and
whose semi minor
axis
sin
ft
V k?\
^&gt;
The
effect of the diurnal aberration is similar.
The
stars
describe on account of it day round their mean places an ellipse, whose semimajor axis is 3113 cosy sin 8. 3113 cos (f and whose semiminor axis is If the star is in the equator, this ellipse is changed into a
in the
course
of a sidereal
0".
0".
straight line, while a star exactly at the pole of the heavens describes a circle.
21.
If the
body have a proper motion
then for such the
moon and
fixed
the planets, stars is not the
like the sun, the aberration of the
complete
aberration.
a body changes
its place during the time in
For as such which a ray of
193
light travels
from
if
the ray,
stars,
even
to the earth, the observed direction of corrected for the aberration of the fixed
it
does not give the true geocentric place of the object will suppose, that the light, at the time of observation. of the telescope at the time , which reaches the objectglass
We
the planet at the time T. Let then P Fig. 5 be the place of the planet at the time T, p its place at the time f, A the place of the objectglass at the time T, a and b the
has
left
places of the objectglass and the eyepiece at the time t and when the light , finally a and b their places at the time Then is: reaches the eye piece.
AP the direction towards the place of the body at the time r, ap that towards the true place at the time , 2) a b and a b the direction towards the apparent place at the time t or t\ the difference of the two being in
1)
3)
definitely small, b a the direction towards the
same apparent place cor
rected for the aberration of the fixed stars.
Now
as P, a, b
1
are situated in a straight line,
we have:
Pa
:
ab
=
t
T
:
t
t.
Furthermore as the interval t   T is always so small, that we can suppose, that the earth during the same is mo
ving in a straight line and with a uniform velocity, the points 4, a, a are also situated in a straight line, so that A a and
a a are also proportional
it
to the times
t
T and
t
t.
Hence
follows that
AP
is
parallel
to
6 a
place of the planet at the time t is at the time T. But the interval between these two times
or that the apparent equal to the true place
is
the time, in which the light from the planet reaches the eye or is equal to the distance of the planet multiplied by 497 s 8, that is, by the time in which the light traverses the
.
semimajor axis of the earth s orbit, which is taken as the unit. It follows then that we can use three methods, for com
puting the true place of a planet from any time t.
I.
its
apparent place at
time the time in
We
subtract from the observed
which the
ical
light
find the time
T
from the planet reaches the earth; thus we and the true place at the time T is ident
t.
with the apparent place at the time
13
194
II.
We
the reduction
the
can compute from the distance of the planet of time t T and from the daily motion of
planet in right ascension and declination compute the reduction of the observed apparent place to the time T. III. can consider the observed place corrected for
We
the aberration
as the true place at the time T, but as seen from the place which the earth occupies This last method is used when the distance at the time t.
of the fixed stars
of the body
is
not known, for instance in computing the orbit
of a newly discovered planet or comet. Since the time in which the light traverses the semis major axis of the earth s orbit is 497 8 and the mean daily motion of the sun is 59 19, we find the aberration of
.
8".
the sun in longitude according to rule II. equal to 45, by which quantity we observe the longitude always too small. On account of the change of the distance and the velocity
20" .
of the sun this value varies a
little
in
the course of a year
but only by some
22.
tenths of a second.
The
the general case,
aberration for a moveable body, being in fact may also be deduced from the fundamental
equations (a) in No. 16.
For
it
is
evident, that in this case
we need
of the absolute velocity of only the earth its relative velocity with respect to the moveable body, since this combined with the motion of the light again
substitute
instead
the angle by which the telescope must be in clined to the real direction of the rays of light emanating from the body in order that the latter always appear in
determines
the axis of the telescope noth withstanding the motion of the If therefore earth and the proper motion of the body. ?/ ,
and
L,
be the coordinates of the body with respect to the
in (a)
if
,
system of axes used there, we must substitute
j.
dy_d_n
dt
dz_d
dt
.
d
dx
f
dt
djj
an(j dz^
dt
fi
dt
dt
dt
A
h
distance of the
body from the
?/,
,
coordinates
,
A
cos 8 cos
etc.
earth, we find the heliocentric since the geocentric coordinates are f, from the formulae
:
rj
x cos a f = A cos = A cos 8 y =A 8 Hf
,
sin
f
,
(/)
sin
z,
195
from which
[
we
easily
deduce the following:
(dy
r;
(dx \dt
dg\ sm dt)
.
drj\
I
\dt
dri\
I
dtJ
r
I
cos a
=A
I
da
cos o
dt
~ d^\ cos o J dt/
(dx
\&lt;/&lt;
dg\
1
sm
.
.
o cos
a
+
(dy
[
c///
W
d//
... sin o sin a f (dz
Vrf*
dS = A dt
r~
Hence
the formulae (a) change into:
a
A d
a
X d
=
A da ^ e? * d8
ft
,
,
dt
or as
equals the time in which the light traverses the dis
tance A,
we
find, if
we denote
this
by
t
T:
which formulae show, that the apparent place is equal to the place at the time T and therefore correspond to the rules I and II of the preceding number. But we also find the aberration for this case by adding
true
to
the
second
dt
member
cos a
J
of the
first
formula (a) the term
to the second
fi
[_dt
^
sin a
sec 8
and a similar term
member
of the
second equation.
1
\
fi
We
cos a
~
get therefore, if
we
denote the aberration of the fixed stars by
,
Da
and Dd:
a
8
= Da =D
[~c?!
sm a
sin
.
dr]
sec o
.
\_dt
dt
cos
j
J
sin
S
i
d
sin
fi
[_dt
dt
a +
 cos
dt
8 J
.
member
the
differentiating the equations (/*), taking in the second 8 as variable and ? only the geocentric quantities A? coordinates of the earth as constant, and denoting the
But
partial differential coefficients
by (^) and (V), we
find the
:
second members of the above equations respectively equal to A (da\ A /^^\
/u,
\dt
/
/LI
\dt
/
We
therefore have:
and S
DS = StT).
13
196
which formulae correspond
to the third rule of the preceding
No.
For since
and
are the differential coefficients
of a and cV, if the heliocentric place of the planet is changed whilst the place of the earth remains the same, the second members of the two equations give the places of the planet
at the time
T,
buf
as
t.
seen from the place which the earth
occupies at the time
Note.
axis
The motion of
the
the earth round the sun and the rotation on the
only causes which produce a motion of the points on the surface of the earth in space, as the sun itself has a motion, of which the earth as well as the whole solar system participates. This motion consists
are not
of a progressive motion, as we shall see hereafter, and also of a periodical one caused by the attractions of the planets. For if we consider the sun
and one planet, they both describe round their common centre of gravity The first mo ellipses, which are inversely as the masses of the two bodies. tion which at present and undoubtedly for long ages may be considered as
line, produces only a permanent and hence impercep change of the places of the stars and the aberration caused by the second motion is so small that it always can be neglected. For if a and a are the radii of the orbits of two planets which are here considered as cir
going on in a straight
tible
cular,
r and T
be as
their times
of revolution,
then the angular velocities of the
velocities as
two
will
:
7
,
hence their linear
ar
:
a r or as j/a
:
J/a,
since according to the third law of Kepler the squares of the periodic times of two planets are as the cubes of their semi major axes. The constant
of aberration for a planet, the semi major axis of whose orbit
i **
O/\"
is
a,
taking
the radius
of the
earth
s
orbit
as
unit,
is
therefore 

~ya
and hence the
constant of aberration caused by the motion of the sun round their
centre of gravity
is
common
equal to
m
20 .45
.
~
;
r^~
,
where
m
is
the
mass of the planet
W*
In the case of Jupiter we have expressed in parts of the mass of the sun. TOTO an d a 5.20, hence the constant of aberration caused by the at traction of Jupiter is only 0".OOS6.
=
=
The perturbations of the earth caused by the planets produce also changes of the aberration, which however are so small, that they can be neglected.
Compare on p. XVII
aberration:
et
The
etc.
introduction
to
Bessel
s
Tabulae Regiop.
montanae
seq.
;
also Wolfers,
Tabulae Reductionum
XVIII
etc.
Gauss, Theoria motus pag. G8
FOURTH SECTION.
ON THE METHODS BY WHICH THE PLACES OF THE STARS AND THE VALUES OF THE CONSTANT QUANTITIES NECESSARY FOR THEIR REDUCTION ARE DETERMINED BY OBSERVATIONS.
The
chief problem of spherical astronomy
is
the deter
mination of the places of the stars with respect to the fun damental planes and especially the equator, as their longitudes
by observations, but, the of the ecliptic being known, are computed from their obliquity When the observations right ascensions and declinations.
and
latitudes are never determined
made in such a way as to give immediately the places of the stars with respect to the equator and the vernal equi nox, they are called absolute determinations, whilst relative
are
determinations are such, which give merely the differences of the right ascensions and declinations of stars from those of other stars, which have been determined before.
observations give us the apparent places of the stars, the places affected with refraction *) and aberration and is, referred to the equator and the apparent equinox at the time
that
The
of
observation.
It
is
therefore
necessary to reduce these
places to
places by adding the corrections which have been treated in the two last sections. But the expressions of each of these corrections contain a constant quantity, whose
mean
numerical value must at the same time be determined by sim ilar observations as those by which we find the places of
the
values of these constant quantities given in chapters are those derived from the latest de terminations, but they are still liable to small corrections by future observations.
stars.
The
the last two
*)
In the
case
of observations
of the sun,
the
moon and
the planets
these places are affected also with parallax.
198
If
times
we observe we ought to
the places of the fixed stars at different find only such differences as can be as
cribed to any such errors of the constant quantities and to errors of observation. However, comparing the places de termined at different epochs we find greater or less differences
which cannot be explained by such
effect
errors
of proper motions
of the
stars.
and must be the These motions are
partly without any law and peculiar to the different stars, partly they are merely of a parallactic character and caused
by the progressive motion of the
solar system, that is, by So far these proper mo a proper motion of the sun itself. tions with a few exceptions can be considered as uniform
in a great circle. They must necessarily be taken into account in order to reduce the mean places
and as going on
of the stars from one epoch to the other.
The methods
for
computing the various corrections which
must be applied to the places of the stars have been given in the two last sections; but as these computations must be
made
so very frequently for the reductions of stars,
still
other
methods are used, which make the reduction of the appa
rent places of stars to their mean places at the beginning of the year as short and easy as possible and which shall be
given now.
I.
ON THE REDUCTION OF THE MEAN PLACES OF STARS TO APPARENT PLACES AND VICE VERSA.
1.
mean place of a star for the be year and we wish to find the apparent for any given day of another year, we must first reduce place the given place to the mean place at the beginning of this
If
we know
the
ginning of a certain
by applying the precession and if necessary the proper motion and then add the precession and the proper motion from the beginning of the year to the given day as Now in well as the nutation and aberration for this day.
other year
order to
easy,
make
tables
the computation of these three last corrections have been constructed for all of them, which
199
have for argument the day of the year. Such tables have been given by Bessel in his work Tabulae Regiornontanae" *). and d be the mean right ascension and declination Let of a star at the beginning of a year, whilst a and $ designate
the apparent right ascension and declination at the time r, reckoned from the beginning of the year and expressed in
If then w und . designate the proper parts of a Julian year. motion of the star in right ascension and declination, which is considered to be proportional to the time, we have ac cording to the formulae (/)) in No. 2, (#) and (C) in No. 5
(
of the second section and (A) in No. 16 of the third section
the following expression:
a
= 4 T [mfw tang
[15".8148
9".2231
sin a] +6".8650
T ft
]
+
tang S sin
sin
ft ft
tang 8 cos a cos ft 4 [OM902 h 0".OS22 tang S sin 4 0".OS96 tang S cos a cos 2 ft
]
sin 2

[1".
1642
0".5509
f 0".5054 tang S sin a] sin 2 tang S cos a cos 2
Q
P)
Q
H
and:
S
[0".1173 [0".0195
44
0".0509
tang S sin a] sin
(
0".0085
tang 5 sin
a] sin
(0 4P)
0".0093
20".4451
20".4451
tang 8 cos a cos (0 4 P) cos s sec 5 cos a cos
sec
sin
sin
8= 4 rn cos
6".8650
0".0822
f
Tp!
}
cos a sin
H
9".2231
sin
a cos
O
cos cos
f
cos a sin 2 ft cos a sin 2
0".OS96
sin
0".5054
40".5509 sin
a cos 2 J~) a cos 2
hO".0509cosasin(0

P)
0".0085
cos a sin
[sin
(0 4 P) + 0".0093 sin
8 cos
cos 8 sin
e]
(0 4 P)
h
20".4451
20".4451
a
sin

cos a sin S sin
0.
The terms of the nutation, which depend on twice the P of the longitude of the moon 2d and on the anomaly (L moon have been omitted here, as they have a short period on account of the rapid motion of the moon and therefore
are
better
tabulated separately.
Moreover these terms are
only small and on account of their short period are nearly eliminated in the mean of many observations of a star. Hence
*)
For a few
stars
it
is
which the most convenient formulae
necessary to add also the annual parallax, for shall be given hereafter.
200
they are only taken into account for stars in the neighbour
hood of the pole, for which also the terms depending on the square and the product of nutation and aberration *) become These terms are brought in tables, whose argu significant. ments are ([, 0, OhO and O O.
Now
in order to construct
tables for the above expres
sions for a
a and d
6".S650
0".OS22
,
we
put:
Q".5054
0".0509 0".0085
= nz = = ni = ni =
15".S148
0".1902
1".1642
ni,
z
3
0".1173 0".0195
ni 4
= = = m = mil =
mi mi mi 2
l
h h
fi
l
2
z
3
/ 3
/*
4
.
Then we can
n
a =[r
i
write the formulae also in this way:
2
}
i2
sin
ft
+ i l sin
sin 2
1
+4
i3

sin
[9".2231
cos
O
s
sin (0 (0 f P)J
P)
[/
+
w tang
&lt;?
sin a]
0".0896
cos 2
O
f 0".5509
cos 2
H0".0093cos(0+P)] tangtfcosa
20".
4451 cos
sin
cos
.
.
cos a sec $
20".4451
sin
a sec S
P)
7*
4 s
and:
S
S=[r
isin^Mi
cos
sin
2~}
e
2
+
[9".2231
D
E
sin20K 3 sm(0 P) 4 sin (0  P)] n cos
z
0".0896
cos
2^ +
0".5509
cos
20
sin a
20".
4451 cos
sin
cos
.
[tang e
4cos S
0".0093
cos
]
(0fP)]
sin
sin
20".4451
sin
S cos a
If
we
{
introduce therefore the following notation
:
A=r
,B
=
sin
H Hi
1
9".223
a sin20Hi 3 sin(0 P) cosO I 0".0896 cos 2^ 0".5509 cos 20
l
sin 2 i~}
/4
sin
0".0093
(0fP) cos(0HP)
C ==
/&gt;=
20".4451
cos
cos
20".4451sin0
^==
7/sin^h^,sin2O
A2
= tang $ = tang S cos = 8 cos d= $ a
a
ft
w&lt;
sin20H A 3 sin(0
a!
P)
A4
s
f
n
sin
n
c
sec
sec
sin
= cos = = tang cos # d = S cos
n
b
sin
e
c
sin
#
sin
a
sin
a,
*)
section and
These terms are given by the formulae (E) in No. 5 of the second (c), (d) and (e) in No. 16 of the third section.
201
we have
simply:
Aa
+
Bb
f

Cc Cc
+
Dd + r^ f
where the quantities a, 6, c, d, a , 6 , c , d depend only on the place of the star and the obliquity of the ecliptic, while and and thus being mere A, B, (7, D depend only on
H
functions
of the time
may
be tabulated with the time for
argument.
The numerical
those for 1800 and
i=0.34223
i,
values given in the above formulae are
we have
iz
for this
i
epoch:
3
A=0.0572
h
t
=0.00410 =0.0016
=0.02519 A 2 =0.0041
A3
= 0.0005
E
=0.00254
i
4
= 0.00042
=0.0000.
A4
We
see therefore that the quantity
never amounts to
it may always be neglected except when the greatest accuracy should be required. As several of the coefficients in the above formulae a and S for a are variable (according to No. 5 of the
more than a small part of a second, hence
second section) and likewise the values of
for the year 1900:
m
and
w,
we have
i=0.34256 A=0.0488
i,
hl
=0.00410 =0.0014
*
= 0.02520
=0.0035
i
3
=0.00253
z
4
=0.00042
hz
7*3=0.0005.
The values of the quantities A, B, C, D, E from the year 1750 to 1850 have been published by Bessel in his work But as he has used there a dif ,,Tabulae Regiomontanae".
ferent value
of the constants
of nutation and of aberration
and
in
also neglected the terms multiplied
the values given by
order to
:
P and 0fP, by him require the following corrections make them correspond to the formulae given
For 1750:
above
dA
0.0090
0.2456
sin
^ 4 0.0001
H 0.0025
sin
2^ + O.OOlo sin 20
P)
0.0004 sin
dB=
cosO
+ 0.0019
(0 cos2O
sin
+ 0.0290 cos 2
0.0093
cos
(0+P)
(0 HP)
= dE =
dC
(/&gt;=
0.1744 cos
0.1 901 sin
0.006 sin
O + 0.001
sin 2
O
For 1850 the value of
dB=
0.2465 cosiH0.0019cos
dB becomes: 2^ H0.0291cos20 0.0093 cos(0fP).
202
values of the quantities A, B etc. for the years 1850 1860 have been computed by Zech according to BesseFs formulae, and for the years 1860 to 1880 they have been given by Wolfers in his work Tabulae Reductionum Observationum Astronomicarum", where they have been computed from the formulae given above. The values for each
The
to
year
are published in
2.
all
astronomical almanacs.
all
The arguments of
these
tables are the days of
the year, the beginning of which is taken at the time, when the mean longitude of the sun is equal to 280. Hence the tables are referred to that meridian, for which the beginning of the civil year occurs when the sun has that mean longi
tude.
But as the sun performs an entire revolution in 365 and a fraction of a day, it is evident, that in every days
year the tables are referred to a different meridian.
Therefore if we denote the difference of longitude between Paris and that place, for which at the beginning of the year the mean longitude of the sun is 280, by &, which we take
when the place is east of Paris, and if further we de note by d the difference of longitude between any other place and Paris, taking it positive, when this place is west of Paris
positive,
we suppose we must add to the
and
if
both k and d to be expressed in time, time of the second place for which we
wish to find the quantities A^ B, C, D, E from the tables, the quantity kid and for the time thus corrected we must take the values from the tables. The quantity k is found
from
:
where L
is the mean longitude of the sun at the beginning of the year for the meridian of Paris, while a is the mean This quantity is 33. tropical motion of the sun or 59
8".
given in the Tabulae Regiomontanae" and in Wolfers" Tables for every year and expressed in parts of a day and the con
stant quantities A, B, C, D, E are given for the beginning of the fictitious year or for 18 h 40 m sidereal time of that me ridian, for which the sun at the beginning of the year has the longitude 280 and then for the same time of every tenth
203
these values for any sidereal day*). If now we wish to have for instance for the time of culmination other sidereal time, we must add to the , of a star whose right ascension is
the quantity: argument k+d
a =
~
=
24 h
24~
Furthermore as on that day, on which the right ascension two of the sun is equal to the right ascension of the star, of the star occur, we must after this day add culminations
a unit to the
is
always the
datum of the day, so that the complete argument datum plus the quantity:
i
from the beginning of the year to the while when the right ascension of the sun is equal to time,
where we have
afterwards
=
k h d
+
a
+
1,
we
take
i
=
,
1
.
Now
at
the
the day, denoted in the tables by Jan. 0, is that, m of which the h sidereal time 18 40 year begins, the
commencement of the days being always reckoned from noon. Hence the culmination of stars, whose right ascension is
on that day, which in the tables is denoted by 0, but already on the day preceding and therefore for such stars we must add 1 to the datum of the day reck 1 from the beginning oned from noon or we must take i to the day when the right ascension of the sun of the
&lt;
18 h 40 m does not
fall
=
is
year 2. equal to a and afterwards i will find for instance the correction of the mean Lyrae for April 1861 and for the time of culmi place of have for the beginning of the year: nation for Berlin. m 46".062 logn= 1.30220 =23"27 ^= + 38 39 a== 2783
=
We
We
30"
23"
22"
=
and from
this
we
find:
*)
We
have therefore to use for computing the tables:
=
366 242201
.
Mean
longitude of the sun
in
= 280
1

obb
all
.
where n must be taken
to 37.
succession equal to
the
true
integral
numbers from
I.
With
this
we
find
longitude according to
No.
14.
We
have also:
^=33
15
25".9
1920
29"
53(t
1800)
204
= .4797 = 9.04973 log = 9.25409 log d =
log a log 6
c
1
1
0.10309,,
= 0.44889 = 9.99569 = 9.98106 log log d = 8.94233
log a log b
c
1
and besides we have:
log
fi
= 9.4425
log/*
= 9.4564.
Further we have according to Wolfers Tabulae Reductionum
and we get according
March 31
April
to the formulae (A)
10
+ +
Is
1
.
203
.541

19".
85
19 .09
20
+1.871
30
+2
.
185
17.79  15 .97.
0.031,
Now we have A = + 0.1 24, d=
^^
m
=
0.005,
li
and as here i is equal to 1, because a is less than 18 40 m and in March and April the right ascension of the sun is less than 18 h 40 m the argument in this case is
,
the
datum
We
+
1.088.
:
find therefore at the time of culmination for Berlin March 31 1.239 19". 79
+
April
10
20
30
+1 +1 +2
.577 .906 .219
18 .98
17 .62
15 .76.
we
subtract these corrections from the apparent place, find the mean place at the beginning of the year.
3.
If
we
This method of reducing the mean place to the ap parent place and vice versa is especially convenient in case, that we wish to compute an ephemeris for any greater length of time, for instance if we have to reduce many observations
of the
same
is
star.
But
in
case that the reduction for only
one day
greater of the constant quantities a, 6, c, etc. The precession and nutation in right ascension are equal to
wanted, the following method may be used with convenience, as it does not require the computation
:
Am
{A n
sin
a tang 8
+ B tang S cos a + E
B sin a.
and
in declination:
An cos
a
205
Therefore
if
we
put:
An = gcosG B = g sin G
Ami
E=f,
)
the terms for the right ascension become:
ftgsm(G\r
tang 8
and those
for the declination:
g cos (G
f a).
Further the aberration in right ascension
Csec $ cos a
f
is:
D sec
sin
and
in declination:
(7
sin
sin
a
f
D sin $ cos a f C tang c cos S.
t
Hence
if
we
C
=
put:
h sin //
D = h cos /T
h sin (H\ a) sec #
= C tang
,
the aberration in right ascension becomes:
and
in declination:
h cos (H+ a) sin $
f i
cos
$.
Therefore the complete formulae for the reduction to the
apparent place are:
a
S
A cos (//+) sin^ft cos^Hr//. gcos(G H a) Here again for the quantities /*, g, h^ i, G and // tables
is
8=
a=/4 g sin (G +
a) tang 8+ h sin
+
(H \ a)
sec S \
r/ii
may be computed, whose argument
always published in mean noon.
for
all
the time.
They
are
almanacs for every tenth day and for
If we wish to find for instance the reduction of a Lyrae 1861 April 10 at 17 h 15 m mean time, this being the time of culmination of a Lyrae on that day, we take from the
Berlin Jahrbuch for this time:
/==+26".98
&lt;7=+12".20
hence
G
g
sin
\
a
= 262
=3443
6
A== + 18".98
7/h
g sin (G
h sin
f
= 1656
a)
#=247
3
i=
7".58
cos(Gja)
9.13813,
1.0S222*
1.08636
(G
h
+
tang S
__M9.30L"a68846~
)
9.99586 a 9.98515
(H+ a)
i
cos
(#})
cos^
h cos (H+ a)
sin
9.89260
1.27830
9.41016
_0^!967_
1.26345
sin (IT f a)
8
9.79564
g
sin
(G
+ a) tang = sec ^=+
r^
=f
/=26".98
9".67
;cos$=
^ cos (G +h cos (#f a) sin r j
)
6".25
Q".Q8
= 8= =
5".92
1".68
11".46
^=
18".98.
206
4.
The formulae (A) and
(J5)
for the reduction to the
apparent place do not contain the daily aberration nor the annual parallax. For as the daily aberration depends upon the latitude of the place, it cannot be included in general tables however for meridian observations the daily aberration in declination is equal to zero and the expression for the
;
aberration in right ascension being of the same form as that of the correction for the error of collimation, which must be
added
to the observations, as
we
shall see hereafter,
it
may
always be united with the latter correction. The annual parallax has been determined only for very few stars, but for those it must be computed, when the great Now the formulae for the annual est accuracy is required.
in that case
parallax are according to No. 18 of the third chapter:
a
8
a 8
= =
7i
[cos
sin
a
sin d
sin
cos
cos a] sec d
7t
TT
[cos s sin
sin e cos 8] sin
a.
cos
sin
8 cos
Therefore
if
we
put:
cos
sin
cos a
sin
a sin 8 cos
cos 8 sin e cos a sin
=k K = k cos K = L 8 = cos L,
sin
a
I
sin
I
we have
simply:
a $ a
8
= 7tk = nl
cos CAT}cos
0)
sec 8
(L 40).
But the cases
parallax amounts reduced.
in
which
this correction
are rare, for instance
when
observations of
1"
must be applied Centauri whose
to nearly
or those of Polaris are to be
II.
DETERMINATION OF THE RIGHT ASCENSIONS AND DECLINATIONS OF THE STARS AND OF THE OBLIQUITY OF THE ECLIPTIC.
5.
If
we observe
the difference
of the time of culmi
nation of the stars, these are equal to the difference of their need there apparent right ascensions expressed in time. fore for these observations only a good clock, that is, one
We
which
for
equal arcs of the equator passing across the me
207
ridian
* always an equal number of seconds ) and an altitude instrument, mounted firmly in the plane of the me This in its essential parts ridian, that is, a meridian circle.
gives
lying on two firm Y pieces, which carries a vertical circle and a telescope. Attached to the Ypieces are verniers or microscopes, which give the arc
consists
of a horizontal
axis,
passed over by the telescope by means of the simultaneous motion of the telescope and the circle round the horizontal axis. In order to examine the uniform rate of the clock without
knowing the places of the time is observed in which
ridian
stars themselves,
the interval of
different stars return to the
me
or to a wire stretched in the focus of the telescope so that it is always in the plane of the meridian when the
is
telescope
turned
round the
axis **).
Now
the
time
between two successive culminations of the same star is equal to 24 h f/\, where &a is the variation of the apparent
during those 24 hours. Therefore if the observations were right and the instrument at both times exactly in the
place
plane of the meridian, a condition which we here always as sume to be fulfilled, the intervals between two culminations
measured by a perfectly regulated clock would also be found h equal to 24 /\. But on account of the errors of single
observations, we can only assume, that the arithmetical mean of the interval found from several stars minus the mean of
all
that this
On the contrary if we find, not equal to 24 hours but to 24 h a , we call a the daily rate of the clock and we must correct all observations on account of it. In case that for
A
is
equal to 24 hours.
arithmetical
mean
is
a certain time
difference 24
sible
h
all
the different stars give so nearly the same a, that we can ascribe the deviations to pos
errors of observation, we take the rate of the clock during this time as constant and equal to the arithmetical mean
*
It is not necessary to ) of time are observed.
know
the error of the clock, as only intervals
**)
the
daily
Usually there is a cross of wires, one wire being placed parallel to motion of the stars. This is effected by letting a star near the
until the star
equator run along the wire and by turning the cross by a screw attached to
the apparatus for this purpose
field
,
during
its
passage through the
does not leave the wire.
208
of
all
single a
and we multiply the observed differences of
right ascensions
by
^
l
,
in order to correct
them
~ii
if
for the rate of the clock.
But
we
see that the rate of the
increasing or decreasing with the time and the ob servations are sufficiently numerous, we may assume the
is
clock
hourly rate of the clock at the time t as being of the form a~ib(t T), where a is the rate at the time T. Multiplying this by dt and integrating it between the limits t and 24ff,
we
star,
find
the rate between two successive culminations of a whose time of culmination is equal to:
,
24aH24&(12M
If
T}
=
u.
of b for every found from the several stars, we obtain a number of equations, from which we can find the values of a and b by the method of least squares.  t we find then The rate during the time by means of
coefficient
star
we compute
therefore the
and then take u equal
to the rate

t"
the formula:
t /
i
/"
a(t"t )
h
b(t"t )
^P

i
,
Fj
t"
and we must correct every interval of time t accord ing to this. In case that already the differences of the right ascen sions of a number of stars are known, the difference of the
apparent place of each star and of the time U observed by the clock, gives the error of the clock A #, which ought to be found the same (at least within the limits of the errors
of observation) from
exactly regulated.
all
the
if it
different
stars,
if
the clock
is
has a rate equal to a at the time T, each star gives an equation of the following form:
But
=U
Now
stars,
it
a
f
AZ7
+a
(t
T) +

(t
T)
2
and from a great number of
is
stars
we may
find
A
U&lt;&gt;
a and b *).
in order to observe the time of culmination of the
necessary to rectify the meridian circle in such
*)
As we suppose
least
that the
right ascensions themselves
are not
known
be
yet,
at
not with accuracy, the
error
of the
clock
U
would
also
erroneous.
209
a way, that the intersection of the cross wires is in the plane of the meridian in every position of the telescope or that at least the deviation from the meridian is known*).
If the
line
of the
of collimation, that is, the line from the centre objectglass to the wirecross is vertical to the axis
of the pivots (the axis of revolution of the instrument), it describes when the telescope is turned a plane, which in tersects the celestial sphere in a great circle. If besides the
axis
of the pivots
is
horizontal,
circle
this
if
same time a
to the
vertical
and
great circle is at the the axis is directed also
West and East points, the line of collimation must always move in the plane of the meridian. Hence the instru
ment requires those three adjustments. As will be shown in No. 1 of the last section, we can always examine with the aid of a spiritlevel, whether the axis of the pivots is horizontal and we may also correct any
error of this kind, since one of the Ypieces can be raised or lowered by adjusting screws. The position of the line of collimation with respect to the axis can be examined by re
versing the
or
this
still
whole instrument and directing the telescope in each position of the instrument to a distant terrestrial object
better to a
small telescope
(collimator)
purpose
that
its
in front of the telescope of the
line
placed for meridian circle
so
of collimation
coincides
with that of the
meridian
this
circle.
For
if
it
there
is
a wirecross at the focus of
small telescope,
can be seen in the telescope of the
meridian circle like any object at an infinitely great distance, since the rays coming from the focus of the collimator after
by its object glass are parallel. Now if the which the line of collimation makes with the axis of angle, the meridian circle, differs by x from a right angle, the angles which the lines of collimation of the two telescopes make
their refraction
with each other in both positions of the meridian circle, will differ by 2x or the wire of the collimator as seen in the
*)
The complete methods
its
for rectifying the meridian circle
for
and for de
termining of them,
these
the stars.
errors
as
well
as
correcting the
observations on account
are
given in the seventh section.
Here
the
determinations can be
made without
it is only shown, that knowledge of the places of
14
210
telescope of the
meridian circle will appear to have moved Therefore if we move the through an angle equal to 2x. wires of the meridian telescope by the adjusting screws in a
plane vertical to the line of collimation through the angle a?, the line of collimation will be vertical to the axis and the
wire of the collimator will remain unchanged with respect to the wires of the telescope in both positions of the in
strument or to speak more correctly it will in both positions be at the same distance from the middle wire of the teles
If this should not be exactly the case, the operation cope. of reversing the instrument and moving the wires of the tele
scope must be repeated.
When
limation
describes
these corrections have been made, the line of col a vertical circle. At last in order to di
make use
rect the horizontal axis exactly from East to West, we must of the observations of stars, but a knowledge of
The circumpolar stars, for in their place is not required. stance the polestar, describe an entire circle above the hori Therefore if the zon, except at places near the equator.
telescope moves in a vertical circle which is at least near the meridian, the line of collimation intersects the parallel
star can therefore be seen in the one entire revolution. If we observe scope twice during the time of the passage of the star over the wire at
circle twice,
and the
tele
now
first
above and then below the pole and the telescope is accu rately in the plane of the meridian, the interval between the where j\a designates the two observations will be 12 h f&&gt;
of the apparent right ascension of the star in 12 on the contrary, the interval will be greater or less hours than 1 2 h  /\ , if the plane of the telescope is East or West
variation
;
of the meridian.
Now
as
one of the Ypieces admits always
of a motion in the
direction from
move
actly
this until the interval
North to South, w e can between two observations is ex
r
12 h fA
is
and when
this
has been accomplished the
exactly in the plane of the meridian or the axis telescope is directed from East to West *).
*) As the complete adjustment of an instrument would be impracticable on account of the continuous change of the errors, it is always only approx
211
We
if
cessive culminations with each other, as these
can also compare the intervals between three suc must be equal
is
accurately in the plane of the meridian. If the intervals are unequal, the telescope is on that side of the meridian, on which the star remains the shortest time.
the instrument
now we observe with an instrument thus adjusted the of stars, we find the differences of the ap ascensions and we must apply to these the re parent right
If
times
of transit
apparent place with the opposite sign in the differences of the mean right ascensions referred to the beginning of the year. But the computation
ductions
to
the
order
to
find
corrections requires already an of the right ascension and declina approximate knowledge tion, which however can always be taken from former cata
of the
formulae
for
these
observed object has a visible disc, we can only one limb and as such objects have also a proper observe motion, we must compute the time of its semidiameter pass
meridian according to No. 28 of the first and we must add this time to the observed time if we have observed the first limb or substract it from it, if we have observed the second limb. In case of the sun hav ing been observed, where both limbs are usually taken, we
ing across the
section,
logues. If the
can simply take the arithmetical mean of both times of ob
servation.
The time
still
of culmination of a
star
may be determined
observing
is
at
by which the
is
another
star
method,
arrives
namely by
at
the
time,
of the meridian.
equal For these observations a circle
altitudes
on both sides
required,
which round
attached to a vertical column admitting of a motion its axis in order that the circle may be brought into
the plane
of any vertical circle. If we observe with such an instrument the time, when a star arrives at equal alti tudes on both sides of the meridian, the arithmetical mean of both times is the clocktime of the culmination of the star.
It
is
evident,
that
it
is
not necessary to
know
the altitude
imatcly adjusted and the observations are corrected for the remaining errors, which have been determined by the above methods or by similar ones, which
will
be given in the
last section.
14*
212
of the
star
itself,
but
it
is
essential,
that
the telescope in
both
observations
horizon.
this is
has exactly the same inclination to the If there is a difference of the two inclinations and
easily
known, we can
compute the error of the clock
time of culmination produced by it; for if the zenith distance on the West side has been observed too great, the star has
been observed

in
an
hour
angle
which
is
too
great
by
cos
tp
sin
A
,
hence
we must
subtract
from the
A
*
arithmetical
mean
of both times the correction
is
rection
always
the
required
on
is
although
mean
refraction
sm A account of refraction; for the same for both observa
cp
^ cos
.
Such
a cor
tions, yet the different state of the atmosphere, as indicated by the thermometer and barometer, will produce a slight
difference of the refraction, whose effect can be computed In case of the sun being observed by the above formula. the change of the declination during the interval of both
observations will also
make
a correction necessary.
^
We
to
see from the formula
= cos
(f&gt;
sin A^ that
it is
best
bourhood of the prime then the most rapid.
observe the zenith distances of the stars in the neigh vertical, because their changes are
It
is
also
desirable,
to
make
these
observations at a place not too far from the equator, because then cos (f is also equal to 1, and to observe stars near the
determination of absolute right ascensions depends upon such observations, it may be made with ad vantage by this method at a place near the equator. If we bring the stars at the time, when they cross 6.
equator.
the
As
the vertical wire
of the meridian
circle
circle,
on the horizontal
wire
and read the
by a vernier or
for
differences
of these readings
a microscope, the different stars give us the
altitudes*),
differences of their apparent meridian know the zenith point of the circle
*)
and
this
if
we
and subtract
from
In the
seventh
section
the corrections will be given,
which must be
applied to
readings in order to free them from the errors of the in strument, for instance the errors of division of the circle, or errors pro duced by the action of the force of gravity upon different parts of the in
these
strument.
213
we find the apparent zenith distances of the This point can be easily determined by observing the images of the wires reflected from an artificial horizon. For if we turn the telescope towards the nadir, and place a basin
all
readings,
"
stars.
with mercury under the object glas and reflect light from the outside of the eyepiece towards the mercury, we see in the light field besides the wires also their reflected images.
Therefore if we turn the telescope until the reflected image of the horizontal wire coincides with the wire itself, the line
must be directed exactly to the nadir, hence the reading of the circle the nadir point or by by adding 180 the zenith point of the circle. The apparent zenith distances must first be corrected
of collimation
find
we
refraction and if the sun, the moon or the planets have been observed, also for parallax by adding to them the re fraction computed according to formula A in No. 12 of the third section and by subtracting p sin ss, where p is the
for
horizontal parallax *). If the object has a visible disc, we must add to or substract from the zenith distance of the
limb, corrected for refraction and parallax, the radius of the disc or if in case of observations of the sun, the lower as well as the upper limb has been observed, we must take the
arithmetical
mean
is
of both corrected observations.
Since in this
case these observations are
made
at a little distance
from the
meridian,
necessary to apply a small correction (whose expression will be given in the seventh section) be cause the horizontal wire represents a great circle on the
it
still
celestial
sphere
and therefore
differs
from the
parallel
of
the sun.
When
are
the zenith distances
the decimations
section,
at
the time of culmination
known,
first
is
of the
vation
are found according to No. 23 if the latitude of the place of obser
But the latter can always easily be deter mined by observing the zenith distances of any circumpolar star in its upper and lower culmination, as the arithmet
known.
ical
mean
is
of these zenith distances corrected for refraction
rA&lt;?
equal to the co latitude of the place, where
A&lt;?
*)
In the case of the
moon
the rigorous formula
must be used.
214
denotes
the
the
variation
of the
interval
of time.
We
may
apparent declination during also determine the latitude
star
in
its
by observing any circumpolar
rizon.
culmination as well direct as reflected from an
upper and lower artificial ho
alti
For then
the arithmetical
is
mean of
at
the corrected
tudes minus
equal to flected observations cannot be
A^
the latitude.
made
But as the re the same time as the
direct observations, usually also several observations are taken
before and after the time
first
of culmination, we must reduce each observation to the meridian by the method given in the seventh section.
the
place of observation is in the neighbourhood of equator, the method of determining the latitude by cir
If the
stars
it
cumpolar
determine
cannot be used.
by observations of
the
latitude
At such a place the sun as will be
we must
shown
find
in
the next number.
When
has been determined
we
from
the zenith distances corrected for refraction the apparent de cimations of the stars, which are converted into mean decli
nations for the beginning of the year by applying the reduc
tion to the apparent declination with the opposite sign.
7.
If
of the sun,
A and D be we have:
sin
the
right ascension
and declination
A
tang
= tang D,
hence the observation of the declination of the sun gives us
either the obliquity of the ecliptic,
is
known
,
ecliptic is
tial
when the right ascension or the right ascension , when the obliquity of the known from other observations. But the differen
equa
equation (which we get by differentiating the above tion written in a logarithmic form)
cotang
A
.&lt;lA\
2de =. sm 2e
2dD = sm 7777;
2Z&gt;
shows, that it is best, to determine the obliquity of the ecliptic by observations in the neighbourhood of the solstices and the
right ascension If equinoxes.
by observations
in
we determine
the
the neighbourhood of the declination of the sun ex
actly at the time,, when the right ascension is equal to 90 or 270 we find immediately by subtracting the latitude of But even if we only the sun the obliquity of the ecliptic.
215
.
observe the declination in the neighbourhood of the solstice and know approximately the position of the equinox, we can
compute the obliquity of the mula or better by developing
If
ecliptic either by the it in a series.
above for
we denote by D
the
latitude of the sun,
the observed declination, by B the declination of the sun corrected for
which would have been observed, if the centre sun had been in the ecliptic, will be according to the formulae in the Note to No. 11 of the first Section:
the latitude,
of the
ff^ B^D. cos/)
Moreover
stitial
if
x
is
the
distance
of the sun from the sol
we have
and
as
point expressed the following equation:
cos x tang e
in right
ascension or equal to 90
tang D,
A^
x
is
a small quantity,
we can
develop
&
into a rap
find according to formula (18) idly converging series, for we in No. 11 of the introduction:
=
solstitial
2 /)+ tang ^ x
.
sin 2
D f ^ tang
4
x* sin 4
D H
.
.
.
(A)
the obliquity of the ecliptic easily of the sun in the neighbourhood of the from an observation
find
Thus we can
points.
It
is
evident,
that the
aberration,
as
it
merely the apparent place in the ecliptic, upon the result, nor is the value of e changed, if A and D are reduced to another equinox by applying the affected precession. But if A and D are the apparent places, with nutation, the value of g, which we deduce from them, will
affects
has no
in
fluence whatever
be also the apparent obliquity of the ecliptic
nutation.
,
affected with
On
the 19 th of
June 1843 the declination of the sun was
observed at Koenigsberg and after being corrected for re 57. At fraction and parallax was found equal to + 23 26 time the right ascension of the sun was 5 h 48 m 50 s 54. the same 247 21".90 O h ll m 9 s 46 Hence we have in this case x
8".
.
=
.
=
and as the latitude of the sun was equal
Z&gt;
to
7".
40".
70,
we
have:
I.
term of the series
II.
term of the series
= 42326 = +1 29 = + = 23 27
87
.
23
.
04
14.
37".
216
the apparent obliquity of the ecliptic on the 19 th of June 1843, as deduced from this one observation. If we
This
is
compute now the nutation according
of the
((
hence the mean obliquity on that day according to that one ob servation is 23 27 09.
,
=
second section, taking ft 272" 37 4, 350 17 and P 280" 14 we find A +.
=
=
to the formulae in
=
= 87
No. 5
,
0".05,
37".
same value only in a more circuitous correcting A and D for nutation according to the for mulae in No. 5 and 7 of the second section and computing
should find the
We
way by
the formula (A) with these corrected values.
in longitude is equal
As
the nutation
A
=
to
f
17".
18,
26
we
7".
find face
=
s f 1 25,
.
H0".39,
therefore:
Corrected
I.
D = 23
=23
48
57
term
h
1
29
77
.
II.
term
4^0 04
.
Mean
obliquity
27 37
7o~9^
In order to free the result from accidental errors of ob
servation, the decimation of the sun is observed on as many days as possible in the neighbourhood of the solstices and
the arithmetical
mean taken of
all
single observations.
But
any constant errors, with which x and D are affected, will not If we denote the value of the be eliminated in this way.
obliquity
of the
ecliptic
which has been computed from x
and
D
,
by
according to the above method by , its true value the errors of x and by dx and dD, each observation
D
gives an equation of the following form:
=
which
is
j
V
5
tang
j?
sin 2 e
dx +
^T sin Z
^~ dD, U
easily
deduced from the
differential equation given
is expressed in seconds of time. have for instance for the above example:
s
before and in which
dx
We
dD, equal to a second of 21 in the obliquity of time, produces only an error of If we assume then a certain value the ecliptic. , taking
37".
= 23
27
09
f
0.212 dx
f
1.001
from which we
see, that
an error in
aj,
0".
=
re/fi
and
e ()
e
=n, we
v
tang x sin
find
from each observation
sin 2 e
sin2Z&gt;
an equation of the following form:
=
n
f
as
s
dx
dD.
,
217
applying to them the method of least squares, we can find de as a function of dx and e?D, hence if we should afterwards be obliged to alter the right ascensions or the de
By
dx sun by the constant quantities dA and dD, we can easily compute the effect, which these al terations have upon the value of the obliquity of the ecliptic.
clinations of the
=
Hence we may assume,
that the most probable value of the of the ecliptic, deduced from observations in the obliquity neighbourhood of a certain solstice, is of the following form:
e
iadD+ bdx,
where the
Now
made
if
always nearly equal to unity. there are no constant errors in D and #, or if dD
to zero,
coefficient of (ID is
and dx are equal
in
we ought
to find
from observations
neighbourhood of the next solstice nearly the same value of , the difference being equal to the secular
the
0".
variation during the interval of time, which amounts to 23. But since accidental errors committed in taking the single zenith distances or accidental errors of the refraction are
not entirely eliminated in the arithmetical mean of all ob servations made in the neighbourhood of the same solstice, we can only expect to arrive at an accurate value of the
obliquity of the ecliptic by reducing the values derived from a great many solstices to the same epoch and in this case we may determine at the same time the secular varia tion. If we have found from observations the mean obliquity
mean
of the
that
to
e (}
equal to e and if we suppose, value of the obliquity at the time t is equal \ds and that the annual variation is A^f^ 5 we should
ecliptic
at
the time
t
the true
have the equation
in case that the
:
=
h
tie
(A e
+
ar)
(t
*
)
observed value were right. Hence if we take o e A (t o n, determination of the mean obliquity of the ecliptic at every the time of a solstice gives an equation of the following form
:
O
=
t
:
=
n f
ds
f
x
(t
}
and
there have been several such determinations made, we can find from all equations the most probable values of de
if
and x according to the method of least squares. In this way Bessel found from his own observations and those of Brad
218
ley the
mean
year 1800 equal to 23 27
0".457.
obliquity of the ecliptic for the beginning of the 54". 80 and the annual variation
s
Peters comparing Struve
23
27
observations with those
of Bradley found:
54".
22
0".4G45 (t
1800)
a value which
now
for
generally
is
considered as more exact.
in
If a constant error has
been committed
observing the
instance the altitude of the pole is only approximately known, the values of the obliquity derived from summer or winter solstices will show constant differences.
,
declinations
if
Since
we have D
rection
z 4and if we denote by d the cor cp which must be applied to the altitude of the pole,
&lt;f
=
by
s
value deduced from observations, tion from a summer solstice:
the true value of the obliquity of the ecliptic, by e the we have the following equa
= +
e
Cfd&lt;f&gt;,
and
for a winter solstice:
*,
=
e"
rt
rfy
hence we have:
where
time.
e
s
t
is
the
the
secular variation during the interval of
This
if
latitude,
correction which must be applied to the a constant error has been committed in observ
is
ing the
zenith
distances.
We
can find in this
way an ap
proximate value of the latitude by observing the zenith dis tance of the sun on the days of the summer and winter sol
stice.
For
if z
and
z"
are those zenith
distances corrected
for
parallax and nutation, taken negative if the sun culminates on the north side of the zenith, we have:
refraction,
9*
= 2
[
~
&lt;&gt;
If then the obliquity of the ecliptic be known, the 8. absolute right ascension of a star and hence from the dif ferences of right ascensions that of all stars may be found
with the utmost accuracy. For this purpose a bright star is selected, which can be observed in the daylight as well as
by night and which
is in the neighbourhood of the equator, a Canis minoris (Procyon) or a Aquilae (Altair). for instance
219
If then the transit of the star is observed at the time
,
that
T, the rate of the clock, is equal to the difference of the right ascensions of the star and the sun at the time of culmination of the
latter.
of the
sun at the time T, the interval
t
corrected for
If
now
also
the
true
declination of the sun
has been determined at the time of culmination, we find the right ascension of the sun from the following equation
:
sin
A
tang
e
= tang
D h
e
Z&gt;,
and we have therefore:
a
= arc
.
sin
tang
tang
/
T,
where
itude
strictly the
time
T must
J
also be corrected for the lat
of the sun by adding
cos
A
sec d sin
shall
s
p.
this
be in error, also obtain an erroneous value oft
If
s
now D and
we
on
account
rors of observation in
t
T.
T, independently of er In order to estimate the effect
of any such errors,
the preceding
we
use the differential equation found in
No.
:
and consequently we obtain from each observation an equa
tion of the following form:
= arcsin tang D H.
/
T
2 tang
A
tangs
sm2f
ds
,
\
2 tang
sin 2 Z)
A
&lt;ID.
(A)
easily see from this equation, that it is best to make these observations in the neighbourhood of the equinox, be cause then the coefficients of ds and dD arrive at their min
We
imum,
eral
in
s
or 2.3.
that of ds being zero and that of being cotang s Moreover we see that it is possible to combine sev observations in such a way, that the effect of an error
dD
as well as of
any constant error
in I) is eliminated.
For
if in
the equation sin
A = ^?
tang
s
we
take the
ande A always J
is
acute, have, when the right ascension of the sun the following equation:
we
180
4
,
=180
where
i
arc sin
^
v
^f.
f_I" +.
_"
"6"&lt;/
tang
sin 2 e
sin 2
D
star
and T
are
again the times
of transit of the
220 and the sun, and
if
wo combine
this equation
with the former,
we
find:
7
7
(
)]
H
i
arc sin
arc sin
f
180
tang
e
tang
e
1
&lt;*..
 tang
sm
If
2
e
()
now
the acute angle
A
= A,
then
we have
also
D
= D.
in
If therefore the difference of right ascensions of the sun and the star be observed at the times when the sun has the right
ascensions
A and
will
180
A, the coefficients of
dD
and ds
be equal to zero and the constant errors in the declination and the obliquity will thus have no effect
equation
(I?)
on the right ascension of the
star.
This
it
is
true will never
be attained with the utmost rigour, as it will never exactly happen, that, when the sun at one culmination has the right
ascension A^ the right ascension 180 But respond to another culmination.
equal
to
A
if
shall exactly cor
A
180
A,
the remaining
errors
be only nearly dependent on dD
and ds
be always exceedingly small. Therefore for the determination of the absolute right
will
ascension of a star, the difference of right ascensions of the sun and the star should be observed in the neighbourhood of But if one observation the vernal and autumnal equinoxes.
has been made after the vernal equinox, the second must be
made as much before the autumnal equinox and vice versa. If we combine any two such observations, the effect of any
constant errors in
D
and
6
is
eliminated and the result
is
only affected with casual errors,
which may have been com
mitted in observing the times of transit or the declinations. These can only be got rid of in a mass of observations and
hence
vations
it
is necessary to combine not only two such obser but as great a number as possible of observations
\7
taken before and after the
ernal
and autumnal equinox,
in
which case it is not necessary to confine the observations to be an Let the immediate neighbourhood of the equinox. value and + d a the true value of the approximate right ascension and put:
=
.
an
arc sin
tang/) tangs
(t
i
)
=
n.
221
Then each observation
form
:
gives an equation of the following
tang A
2 tang A .
= nha4If
2
da
sin 2 e
sin 2
D
rfZ).
we
treat
then
all
method of
least squares,
we can
those equations according to the find the most probable val
ues of da, ds and dD or at least da as a function of de, and dD, so that, if these should be found from other observations
and
and dD makes the sum of the residual minimum. In case that the number of observations is very great and the observations are well distributed about the equinoxes, the coefficients of ds and dD in the final
errors a
get that correction nate values of de
their values be substituted in the expression for da, we da which in connection with these determi
equation for da will always be very small. If the observations extend to a great distance from the equinoxes and the observed declinations lie between the lim
its
=p
it
Z&gt;,
may
not be accurate to take d D for the entire
in case that the circle
range
2D
as constant, for instance,
readings are affected with errors dependent on the zenith dis tance, or if the constant of refraction should need a correc
tion.
Although even
in this case these errors
have no
effect
upon the result, if the observations are distributed symmet rically around the equinoxes, yet the resulting value of dD
or the term dependent on
dD
in the final expression of
it
da
would have no meaning.
vide the
In this case
is
necessary to di
observations according to the zenith distance into groups, within which it is allowable to consider the error dD as constant and to treat those several groups according to the method of least squares. Since we have D z p, (p
=
if
the object is south of the zenith, we may take instead of dD in the above equation dk tang z fifty, where
dcf&gt;
dk denotes the correction of the constant of refraction and fifty the correction which must be applied to the circleBut for determining the values of these quantities, readings. there are generally other and better methods used.
*
Bessel observed in 1828
of the sun
&gt;
March 24
15
27" .
at
Koenigsberg the
declination
s
centre,
corrected for refraction and
24
parallax
:
=+
1
222
and the
interval between the transit of the sun and the star a Canis minoris, corrected for the rate of the clock:
t
r=?h
0".19,
19
"
29*. 86.
40".
As
ing.
the latitude of the sun
is
was
21, the correction
is
of the declination
whilst that of the time
noth
Now
the values
D
and T referring
to the sun,
need
not be corrected for aberration, since this merely changes the place of the sun in the ecliptic, but for the star we find
according to formula (A) in No. 16 of the third section, as the longitude of the sun is 3 10 and the approximate place of the star a 112 46 and d + 5 37
=
=
s
"
:
a
1
ft
=
19
1
.
42.
,
This being subtracted from the time
t
we
find:
T=l^
Z)
=+
29 s 44
.
15
27".
05,
both being referred to the apparent equinox at the time of the observation. If we take now for the mean obliquity on that
day 23 27
to find
as:
35".
05,
we must add
to
it
the nutation in order
the
apparent obliquity at the time of observation.
.8,
But
^ = 27713
we A*
O=
l
14
,
(1
=
5
283"
56
,
P = 280
14
=
find
+
by
the
formula
in
No.
27
of the second section
1".72,
hence:
= 23
this
36".
77.
and with
we
arc sin
find:
A
=
^^ = 2
tang
e
"
53
57" .
44
=
0"
1 1
35 s 83.
.
Hence
nox
is:
the right ascension referred to the apparent equi
a
=
l\&gt;
31
5S
.
27
.
10 and sub and proper motion from the begin precession tracting s ning of the year to March 24 equal to f0 .71 (since the annual variation is }3 s .146) and computing the coefficients of dD and de, we find according to this observation the mean right ascension of a Canis minoris for 1843.0 ,
and adding the nutation
the
in right ascension 4 1 s
a
=
7
1
31"
3 s .46 h 0. 1539
dD
0.
0092 de,
where
dD
and de are expressed
in
seconds of arc.
223
On
served
:
the 20 th of September
Z)
of the same year Bessel ob
16
17"
= +l
4h
29".
22
/
T
5. 82.
and
n = 267
find
As on
that day the latitude of the sun
was B
41
,
=
0".
56,
,
41
.
9,
0=178
39
,
(1= 135
P=28014
we
the
S
corrections
dependent on
is
j0".27,
B
equal to
is
and J0 .01; furthermore the aberration
nutation
obliquity
=
0".51
0\l56, the
of the
was
obliquity on that day
Z&gt;
hence, as the mean
23"
27
h
34".
t
= tl 16 73 r = 4 17 m 5.27 = 23 27
29".
82,
we
find:
e
35".
36 11 45 s get h hence the right ascension of the sun equal to 48 in 14 s therefore a 7 h 31 ni 9 s 24 and as the nutation was (1 s the precession and proper motion equal to f2 s .27, we
this
From
we
A
=2
09.
56
22".
=
0"
.
49,
51,
=
H
.
.
.
11, find
according to this observation the
mean
right ascension for
.0094 de.
1843.0
a
=7
31
5s
.
86
0. 1539
dD h
Taking the arithmetical
find:
mean of both determinations we
4 S .66*).
= 7h 31
a result which
is
from the constant errors in D and s. We might have deduced the mean right ascension by T and t the reductions to the apparent subtracting from
free
Z&gt;,
place, neglecting for the sun the terms ration. Then using the mean obliquity
dependent on aber for each day, we
would have found immediately the
to the
9.
right ascension referred
mean equinox
for the
beginning of the year.
the right ascension of one star has been thus the right ascensions of all stars, whose differen determined, ces of right ascension have been observed, are known also
When
and can be collected
in a catalogue together
with the decli
*)
According
errors
to Bessel s
Tabulae Regiomontanae
observations
is
a
so
=
7 h 31 1U 4 8
.
81.
As
the arithmetical
mean
of both
agrees
solar
nearly with this,
If
the .casual
on both days must have been also nearly equal.
observed
declinations
we
the
compare
the
two
with the
tables
we
find
errors of the declinations equal to
+
7".
67 and
8".
24.
224
nations.
Thus the
right
ascensions given in the catalogues
can have a constant difference on ac count of the errors committed in the determination of the absolute right ascension. This can be determined by com a large number of stars, contained in the several ca paring
Similar talogues, after reducing them to the same epoch. differences may occur in the decimations and can be deter
of different observers
mined
tain
riable, as
same way. But since these errors may be va was stated before, one must form zones of a cer number of degrees and determine the difference for these
in the
several zones.
In order to facilitate the relative determination of the places of stars as well as of planets and comets, the appa
are therefore called standard stars, are in the astronomical almanacs for the time of culmina given tion for every tenth day of the year. Thus in order to find
some great accuracy and
rent places of
stars,
which have been determined with
the right ascension and
declination
of an
unknown
object,
stars,
one compares
it
with one or several of these standard
determining according to the methods given before the dif ference of right ascension and declination. In case that the declination of the unknown object differs little from the stan
any errors of the instrument will have nearly the upon both observations and hence their difference will be nearly free from those errors. If the unknown object whose difference of right ascen sion and declination is to be determined, should be very near
star,
dard
same
effect
the star, one can use for the observation instead of a meri dian instrument a telescope furnished with a micrometer (which
this advantage, that the observation
be described in the seventh section). This method has can be repeated as often as one pleases and that it is not necessary to wait for the
will
culmination of the object, which moreover might happen at
daylight and thus frustrate the observation of a faint object. This method is therefore always used, if one wishes to ob
places of stars very near each other or For this purpose it planets and comets. is necessary to have a large number of stars determined, so as to be able to find under all circumstances stars, by which
serve the
relative
the places of
new
225
Therefore on the object can be micrometrically determined. this account as well as in general for an extensive knowledge
of the fixed
stars,
large collections of observations of stars
down
are
sible
to the ninth
and tenth magnitude have been made and
still
added to. In order to seize as many stars as pos and at the same time to facilitate the reduction of the
mean places, the observer takes every day only which form a narrow zone of a few degrees in such stars, declination and observes the clock times of transit and the circle  readings for every star. Such observations are called
stars to their
therefore
for
A table is then computed observations of zones. every zone, by which the mean place of every star for a certain epoch can be easily deduced from the observed
place and since such tables can be easily recomputed, when ever more accurate means for their computation, for instance
more accurate places of the stars, on which they are based, are available, the arangement of these observations in zones
is
of great advantage. If now t be the
observed transit of a star
z the circle reading,
over the
wire of the instrument,
to apply corrections to
it is necessary both in order to find the mean right
star for a certain epoch. the error of the clock, the deviation of the wire from the meridian, the reduction to the apparent
ascension and declination of the
We
must apply
to
t
place with opposite sign, and the precession in the interval between the time of observation and the epoch, whilst we
must apply
to z the polar point of the circle, the errors of flexure and division, the refraction and, as before, the reduction to the apparent place with opposite sign and the
precession.
Bessel has introduced a very convenient form
for tabulating these corrections. First a table is constructed, which gives for every tenth minute of the clock time t oc for
curring in the zone the declination
the values k and d of these corrections
D
corresponding to the middle
of the
zone, and besides another table, which gives the variations of these corrections for a variation of the declination equal
to
100 minutes. The mean right ascension and declination of any star for the assumed epoch is then found by the for
mulae
:
15
226
where Z denotes the circlereading corresponding
of the zone.
If
to the
middle
we denote by u and
by
e
ri
the error of the clock and
e
its
variation in one hour,
and
the deviation of the wire
from the meridian corresponding to the position Z and its variation for 100 minutes, by P the polar point, by o and the refraction and the errors of division and flexure, by and and s their variations for 100 minutes, at last by A
.&lt;?
(&gt;
&d
that
the
reductions to the apparent place and
if
we assume,
we have:
that the divisions increase in the direction of declination and
we
take as epoch the beginning of the year,
But according
A
to the
formulae in No. 3
we have:
)
= ~ h p
(sin
sin
(
G
)
+
a) tang
*
D + ^ sin
$ln
(
// +,a,, g
sec D,
C+
2
D
/&gt;
H
J
&
= g cos
h
7i
L lo
cosZ&gt;
la
/&lt;
cos
)
^100
(6r
h a) h
cos (ff\I&gt;
sin Z)
H
z
cos
Z&gt;
cos (H{ a) cos
100
i
sin Z)
100
I
hence we find:
~^
1
~s\\\(G{a}tgD
1
^si
i
la
cos
D~
(&gt;
1QO
,
+ la sin(ff
.9
*
tang 1*
,
cos
D
D
,
d=
d
= =F
P4(/
90
r
=F
H
*
cos
)
(G h
Z&gt;
a)
j
h cos (f/fi
)
sin
D
?
cos Z),
4
.s
[A cos
(//h
cos
100
sin
100
].
The
circle
error
of the
clock
and the
polar
point
of the
determined by any known stars, which occur in the zone, or by the standard stars, if any of them have been observed before and after observing the zonestars and if the O errors of the instrument, as well as the polar point and
are
the rate of the clock can either be considered as constant or
be interpolated from those observations.
The
values of
A,
1
227
k\ d and d are then tabulated for every tenth minute of the clock time t and may thus be easily interpolated for any
other value of
t.
ITT.
ON THE METHODS OF DETERMINING THE MOST PROBABLE VALUES OF THE CONSTANTS USED FOR THE REDUCTION OF THE PLACES OF THE STARS.
A.
Determination of the constant of refraction.
10. It was shown in No. 6, how the apparent zenith distances of stars are determined by observations which first must be cleared from refraction, in order to obtain the true
zenith distances.
If the zenith distance of a circumpolar star
be observed
at its
upper and lower culmination and corrected
for refraction as well as for the small variations of the aber
ration, nutation and precession in the interval between the two observations, the arithmetical mean of the two corrected zenith distances is equal to the complement of the latitude. Now if a set of such observations of different stars is made, all should give the same value for the latitude or at least only
such differences as may be attributed to errors of observation and casual errors of the refraction as mentioned in No. 13 of
the third section, provided that the adopted formula for the refraction and especially the adopted value of the constant
of refraction
is
true.
Hence
if
there are
they must enable us
tables
to correct the constants
any differences, on which the
of refraction, which are used for the reduction, are
f
based.
Denoting by z and
the
observed zenith
distances at
the upper and lower culmination, by r and o the refraction, we have for any north latitude the equations
:
S
(f
180
8
y&gt;
= = +
z =t= r
(&gt;,
where south zenith distances must be taken negative and where the upper or lower sign must be used, if the star at its upper
culmination be north
or
south of the zenith.
From
these
equations
we
find
:
15*
228
If another star be observed at both culminations
and the
able,
zenith
find
and z be found, we should be from the following two equations
distances
:
to
90.
and
,_+! +
=
and of that constant which in o (/, r and But the values thus found would be on account of the errors of observation only approximate besides equation (/) in No. 9 of the third section shows, that
the values of
r
cp
,
occurs as factor.
;
the refraction
is
but that
it
contains
it
not strictly proportional to the constant some other constants, the correct values
r&lt;
of which
is
desirable
to
determine
from
observations.
/",
which de pends on the decrease of temperature with the elevation above the surface of the earth, which however shall here be ne
Ivory
s
formula contains besides a the constant
glected, since its influence, which is always small, is felt only in the immediate neighbourhood of the horizon; but besides
this, like
all
e.
coefficient
for
other formulae for the refraction, it contains the the expansion of air by heat, which it is
also best to determine in this case
tions.
by astronomical observa
since the atmosphere has always a certain degree moisture and the expansion of the air depends on its state of
For
of moisture, therefore if we determine this coefficient from a large number of observed refractions, we shall obtain a value, which corresponds to a mean state of the atmosphere,
this value will give in observations as near as possible that value which would have been obtained, if the actual
and the refractions computed with
the
mean of
a
great
many
moisture
had been taken
of the atmosphere at the time of each observation into account. Now denoting the mean and
the true refraction by R and # , formula (12) of the third section:
we have according
50)]~
A
,
to
the
R
where
= R[B
/I
.
A
1
H q and
=
da
T]
A
[l
4f(r
1
ip.

From
7
this
we
get:
dR =
or taking:
dR
.
A(r50)

da
R
de
,
1
f K
(T
50)
229
a H da
r&gt;7
a
(1
f
,
s {^
de
=
e (I
+
i)
*J\rj
j..;
7**
But according
section
J7&lt;^56)*
to the formula (/) in
No. 9 of the third
we have:
(I
a) sins
2
The second term of
becomes significant only and if we put:
the second
member
of this equation
for zenith distances greater than
80
da
\
y
:
we can
take the values of y from the following table
y 60.5 43.2 29.5 19.0 14.8
^
We
have therefore:
If we assume therefore, that the values of the refraction, which have been used for computing formula (a), are erro neous and that the corrections are do and dr, we get:
f(l
if
we denote by
m
for
and u the values of
If

h
e

for the
1
(T
50)
upper and lower culmination.
imate value
r/
we
also
(f
,
the
true
value being
assume an approx f d ff r/
=
r/&gt;
()
and take:
we
obtain, combining the result of the
star,
upper and lower cul
mination of each
an equation of the following form:
+ dy
(6).
230
Now
the
the observations of the several stars will not have
same weight, since the accidental errors of observation
are the greater the nearer the star is to the horizon. Hence the probable error of an observation will generally increase with the zenith distance of the star. In case that the values
of d y, k and i were already known and were substituted in the equations, the quantities n would be the real errors of observation and hence the probable error of one observation
might be determined.
this
But
since these values are
unknown,
can only approximately be found from the deviations of If then the single observations from their arithmetical mean.
w and w
probable errors of an observation at the upper and lower culmination, all equations of the same star must be divided by Vw 1 + w ~ in order to give to the equations
are the
o*f
able
the several stars their true weight. In case that the prob errors should be found very different when the equa
tions have been solved, the
whole calculation may be repeated. Also stars culminating south of the zenith can be used for the for determining the correction i of the coefficient of air. For such stars we have according to the expansion
notation which
we used
d (?
before, taking the zenith distances
positive
:
?&gt;o
&lt;?o
+
&lt;?)
=
~
H
r
+
r
k
(lt
)
mri,
or taking:
&gt;,.
= +
~
r
H S
&lt;f&gt;
,
= n 4 d (8
If also
in this
y) h
r(l +
)
k
mri.
(c)
several stars
equations of the by corresponding weights and deduce the for the minimum from all equations of the same equations and star, we can eliminate the unknown quantities d ( J
case
we
multiply the
their
&lt;/)
/e,
so that each star gives finally an equation of the form: Mi. (d)
=N
But
cumpolar
the
find
a similar equation can be deduced from every cirstar observed at the times of both culminations, if
Hence we equations (6) are treated in a similar way. a number of equations of the form (d) equal to the number of observed stars, from which the most probable value
231
of
the
i
can be deduced
*).
By
this
method Bessel determined
quantity i and thus the coefficient of the expansion of air for a mean state of the moisture of the atmosphere from observations made at Koenigsberg. (Consult Bessel, Astrono
mische Beobachtungen, Siebente Abtheihmg, pag. X) and the by him is the one which was given before na 0.0020243 for one degree Fahrenheit, mely
value found
If
we
substitute
the
most probable value of
i
in
the
equations (6) or rather in the equations of the minimum, de duced for each star, we find from the combination of these equations corresponding to the several stars, the most prob able values of dy and A**).
If
it
quantity f into account,
the
dR
should be desirable, to take the correction of the it would be necessary to add to dR

term
h

df
or,
taking f\d f=f(I j/i), the term
f
=R
df
x
h,
where the values of x can be taken from the
following table:
B.
Determination of the constants of aberration and nutation and of the annual parallaxes of stars.
11.
The
aberration, nutation
and annual parallax are
the periodical terms contained in the expression for the ap parent places of the stars, hence their constants must be de termined by observing the apparent places of the stars at
different
times.
Aberration and parallax have the period of
*) As a change of temperature has the greatest effect upon low stars, it is not necessary to take for this purpose stars whose meridian altitude is greater than 60.
The equations given in the example in No. 25 of the introduction are which would have been obtained by giving all observations the same weight and taking the arithmetical mean of all equations of the same star. For the form of the equations after the correction of i has been applied, is
**)
those,
n H d(f f a k. But Bessel has referred all observations to the polar point not, as has been assumed here, to the zenith point of the circle, hence the
coefficient a differs
=
from the
coefficient of
k in the above equations.
232
a year and therefore
may be determined from
observations
But the principal term of nutation year. has a period of 18 years and 219 days, the time in which
the
made during one
moon
s
nodes perform an entire revolution.
Hence
the
constant of nutation can be determined only by observations distribued over a long series of years.
Since the apparent right ascensions of the polestar are very much changed by aberration and nutation on account of the large factors sec d and tang t) , their observations afford
the best means for determining these constants; for the same reason the parallax of the polestar can be determined in this
way with
great advantage.
cos
Putting:
cos a
sin
a
=a A = a cos
sin
4,
the formulae
in
for
aberration
and parallax
in right ascension
2
&lt;p
No. 16 and 18 of the
a
a
=
third section, can be thus written:
h
(fc
),
t
ka
sin
(0 + A) sec S + n a cos (0 t A) sec
where k and n are the constant of aberration and the parallax and (/e 2 ) denotes the terms of the second order. If scvcnil
&lt;/
observations are taken at the times
when
sin
(0 + A)
=
=t= 1
and hence the maximum of aberration occurs, an approxi mate value of k can be found by comparing the right ascen sions observed at both times after reducing them to the same mean equinox. But in order to obtain a more accurate value, the most probable value must be determined from a great many observations. Now the mean right ascension a and the assumed value of the constant k be erroneous by /\a and and &HA&. If then fA A&, the true values being denotes that value of the apparent right ascension, which has been computed from with the value k of the constant of aberration (the computed precession and nutation being supposed to be the true values) and to which the small terms dependent on the square of k and on the product of aber ration and nutation have also been added, since the effect of a change of k upon them is very small, and if further a
c&lt;
denotes the observed apparent right ascension,
a
we
+
have:
d,
=
f
AH A&sin (0 +
A)
sec S +
n a cos (0
A) sec
hence, taking:
233
every observation of the right ascension of Polaris leads to an equation of the following form:
=
f
f
Ak
.
a sin
(0 f A)
sec
4
TT
cos
(0 h 4) sec
tf,
and from all these equations the most probable values of A/ and TT can be determined according to the method of
least squares.
A?
Should these observations embrace a long period of years, in the constant of nutation, that is, the coefficient of cos the expression for the nutation of the obliquity can be deter mined at the same time. If we denote by i\v the correction
&lt;H
of this
coefficient,

we must add
to the
above equation the
has been given in
term

A r,
where the expression
for
,
No. 6 of the second section. The complete equation for de termining the aberration, parallax and nutation from the ob servation of an apparent right ascension is therefore:
=n
+
Af A&
sin
(0H4)
sec d
+ na cos (0K4) sec
(
""
{
A*
.
If for this
purpose the observations made
at
different
observatories are used, the probable errors of the observations of the several observers must be determined and the cor
this case also the
responding weight be given to the different equations. In correction A** may not be the same for
the observations of the several observatories, as the observed right ascensions may have a constant difference. Hence this
difference
must be determined and be applied
to the obser
etc. must be elim quantities A, A by the observations of each observatory. In this way von Lindenau determined the following va lues of the constants from right ascensions of Polaris ob served by Bradley, Maskelyne, Pond, Bessel and himself in
vations or the
unknown
inated separately
the course of 60 years k 448C
:
=
at
20".
v
=
8".
97707
TT
=
0".
1444,
Peters found later from
observations
made by Struve
to
andPreuss
Dorpat during the years 1822
20".
1838 the
fol
lowing values:
k ==
4255
v
=
9".
236 1
TT
=
0".
1724.
For the determination of these constants by declina
tions those of Polaris are also very suitable, as their accuracy
234
can be greatly increased by taking several zenith distances at every culmination of the star. If we introduce in this
case the following auxiliary quantities:
sin
a sin 8 cos
e
cos S sin cos
sin
e.
S
= =
l&gt;
sin
B
B,
b cos
the aberration in declination
is equal to &6 sin (O  #), the parallax equal to 71 b cos (Oh#). Then denoting by f) that value of the apparent declination which has been computed
from the mean declination with the constants of aberration and nutation k and v (the computed precession being taken as accurate) and to which the small terms dependent on the square of k and on the product of aberration and nutation have also been added further denoting the observed apparent declination by and taking # d n, every observation of
;
&lt;)
=
a declination leads to an equation of the following form:
=
and
n +
AS
f
&kb
sin
(0 + 7?)
7 J5
1
\
nb
cos
(Q H B}
H&lt;lr
A",
embrace a sufficiently long most probable values of /^o, A#, 71 and &v can be determined according to the method of least squares *). It was by such observations that Bradley discovered the aber
in case that the observations
period, the
ration.
He
;&gt;
observed
at
Kew
since the year 1725 principally
Draconis besides 22 other stars, .passing nearly the zenith of the place, and discovered a periodical through change of the zenith distance, which could not be explained
as being the effect of parallax, for the determination of which these observations were really intended. The true explanation of this change as the effect of the motion of the earth com
the star
bined with that of light was not given by him until later. for these observations, was a zenith sector, that is, a sector of very large radius, with
The instrument, which he used
which he could observe the zenith distances of stars a little over 12 degrees on each side of the zenith. The star y Dra conis, being near the north pole of the ecliptic, was espe cially suitable for determining the parallax and thus also the
*) If the stars have also proper motions, the terms
p(tt
)
and y(t
O
must be added
to the equations for right ascensions
p and
q are the proper motions in
and declinations, where right ascension and declination.
235
we have a 90 270, d and the maximum and minimum of the aberration and parallax in declination are equal to == k and =t= 7i.
aberration, as for this pole
,
=
=
hence
6=1
and
5=90
By
The
similar observations he discovered also the nutation.
observations embrace the time from the 19 th of
August
1727 to the 3 d of September 1747, hence an entire period of the nutation. Busch found from their discussion the constant
of aberration equal to Lundahl found the following 23. values from the declinations of Polaris observed at Dorpat by
20".
Struve and Preuss:
/,
=
20".
5508
r
=
9".
21 04
n
=
0".
1473.
The
Constans
minations
the second section
value of the constant of nutation given in No. 5 of is taken from Peters s pamphlet ^Numerus
Nutationis".
made by
was derived from the three deter Peters, Busch and Lundahl, the probable
It
errors of the single results being taken into account. But the value of the constant of aberration given in
of the third section
No. 16 o has not been deduced from the values
given above, but has been determined by Struve from the transits of stars across the prime vertical. For if an instru
ment
a star
is
is
placed exactly in the plane of the prime vertical arid observed on the wire on the east and west side*),
the interval of time divided by 2 is equal to the hour angle of the star at the transit across the prime vertical. If we de
note this by , we get from the right angled triangle between the zenith, the pole and the star:
tang
= tang y cos
find:
*,
hence
we
see
that
the
declinations of the stars can be de
Differentiating the formula
termined by such observations.
in a logarithmic form,
we
dd
.
sin 2
in t has the less influence the or the nearer to the zenith the star passes across the prime vertical. Hence if the zenith distance is very small, the declination of such a star can be determined this
and thus we see that an error
smaller
t
is
by
*)
See No. 26 of the seventh section.
236
method very
in
this
case
accurately. quite similar
The equations
to
for
each star are
again preferable to the pole of the ecliptic.
those given before and it is select for these observations stars near
method Struve found the 445 J, a value which un But his observations embrace too is exact. doubtedly very short a period for determining the constant of nutation, which however as well as the parallax might also be found by this method with a great degree of accuracy.
By
this
constant of aberration equal to
20".
The constant
of aberration
may
also be
computed from
the velocity of light and that of the earth according to No. 16 The mean daily motion of the earth of the third section.
has
been determined with great accuracy and
8".
is
equal to
light moves through a distance equal to the semidiameter of the earth s orbit, was first determined by Olav Koemer from the eclipses of the For he found in the year 1675, that satellites of Jupiter. which took place about opposition were ob those eclipses served 8 13 s earlier and those about conjunction as much
59
193.
The time
in
which the
later
Now as the difference than an average occurrence *). of the distances of Jupiter from the earth at both times is equal to the diameter of the earth s orbit, Rorner soon found
explanation, that the light does not move with an velocity and traverses the diameter of the earth s
the true
infinite
orbit in
16
111
26 s
.
If therefore
ning or the end of an eclipse
the time of the begin computed from the tables, then
it
T be
must be added
to
it
in
order to render
conformable to
the observations, the term
4
AA
where
verses
K
is
the
the number of seconds, in which the light tra semi diameter of the earth s orbit and A is the
distance of the satellite from the earth, the semi major axis If then 2 is of the earth s orbit being taken as the unit.
the time of the eclipse thus corrected, T the observed time, every eclipse gives an equation of the form:
*)
At the opposition the earth stands between Jupiter and the
it
sun, whilst
at conjunction the sun
between Jupiter and the earth.
237
and from a large number of such equations the most prob
able value of
dK
can be determined.
However
the observa
tions of the beginning and the end of an eclipse are always a little uncertain, since the satellites lose their light only gradually and as thus the errors of observation greatly de
pend upon the quality of the telescope, it is best, to com only such observations which have been made with the same instrument and also to treat the observations of Delambre found the beginning and of the end separately.
bine
a large number of observed eclipses of aberration equal to 20". 255, a value which according to Struve s determination is too small.
by a careful discussion of
the
constant
12.
still
The annual
parallax
of a
star
can be determined
by another method, if the change of the place of the star relatively to that of another star, which has no parallax,
be observed. This method
is
even preferable to the former,
because the relative places of two stars near each other can be measured with great accuracy by means of a micrometer
(as will
be
shown
in the seventh section)
and because the
upon the places of both stars is so nearly equal, that any errors in the adopted values of the constants can have no influence on the difference of the
effect of the small corrections
mean
It is true, this method gives places *). strictly only the difference of the parallaxes of both stars. But since is
may be
faint
taken for granted, that very faint stars are at a great distance, the parallaxes thus found, when one or several such
stars
have been chosen as comparison stars, can be
difference
considered as nearly correct.
If the
of right ascension and
declination of
both stars has
the
been observed, each observation freed from
small corrections gives two equations of the following form, taking the differences at the time t n equal to
and
&lt;y
o
cV
and denoting
a
()
(
)
and
&lt;)
r)
*)
In this case, when the stars are near each other,
it is
preferable, not
compute the mean place of each star, but to free only the difference of the apparent places from refraction, aberration, precession and nutation. The formulae necessary for this purpose will be given in VIII and IX of the
to
seventh section.
238
(&lt;$
d)
by n and w and the
errors of the adopted place
4 4) sec
A
and
&:
Htfa
cos
by
lQ
Usually however instead of the difference of the right and declinations of both stars their distance is observed and besides the angle of position, that is, the angle
ascensions
which the declination
circle
circle of
one star makes with the great
passing through both stars. If then a and 8 be the true right ascension and declination of one star, and
their values not freed
&lt;5
the right as cension and declination of the comparison star, we find the changes of the differences of the right ascensions and decli nations produced by parallax as follows:
a"
from parallax,
and
8"
d
d
("
)
=a
S
("
8)
8
R [cos Q sin a sin R [cos e sin a sin h 7t R sin S cos a cos 0.
TT
TT
= =
cos E cos a] sec
sin e cos S] sin
If then the true distance
and the true angle of position
("
be denoted by
A and
A
P,
sin
we have: P = cos S
)
AcosP=&lt;T
S
hence:
dA A rfP
If
= P cos = cos Pcosdd
sin
8d(a"
(a"
a)
+ cos P
&lt;/
(S"
5)
S).
a^
smPd
(S"
we
substitute
here the expressions given before and
take
?
:
M= M= m cos = A w 3/ =
cos
sin
w*
[
sin
a sin
cos
[sin
P f sin S cos a cos P, cos sin P f sin $ sin
P] cos f
cos S cos
P sin
e,
j\I
a cos
P
sin S cos a
sin
P]
,
sin
A
[
(cos
a cos Pf
sin
S sin a
sin
P) cos
e + cos
#
sin
P sin
f],
we
easily find:
dA
dP = 7tR m
f
= n R m cos (0
cos
M)
J/
).
(0
Therefore
distance
if
&lt;/A
denotes the correction
,
of the adopted
at the
time
d(/
the
correction
of the
adopted
value of the proper motion in the direction towards the other star, we find from the observed distances equations of the
form
:
= v+
&lt;/Ao
H
(t
&lt;o)
d? +7tRm cos
(0
M)
.
239
and from the angles of position equations of the form: f dP 4 (t } dq iTiR m cos (0 which must be solved according to the method of least squares. By this method Bessel first determined the parallax of 61
=
O
M
,
Cygni.
C.
Determination of the constant of precession and of the proper motions
of
the .stars.
13.
We
find the
change of the right ascension and de
t
,
clination of a star
if
we compute
da
d
T
by the precession during the interval the annual variations:
1
=
in f
n tg o sin
a
= cos
dl
dl,
c
da   
f
sm
dl.
E
~
tg o sin a
= n cos a = sm
e
cos
for the
time
and then multiply them by
a
is
t
t.
Now
since the numerical value of
known from
the theory of
the
secular perturbations of the planets,
(
we may determine
the lunisolar precession
either
from the right ascensions
or from the declinations, comparing the difference of the values found by observations at the time t and t with the above formula. Then if the places of the stars were fixed we should
find
stars
nearly the same value of the precession from different and the more exactly, the greater the interval is between
the observations, as any errors of observation would have the less influence. But since not only different stars but also
ascensions and declinations of the same star give values for the constant of precession, we must at tribute these differences to proper motions of the stars. As
the right
different
they are like the precession proportional to the time, they cannot be separated from it and the difficulty is still increased
by the
fact, that the proper motions, partly at least, follow
law depending on the places of the stars. Hence eliminate the proper motions only by comparing a number of stars distributed over all parts of the heavens large
a certain
we can
and excluding all those, which on account of their large proper motion give a very different value for the precession. The large number will compensate any errors of observation
240
entirely
and the
effect
of the
proper motions as
much
as
the proper motions are proportional to the time, possible. the uncertainty of the value of the precession arising from them remains the same, however great the interval between the
As
two compared catalogues of
stars
may
be, but
it
will
be
most important, that the catalogues are very correct and con tain a large number of stars in common and that the inter
is long enough so as to make any uncertainty arising from errors of observation sufficiently small. If then m and M O are the two values of m and n employed in comparing
val
()
the two catalogues, if further places of a star for the times
alogues, and
,
t
and a and are the mean and t\ given in the two cat
c)
&lt;)
A
alogues for a
ct
and /\d the constant differences of the cat and and if we take:
r)
+
O
4 w
()
tg
&lt;?
sin
)
(t
/)
a
=v
(t
and
every star gives two equations of the form:
ft
t
dm
+
dn
tg
sin
,
and
Q
= v ,,
t t
Therefore
in v
if
and
v
like
consider the proper motions embraced casual errors of observation, we may find
we
the most probable values of the unknown quantities from a large number of equations by the method of least squares. This supposition would be justified, if the proper motions
were not following a law depending on the places of the stars. But as it is very difficult, if not impossible, to introduce in the above equations a term expressing this law, a matter which shall be more fully considered afterwards, hardly any thing better can be substituted in place of that supposition,
provided that a large number of stars distributed over all then get from the right parts of the heavens be used.
We
ascensions a determination
tions a determination of n
;
of
m
it
and n, from the declina
is
but
the absolute
right ascensions, which
.
,
evident, that an error of is constant for every
i
catalogue, remains united with
T
,i
dm
7
and
as
dm
^ =cos
dl,

da
241
there remains also in
it
any error of the value of

arising
from incorrect values of the masses of the planets. But the from the right ascensions is dl sin determination of dn
(
independent of any such constant error, and besides the con stant difference of the declination may be determined. But
nations
since the supposition, that the latter is constant for all decli is not allowable , it is better to divide the stars in ,
zones of several degrees for instance of 10 of declination and to solve the equations for the stars of each zone sep
arately, and hence to determine the mean difference /\J for each zone. In this way Bessel in his work Fundamenta Astro
nomiae determined the value of this constant from more than 2000 stars, whose places had been deduced for 1755 and 1800 from Bradley s and Piazzi s observations. He found for 1750 the value 340499, which he afterwards changed
50".
according to the observations made at Koenigsberg 37572. (Compare Astron. Nachr. No. 92.)
50".
into
14.
at
The
differences of the places of the stars observed
two
different
epochs and the precession
in the
same
in
terval of time, which has been computed with the value of the constant determined as before, are then taken as the proper
motions of the
In general they may be accounted for stars. within the limits of possible errors of observation by the sup position, that the single stars are moving on a great circle
Halley first discovered in the year 1713 the proper motion of the stars Sirius, Aldebaran and Arcturus*). Since then the proper motions of a great many stars have been recognized with certainty and it is inferred,
that all stars are subject to such, although for most stars these motions have not yet been determined, since they are small and are still confounded with errors of observation. The
with uniform velocity.
in right ascension
greatest proper motions have 61 Cygni (whose annual change and declination amounts to 1 and 2),
5". 3".
a Centauri (whose annual motion in the direction of the two
in declination *) The last mentioned star has a proper motion of and has therefore changed its place since the time of Hipparchus more than one degree.
2"
16
242
coordinates
is 7".0 and 8) and 1830 Groombridge (which 2 in right ascension and 7 in declination). elder Herschel first discovered a law in the direction
0".
5".
moves
5".
The
of the proper motions of the stars, when comparing, a great many of them he observed, that in general the stars move from a point in the neighbourhood of the star A Herculis.
Hence he suggested
v
the hypothesis that the proper motions of the stars are partly at least only apparent and caused by a motion of the entire solar system towards that point of the
,
heavens
a hypothesis
,
which
is
well confirmed
by
later in
vestigations on
this subject.
The proper motions
two motions,
of the fixed
stars are therefore the result of
first
of the
mo
tion peculiar to each star, by which they really change their place according to a law hitherto unknown, and secondly of
the apparent or parallactic motion which is the effect of the on account of the motion motion of the solar system.
Now
peculiar to each star, stars in the same region of the celestial sphere may change their places in any direction whatever,
but the direction of the parallactic motion is at once de termined by the place of the star relatively to that towards
which the solar system
is
moving, and can be
easily calcu
and lated, if the right ascension and declination If we compare the direction, point are known.
for
A
D
of that
computed
any star, with the direction, which is really observed, we can etablish for each star the equation between the difference
of the computed and the observed direction and changes of the right ascension and declination A and D; and since those
liar
portions of these differences, which are caused by the pecu motions of the stars, follow no law and can therefore
like casual errors of observation, we can find from a large number of such equations the most probable values of dA and dD by the method of least squares. It is evident that the direction of the .parallactic portion
be treated
of the proper motion of a star coincides with the great circle, drawn through the star and the point towards which the solar system is moving, because the star, supposing of course
that the sun
is
moving
in a straight line,
is
always seen in
the plane parsing through it and the straight line described if we denote the motion of the sun during by the sun.
Now
243
the time
divided by the distance of the star by a, and then denote the right ascension and declination of the star
t t
at the
two epochs
t
and
t
by
,
8 and
star
the ratio
of the distances of the
d , and finally , from the sun at the
same epochs by Q, we have the following equations:
Q cos 8 cos a cos S sin a ()
1
sin
(&gt;
= = S =
cos S cos cos S sin
sin
ft
a cos
A cos D
A
cos
a sin a sin
Z),
D
S
from which we easily deduce:
cos S
= cos S
a cos
D cos
(
^4),
therefore
:
cos S (a
a)
= a cos D
sin
(
/&gt;
^1)
$
3=
a [cos $sin
sin
$cos
/) cos (
yl)].
spherical triangle between the pole of the equator, the star and the point, whose right ascen sion and declination are A and P, denoting the distance of
also in the
But we have
the star from that point
sin
sin
A A
P = cos D sin cos P = sin cos
sin
Z&gt;
by
A
(
and the angle
A)
cos
/&gt;
at the star
by P:
$
sin
S cos
(
A).
denote the angle, which the direction of the motion of the star makes with the declination circle, proper by /?, we have:
if
Now
we
cos S (a
a)
hence
we
see, that
p
=
1
80
P
or that the star
it
on a great
circle
passing through
right ascension and declination is A ing from the latter point. From the third of the differential formulae (11) in of the introduction, we have:
sin
is moving and the point whose and D, so that it is mov
No. 9
A
S cos
H
cos/
.
sin
A
[sin
D
cos S sin
D cos (a
A)} dA.
hence
:
sin

A
cosD 8 cos D cos S sin D cos (a A)] dA. 2 [sin sin A Therefore if p be the observed angle, which the direction of the proper motion makes with the declination circle, reck.
5
16*
244
oned from the north part of
so that:
it
through east from
(
to
360
cos 8
a)
and
if
further p be
the value
of. \
80
P computed
accord
ing to the formulae (#) with the approximate values D, we have for each star an equation of the form:
(
A and
A)

[sin
cosD
cos
sin
D cos (a
.
A)] dA,
or:
cos 8 sin (a
sin
A)
A
dD
sin
A
[sin
&lt;?cos
D
cos 8 sin
D cos
(
A}} dA,
and from a large number of such equations the most prob able values of dA and dD can be deduced.
In this way Argelander determined the direction of the motion of the solar system *). Bessel in his work ^Fundamenta Astronomiae" had already derived the proper motions
tions
all
of a large number of stars with those of Piazzi.
by comparing Bradley
s
observa
stars, which in the 1800 exhibited a proper motion greater than and deter mined their proper motions more accurately by comparing Bradley s observations with his own made at the observatory at Abo**). For determining the direction of the motion of the solar system he used then 390 stars, whose annual pro 1 These were divi per motion amounted to more than ded into three classes according to the magnitude of the pro per motions and the corrections dA and dD determined sep From those three results which arately from each class. with each other, he finally deduced the follow well agreed ing values of A and D, referred to the equator and the equi nox of 1800:
5"
Argelander selected from those interval of 45 years from 1755 and
0"
.
.
,
4
= 259
DLX
51
.
8 and
D = +
32
29
.
1
,
*)
Compare Astronom. Nachrichten No. 363.
Argelander,
stellarum
**)
fixarum positiones mediae ineunte anno
1830.
Helsingforsiae 1835.
245
and these agree well with the values adopted by Herschel. Lundahl determined the position of this point from 147 other
stars,
by comparing Bradley
.
s
places with
Pond
.
s
Catalogue
of 1112 stars and found:
From
the
4 = 252 24 4 and D 4 14 26 1. mean of both determinations, taking
.4
into ac
count their probable errors, Argelander found:
= 257
59
.
7 and
D = + 28
49
.
7.
were made by O. v. Struve and more recently by Galloway. Struve comparing 400 stars which had been observed at Dorpat with Bradley s catalogue, found
Similar investigations
:
4 = 261
23 and
D = f37
36
.
Galloway used for his investigations the southern stars, and comparing the observations made by Johnson on St. Helena and by Henderson at the Cape of Good Hope with
those of Lacaille, found:
A = 260
1
and
D = 4 34 D = + 39
23
.
Another extensive investigation was made who found from a very large number of stars:
by Madler,
4 = 261
38
.
8 and
53
.
9
these values agree well with each other, it seems that the point towards which the solar system is moving, is
Since
all
now known
with great accuracy, at least as far as able considering the difficulties of the problem.
15.
it is
attain
We
parallactic
therefore assume, that the direction of the proper motion of a star, computed by means of
may
the formula:
cos
sin
D sin (a
cos
/&gt;,
4)
4)
with a mean value
D cos 8 of A and
D sin $ cos (a
is
nearly correct.
If now,
besides, the amount of this portion of the proper motion were known for every star, we should be able to compute for every star the annual change of the right ascension and de
this
caused by this parallactic motion, and could add the equations given in No. 13 for determining the constant of precession. The amount of this parallactic mo
clination,
to
tion
hence
must necessarily depend on the distance of the star, if the latter were known, we could determine the par
246
allactic
motion
corresponding
to
a
certain
distance.
For
since those equations are transformed into the following:
= v h dm
and
H dn
tg
8
sin
h
l\
~ 
COS 0Q
Z)
)
sin (
A)
O^^ fdn,, cos
sin
h
#
sin
(
where S
$ cos
(
= g cos A) = g G,
Cr
,
sin
we
that
could find,
is,
to the
if A were known, from these equations A;, the motion of the sun as seen from a distance equal adopted unit and expressed in seconds, and besides
we
should find the values of
stars
dm
and dn
v.
t)
free
from
this
parallactic proper motion of the
stars.
Now
since the dis
tances of the
for
are
unknown, O.
Struve substituted
A hypothetical values of the mean distances of the dif ferent classes of stars, which had been deduced by W. v.
Struve in his work, Etudes de FAstronomie stellaire from the number of stars in the several classes *). Struve then com
pared 400 stars which had been observed by W. v. Struve and Preuss at Dorpat with Bradley s observations and, at first neglecting the motion of the solar system, he found for the
corrections of the constant of precession from the right as censions and declinations two contradicting results, one being
But taking the proper motion the other negative. of the sun into account he found the corrections fl".16
positive,
from the right ascensions and and hence, taking into account
the value
50".
40".
66 from the declinations
of the constant
their probable errors, he found of precession for 1790 equal to
23449 or greater than Bessel had found it by 0.01343. Further he found for the motion of the sun, as seen from a
point
the distance of the stars of the first magnitude, from the right ascensions and 0".357 from the decli But although these values of the constant of pre nations. cession and of the motion of the solar system are apparently of great weight, it must not be overlooked, that they are
at
0".321
based on the hypothetical
ratio
of the distances of stars of
*)
According
to this, the distance of a star of the first
1,
that of the stars of the second
fifth
the fourth 3.76, the
magnitude being 1.71, that of the third 2.57, 5.44, the sixth 7.86 and the seventh 11.34.
magnitude
is
247
different magnitudes.
of,
that
the
cannot be entirely approved number of stars used for this determination,
Besides
it
which are nearly
If
it
all double stars, is so very small. should be desirable for a more correct determina
tion of the constant of precession, to take the motion of the solar system into account, it may be better, not to introduce the ratios of the distances of stars of different magnitude
according to any adopted hypothesis, but rather to divide
the
stars
proper
classes according to their magnitude or their motions, and to determine for each class a value of
into
and the correction of the constant of precession.
values of
for
The
values
will
a
thus found can be considered as
classes
mean
these different
and the values of
m
and n
then be independent at least of a portion of the parallactic motion, which will be the greater, the more nearly equal the
distances
of the stars
of the
same
class
are
*).
Even
the
corrections of
A and D might
be found in this way, since the
equations in this case would be, taking
=a
(
:
= ^4 dm
= v idn
from
n
+
dn tang d
sin
~
cos
cos o
f [cos
A) ad A
D  sin DdD]
+
cos
g cos (G
D) adD
cos
D sin$
sin
(
A) ad A
hags m(GD)
which the most probable values of a, ad A, adD, and dn can be determined for each class. In case, that Struve s ratio of the distances be adopted, the un
dm
(t
()
known
quantity a after multiplying the factor by
would
*) The author has undertaken this investigation already many years ago The proper motions were deduced from a without being able to finish it. of Henderson s observations made at Edinborough with those of comparison
Bradley.
The
for
following
mean
values were found for the annual parallactic
0".06S9S5 =t=
motions of stars of several classes:
32 75
71
stars of
magnitude
4.3.
4.
0.010964
0.006584 0.006925
0.002446.
0".069715=t=
4.5.
5.
0".046Sll=t=
0".029043
0".3
284
Stars,
whose annual proper motion exceeds
this investigation.
of arc,
were excluded
in
making
248
be the same for
all
classes.
Airy
s
pamphlet
in the
(Compare on this subject also Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical
Society Vol.
16.
XXVIII.)
present
At
we always assume
that the proper
mo
tions of the stars are proportional to the time and take place on a fixed great circle. But the proper motions in right as
cension and declination are variable on account of the change
of the fundamental plane to which they are referred, and it is necessary to take this into account, at least for stars very
near the pole.
The
ferred
to
formulae, which express the polar coordinates re the equinox at the time t by means of the co
referred to another equinox at the time No. 3 of the second section:
(
,
ordinates
are ac
cording to
cos
sin
jf
a
a
sin
2
cos S cos
(
z)
= S = cos S cos 8 = cos S cos
)
cos
sin (a f
a
+ z)
(a
(
+
a +a
z)
cos
sin
+
sin sin
S
sin
f
f z)
S cos 0,
where a denotes the precession produced by the planets dur and 3, z and are auxiliary quantities ing the time t obtained by means of the formulae (yl) of the same No. Since the proper motions are so small, that their squares and products may be neglected, we obtain by the first and third formulae (11) in No. 9 of the introduction, remembering that the formulae above are derived from a triangle the sides of 8 and S and the angles of which # 90 which are 90 a are a f a + z, 1 80 a t z and c
, ,
:
cos $
AS A
= cos =
c
&
sin
sin
(
4 a
A&lt;*
z)
A
sin c
&d +
cos S cos c
or if sin c and cos c be expressed in terms of the other parts of the triangle:
fa
=A = =A =A
[cos
h sin
tang S cos (
ha
2
)]
+ coso sin
+ sin
S1D
^~t a
cos o
~
z&gt;
}
(a)
A&lt;9
A
sin
sin
(
+a
z
)
h
.
cos o
cos S [cos
tang S cos
(
+
a
)]
and
A
in the
[cos
same manner:
sin
tang 8 cos (a H a 4 z)}
cos
a
sin
s&gt;
cos o
(6)
A0
sin (9 sin (a f
a z)
H
^.cosS [cos coso
si
249
Example. The mean right ascension and declination of Polaris for the beginning of the year 1755 is:
a
= 10
in
55
44".
955
8
= 4 87
59
41"
*12.
By
application
of the precession the
was computed
No. 3 of the second section
12
9 17
place of Polaris for 1850 Jan. 1,
680.
and found to be:
=16
But
56".
S
= 488
30
34".
in Bessel s
= 16
The
Tabulae Regiomontanae
19".
15
530
8
= 488
this place is:
34".
30
898.
and S between these two values of arises from the proper motion of Polaris, which thus amounts to { 2 613 in right ascension and to 40". 218 in de The annual clination in the interval from 1755 to 1850. motion of Polaris referred to the equator of 1850 is proper
difference
22".
therefore
:
A
If
tion
=
41".
501 189
A
&lt;?
=
40".
002295.
we wish
to find
from
this, for
example, the proper
it
mo
of Polaris referred to
the equator of 1755,
(6).
must be
computed by means of the formulae
But we have:
=
31
45".
600
a\a
+ z=ll
:
32
9".
530
and with
this
we
obtain
1".
A
= 4
10836
A&lt;?
=
hO".
005063.
proper
In the case of a few stars the assumption of an uniform motion does not satisfy the observations made at
different epochs, since there would remain greater errors, than can be attributed to errors of observation. Bessel first
discovered this variability of the proper motions in the case
of Sirius and Procyon, comparing their places with those of stars in their neighbourhood, and he accounted for it by the
attraction of large the neighbourhood
but invisible bodies
of those stars.
of great masses in
on
tral
this hypothesis, Peters at
Basing his investigations Altona has determined by means
of the right ascensions of Sirius its orbit round such a cen body and has deduced the following formula, which ex presses the correction to be applied to the right ascension
of this star:
q
= Os
.
127 4
.
00050
(t
1800) 4 0* 171 sin ( M 4 77
.
44
) ,
250
where the angle u
is
M
found by means of the equation:
(*
7
.
1865
1791 431)
.
=u
.
7994
sin u
and where 7. 1865
central body.
is
the
mean motion
of Sirius round the
By
this
according
Sirius
to
the application of the correction computed formula the observed right ascensions of
Safford at Cambridge agree well with each other. has recently shown, that the declinations of Sirius exhibit the same periodical change, and that the following correction must be applied to the observed declination:
,?
=
f0".56hO".0202(*
1
800)
r
1".
47
sin w
40".
51 cos
M,
where u
Of
is
the same as in the formula above
*).
*)
great interest in regard to this matter
is
the discovery,
made
re
cently by A. Clarke of Boston, of a faint
companion of
Sirius at a distance
of about 8 seconds.
FIFTH SECTION.
DETERMINATION OF THE POSITION OF THE FIXED GREAT CIRCLES OF THE CELESTIAL SPHERE WITH RESPECT TO THE HORIZON OF A PLACE.
has been already shown in No. 5 and 6 of the prece ding section, how the position of the fixed great circles of the celestial sphere can be determined by means of a merid
It
ian
instrument.
For
if
so that the line of collimation
is
the instrument has been adjusted describes a vertical circle, it
brought in the plane of the meridian (i. e. the vertical circle of the pole of the equator is determined) by observing the circumpolar stars above and below the pole, since the in
terval
between the observations must be equal to 12 h of sidereal time f A where A is the variation of the apparent place in the interval of time. Further the observation of the zenith
9
distances of a star at both culminations gives the colatitude, since this is equal to the arithmetical mean of the two zenith
distances corrected for refraction h A^, where
A^
is
the varia
tion of the apparent declination during the interval between If the culmination of a star, whose right the observations.
known, be observed, the apparent right ascension equal to the hour angle of the vernal equinox or to the sidereal time at that moment. If a similar obser vation is made at another place at the same instant, the dif ference of both times is equal to the difference of the hour
ascension
is
of the star
is
angles of the vernal equinox at both places or to their dif ference of longitude, and it remains only to be shown, by what means the determinations of the time at both places
are
made simultaneously or by which at least the difference of the time of observation at both places becomes known.
These methods, which are the most accurate as well as
the most simple, are used,
when
the observer can
employ a firmly
252
mounted meridian instrument. But the position of the zenith with respect to the pole and the vernal equinox may also be determined by observing the coordinates of stars, whose places are known, with respect to the horizon, and thus va rious methods have been invented, by which travellers or seamen can make these determinations with more or less ad vantage according to circumstances and which may be used on all occasions, when the means necessary for employing the methods given before are not at hand.
We have the following formulae expressing the relations between the altitude and azimuth of a star, its right ascen sion and declination and the sidereal time and the latitude
:
= cotangvl =
sin h
sin
&lt;p
sin
8
+
cos
&lt;f
cos S cos
(0
a)
a),
cos
a&gt;
tang S
)
sm (0
~ t sin d cote (0
if
These equations show, that
time
the latitude
is
known, the
may be determined by
the observation of an altitude or
azimuth of a star, whose right ascension and declination are known, and conversely the latitude can be determined, if the time is known, therefore by the observations of two altitudes or azimuths both the latitude and the time can be determined. The observations used for this purpose must be freed from refraction and diurnal parallax (if the observed object is not a fixed star) and the places of the stars must be
apparent places.
tions
The instruments used
for
these
observa
are
altitude
and azimuth instruments, which must be
is
corrected so that the line of collimation, when the telescope turned round the axis, describes a vertical circle (see
No. 12 of the seventh section), or, if only altitudes are taken, reflecting circles are used, by which the angle between the star and its image reflected from an artificial horizon, one half of which is equal to the altitude, can be measured. When an alti tude and azimuth instrument is used, the zenith point of the circle is determined by means of an artificial horizon, or the star is observed first in one position of the instrument, and again
after
if
it
has been turned 180
round
its
vertical axis.
For
and
f
are
the
circle readings
in those
two
positions,

corresponding to the times
&
and
/,
and
if
r^
and 
a
are
253
the differential coefficients of the zenith distance
(I,
25) cor
responding to the time
=
,
assuming that
in the first
tance
position the divisions increase in the direction of zenith dis and denoting the zenith point by Z, then the circlereadings reduced to the arithmetical mean of both times are:
*
+Z=$+
.

(0
 0)  1
\
(0
 &,)
&gt;
Hence the zenith distance metical mean of the times is:
z
(}
corresponding to the arith
Finally in
reflected
case that the
artificial
object
is
is
observed direct arid
since the first
a rZ:
2
6&gt;)
from an
horizon,
we have,
then
z

member
of the second equation
180"
90* =
J
(5
)HI
j^
a
9
*).
In order to observe the azimuth by such an instrument, the reading of the circle corresponding to the meridian or
the zero of the azimuth must be determined, and this be sub tracted from or added to all circle readings, if the divisions G
increase or decrease in the direction of the azimuth.
I.
METHODS OF FINDING THE ZERO OF THE AZIMUTH AND THE TRUE BEARING OF AN OBJECT.
muth
its
The simplest method of finding the zero of the azi consists in observing the time, when a star arrives at greatest altitude above the horizon, and for this purpose
1.
one observes the sun with an altitude and azimuth instrument,
*) It is supposed here, that exactly the same point of the circle cor For the sake of examining this, a responds to the zenith in both positions.
whose bubble changes its position, as soon any fixed line of the circle changes its position with respect to the vertical line. Such a level indicates therefore any change of the zenith point and affords at the same time a means for measuring it. (See No. 13 of the se
spirit level is fastened to the circle,
as
venth section.)
254
and assumes that the sun
ceases to
is
change
it
its
altitude.
on the meridian as soon as it This method is used at sea
to find approximately the
cessarily
is
of apparent noon, but ne because the altitude of the sun, very uncertain,
is
moment
slowly. that of observing the greatest dis tance of the circumpolar stars from the meridian. According to No. 27 of the first section we have for the hour angle of
being at
its
maximum, changes very
Another method
the star at that time:
cos
t
tang 
(f
J tang o
circle
or tang ^
is
t
2
m(d = .^r sm
s
&lt;p)
(o +
^
cp)
&gt;
and the motion of the
since
star
is
then vertical to the horizon,
the
vertical
if
Therefore
tangent to the parallel circle. one observes such a star with an azimuth in
strument, whose line of collimatiou describes a vertical circle, the telescope must in general be moved in a horizontal as well as a vertical direction in order to keep the star on the
vertical
wirecross, and only at the time of the greatest distance the If the reading of motion alone will be sufficient.
the azimuth circle
a
,
a in this position of the instrument and when the same observation is made on the other side of the
is
meridian,
^~
is
the reading of the circle corresponding to
It is best to
its
the zero of the azimuth.
use the polestar for
these observations on account of
slow motion.
third method for determining the zero of the azimuth is that of taking corresponding altitudes. For as equal hour angles on both sides of the meridian belong to equal altitudes, it fol
A
lows, that if a star has been observed at two different times at the same altitude, then two vertical circles equally distant from the meridian are determined by this. Therefore if we
observe a star at the wire cross of an azimuth instrument, read the circle and then wait, until the star after the cul mination is seen again at the wirecross, then if the altitude
of the telescope has not been changed but merely its azimuth, the arithmetical mean of the two readings of the circle is
the zero of the azimuth.
in the time
If the sun, whose declination changes between the two observations, is observed, a cor rection must be applied to the arithmetical mean of the two
readings.
For, differentiating the equation:
255
sin
8
=
sin
90
sin h
cos
cp
cos h cos A,
taking only
A and
8 as variable, cos dS _
cos
(p
we have:
dS
cos
9?
cos h sin 4
sin
denotes the change of the declination in the time between the two observations, we must subtract
if
Therefore
A^
from the arithmetical mean of the two readings:
2 cos if
(p
cos h sin
A
2 cos
&lt;f&gt;
sin
t
the divisions increase in the direction of the azimuth.
The fourth method is identical with that given in No. 5 of the fourth section for adjusting a meridian circle. For if we observe the times at which a circumpolar star arrives at the
same azimuth above and below the pole, the plane of the telescope coincides with the meridian, if the interval between the observations is 12 h of sidereal time fA, where A is the change of the apparent place in the interval of the two times. But if this is not the case, the azimuth of the telescope is
found in the following way. If the azimuth be reckoned from the north point instead of the south point, we have for
the first observation:
cos h sin
cos h cos
A = cos 8 sin A = cos sin S
t
rp
sin
&lt;p
cos 8 cos
,
and for the second observation below the pole:
cos h sin cos h cos
A = cos
A
= cos
S sin
rp
t
sin
S
sin
&lt;p
cos 8 cos
t
.
Adding the
first
the second equation
the third and subtracting from the fourth, and then dividing the
equation to
two resulting equations we
tang
easily find:
i_ _JLl_&gt;
sin
&lt;p
A = cotang ^ (t
t
t)
L
.
In case that
time,
t
is
A
as well as
90
\
nearly equal to 12 hours of sidereal are small angles, and since (*
(p
then
I (7i +/& )
and
(h
h ) are nearly equal to
and 90
d,
we
get:
cos
cp
tang 8
not necessary for applying any of .these methods to know the latitude of the place or the time, or at least they need be only very approximately known. But in case they
2. It is
256
are correctly
known, any observation of a
star,
whose place
with an azimuth instrument, gives the zero of is known, the azimuth, if the circle reading is compared with the azi
muth computed from the two equations:
cos h sin cos h cos
7
A
A=
= cos
sin
t
V&gt;
cos
cp
sin o + sin
I
(p
cos o cos
^
(fl)
t
In
it
case that a set of such observations has been made,
not necessary to compute the azimuth for each obser vation by means of these formulae, but we can arrive at the same result by a shorter method. Let 0, (~j\ etc., be the
is
0"
be several times of observation, whose number is w, let the arithmetical mean of all times and A the azimuth cor
l}
responding to the time
,
then
we
have:
A
and since
= A* +
t
(&ej + $
etc.
6&gt;
2
6&gt;
d
(6&gt;
)
,
S
@
h
(")
f etc.
=
n
0,
2
)
we
find:
...
,
d\A [(0 0
t(0
2

?
)
K.."
rf?
_
n
_
di*
7
n L~ 2 2 sinj (0 0J
J
where
tities
2 2 sin
\{S
2 sin
(6&gt;
of ^
in
(#
# o )2
denotes the sum of all the quan These have been introduced instead ) on account of the small difference and because
@,,)
&
2
.
all
collections
of astronomical
tables
,
for
instance
in
5,Wariistorff
s Hulfstafeln",
convenient tables are given, from
which we can take the quantity 2 sin 2 \ t expressed in sec onds of arc, the argument being t expressed in time. Now we have accordin to No. 25 of the first section:
d A dr
l

cos
cp
sin
r
AQ
cos A
if
[cos A
r
sin o f a cos
y&gt;
.
,
cos
A
a \.
Therefore
we add
v
to the arithmetical
mean of all read
2
) 
ings of the circle the correction:
cos
(p
sin
A
,
cos
[cos h
sin
2 + o cos
.
(f
cos ,d t ]
,
^2 
sin(6&gt;
6&gt;
find the value 4 19 which we must compare with the muth computed by means of the formulae (a) for t=&
we
azi
a.
()
257
Differentiating the equation (a) or using the differential formulae given in No. 8 of the first section, we find:
dA =
hence we
see,
cos

cos p r
sin
dt
cos h
tang A sin
yJ
d&lt;p\
p
.
.
cos h
dS,
that
it
is
especially advisable to observe the
polestar near the time of its greatest distance from the me 90 and A is nearly 180, ridian, because we have then p
=
Then an error of the time except very high has no influence and an error of the assumed latitude only a very small influence on the computed azimuth and hence
in
latitudes.
on the determination of the zero of the azimuth.
If the zero of the azimuth has been determined, we 3. can find the bearing of any terrestrial object*). This can also be determined, though with less accuracy, by measuring the distance of the object from any celestial body, if the time, the latitude and the altitude of the object above the horizon
are
known.
For
servation
if
is
the hour angle of the star at the time of the ob known, w e can compute according to No. 7 of
r
the
first
section
its
altitude h
then in the triangle formed by the
terrestrial object:
cos
and azimuth a, and we have star, the zenith and the
Hcos
(a
A
=
sin A sin
H
f
cos h cos
A}
where H and A are the altitude and the azimuth of the object and A is the observed distance**). We find therefore a A from the equation
cos
cos (a
A
sin h sin
H
,
A)
cos h cos
H
(A)
hence also the azimuth of the object A^ since a is known. The equation (^4) may be changed into another form
more convenient
For
if
for logarithmic computation.
For we have:
*)
this
a correction
is
object,
the
telescope
is necessary, dependent on the distance of the See No. 12 of fastened to one end of the axis.
the seventh section.
To the computed value of h the refraction must be added, and observed, the parallax must be subtracted from it. Likewise is apparent altitude of the object, which is found by observation.
**)
is
if
the the
sun
H
17
258
A)==
,
1 +
cos fa
N
cos (//h
/&lt;)
f
cos
cos h cos //
TT
~A
A
and
:
1
cos fa
A)
A
.
= cos(H cos
(A (A h //H;
A)
=
h cos
^ H
cos
hence
:
/ tang 4 (a
.
jl)
A
^
= cos
sin
44
 ^4 A)
=7
7i
sin
TTT
A]
cos
j (A 4r7zi/~T~r (// h A
H
A)
7Q A\
or taking:
tang
4
(a
Ay
=
sin OS
JJ) sin OS
A
70
,
.
cos
is
cos (S
T^"
(*)
A)
If the terrestrial object
in the horizon, therefore
#=0,
we have
simply:
tang
,V (
AY
get:
= tang ^ (A 4
/O tang
4 (A
/&lt;)
Differentiating the formula for cos A? taking a
A and
&
as variable,
we
cos A cos 77 sin
(17
^4)
and from
I.
No. 8:
da
S = coscos cos p A
.
at.
Hence we see, that the star must not be taken too far from the horizon, in order that cos h may not be too small and errors of the time and distance may not have too great an influence on A. If two distances of a star from a terrestrial object have been observed, the hour angle and declination of the latter can be determined and also its altitude and azimuth.
For
the
if
we
denote the hour angle and the declination of
7),
object
by T and
the
we have
and the
in the spherical triangle
same for the star by t and J, formed by the pole, the star
cos
terrestrial object: sin d sin cbs A
=
L&gt;
r
cos
D cos
(t
J ).
1
tions,
Then, if A is the interval of time between both observa which in case of the sun being observed must be ex pressed in apparent time, we have for the second distance
the equation:
cos
A
A
=
sin
sin
D h cos S cos D cos
we
r
(t
T+
/).
From
these equations
can find
D
and
t
T, as will
259
be shown for similar equations in No. 14 of this section. If then the hour angle t at the time of the first observation be
computed, we can find T and /), and then by means of the formulae in I. No. 7 A and H.
II.
METHODS OF FINDING THE TIME OR THE LATITUDE BY AN
OBSERVATION OF A SINGLE ALTITUDE.
4.
If the altitude of a star,
observed and the latitude of the place hour angle by means of the equation:
cos
t
whose place is known, is is known, we find the
sin
=
sin h
sin
&lt;p
a?
8
cos
cos o
In order to render this formula convenient for logarith
mic computation, we proceed in the same way as in the pre ceding No. and we find, introducing the zenith distance in
stead of the altitude:
i
p.
,2
__
sin
?( z
(z
&lt;P
cos \
H
(p
H
8) cos
4^
(gp
H 8
z)
or:
cos
\,
~
&lt;S
sn
cos
f
~
z}
.
where
S
=
(*S
(z +
&lt;p
$)
The sign of is not determined by this formula, but t must be taken positive or negative, accordingly as the altitude is taken on the west or on the east side of the meridian.
If the right ascension of the star is
real time of the observation
,
we
find the side
from the equation:
is
0=*ho,
but
if
the sun
was observed, the computed hour angle
the
apparent solar time. Dr. Westphal observed in 1822, Oct. 29, at Example. Abutidsch in Egypt the altitude of the lower limb of the sun:
h
=
33"
42
18".
7
at the
clocktime 20 16 m 20 s
1
.
altitude must first be freed from refraction and pa but as the meteorological instruments have not been rallax; observed, only the mean refraction equal to 1 26".4 can be used, which is to be subtracted from the observed altitude.
The
17*
260
Adding
meter of the sun 16
centre of the sun:
also the parallax in altitude 9 and the semidia we find for the altitude of the 7,
6".
8".
h
= 33
13
57
7".
9.
Now
the latitude
of Abutidsch
is
27 5
0"
and the de
clination of the sun was on that day: 38
11".
1
hence we have:
,S
y
= f7
s
s
39
50".
5,
&lt;?
=
h48"
23
1".
and the computation
is
made
as follows:
cos
m(S m(S
9.1250385
y&gt;)
S
z)
9.9146991 9.9G92707
8)
9.8736752 8.9987137
cos (S
9.8839698
2
tang 4
*
9.1147439
t *
t
= = =
tang
4*
9.5573719
19
50
41
37".
98
39
2s
15
"
.96
.
38
45 s
06.
"
h apparent time of the observation is 21 21 m 8s 14 9, and since the equation of time is 16 7, the mean time is 21 h 5 m 6 s 2. The chronometer was therefore 48 in 46 s 2
Hence
the
s
.
.
.
.
too fast,
or
f
48
"
46 s 2 must be added to the time of the
.
chronometer
in order to get
mean
time.
Since the declination and the equation of time are va riable, we ought to know already the true time, in order to
interpolate, for
computing
,
the values of the declination, and
afterwards the value of the equation of time, corresponding to the true time. But at first we can only use an approx imate value for the declination and the equation of time, and
when
the true time
is
approximately known,
it
is
necessary,
to interpolate these values with greater accuracy
and
to re
peat the computation. The correction which must be applied to the clocktime, in order to get the true time, is called the error of the clock*
whilst the
ferent times
time.
Its
difference
is
of the errors of the clock at two dif
called the rate of the clock in the interval of sign is always taken so, that the positive sign
designates, that the clock is losing, and the negative sign, that the clock is gaining. If the interval between both times
261
is
h equal to 24
/
and
/\
u
is
the rate of the clock in this
it
24 hours, considering time, means of the formula: form, by 24 A u AM ~~
find the rate for 24
7
wo
to
be uni
~^T_
24
Differentiating the original equation:
sin h
=
sin
&lt;f
sin
8 H cos
cos $ cos
&lt;p
,
we
find according to
I.
No. 8:
cos
dh
=
cos
Adcp
cos 8 sin
p
dt&lt;
or since:
sin
7&gt;
= cos
&lt;f&gt;
sin A
we
get:
cos
(p
sm
clh
^4
cos
y tang
A
A
The value
the nearer
is
of the coefficients
of
dh and
d([&gt;
is
the less,
tangent hence an error of the latitude has no influence on the hour angle and thus on the time found, if the altitude is
infinity,
A
is =t=
90. In
this case the value of the
taken on the prime vertical.
Since then also sin
A
is
a
max
imum, and hence the
coefficient of
dh
is
a
minimum, an error
of the altitude has then also the least influence on the time.
Therefore, in order to find the time by the observation of an altitude, it is always advisable, to take this as near as possible
to the
prime
vertical.
Since the coefficient of
it
dh can
also be written
cos o sin/?
evident, that one must avoid taking stars of great de clination and that it is best to observe equatoreal stars.
is
If
for the
we compute
s
the values of the differential coefficients
first
above example, we find
by means of the formula
25 8
.
m^ =
dt
8
*
S
n(
:
^ = 48"
cos h
and then
= h 1.5013 dh h 0.9966
cly
or dl expressed in seconds of time: dt i 0.1001 dh t 0.0664
dtp.
Therefore
arc,
s
.
if
the
t
error of the altitude be one second of
the
error
of
to
would be
s
.
10,
whilst an error of the
latitude
equal
1"
produces an error of the time equal to
07.
262
Besides
the less
we
advisable to
&lt;^,
see from the differential equation, that it is find the time by an altitude, the less
the value of cos
the pole,
and hence, the
cp
less the latitude
is.
Near
where cos
is
very small, the method cannot be
used
at
all.
In case that several altitudes or zenith distances have 5. been taken, it is not necessary, to compute the error of the clock from each observation, unless it is desirable to know how far they agree with each other, but the error of the clock may be found immediately from the arithmetical mean of
all zenith distances. However, since the zenith distances do not increase proportionally to the time, it is necessary, either
apply to the arithmetical mean a correction, as was done in No. 2, in order to find from this corrected zenith distance the hour angle corresponding to the arithmetical mean of the
to
clocktimes, or to apply a correction to the hour angle com puted from the arithmetical mean of all zenith distances.
r etc. be the clocktimes, at which the zenith whose number be n, are taken let T be the arith distances, metical mean of all, and Z the zenith distance belonging to
r,
,
r",
Let
;
the time 7 , then
1
we have
:
etc.,
where
since r
t
is
the hour
Tt r
angle corresponding to the time 7
Tj..
T
,
or
Tfr"
.=0:
._...
_ ^z
(it*
_
,.
n
n
If
we
substitute here the expression for
section, h z h 42"
2
found
in
No. 25
of the
/j
first
we
. .
finally get
:
=:
z
.
cos^cosw
sin
??.
^Z
cos^l cos p
^2sin^(r
n
TV
.
With
this
corrected
zenith
distance
we ought
to
com
pute the hour angle and from this the true time, which com pared with T gives the error of the clock. But if we com
263
the uncorrected arithmetical mean pute the hour angle with of the zenith distances, we must apply to it the correction:
dt cos
dz
cos (p cos ^
sin
Z
A
cos
/&gt;
2 2 sin \
(r
7 )2
1
n
or
the
if
we
substitute for
section,
^ dz
A
t
its
value according to No. 25 of
7
first
we
find this correction expressed in time:
JfJ^sin
;
cos p cos
[
(r
T
2
)
, .
15 sin
n
where
A and p
are found
sin
by means of the formulae:
sin
.
A=
p
t
smZ
sin
t
cos o
2
and
sin
= smZ cos
if.
These,
cos p
;
it
is
true,
but
we can
do not determine the sign of cos A and easily establish a rule by which we may
always decide about the sign of the correction (). If the hour angles are not reckoned in the usual way, to 180", the cor but on both sides of the meridian from
0"
rection
is
always
to
be applied to the absolute value of
,
and
cos
its
A
of the product sign will depend only upon the sign if cos p and cos A cos p, which is positive or negative,
have the same or opposite signs.
/
sin
1
&lt;K
Now we
sm
,
have:
cos
~
cos p
=
sin OP
I
cos z
sin
y&gt;
o
v
/sin
I
OP
\
)
V
\sm
o
ja
/
?
sm
/
sin

s~
==:
z cos o
sm z
$\
}
,
.
cos o
(p
sin
cos A =
(f
I
cos z
\
sm
(p
(p/

sm z
if
&lt;)
=
is
z sin ^ /cos sin o ^ \ sm o
I
;
\
/

cos
sin z cos
(p
Therefore,
n
&lt;?
y, cos
...
p
always positive,
sin
and cos
A
.
.
.,&gt;
is
positive,
if
cos z
j
&gt;
.
,
sm&lt;p
negative, if cos
sin o
i
siny
sin
(p
and
if
&lt;)
&gt;
y, cos
A
is is
always negative,
negative, if cos z
...
.
and cos p
sin 8
r,
positive,
it
cos z
^ sm (p
&lt;
sin o
i,
Therefore
if
we
take the fraction
sin o
sin
.r,
and
sin
d 7 sm ^,
if
264
the
two cosines have the same sign and the correction
is
;
(a) is
greater than this fraction but they have opposite signs and the correction (a) is positive, if cos z is less than this fraction. For stars of south declination cos A
negative, if cos z
and cos p are always
tion
is
positive,
hence the sign of the correc
f!i
always negative*). Dr. Westphal took on the 29 of October not only one zenith distance of the sun but in succession, eight namely:
True zenith distance of
Chronometer time
the centre of the sun
r
3m 2
1
T
32"
2 sin {
(rT)
51
2
20 h 16 m 20 s
17 21
56
55
2
52".
1
24".
52 51 .5
31 31
31
12 .43
18
19
21
21
21
42 51 .0
32
12
4 .52
50.5
.
0.52
.
20
21
22 50
2 48
29
1
46
23 23 25
49.4
.
31
4.52
12
.
22
23
9
2
31
43
74
52.
54 55
52 48
27
.
4
2
3
33
24
.
20 h 19 ra 51 s .9
50".
10".
Now
55 27
hence we
50".
arithmetical mean of the zenith distances 2 and the declination of the sun  13 38 14". find the hour angle:
the
is
7,
2h35 M3s.
to
18.
which have
:
value
the
correction
must be applied.
But we
sin
p
=
32
9.
8307 9,
is
sin
A
= 9 .86881,
s
.
hence, as the declination
8".
south, the correction is:
55
in time.
in arc or
the
is
With the corrected hour angle mean time 21 h 8 m 38 .70, hence
s
:
2 h 35 m 12 s .63 the
we
find
error of the clock
equal to
f_
48m
46s.
8.
6.
If an altitude of a star
find
is
we can
the latitude of the place.
sin h
taken and the time known, For we have again
cos 8 cos
y&gt;
the equation:
=
sin
90
sin
8
f
cos
t.
*)
Warnstorff
s
Hulfstafeln pag. 122,
265
Taking now:
sin S
cos
cos
t
=M = Af
sin
N,
coslV,
we
find
:
sin h
= M cos (y
sin h
xV),
and hence:
sin
Ar
.
(H)
The formula
negative value of
leaves
if
it
doubtful, whether the
positive or
N must
be taken, but it is always easy to decide this in another way. For if in
Fig. 6 we draw an arc S Q perpendic ular to the meridian, we easily see that JY 90 F Q or equal to the distance of
=
Q from
(f
the equator, hence that Z Q is the cosine of the N, whilst
=
M
arc
S
Q.
intersects
zenith,
is
the
Therefore as long as S Q meridian south of the
we must
t 90, the perpendicular arc below the pole, hence its distance from the equator is and the zenith distance of Q equal to N Therefore
^&gt;
^&gt;
be taken, the zenith. In case that
to
when
take the positive value JV, but tp (p the point of intersection lies north of
is
N
90"
.
in
&lt;/
this
case
the
is
the cosine
If the
negative value to be taken.
is
N
(f
of the angle found by
altitude
taken on the meridian,
we
find
(f
by
means of the simple equation
9p
= d==
C\
I
z
,
where the upper or lower sign must be taken,
if
the star
passes across the meridian south or north of the zenith. case that the star culminates below the pole, we have:
In
Dr. Westphal in 1822 October 19 at Benisuef in Egypt took the altitude of the centre of the sun at 23 h l m 10 s mean time and found for it 49 17 8. The decimation at that  10 12 m Os time was 1, the equation of time 15 .O,
22".

16".
hence the hour angle of the sun 23 h 16 m 10
s
=
10 n 57
30".0.
We
find therefore:
266
tang cos
&lt;5
t
= 9. 2552942,, = 9 9920078
.
sin
sin
N= 10 23 iV= 9. 2561063,, S= 9^2483695,,
"070077368
23".
67
sin A
iV
&lt;p
hence
&lt;p
= 39 = 29
9
.
8796788
29
6
54".
51
84.
30
.
errors of h and
tion for sin h
In order to enable us to estimate the effect, which any t can have on we differentiate the equa
&lt;p,
and find according to I. No. 8 O sQvAdh cos ip tang A dt. dtp
.
:
= 180.
Here the
coefficients are at a
minimum, when A
=t= 1
,
=
or
The
secant of
A
is
then
hence errors of the
altitude are then at least not increased and since tang A is then equal to zero, errors of the time have no influenze at all. Therefore in order to find the latitude as correct as
possible
by
altitudes,
it
they must be taken on the meridian or
at least as near
as possible.
For the example we have A
find:
=
1640
c//,
.l,
hence we
=
dy&gt;
1.044 JA
+ 0. 2616
we
or
if
dt be expressed in seconds of time: 1.044 dA 43. 924 rf*. ety=
If several altitudes are taken, corresponding to the
cos S
find according to
No. 5
the altitude
arithmetical
mean of the
T
7
)
times by means of the formula:
//=7i4/* 4/i"4... 
n
h
cos
is
cosy
^2sin4(r
cos^lcosp
n
2
H
1.
If the altitude
can deduce the latitude from
solving the triangle.
rive at a
taken very near the meridian, we it in an easier way than by
altitudes of the stars ar
For since the
the meridian and hence change very in the neighbourhood of the meridian, we have only slowly to add a small correction to an altitude taken near the merid
ian, in order to find the
maximum on
meridian altitude.
But
this in
con
nection with the declination gives immediately the latitude. This method of finding the latitude is called that by
circummeridian altitudes.
267
From:
cos z
=
sin
&lt;p
sin 8 f cos
&lt;p
cos S cos
t,
we
get:
cos
2
= cos (y
cos
~
$)
2 cos
90
cos
sin ^
2
2
and from
this
according to the formula (19) in No. 11 of
OP
the introduction:

=
&lt;p
o
a
2 cos
h
,
rr^
.
r
sin
sin(p
\t
6:
2
&lt;
*

2
cosy
sin(y&gt;
2
cos S*
2
.
cotang (5?
S) sin I
fi
r
.
o)
tf)
or denoting 3
?^
6
.
by J
sin
4
6
a
.
cotang (y
()
Therefore
imate
2 sin 
if
we compute
rp
and
b with
an approx
 f
2
value
of
(fy,
and take the
values
of 2 sin
and
tables, the computation for the latitude is ex ceedingly simple. Such tables are given for instance in WarnstorfFs Hulfstafeln , where for greater convenience also the
^ from
If the value of y logarithms of those quantities are given. should differ considerably from the assumed value, it is ne
cessary, to repeat the computation, at least that of the first term. Stars culminating near the zenith must not be used
for this
method, since for these the correction becomes large on account of the small divisor (p d.
Westphal
distance
in
1822 October 3
at
Cairo took the zenith O
1
of the centre of the sun
34".
at
2
2s
.
7
mean time
and found 34 1 2. The declination of the sun being 3 48 the equation of time 10 m 48 s 6, and hence 2, the hour angle + 12 n 5r s .3, we find from the tables:
51".
.
log 2 sin
4^
t~
4 we have log Taking (f the first term of the correction is
,
= 30
= 2.51 105
log 2 sin 4
t*
= 9.4060.
47
,
6
= 0.1 9006
22".
8
the
and then second
+
0".
91, therefore
we have:
Correction
?
8 12
21".
56
+
&lt;?=
30
43".
00
change of 1 in the assumed value of gives in this case only a change of 30 in the computed value of y , and
(f&gt;
A
p=
0".
30
4
21".44.
the true value, found
by repeating the computation,
(/
is:
==30
if
4
21".
54.
The formula
south
of the
(^4)
is
true, if the star passes the
meridian
zenith.
But
the
declination
is
greater than
268
the latitude
and thence the
ti
star passes the meridian north of
the zenith, we must use in this case:
y instead of
cos
.
r/&gt;
J,
and we get
=
&lt;p
d
v
cos
z +
(f
cos S
TTVsm(d
2 sin y)
^
r
re
2

cos 8 2
2
sin (d
^
cotang (8
* y) 2 sin It
.
y)
Finally, if the
tion,
star be observed near its lower culmina
t
we
have, reckoning
cos z
= cos (180
from the lower culmination:
&lt;?)
(f
4 2 cos
y&gt;
cos 8 sin
^
t*
and hence
:
CO  1804, 
If the latitude of a place is determined by this method, of course not only a single zenith distance but a number of
them are taken
meridian.
in
succession in
the
neighbourhood of the
Then
found for
tiplied
the values of 2 sin \ 2 and 2 sin \ t 4 must be each t and the arithmetical means of all be mul
way,
is
by the constant factors. The correction, found in this to be added to the arithmetical mean of the zenith
*).
distances
The reduction to the meridian can other form. For from the equation:
cos z
also be
made
1
in
an
cos
((p
8)
=
2 cos
y
cos 8 sin \
t
follows
:
sm
.
&lt;f&gt;
z ip  h sm^^
&lt;?
.
~
8

z
=
cos
(f
cos o sin
2
\
t
.
Now
we
find:
if
we
take the reduction to the meridian:
hence
:
COS
;
sin
((f
8
(f&gt;
COS 8
+
s


sin
1 .r)
an equation which may be written
sin la:
.
Now
it
^ sm ^r s~T~~i N sin ((p o\ \.r) o) \x 5111(9has been proved in No. 10 of the introduction, that
o
x=
cos
rp
is
in this
sin

way:
8)
"
cos 8
t
(g&gt;
*) In case that the snn
observed, the change of the declination must
be taken into account.
See the following No.
269
a
=Vcosa,
neglecting terms
first
of the fourth
order.
If
we
apply this and take as a from the equation:
.
.
approximation for x the value
_.
t= sin
we
find
:
coso&gt;
cos
v
;
(&lt;p
2sm
4
2
/
(72),
d)
3
/
i
_
sin
j.
(&lt;P
^)
sin
(cp
S
+
^
x)
or
if
we
find
ber
instead
x from this equation, write in the second num of x, and denote the new value of x by
:
,
I
=I

sin (y
r 7
sin (tp
8} d
H
7
,
jv
sec
%
T
.
j
)
This second approximation is in most cases already suf But if this should not be the case, we com ficiently correct.
pute (f from rected value:
,
then
by means of
(5),
and find the cor
With the data used
sin
coscc
(99
= 8 47 log  = 2.701 11 = 9.74620 = 0.25293 = 2.70024, log I
I
22".
before,
we
find:
3) S+ i )
(y&gt;
hence
8.
8
If
22".
47 and
ff
= 30
4
21".
53.
we
must take the change of
take circummeridian altitudes of the sun, we its declination into account, hence
the computation for each hour angle with But in order to render the reduction
in the following
we ought
to
make
a different decimation.
more convenient, we can proceed
way:
We
Now
have:
&lt;p
= +8
z
,
^
COS 
OP
COS $
o)
/
sm(y&gt;
2sin,U 2
.
if
D
is
the declination of the sun at noon,
we can
declination corresponding to any hour angle t express by .D/?f, where ft is the change of the declination in one hour and t is expressed in parts of an hour. Then we
the
have:
sin
(&lt;p
270
If
we
ftt
take now:
COS
.
sin (90
?/
7*: 2 sm
d)
(f
COS
..
2
*
=
COS
.
OP
COS
f
A
8^
2 sin 
(/
+

)
,
(4)
sm(r/&gt;
5)
we must
find
from the following equation:
or since:
sin a
.
2
sin b
1
=
sin (a f(tp
/&gt;)
sin (a
t
/&gt;)
,
P
2
sin
8)
sin
cosy cos
we have:
~^
sin
(&lt;p
8)
20G265
cos
y.
cos
3600~xl5
where the numerical factor has been added, because we take sin (}?/) and the unit of t is one hour, whilst the unit I,
=
,
of sin
t
is
the
radius
or rather unity.
in
,
If
we denote
in
the
change of the declination
of arc by
(
48 hours expressed
or
if
seconds
we have
ft
fi
=
.
we wish
to express y in
:
seconds of time,
=
We
have therefore
and then we find the latitude from each by means of the formula:
single observation
The quantity y taken negative.
For
pression
:
is
the hour angle of the greatest altitude,
for
this
in
I.
No. 24 we found
the
following ex
= dS
where
t
,
,,,206265
90
[tang
tang
tf]
^
c
is
expressed
in
seconds of time and
is
the change
of the declination in one second of time.
to
But
this is
equal
~

,
hence the hour angle
at the time of the greatest
is
:
altitude,
expressed in seconds of time,
*)
To
this
there ought to be added
still
the second term dependent
on
271
u 720
,
206265
which formula
posite sign.
is
the
t
same
is
as that for y taken with the op
the hour angle of the sun, reck + // the time of the culmination but from the time oned not from
Hence
of the greatest altitude. Therefore if circummeridian altitudes of a heavenly body have been taken, whose declination is variable, it is not ne
cessary to use for their reduction the declination correspond ing to each observation, but we can use for all the declina
tion at the time of culmination, if
so
that they are
we compute the hour angles not reckoned from the time of the culmi
Then the nation but from the time of the greatest altitude. is as easy as in the former case, when the de computation clination is supposed not to change.
For
with this
the observation
= 100^
we
get:
^
made at Cairo (No. 7) we have 3 48 3.4458,, and D = 57,
38".
:
= + ys.6,
hence
first
t
+y = 13 m
00.
s
.
9
and hence we find for the
meridian:
term of the reduction to the
=8
to this f
35".
On
must add
account of the second term multiplied by sin
~
4
30"4 21".54. and we finally find cp 0".91, In case that only one altitude has been observed, it is of course easier to interpolate the declination of the sun for the time of the observation but if several altitudes have been taken, the method of reduction just given is more convenient.
;
=
we
the polar distance of the polestar is very always in the neighbourhood of the meridian, and hence its altitude taken at any time may be used with ad vantage for finding the latitude; but the method given in
9.
Since
is
small,
it
No.
is
not applicable to this case, as the series given there In converging only as long as the hour angle is small.
7
is
this case, the polar distance
being small, it is convenient to the expression for the correction which is to be ap develop plied to the observed altitude according to the powers of
this
quantity.
272
7
Fig
If we draw (Fig. 7) an arc of a great circle from the place of the star per
pendicular to the meridian,
and denote the arc of the meridian between the point
of intersection with this arc
and the pole by a?, the arc between the same point and the zenith by z where y is a small quantity, we have */,
:
90
&lt;p
=
z
y
+
x, x,
:
or
9?=
tang x
.
DO
zty
and we have
in the right
angled triangle
cos (z
y)
= tang p cos cos = cos
2 u
t
t
(a)
We
get immediately from the
x
first
3
= tang p cos
x
equation:
3
t
,
^
tang p
cos
and higher powers of tang terms of the same order: ing again
neglecting the
fifth
p, or neglect
= p cos
1
t
+
3
p
3
cos
t
sin
z
t
.
(6)
If
we develop
sin
the second equation (a),
cos u
z
we
find:
z,
y
= cotang
fifth
h
"2
sin
2
A
y
.
cotang
or neglecting the
sin
y
= cotang
u
and higher powers of
1 5
u:
z.
z (\ u
+
,
3
T w
1
)
+2
sin
t
:
sin
2
\y cotang
But we get from the equation
=p
4
sin u sin
t
= sinp

p
3
sin
t
cos
t,
hence substituting this value in the equation above we again neglecting terms of the fifth order:
3/~ TP
2
find,
sin
2
if
cotg2
^p
sin*
2
(4 cos*
2
Ssin^cotgzh^cotgz.^
2
.
(c)
This formula, it is true, contains still y in the second 1 member, but on account of the term  cotang z y being very small, it is sufficient, to substitute in this term for y the
.
value computed by means of the obtain
:
first
term alone.
3 p cos
Thus we
2
=
&lt;f&gt;
90"
z
p cos
t
+
p* sin
2
t
cotang z
1 t
}
t
sin
t
~f~
+
Since
it
Ti^
{/&gt;*
4
i
n
t* (5 sin
4 cos* 2 ) cotang z
.
sin f*
3 cotang 2
(A}
would be very inconvenient
to
compute
this
273
formula for every observation
lished in the Nautical
,
tables
are every
year pub
Almanac and other astronomical alma
nacs, which render the computation very easy. They embrace the largest terms of the above expression, which are always sufficient, unless the greatest accuracy should be required.
If
neglect the terms dependent on the third and fourth of p, we have simply: *) power
if
we
= 90
z
p cos
t
+p
2
sin
2
t
cotang
z.
thus a certain value of the right ascension and polar distance by and p M the apparent values at the time of the observation being
If
we denote
=
we
tp
H A
,
p
= PO
I
4
A;&gt;
find substituting these values:
= 90
.
z
p
tt
cos cos
t
/
h
p
2
cotang
/
z sin
2
/
where
t
()
=
find
Ap
p sin
A,
tables.
We
term
now
in
the
*
Almanac three
The
first
p cos gives the term alone is variable. The

the argument being 0, since this , second table gives the value of the
p^
cotang z sin
third
table
nally the
the arguments being z and &. gives the term dependent on
,
2
Fi
6&gt;,
A
and
the
&p
&lt;Ap
cos
p
sin
t
A
,
arguments being the sidereal time and the days of the
year.
Tables of a different construction have been published by Petersen in Warnstorff s Hulfstafeln pag. 73 and these embrace all terms and can be used while the polar distance
of the polestar is between the limits 1 20 and Let 40 again be a certain value of p, for which Petersen takes 1 30 then the formula (A) can p be written in
1"
.
p
(]
=
,
easily
this
way:
The term multiplied by y/ is at its maximum, when t 54 44 and if we take 140 is then only 0".G5. The terms multiplied ^
*)
its
value,
1
=
=
,
by p
easily
are
still
less,
unless
z
should
as the
be
very
small.
These terms can be
embraced
2
in
the
2
t
tables,
z.
first
may
be united with
p
cos
/,
the
other with 4j
sin
cotang
18
274
&lt;r,
= 90
2
z
7&gt;o
[p
cos
/
+ \p
[4;J
*
cos /sin/ 2 ]
I
PoVo
4
f
.,
1
)#
J
cos
/sin/"
H
;V
^
cotang.z
2
sin/
2
h^, P O
sin
2
/
(5 sin/
2
4 cos/
2
)]
f
*

3 cotang z
.
Po"
If
we
put now:
A
P
p
2
^/&gt;
cos
/
+
3 p
4
sin
4
2
/
f4
/
j^Po
sin * 3
2
*
J p
4
sin
cotang c
=
&
sin
4
2
2
4 cos/ 2 ) ==/?,
.
^ /I
/9
cotang
s
3
=
//,
we
obtain:
tp
= 90
~
Aa
y\A*{3 cotang
,~
+ u.
Now
which give
four tables have been constructed, the first two of and ft, the argument being t a third table gives
,
the value of the small quantity ; the arguments being p and t and finally a fourth table gives the quantity /, which is likewise very small, the arguments being y A^ ft cotang 2
,
=
Oh These tables have been computed from t 6h to t Therefore if t 90, the hour angle must be reckoned from the lower culmination, so that in this case
and 90
=
z.
=
.
&gt;
we
have:
= 90
&lt;p
z
h
Aa
h y
+A
1
ft
cotang
z f
ft.
Example.
In 1847 Oct. 12 the altitude of Polaris was
taken with a small altitude and azimuth instrument at the
observatory of the late Dr. Hulsmann at Diisseldorf and it 55 30". 8, which was at 18 h 48 S .8 sidereal time h
1
22"
=
50"
is
already corrected for refraction.
to
According on that day is:
the Berlin Jahrbuch the place of Polaris
5
= lh5m3is.7
7".
j
= 88
17s.
1
29
52".
4.
Hence we have:
;
,
=
1
30
6,
/=l?h
log
17
= 259
19
1C".
5,
and:
A = 0.0006108
and we obtain by means of the tables or the formulae:
275
therefore
:
Aa = +
y!
2
/
3cotangz
= ^=
&lt;j&gt;
16
1
42".
26
t
24
.
33
+
.
02
61
41.
sum
hence:
= 4 18
=51
13
6".
37".
10.
latitude
Gauss has also published a method for finding the from the arithmetical mean of several zenith distan
long before or after the culmination, which is convenient for the polestar. especially If an approximate value (f of the latitude (p is known,
ces,
taken
()
and
is
&
is
the sidereal time,
at
observed,
we can compute from
tang x
which the zenith distance z () and the value of (f
(}
the zenith distance
by means of the formulae:
= cos
t
cotang S
sin
cos.r
UP O
f
N
f x)
and then we obtain:
hence
:
uV
"
sm
:
o
cos
(90
cos;r
sin
#
again the arc between the pole and the point in which an arc drawn through the star, and perpendicular to the me ridian intersects the latter and since the length of this arc
is
is
P
always between the limits
,i
i
=t=
90
cos
(&lt;p
t),
we can
r)
take in case
..
ot the polestar
sin
,,
cos x
as well as
f
sin
equal to unity,
is
./,
if
the latitude
is
known
within a few seconds and d(f
there
fore a small quantity.
If
time
another^ zenith distance has been taken at the sidereal we have: ,
tang x
cos
;
cos
t
tang
.
=
sin
o"
,sm(&lt;f&gt;
n
ix)
and:
d(f&gt;
18*
276
or,
if
Z
denotes the arithmetical
*
mean of both observed
ze
nith distances equal to
(X
.
{ 3, ):
^~
M/d + d\
\dcp
7
/ ) da) /
where
:
yl
= cos 8 x
sin
sin
cos
.
(OP O f a:)
sm
cos (9^0
sin
.
f^\
f
$
x}
cosr
or:
A
1?
= cotang = cotang
y
cotang
($&gt;$
+ .r)
,
^
.
cotang
(9^0
H~ ^
)
and
finally, if
we
eos
find
from the original equation:
sin $ f cos
(f&gt;
=
sin
(p (}
cos ^ cos
/
we
obtain also:
iCdhB)=
cos
QD
sin
8
sin
cp
cos
(5
r
sin
Z
i (
sin
Z
Z.
cos 4
(&lt;+/).
(^/)
In case of the pole star
dy&gt;
we have
h
)
=
simply:
(e)
If several zenith distances have been observed,
to
compute
:
for each sidereal time separately
we ought and we should
then obtain
i
[
+ +
f
+...
fc?
+
,,,]
w
^
d
j
/
J
where Z again denotes the arithmetical mean .of all observed zenith distances. But the following way of proceeding is more
simple. If
we denote by
()
the arithmetical
mean
%
of
all
sidereal
times and put:
i}
=
r,
6&gt;
=T
etc.
the zenith distance corresponding to and then denote by we obtain in the same way as in No. 5 of this section: ,
sn
n
Now
if
T
is
taken from the following equation:
277
the zenith distances z and z
are
:
at the times
#
T and @
f7
*=c.
d dt
hence
:
and we obtain according
d&lt;f
to the
"
formula
(/")
simply:
=
if
,
the values
of
.
A and B
corresponding to z
are
denoted
by A .and
B
Therefore
if
several zenith distances of a star have been
observed, we take the mean of the observed clocktimes and subtract from it each clocktime without regard to the sign.
tities
These differences converted into sidereal time give the quan r, for which we find from the tables the quantities 2 sin \ T . From the same tables we find the argument T
corresponding to the arithmetical mean of
all
these quanti
ties
and compute the hour angles
6&gt;
:
(
t
T)
(a
T)
= =
t
t
and then z and z by means of the formulae:
tang x
cos z
= cos cotang 8 = cosx
t
sin
sin
(gpj)
+ x)
and
tang x
,
cos
sin

t
cotang
,
cos 2
= cosx
sin
(rp a
{x).
In case of the polestar
we
then have immediately:
where Z
distances.
is
now
the arithmetical
mean
of
all
observed zenith
For other
stars the rigorous
formula for
d&lt;f
must
be computed, namely:
where
(c)
A
(rf)
and
B
are obtained
or
after taking
=
z
by means of the formulae and z *).
=
(6),
*)
WarnstorfFs Hulfstafeln pag. 127.
278
Example. In 1847 Oct. 12 the following ten zenith dis tances of Polaris were taken at the observatory of Dr. Hiils
mann
:
Sidereal time.
Zenith distance.
39"
T 13
9
6
n
17h56
59
18
3
"21s.4
13
42".
I
19.75
46 .65
11 .45
54 .5
29 .7
12 17
11 6
.
6
.
8
62.9
8
2sin^T 348.75 187.69 75.24
25
3
.
2
103.6
3
1
38
6
.
25
15
98
35 .0 32 .0 34 .0 28
.
115.1
13
16
18
1
90.6 82.8 77.6 64.8
5 15
.
2.39
.
123.95
3
6
85
50 .85 52 .85
29 .06
92.95
151 .43
.3
.
8
46 .95
7
.
22
48 .8
.15
Refr.
3 42
7
13
65
398
38".39
__338 28 ~~125756
.
46".50
24".89
Z= 399 r = 2542
Now
we
obtain:
z
T= 7
=258
30".0,
59*. 83
24".3
2
19".
2.
taking:
7&gt;
= 51
12
37".
13
= 39
.}0
56
+ 2)
(zHy)
= 39 = 399 =
z
6
34".
54
36".05
+11".
16,
hence
:
= 51
13
41".
16.
III.
METHODS OF FINDING BOTH THE TIME AND THE LATITUDE
BY COMBINING SEVERAL ALTITUDES.
11.
If
:
we observe two
sin h
altitudes of stars,
8 $
we have two
equations
sin k
= =
(*
sin
&lt;p
sin sin
y&gt;
+
cos
&lt;p
&lt;p
cos 5 cos
cos S cos
t, t
.
sin
+ cos
In these equations, since we always observe stars, whose and d are known, and further we have places are known,
&lt;)
:
= +
*
f)
=
t
+(&
0)
(
).
known, the latter to the interval of time between the two obser being equal vations, the two equations contain only two unknown quan
Now
since
a and 6/
B
are likewise
279
and f/, which therefore can be found by solving Thus the latitude and the time can be found by ob altitudes serving two altitudes, but the combination of two in some cases is also very convenient for finding either the
titles
them.
latitude or the time alone.
if two altitudes of the same and lower culmination, their arith upper metical mean is equal to the latitude, which thus is deter This is even found mined independently of the declination.
We
have seen before, that
star are taken at its
at
the
same time, since
it
is
equal to half the difference of
the altitudes.
Likewise we can find the latitude by the difference of the meridian zenith distances of two stars, one of which cul minates south, the other north of the zenith. For if S is the
declination of the
first
star, its
meridian zenith distance
v
is:
and
nith,
if
d
is
the declination of the other star, north of the ze
z
,
we
have:
=o
s
,
y,
and therefore we get:
p^tf+tfOM (**
12.
)
If
two equal
have:
sin h
sin h
altitudes of the
same
star
have been
observed,
we
= =
sin sin
t
cp
&lt;p
sin S \ cos sin
y
cos 8 cos
t, t
.
.
from which we find
=
8 \ cos rp cos 8 cos
t
.
,
The
altitudes therefore are
then taken at equal hour angles on both sides of the meridian. Now if u is the clocktime of the first, u that of the second
observation,
J
(u { u )
is
the time,
when
the star
was on the
:
meridian and since this must be equal to the known right ascension of the star, we find the error of the clock equal to
a
4
&lt;&gt;
t
M ).
is
This method of finding the time by equal altitudes the most accurate of all methods of finding the time by
titudes.
al
clination
for
Since neither the latitude of the place nor the de of the heavenly body need be known and since
this reason it is also not necessary to know the longi tude of the place, this method is well adapted to find the time at a place, whose geographical position is entirely un It is also not all necessary to know the altitude known.
280
it is possible to obtain by this method accurate even if the quality of the instrument employed does results, not admit of any accurate absolute observations. All which is required for this method is a good clock, which in the in terval between the two observations keeps a uniform rate, and an altitude instrument, whose circle need not be accu
itself,
so that
rately divided.
have hitherto supposed, that the declination of the But in case that altitudes heavenly body does not change. of the sun are taken, the arithmetical mean of both times
does not give the time of culmination, for, if the declination increasing, that is, if the sun approaches the north pole, the hour angle corresponding to the same altitude in the
is
We
afternoon will be greater than that taken in the forenoon and falls a little later than apparent noon. The reverse takes place if the decli
hence the arithmetical mean of both times
nation
of the sun is decreasing. Therefore in case of the sun a correction dependent on the change of the declination must be applied to the arithmetical of the two times. This
called the equation of equal altitudes.
A&lt;)
is
If S is the declination of the sun at noon, the change of the declination between noon and the time of each obser vation, we have:
sin h
sin h
= =
sin
cp
sin (8
A&lt;?)
+
cos
y
y&gt;
cos (8
A 8)
cos cos
t t
sin
y
sin (8 f
A d) H cos
cos (d 4
A 8)
.
Let the clocktime of the observation before noon be de
M, the one in the afternoon by u\ then (u \ti) the time, at which the sun would have been on the ridian, if the declination had not changed.
is
noted by
U
me
Then denoting
tions
(M
half the
r,
interval
between the observa
M)
by
the equation
is
of equal altitudes by x,
the
moment
of apparent noon
t
t
given by
U } x
and we
have:
=T =
4
(u
(11
u) t x
11)
x
= r + =T
cos (8
x,
.r,
and also:
sin h
= =
sin
(f
sin (S
A&lt;?)
+ cos
f
(p
A&lt;?)
cos (T
f a:)
and
:
sin h
sin
&lt;f&gt;
sin
(8{&8)
cos
y
cos
($hA$)
cos (r
#).
281
From
these expressions for sin h
we
find the following
equation for x:
0=singpcos Ssill&S
Now
in
cosy sin $sin A^OSTCOS x \ cosy cos &d cos $sinr sin.r. case of the sun x is always so small, that we
1
can take cos x equal to
obtain, taking also
and
sin
x equal
/\r):
to x.
Then we
&S
instead of tang
v sin
g9 r = _/tan ,_tang^\ r t
tang
/
If
we
denote
during 48 hours, which
portional to the
now by the change of the may be considered here time, we have:
/&lt;
declination
to
be pro
A
hence:
x ==
*&gt;.
U

/
\
T
T
tang
a&gt;
48
smr
f
tang T
:
tang o
\
/
}
or if
x
is
expressed in seconds of time
X
~
1A ( 720V
7
~
smr
tan S
~
+"
0&gt;
tang r
tall g
^
/
)
tables
simplify the computation of this formula, have been published by Gauss in Zach s monatliche Correspondent Vol. XXIII, which are also given in WarnstorTs Hulfstafeln. These tables, whose argument is r, give
In order to
the quantities:
720
sin
r
~A
and:
J
720
r
tang r
and thus the formula for the equation
simply:
x
of equal altitudes
8.
is
=
the
Au tang
+y&gt;
J3u tang
(A)
Differentiating
stant,
two formulae
(a),
taking d as con
we We
find:
*)
find
this also,
if
we
differentiate the original equation for sin A,
taking 8 and
**
t
as variable,
since
we have x
=
do
&.
we
) Since the change of the declination at apparent noon is to be used, ought to take the arithmetical mean of the first differences of the de
preceding and following the almanacs give the quantity fi.
clination,
the
day of observation.
Instead
of this
282
d/i
dh
= =
cos
cos
A d(p A
cos
&lt;p
sin
(p
cos
sin
d(f&gt;
A dt A dt.
we can
Since
In these equations dt has been taken equal to dt, since suppose, that the error committed in taking the time of the observation is united with the errors of the altitudes.
we have now A
dh
dli
=
=
cos
cos
A A
A, we obtain: drp ( cos rp sin A dt, cos rp sin A dt,
1
d&lt;f
and
:
cos
(f
sin
A
observe the heavenly
as nearly as possible
is
Therefore
we
see,
that
its
we must
azimuth
body
490"
at the time,
when
and 90.
fol
In 1822 Oct. 8 Dr. Westphal observed at Cairo the lowing equal altitudes of the sun:
Double the
altitude of
Chronometer time_
forenoon
21 h 7 m 27
afternoon
2 h 33 m 59 s
(Lower limb)
73
Mean
23 h 50 m 43 s .O
20
8
9
24 23
18 16
11
33 32
31
3
5
9
43
44
.
5
40
74
.
10
20
11
30
29
12
43 .5 44 .0
40
75
12 13
14 13
15 15
42 .5 42 .0 42 .0
42 .5 43
.
11
9
28
27 26
20
14 15
16
40
76
10
6
25
20
Hence we
vations
:
find
for
the
arithmetical
43
00.
mean
of
all
obser
23 h 50
"
.
Now
that
the forenoon and the last in the afternoon
half the interval between the first observation in h m 16 s and is 2 43
last
between the
observation in the forenoon and the
first in
the afternoon 2 h 34 m
T
= 9h
37% hence we take
56 s
.
:
38"
5
=
2&gt;&gt;
.
649.
If
we compute with
logr COSCCT
Compl. log 720
log
this
A and
B,
we
find:
0.42308
0.19435
7.14267
"7/7601
0.42308
cotang r
0.08028
7.14267
4
logJS
7.6460,
283
and
and:
as:
=
log
6
7
,
y&gt;
= 304
4ft.
&lt;*
= 3.4391.,
f
we
obtain:
x
=
IQs
.
Therefore the sun was on the meridian or
rent
it
was appa
chronometertime 23 h 50 m 53 46. Now since the equation of time was  12 h 33 s .18, the sun was on the meridian at 23 h 47 m 26 .82 mean time, and hence the error
noon
at the
s
.
s
of the chronometer was:
3
26
.
64.
If
in
we compute
dt
the differential equation and express dt
seconds of time,
we
find:
Qs. 048 (dti
10"
=
dK),
and we see, that if an error of was committed in taking an altitude, the value of the error of the clock would be s 48 wrong.
.
We
can make use of this
differential
formula in com
puting the small correction, which must be added to the arithmetical mean of the times, if the altitudes taken before and after noon were not exactly but For only nearly equal.
if
h and h
take
are the altitudes taken before and after
noon and
we
tion
h
h=dh\
we ought
_dh _
to
apply to h the correc
dh\ and hence the correction of
U
is:
_
30 cos
&lt;f
sin
A
li t
dh cos
30 cos
(p
cos 8 sin
is required, such a equal altitudes have been taken. For although the mean refraction is the same for equal ap parent altitudes, yet this is not the case with the true refrac tion, unless the indications of the meteorological instruments be accidentally the same. Therefore if o is the refraction for the observation in the forenoon, o+dy that in the after
In
case that the
is
greatest
if
accuracy
correction
necessary even
noon, the heavenly body has been observed in the afternoon at a true altitude which is too small by do, and hence we
must add
to
U
the correction:
oO cos
284
13.
altitudes
in
Often the weather does not admit of taking equal the forenoon and afternoon. But if we have
obtained equal altitudes in the afternoon of one day and in the forenoon of the following day, we can find by them the time of midnight. The expression for the equation of equal altitudes in this case is of course different.
If
T
is
half the
interval
between the observations, the
hour angles are:
T
=
12i&gt;
T
i9h
and
:
_T=
The
case
that
is if
+ T.
now
the
ference, clination
(i
A#
is
as before only with this dif positive, the sun has the greater de
same
must
:
the hour angle is  r, hence the correction be taken with the opposite sign and we have in this
when
case
X
A 720
f \ sin
ta
~
"g
&lt;f&gt;
T
tang T
~~ tail g
!l
^
/
)
=
If
1 T fl ( 12 tan g ( rfon I P 720 V sin T
;
~
12
T
.A
tang T
tang o
\
)
we
write instead of
x
it:
= 720 foA
u
~
12 h
r
T
/
I
r
"
r
"
\
sin
r
tan s
9
P
tang r
;
_\ ~ tan s ^
/
)
we
tity
can use the same tables as before

but besides, the quan
r
must be tabulated, the argument being T or half
This quantity in
the interval between the observations.
storfTs Htilfstafeln
is
Warn
denoted by
[A tang
/",
hence we have for the
correction in this case:
x
=
ffj,
cp
JB tang
].
In 1810 Sept. 17 and 18 v. Zach observed at Marseilles Half the interval of time was equal altitudes of the sun.
10 h 55
n
and
as:
10 h
55,
&lt;*
= H2
log^
14
16",
and:
= 3.4453.
log
y
= 43
17
50"
We
find:
log
A
= 7.7305
log/ tang y
B = 7.7128,
.
ufA
fifB tang S
= =
1.0033, 142*
+
33
67,
5
.
hence for the correction:
x
=
136s. 66.
285
Note
time.
If
1.
The equation
the
for equal altitudes
is
now
for these observations a clock adjusted to
expressed in apparent solar mean time is used,
we may assume
further
equation
to
be expressed
in
mean time without any
correction.
But
if
we use
a chronometer adjusted to sidereal time,
,
we must
Note
multiply the correction by
2.
a fraction
obo
whose logarithm
is
0.0012.
is so small, that we may use the arc in stead of the sine and the tangent, the equation of equal altitudes becomes
If
the
hour angle r
:
r
=
case
[tang
y&gt;
tang
is
$].
But as the
inator,
unit of T in the
first
numerator
not the same as in the
the other
denom
being in the
one hour,
in
the radius or unity,
we must multiply
it
the second
member
of the equation by 206265 and divide
by 15X3600.
Thus we obtain:
x
=
18 ^
.
[tang
^
tang
$\,
where now x
is
the equation of time for T
=
0.
But
in this case the
is
two
altitudes are only one,
rection,
namely the greatest
to the
altitude,
and hence x
the cor
which must be applied
time of the greatest altitude in order
to find the time of culmination.
The same expression was found already
circummeridian
altitudes.
in
No. 8 for the reduction of
If the altitudes of two heavenly bodies have been 14. observed as well as the interval of time between the two
same
observations, we can find the time and the latitude at the time. In this case we have the two equations:
sin
//
=
sin
&lt;f&gt;
sin
cp
+
cos
&lt;p
cos
cp
cos
t,
t
.
sin h
sin
sin
+ cos
cos
cos
If then u
and u are the clocktimes of the
first
and sec
ond observation,
&u
the error of the clock on sidereal time,
U f
we have
:
*)
t
(\
U

where
AM has been taken the same for both observations, because the rate of the clock must be known and hence we can suppose one of the observations to be corrected on account
of
it.
Then
If the
is
*)
sun
is
observed and a
mean time
clock
is
used,
we
:
have,
de
noting the equation of time for both observations by
hence
:
= A = u
t
w
and
w
u +
Au
u
w,
(w
w).
286
u
it
(a
I
known quantity and we have equations contain only the two
a
=
)
=A
t
f
L
Hence
For
this
the
cf
unknown
quantities
two and
,
which can be found by means of them.
purpose
we
express the three quantities
sin
(p,
cos
(f&gt;
sin
t
and cos
ip
cos
t
by the parallactic angle, since we have in the triangle bet ween the pole, the zenith and the star:
sin
(p
cos
cos
(f 9?
sin
t= cos h sin p,
t
cos
= =
8
sin h sin
f
cos h cos
cos p,
(r/)
sin A cos
8
cos h sin
cos
;&gt;.
Substituting these expressions in the equation for sin
/*
,
we
find:
sin h
1
=
h
[sin
sin 8 + cos sin
.
$ cos $ cos
1] sin
1]
h
[cos $ sin
8 cos 8 cos
cos A cos
p
cos $ sin 1
cos A sin p.
But
in the triangle
between the two
/),
stars
and the pole,
at
denoting the distance of the stars by the stars by s and * , we have:
cos
and the angles
D = sin 8 sin 8
6
sin Z) cos
sin
D
sin s
= cos = cos 8
c
f
cos 8 cos 8 cos /
sin 8 cos
sin
8
8 cos A
(/;)
sin A,
hence, sin h
:
if
we
substitute these expressions in the equation for
sin
//
= cos D
cos
(.
sin
.
//.
+ sin
hence
+)=
sin
/*
D cos h cos (s t j), cos D sin
//
.
sm
Z)
cos
( c)
A,
Further
if
we
substitute in
sin cp sin 8 + cos y cos 8 cos (Y A) the expressions for sin r/, cos cj sin and cos cos , which we derive from the triangle between the pole, the zenith and the second star, we easily find:
sin h
&lt;
=
&lt;/
.
.
..
cos (s
p
)
=
sin h
sin
cos D sin h D cos h

,
,
(&lt;/)
After the angles p and p have thus been found by means of the equations (6) and (c) or (d), the equations (a) or the corresponding equations for sin f/, cos (f sin t and cos (f cos
&lt;
give finally
the
cp
and
or
&lt;y?
and
t
.
The equations
same
is
(6) give for
D
and
5 the sine
and
(f
cosine,
the
case with
the
equations
(a)
for
and
,
hence there can never be any doubt, in what quadrant these
287
But the equations (r?) and (rf) give only the co angles lie. sine of s + p and s p however we have in the triangle

between the zenith and both stars:
sin
and
sin
D sin D sin
(.&lt;?
f
p
) )
(.&lt;?
p
= cos = cos h
// sin
{A
1
A)
A),
sin
(A
(5
hence we see that sin
can never be any
angles
nient
lie.
(s 41

p) and sin
p ) have always
the same sign as sin (A
doubt
A), so that also in this case there as to the quadrant, in which the
The formulae
cos (s

(a)
and
(6)
can be made more
conve
for
for
by introducing
p)
can
2
be
auxiliary angles, and the formula transformed into another formula
tang
 (sr/?)
in the
same way
as in
No. 4 of
this section.
Thus we obtain the following system of equations: sin 8 = sin/ sin F
cos 8 cos^ cos 8 sin I
cos
= sin/cos F
cos/,
(e)
D cos = sin/ sin (F sin D sin s = cos/,
sin
.s
D = sin /cos (F
&lt;?)
8}
(/)
cos
.
sin
(S
//)
where
sin
sin
5
g
&lt;?
=
sin
cos&lt;7
p = cos ship, sin^ = g cos (G = g cos y cos = #
7i 7*
cos
G = sin h G = cos
sin
(D
f
h
+
/*
),
cos
(//)
(?)
cos
(p
sin
cos
(?)
t
sin
sin (6
S).
For two
The Gaussian formulae may also be used in this case. first we have in the triangle between the pole and the
stars, the sides
A, s
being
Z&gt;,
90
sin
d and
90"
&lt;V
and the
opposite angles
sin
sin
and
sin ^ (*
s:
^ $
]
Z&gt;
.
D
.D
Z&gt;
.
cosi
sin
(*
cos
.
(s }(.9
cos ^
.
cos^
= = cos4 = cos + =
*)
(#
(
5) cos
} 8) sin
j A
s)
U
.9)
4
(5
S) cos 4 *
sin
&lt;?)
s)
sin ^ (5 +
4
^.
Then we have
as before:
2
tang 4 (sf)
=

cos
5.
sin
(/&lt; )
?
,
D)
sin(,S
288
7 Finally we ha\ e in the triangle between the zenith, the and the star: pole sin (45 sin ^ (A sin ^ p cos ^ (h 4 S) t) sin (45 cos (A + /) cos p sin 4 (A 5) 7 sin J sin J (A f c?) cos (45 %) sin (4 cos p cos cos (45 t) 8\ ^9?) cos \ (A
Ji&lt;p)
+ =
&lt;f)
1,
= = =
;&gt;
.1
3
(/&lt;
Iii
case that the other triangle
is
&lt;)
equations, in which
A\
t\
p\
ti
and
used, we have similar occur.
by these formulae also the azimuth, we have this advantage, that in case the observations have been
Since
find
we
made with an
altitude and azimuth instrument and the readings of the azimuth circle have been taken at the same time, the comparison of these readings with the computed values of
the azimuths
gives
the
zero of the azimuth, which
it
may
be desirable to
know
for other observations.
Example. Westphal in 1822 Oct. 29 at Benisuef in Egypt observed the following altitudes of the centre of the sun:
u u
= 20
=23
h
48
7
"
4S
17
h
= 37
56
59".
6
7/=50 4055
.3,
where u h and h
is
are
already corrected for the rate of the clock and the true altitudes. The interval of time con
verted into apparent time gives /. 2 h 18 in 28 s 66 34 37 90 and the declination of the sun was for the two ob
.
=
=
9".
servations
:
^=10
From
these data
10
50".
1
and S
=
20".
10
12
57".
8.
we
find
by means of the Gaussian formulae:
34
93 93
3
Further:
.
* f
hence:
and then
:
D= s= = = p= = = =
s
;&gt;
27 93
1258.26
6
I
.
53
1541.26
57 17 .00
5 39
.
39
29
(f
t
80
23
35 46
24 59
.
.4
1952.17.
(f
It is
advisable to compute
and
t
t
also
from the other
triangle as a verification of the computation, since the values
of
(fj
must be the same and
t
=L
Now
to
find
in
order to see, what stars
best results
the
by
this
we must select so method, we must resort
as
to
the
two
differential equations:
289
d/i
dh
= =
cos cos
A A dcp
d&lt;p
cos
y
9?
sin
sin
cos
A dt A dt
where dt has been supposed
tions,
to be the same in both equa because the difference of dt and dt may be trans
ferred to the
error
of the altitude.
From
these
equations
we
obtain, eliminating either dcp or dt:
cos
ydt
dtp
cos A cos A = rrT dh ^~TT dh A} (A (A A) A =  A dh\ T ^ am
sin
1
7\
sin
1 ,
sin
sin
1
.
.
(A
A)
am (A
A)
Hence we
see,
that
if
the
errors
of observation
shall
have no great influence on the values of
select the stars so that A* since, if this condition
is
and
y&gt;
,
we must
90,
A
is
as nearly as possible =t=
fulfilled,
we have
cosAdh
+ sin
:
cosydt=
dcp
=
cosA dh
sin
A
Then we
the
coefficient
=t= 1
;
see, that if
A
1
is
Adh == 90 and therefore
dh
.
A
is
of
dh
in
the
first
equation
is
0, that of
0, dh
hence the accuracy of the time depends prin on the altitude taken near the prime vertical. In the cipally same way we find from the second equation, that the accu
equal to
racy of the latitude depends principally on the altitude taken near the meridian. For the above example we have, since
4
=
115
:
dy&gt;
dt
= =
+\
0.0308 dh
0.1077 dh
1.0215 dh
0.0744 dh
.
15.
The problem can be
greatly simplified, for instance,
by observing the same star twice. Then the declination being the same and s s, the formulae (A) of the preceding No.
=
are changed into:
By means
of then from the of the equation (#) and the equations (C) y and t and, should be desirable, A.
D = cos sin 4 D sin s = cos 4 A cos ^ D cos s = sin S sin 4 A. these we find D and 5, and
sin
TT
&gt;l
cos
TJ
first
if it
In this case
we can
find
lowing way.
We
sin h
sin h
solve the problem also from the formulae:
sin S f cos
sin
cp
&lt;p
in the fol
= =
sin
y&gt;
cos S cos cos 8 cos
/
sin
(f
S
+
cos
(t +
/)
19
290
by adding and subtracting them:
cos&lt;?sin^/l.cos9Psin(Jf^)
sin
sin S\ cos (f
S cos A k cos(jpcos(t f ^A)
.
= =
cos.j(//h/i )sin
.j
(It
//
)
sin
(h^h ) cos^
(^
//).
Therefore
if
we
put:
sin
cos $ cos
&lt;5
A
^
cos S sin
A
= cos = cos =
/?
6 cos 6 sin
B 5
(/I)
sin 6,
the second of the equations (a)
sin
go
is
changed
sin
(A
into:
(A
/&lt;
cos
5 h cos
cos
y&gt;
(/ +
.
A)
sm
=
MO cos 4
)
and
if
we
finally take:
sin in
&lt;f
cos
cos
y
9?
sin (t\\ %)
= cos .Fcos G = G
sin
(B)
cos
(^
+ T^)
sin b
we
obtain:
sin
cos(B
= cos i (A MO F) = cos
G
(CO
ti)
6
Therefore
Fig. 8.
if
we
first
compute the
equations (4), we find G and F by means of the equations (C) and then y and t from the equations (5). The
geometrical signification of the auxi liary angles is easily discovered by
means of Fig.
8,
where
PQ
is
drawn
perpendicular to the great circle join
ing the two stars, and
dicular to
ZM
is
perpen
b=QS =
G=ZM.
PQ.
D,
We
then see, that
B=PQ, F=PM
and
If
we =
jB
use the same data as in
to
paying no attention
taking d

the change
8,
the preceding example, of the declination and
10 12
57".
we
find:
cos
6
and
= 10041 G = 9.432863. = 35 22 hence
sin
t
(/")
23".l
21".0
= iUGGGOO cos G = 9.983445 y = 29 5
sin b
= 9.980534
53".3
F=41l
7.
42".
In case that the two altitudes are equal, the formulae in No. 14 remain unchanged, but the. for or (e) and (A) mulae (J5) are transformed into: cos (h 4 D) 2
tang
J
(s
4y&gt;)
= tang
+
cos (A
^
291
and then p being known, rf and t can be computed by means of the formulae (ft) and (i), or (p, t and A by means of the
formulae (0).
16.
A
similar
to the class of problems
ent, is the following:
problem, though not strictly belonging we have under consideration at pres
To
find the time
at
the
same time the
differences
altitude
by the
of their
and the latitude and and the azimuth of the stars altitudes and azimuths and the
as before the formulae (4)
interval of time between the observations.
In this case
in
we must compute
in
No.
14.
Then we have
both
stars,
the
triangle
between the zenith and
&lt;/
denoting the angles at the two stars by q and A and the opposite sides 90 the third angle being 90 h and D:
,
A
x
ft
,
.
sin 4 (g f 7)
,
x
,
.
= cos^(//
sin
TJT
h)
cos(A
^
cos
(h
li)
rD
~
A}
1
.
i/i
N
cos ^
(A
A)
By means
and
ft
of these equations
.
we
find
J
(h f
ft
),
thence
ft
and the angles and But since we have accord s ~f p and q s ^ we thus know p ing to No. 14 q and p hence we can compute Z and ^4 by means of the formulae (C) in No. 14 and as a verification of the compu tation also t and A
=
&lt;/
&lt;/
=
,
,
&lt;/,
.
&lt;,
In this
case the
first
differential equations are
according to
No. 8 of the
dh dh
section:
cos S sin
= =
sm
cos
A d(f)
p
.
d
d
i)

+
cos S sin
pd
cos
A d(f
cos
.
si\i]&gt;
cos
sin
pd
t
dA =
A tang hdrp\.,
. ,1., tsuagtid&lt;p+
cos S cos
d
cos h
A
]
\t
cos S cos p cos h
t
d
2
t
2
dA
7
.,
=BmA
\t
t
cosS cosn
cos
t 7
,
d
,
,t +t
7
where
t
,
t
9
2
t
h cosS cosn
cos h
.
t
,
.,,
d
2
t
9
t
h
and
i
t
\t

.

9
have been put in place of
n
and
occurring in the original formulae.
19*
292
Subtracting the
third
first
equation from the second and the
first
from the fourth, then eliminating dy, and remembering that we have:
cos 8 sin
d* 
and then
p
cos 8 cos p
= cos =
sin
9?
sin
A
9?
CP f
cos
cos A
tang h cos
A
we
easily find:
Md&lt;p
=
[tang h cos
J
tang
f
ti
cos
7
^4

e/
(ti
h) + [sin
A
sin
A
]
d (A
1
A)
/),

LCOS h
cosp
sin 4

T
cos A
cos p sin A\ d(t
J
Jfcos yrf
= [tang A
f
sin
A
tg A
tang A sin
)
A
]
d(ti
ti)
[cos
A
cos cos
A
A
]
d(A
d(t
A)
0
[cos
&lt;f
(tg A
sin
2
where
M= 2
^ (4 + 4) h sin
&lt;p
(cos J.
1
)]
[tg A
+ tg A
)
sin
2
 (A
A).
We
which the
see from this, that it is necessary to select stars for differences of the altitudes and the azimuths are
= 90,
v.
be as great as possible. If (A great, in order that is less than \. even the coefficient of d (ti Ji)
M
A)
time,
Camphausen has proposed to observe the stars at the when their altitude is equal to their declination, be
cause then the triangle between the zenith, the pole and the =180 A and: star is an isosceles triangle and we have
cotg 8 cos
t
cotg 8 cos A
= =
cotg 8 cos cotg 8 cos
t
A
= =
tg (45
tg (45
4 9?)
j
y&gt;\
by means of which we
find:
or
+ 4 and y. we obtain t f t or are hardly ever taken exactly at the But since the altitudes moment, when they are equal to the declination, the observed
From
these formulae
A
quantities
t
t
and
A
A must
first
be reduced to that
moment. (Compare Encke, Ueber die Erweiterung des Douwes schen Problems in the Berlin Jahrbuch for 1859.)
Example.
of the altitudes
In
1856 March 30 the following differences and the azimuths of i] Ursae majoris and a
at Cologne.
Aurigae were observed
293
ti
A
The
was
interval of time
"
h = 410 A= 226 28
46".0
9".9
between the observations, expressed
in sidereal time,
QMS
8s. 70.
The apparent
rj
places of the stars were on that day:
Ursae majoris a
aAurigae
= 56
133"
13 h 41 m 54 s .53
1
.
8
#
69
1,
Hence we get I means of the formulae (A)
.,
=
22
41
= 50 = + 4551
+1
45".
9
1
.7.
30
23".
and we obtain
first
by
in
18
No. 14:
= + 31
==
32".
33".
.,
+ 28
50".
20
D = 76
14".
79.
p q= p, we = + 57 22 64. Since we find p = 44 98, p find 56 61, 61, and hence A = 50 2 (#4 A) = = we get by means of the equations (C) No. 14: = 295 2 .70, A = 244 57 50. 55 57,
q =
Then we
find
31 21
from the formulae (J?) q s 80, and since q
=
=
28 40
53".
44,
,
s +
62"
5".
43".

47"
40".
3".
in
cp
50"
55".
/
56"
48".
If
we compute
all
we
express
dtp
also the differential equations errors in seconds of arc:
(/&gt;.
we
find, if
=
0.0342 d
0.8621
rf
A)
0.4892
d(A
1
A]
+ 0.2438 d(t
0.0188 d
(t
t)
d~p =
17.
(A
A) f
0.0244 d (A
A)
t).
and the time But sailors do not solve the problem in the direct way which was shown before, because the computation is too complicate, but they make use of an indirect method which w as proposed by Douwes, a Dutch seaman. Since the latitude is always approximately known from
of finding the
latitude
The method
it
by two
altitudes
often
used at
sea.
r
the logbook, they first find an approximate time by the alti tude most distant from the meridian, and with this they find the latitude by the altitude taken near the meridian. Then
they repeat with this value of the latitude the computation for finding the time by the first altitude.
Supposing again that the same heavenly body has been
observed twice, we have:
sin h
sin h
= cos cos S = 2 cos ^ cos S
&lt;p
[cos
sin
t
cos
(t +
(t f
)]
\K) sin
A,
hence
:
2 sin
(t +
% A)
=
sec
y&gt;
sec 8 cosec
}
A [sin h
sin h
]
294
or,
if
.
we
log 2 sin
(t f \
write the formula logarithmically: Aj sin ti\ log sec y H logsec ^h log [sin h
=
Since an approximate value of
this equation t\\ A,
is (p
,
and hence
the
also
+ logeosec 5 A. M) known, we find from and then we find a more
2 sin
A
2
)
by means of the formula:
cos
(90
correct latitude
altitude
taken near the meridian by
cos 8
.
8)
=
sin
/t
f
cos
&lt;p
5
(t f
.
( J3)
If the
latitude, the
result
differs
much from
the
first
value
of the
formulae (A) and (#) must be computed a second time with the new value of (f.
Douwes has
putation,
constructed tables for simplifying this
com
which have been published in the ,,Tables requisite to be used with the nautical ephemeris for finding the lati tude and longitude at and in all works on navigation.
sea"
table with the heading ,,log. half elapsed time" gives the value of log. cosec f A, the argument being the hour angle ex
One
pressed in time.
time"
Another table with the heading
^log. middle
gives the value of log 2 sin (t + 1 A), and a third table with the heading r log. rising time" gives that of log 2 sin  2
.
quantity log. sec f/ sec d is called have therefore according to the equation
Log. middle time
The
log.
(/I):
ratio
and we
= Log.
f
ratio f
Log
(sin k
sin h
)
Log
half elapsed time.
By means
this logarithm
of the table
t.
for
middle time we find from
take from the tables
,
log.
it
rising log. ratio
sine
sine
subtract from f / and add the number corresponding to it to the of the greater one of the altitudes. Thus we obtain the of the meridian altitude and hence also the latitude.
t
immediately time for the hour angle
Then we
If
we cannot use
.
these tables,
cos
^ (ft
we compute:
)
,,
+h
&lt;p
sin
(h
h
)
cos
cos
sin I A
and:
cos
((f
2V)
where:
sin
cos 8 cos
t
= J/ =
= M
sin
,
sin JV
il/cos 2V.
to
If we compute the example Douwes s method, we find:
p
given in No. 14 according
= 29
295
log ratio
log (sin A
sin k
)
0.06512
9
.
20049*
log half elapsed time log middle time
9
.
52645
79206,,
.
log rising time
5
.
log ratio
f
.
90340 06512 00007 77364 88858
18
.7
.
sin ti f
.
cos (y
&lt;P
&lt;?)
=
9
.
S=
0,=
39
29
5.7.
In
case that the observations are
made
at sea, the
two
altitudes are taken at two different places on account of the motion of the ship during the interval of time between the observations. But since the velocity of the motion is known from the log and the direction of the course from the needle,
it
is
very easy to reduce the altitudes to the same place of
Fig.
.
observation.
The
ship at the time of the
first
ob
(Fig. 9) If we imagine then a straight line drawn from the centre O
ser^ation shall be in
A
and
at the
time of the second in B.
of the earth to the heavenly body, which intersects the surface of the earth in S ,
then
will
the
side
BS
in
the
triangle
ABS
BA
is
be the zenith distance taken at the place B, and since known, we could find, if the angle S BA were known,
the side
AS
,
that
is,
the zenith distance which
would have been
Therefore at the time of the second taken at the place A. observation the azimuth of the object, that is, the angle S B C must be observed, and since the angle CBA, which the di
rection
is
of the
the
course of the ship makes with the meridian,
Denoting this known, angle S BA is known also. and the distance between the two places A and angle by B by A? we have:
sin h
==
sin h cos
A
4
sin
A
cos h cos
,
where A
is
the reduced altitude.
If a
we
write instead of this
:
sin A
=
sin h + sin
A
cos h cos
2 sin ^
A2
sin A,
296
and take A instead of sin A, we obtain by means of the mula (20) of the introduction:
//
for
=
h
H A cos
in
.j
A2
tang
/&lt;,
where the
18.
last
term can
If three
altitudes
most cases be neglected. of the same star have been ob
+
served,
we have
sin h sin h sin
= =
the three equations:
sin
y&gt;
sin
tp 90
8
cos
&lt;p
cos
y&gt;
cos
t
sin
sin sin
$ h cos 8 h cos
t
&lt;/?,
cos $ cos
90
(t f(&lt;
/) A
),
A"=
sin
cos 3 cos
f
from which we can
find
and
d.
For
if
we
introduce
the following auxiliary quantities:
X
y
z
= COS = cos =
sin
z f
(f
COS
COS
?
gp (f
cos S sin
sin
&lt;?,
those three formulae are transformed into
sin
li
:
sin h
sin
h"
= =
x
z +z \
x cos A
x cos 1
y y
sin A sin A
,
from which we can obtain the three unknown quantities x, But when these are known, we y and z in the usual way. find (f and t by the equations:
tang
sin
(f
cos
&lt;p
=x 3= cos $ = +y
y
t
sin
z
2
2
.
J/ar
&lt;
This method would be one of the most convenient and useful, since no further data are required for computing the
quantities sought*).
observation
tities.
But it is not practical, since the errors of have a very great effect on the unknown quan But if we do not consider ci as constant, that is, if
observe three different stars, whose declinations are known, at equal altitudes, the problem is at once very elegant and
useful.
we
19.
In this case the three equations are:
sin h
sin h sin h
= = =
sin
&lt;p
sin 8 f cos
cp
95
cos S cos cos
cos
t
sin
sin
sin
\S"+
cos
cos
y
&lt;j&gt;
cos
$"cos
(t
4
A)
(a)
y
sin
(t f
A
where A
and
*)
=
),
1
(u
it)
(a
("
a)
).
A =(M"M)
Since three altitudes of the same star have been taken, I and A
are
not dependent on the right ascension.
297
If
i
+.
(&lt;y
of
t)
,
and f (3 +J ) and subtract the second equation from the
instead of
&lt;&gt;*,
_
T
we now
introduce in the two
first
&lt;V)
equations \ (o +S) 5 ) instead
(&lt;?
first,
we
(5
get:
5
)
=2
or:
sin
sin
 (5
8
)
cos
 sin
(5
(5 4
8")
4 cos
cos
y&gt;
t
[cos
^ (5 4 5 ) cos
sin
 cos y cos
(&lt;
} A) [cos
+
&lt;f
5 )]  (5H 5 ) sin 4 (5 5 ) cos 4 (8 5 ) 4 sin \ (8 4 5 )
.1
(8
5
)J
=
4 cos y cos
sin
sin
)
5 (t?
5
J[
)
cos  (5 4 5
)
(i!
 cos
(5 H 5
cos
sin
(
5
)
sin ^ ^ sin
&lt;p
sin ^ (^
4 8 )
i
(55
4  4 5
)
cos 4 I cos
(i
4 \ 4 \
A)
I}.
From
this
tang
we
find:
sin
,]
=
&lt;p
A
.
sin
(i!
A) A)
cotang ^ (5
tang
.1
5
)
).
4 cos ^ A
.
cos
(t
(5
4
Introducing now the auxiliary quantities the formulae: by
sin
A
and B\ given
A
.
cotang  (5
5
)
cos 4 A.
tang ^(5 4 5 ) C 4 ^A
JB&gt;
=
= =
,
.4 sin
.4
B
(^t)
cos Z?
we
obtain:
From
in the
the
first
and third of the equations
cotang
tang
fi"
(a)
we
find
same way
similar equations:
\
sin  A
(5
(5 4
5")
cos  A
5")
4
tang
99
^ =
Y
= = =
"
A"
sin
\
^"
cos
5"
(&lt;7)
C",
J"
cos
(&lt;
4
C").
(Z&gt;)
Furthermore we
^4
find
(
from the two formulae (B) and
)
:
(Z&gt;)
cos
4 C
t
=
.4"
cos
(&lt;
4
C").
In
it
order to find
from
this
equation,
we
will
write
in this
way:
cos
is
A
where
#
cos 4 T4[t 4 H\ C H] an arbitrary angle, and from this
^4"
&gt;
=
C"
//J,
we
ta n g(/
4
~A 7/)^ ^^ ll^)  ff)A r A
"
easily get:
*
(C"V)
f
sin
(C
sln~(C
f^
C".
can substitute such a value as gives the for mula the most convenient form, for instance 0, C or
For
H we
But we obtain the most elegant form,
if
we
take:
H=

(C"
4
C")
for then
we have:
tang
[t
4 4
(C"
4
C")]
= ^r^C cotang *
~
(C"
C"),
298
Introducing
equation
:
now an
auxiliary
angle
,
given
by the
we
find:
Jhence
:
tang
[t
+t
(C"+
6
")]
= tang (45 
g)
cotang  (C
C").
(F)
We find therefore first by means of the equations (^4) and (C) the values of the auxiliary quantities A, /? C and then we obtain A\ /T, by means of the equations (E) and (F), and finally (/ by either of the equations (J5) or
,
C";
(/&gt;).
It
not necessary to know the altitude itself, in order to find (f and f, but if we substitute their values in the origi
is
nal equations (a),
we
find the value of
/i;
hence,
if
the
alti
tude
itself is
observed,
we can
obtain
the error of the in
strument.
In order to see,
so
as to
how
the three stars should be selected
result,
give the
most accurate
we must
consider
the differential equations.
we
des,
can assume also dh
uniting the errors,
Since the three altitudes are equal, to be the same for the three altitu
which may have been committed
in
taking the altitudes, with those of the times of observation. Now since we have:
t
==
u
f
A
5
the
error
dt will we composed of two errors,
thas
first
of the
error
6/(A0,
may
since
be assumed
the clock, which is, that of the error of to be the same for the three observations, the
rate
we suppose
of the clock to be known,
and
will
then
of the error of the time of observation
be different for the three observations.
ferential equations are:
du which Hence the three
A c?(A M) A d(&u)
A"d(&tt).
dif
dh dh dh
If
= = =
cos cos cos
Ady A
d&lt;p
cos
&lt;p
sin
(f
cos cos
sin
sin
A du A du
A"du"
cos
(f
&lt;p
sin
sin
cos
cos
A"dy
&lt;p
y
sin
we
subtract the
first
two equations from each
other,
we
find
by a simple reduction:
299
A
= n sm A\rA 2 9
.
^4
~
dtp
2 cos
+
^4
cos vos
(f&gt;d(t\n)
OP
sin A
.,
sin
9
cos
sin
OP
sin
A
&
and
in the
,
.
same way from the
A"
first
A"
U=2sm A}
d&lt;f&gt;
A}2 cos
and third equation: cos OP sin A
A
.
,
cos&lt;jprt(/y)
r^du
sin
~
first
From
rf
(A
these two equations we obtain, eliminating and then dy:
cos
(f
sin yi
.
cos
A +A" 
cos
gp
sm
A

cos
A+
A"
2 sin
z z
22
sin
p
cos
sin
A"
cos
4"
2
sm
.
^"
A
sm
.
and:
sm
^1
.
sm
.
sin .4 sin
2
2 sin
A
A.A sm
sin
A"
sm ^
sm
,
sm

We
come
to
see
from
this,
that the
stars
must be selected
so,
that the differences of the azimuths
of any two of them be
as great as possible, and hence as nearly as possible equal 120, because in this case the denominators of the diffe
Westphal observed at Cairo the following three stars at equal altitudes:
a Ursae minoris
Herculis
at 8 h
rential coefficients are as great as possible*). In 1822 Oct. 5 Dr. Example.
28 in 17 s
31
21
West
of the Meridian
_
*)
Arietis
47
30 East of the Meridian.
s
liche
This solution of the problem was given by Gauss in Zach Correspondenz Band XVIII pag. 277.
Monat
300
The
places of the stars were on that day:
a Ursae minoris
Herculis
Arietis
Qh 58 m 14*
17
1
.
10
+ 88
14
21
54".
3
6
34 .26
14
.
36
2.0
.
57
00
22
37 22
7.
Now we
M
have:
4s o
"
_ M = H3m
7
M
=
f.
19m 13s. o
or expressed in sidereal time: M M O h 3 m 4s. 50 l
_ =
A
= = =
51
39 .84
.
"
= hO
;/
H()h 19
16*. 16
58
39
59 .90
7h
54m 44s 34
5".
_
QI&gt;
118 41
10
=
)
36"
43
.
74
10.
9055
56".
Then we have:
i
i
= + 8 = 51 = 32 (S + = 55
(#
(8
)
8")
(
")
52
52
56".
15
28 58 .15
15.80
29 38.50.
and from
this
we
60
obtain:
log
4"
log A
B
C
= =
0. 1183684
48
11".
92
B"
= =
0.1629829
5
=120
.J
844.47
(C"
C"
=10
10
16
52".
22
1450.27
H
C")
=
54 65
56^
57".
i(C"
C"
)=
g==
t
11 47 .37
t
&lt;HC"
= = +C= =
y = 30
4
47
56 63
66
56 16 .08
18
28".
09 38
3 h 45
13s. 87
16".
50
33 18 .36
:
and the formulae
(/?)
and (D) give the same value of y
23".
72.
From
we
find the sidereal time:
&lt;9
= 21h 13m o. 23,
.
and since the sidereal time
we
find the
:
mean
at mean noon was 12 h 54 m 2 s 04, 17 m 36 8 .44, hence the error of the time 8
h
chronometer
AM
=
10
40 S .56.
Computing
h from one of the three equations (a)
h
we
= 30
get:
58
14".
44,
and for the other two hour angles we
find:
=
62 66
22
37".
01
19.
*=
14 24
.
We
then are able to compute the three azimuths:
301
A ==181 35
A
and
=
.
2
89
33 .2 50 .4;
.4"=
279
finally the three differential equations:
d&lt;f=
rf(An)
=
329 da 5 739 du 0.0018 du f 468 du
. .
.
G
.
.
068 396
J",
du",
where dy du, du\
20.
is
du"
expressed in seconds of arc, whilst t/(/\w) and are expressed in seconds of time.
lution, not of the
Cagnoli has given in his Trigonometry another so problem we have here under consideration,
but of a similar one.
plied to this case,
His formulae can be immediately ap
if it
is
and
itself
required, to find the altitude besides the latitude and
little
the time, they are even a more convenient.
Let
S,
S and
S"
(Fig. 10)
be the three stars which are observed. In the triangle
between the zenith, the pole and the star we have then
"
s
"
according to Gauss
pier s formulae,
parallactic angle
s
or
Na
denoting the
by pi
tang %
(&lt;JP
h
h)
= =
S
]
V
cotang (45
and:
tang
J
(y&gt;
h)
?2
( t
sin
tang (45
4 8)
f
jJ
sinsin
]
(tp)
(
t
H,
cotang (45
S"
/&gt;)
But
in the triangles
s
PSS PS
and
PSS"
we have
also
according to Napier
formulae, putting for the sake of brevity
=1[PS"S
A A
tang
=
PS
S"]
[PS"S
PSS"]
A"=Ji[PS
S
PSS
]:
A
=
cos
(B)
302
where
since
/,
and
//
have the same signification as before.
Now
we have:
=
p +PS
S"=PS"S
p
p"
we
easily find, that:
P p
=A = A 4A
t
:
iA"A
A"
A
A".
(C)
p"=
4
A
But we
also have:
sin sin p U4A) sinp
:
sin
hence
or:
:
sin
t
:
sin
= cos = cos UfA) =
sin
1
h
:
cos cos
cp
9?,
h
:
79
:
sin&gt;
sin
*
4 sin
sin
(t +(t
A)
Tin"*
+Tf
H
__ ~~
sin
sin
[A 4[A
f
A"
A] +
A]
sin sin
A"
[A H[A h
A"
A"
A A
)
]
]
From
this follows:
tang
[t
4 A]
cotang ^ A
A"
= tang
its !
.4"
cotang (A
A
or substituting for tang
tions
value taken from the equa
8)
():
tang
[*
H
4 A]
=
sin(S
cotang
UA
).
,
(Z
Therefore
of A,
tions
yl
we
first
find
from the equations (#) the values
then we find p and and by means of the equa and h by means of the equa and (D), and then (C)
A",
&lt;/
tions (A).
is
An
inconvenience connected with these formulae
quadrant which the several angles lie, being found by tangents. However it is indifferent whether we take the angles 180 wrong, only we must then take 180 + 1 instead of f, if we that cos and sin h should find for (p and h such values have oppositive signs. Likewise if we find for ff and h values we must take the supplement to 180 or to greater than the nearest multiple of 180. The latitude is north or south, if sin ff and sin h have either the same sign or opposite signs. If we compute the example given in No. 19 by means
in
all
,
&lt;f
the doubt in which
we
are
left
in regard to the
90"
of these formulae,
we have:
,U=
^
(8"
)
=4
;
;
=
35
59
4 i
20
32".
55
57 58 .05
(8"
O
]
r
40".
(
_) = _ 36
35
S)
=
32
15
52 15
.
.
80
52
56".
=
("})=
55^9
.15,
38 .50
51
2858
303
and from
this
2
we
find:
4=
2
1".33,
^
=84
^
t
49
4".
07,
A"=
5".
29
44
16".
52
A
==86
51
2
40
,fl^A=
=
3
4 .47
.08.
56
1828
Then we
the pole,
h from one of the triangles between the zenith and one of the stars, and since in the
find
y and
triangle formed by the first star small angles occur, we choose the triangle formed by the second star, using the formulae:
tang
i
(pM)
=
*
I
y*fy tang (45
h
{
)
Now we
we
have:
*
y = ^t +.
therefore
find:
= + / = 62
&lt;
22
^"
A
= 243
4
1
23".
37".
02
24
38".
08,
y,= 30
A
= 149
73
45 .58
or taking for h the supplement to h 30 58 14
180:
.
=
42,
which values almost entirely agree with those found preceding No.
21.
ical
in the
We
method.
can also find Cagrioli s formulae by an analyt According to the fundamental formulae of spher
ical
trigonometry
sin h
w e have
r
for
each of the three stars the
cos cos cos
following three equations:
cos h sin p cos A cos;?
sin h
= = cos
sin
sin sin
cp
sin sin
S
t
j
cp
t
\
y&gt;
(a)
= # = cosy = cos S = cos A cosy cos cos// = cos
sin
&lt;f
rp
cos
+
cos
y&gt;
sin
90
S cos
t
cos
V)
cos $ cos(i/i)
i
cos h sinp cos A cos /;
sin
(t \r

(6)
sin
9?
cos cos
y
&lt;p
sin
cosS"
cos
c
(c)
*
"
sin A
sin
cp
sin
^"4
sin//
sin
(&lt;
+
A
)
9?
A
sin
gp
J"
cos
sin
cos (*HA
)
first
we subtract the first of the equations (6) from the of the equations (a) and introduce f #) f (d J instead of #, and i( fy we find instead of , ( ) the equation (rr) in No. 19. a similar process we deduce By from the third of the equations (a) and (6):
If
(*&gt;
&lt;V)
(
&gt;
&lt;)
&lt;)
4&gt;^)
_J.
304
cos h sin ^
(/&gt;
+/&gt;)
sin
5
(//
p)
=
sin
sin
&lt;f
sin \ (8 \8) sin
I
4
(8 (8
8)
cos
&lt;p
sin ^
(&lt;?
H&lt;?)
cos
8) sin
&lt;?)
(*H A)
sin
/
h cosy cos
^(&lt;?
H?) sin
K&lt;?
cos(H^)cos4/,
and
if
we
eliminate
(f
in this equation
first
by means of the
r&gt;),
equation (), multiplying the
by cos
sin
y&gt;
(&lt;)
the latter
by smK/VhcT), we obtain:
cos h cos 4 ($ +#) sin ^ (p fp) sin 4(p
/)
= cos
\
(8
S) cos
(H^
A) cos ^
L
(o?)
Now
we
find:
if
we
j
subtract the
second equations (a) and
(6),
cos h cos
(p \p) sin 4 (//
= cos
/&gt;)
cp
cos
(^ + \
/I)
sin 5 A,
and hence:
1
X
(/&gt;
I
\
h/&gt;)
tang
J
K^ = l/ SI 11
^)
cotang
^ /
= tang ^
Alt
.
We
form
can find similar formulae by combining the cor
responding equations (a) and (c) and (6) and (c), which we can write down immediately on account of their symmetrical
:
+p)
and tang
5 (/;
N
= siiU T
sin
,"
("&lt;?)
cotang 4 /
= tang A
/)
+;?
;=

(&lt;?"
S")

cotang
(/
=
COS^
(.O
~T"O
j
If find
:
we add
cos h sin
\
finally the
second equations (a) and (6), we
(/)
(p ^p} cos
^
p)
= cos
a)
9?
sin (2
h ^ A) cos ^ A,
and from
this in
tang
connection with (d)
H4
we
obtain:
p),
(&lt;
A)
=
sin
g
1
^ (a
r^ _{_)
p)
cotang f (p
where ^ (/
=A
A
.
thus p and t for the first star are known, we can compute cf and h by means of the formulae found before, which were derived by Napier s formulae:
tang * dp HA)
When
=
^r^
cotang (45
*
^
&lt;?)
tang
*(?*)
=
tan ^
&lt;
45

^
305
IV.
METHODS OF FINDING THE LATITUDE AND THE TIME
BY AZIMUTHS.
If
observe the clock time, when a star, whose known, has a certain azimuth, we can find the error place of the clock, if the latitude is known, because we can com
22.
we
is
pute the hour angle of the star from its declination, its azi muth and the latitude. If we take the observation, when the
star
is
on the meridian,
it
;
is
not necessary to
know
the de
clination nor the latitude
azimuth being at its with greater accuracy than at other times.
If
same time, the change of the maximum, the observation can be made
at the
we
differentiate the equation:
cotang
A sin
t
=
cos
(p
tang
H sin
&lt;f&gt;
cos
t,
we
obtain
according
cos
to
the third formula (11) in No. 9 of
the introduction:
hdA
=
sin
A
sin hdtp
+
cos
cos p
.
dt.
If the star is
on the meridian, we have: 1 sin A 0, cos p
and:
= A = 90
=
yf
at least if the star is south of the zenith,
dt
hence we obtain:
= mr*) dA COS
.
We
observation
see therefore, that in order to find the time by the of stars on the meridian, we must select stars
which culminate near the zenith, because there an error of the azimuth has no influence upon the time.
time of observation, a if the clock
^&lt;,
If a be the right ascension of the star and u the clockwe have the error of the clock equal to
is
a sidereal clock.
But
if
a
mean time mean
is
clock
is
mination
time.
used, of the star, that
we must
convert the sidereal time of the cul
is,
its
right ascension into
If
we denote
this
by m, the error of the clock
equal to
m
u.
For
stars at
some distance from the zenith the accuracy
of the determination of the time depends upon the accuracy of the azimuth or upon the deviation of the instrument from
the meridian.
If this error is small,
we can
easily determine
"20
306
it
by observing two
stars,
one of which culminates near the
zenith the other near the horizon, and then we can free the observation from that error. For ifdA be the deviation from
a and the meridian, the hour angles (*) stars have at the times of the observations
&
a
which the
are also small
and equal to:
si
11(9^
&lt;f)
cos o
*
A4
S
)
and:
,
sin (y
Hence, since
equations
:
= u\^u^
a
COS
s
,
A A.
we have
the following
two
=
u
sin 0/5
+A"
cos o
^*
8)
&A
and:
= +
is
,i
 **=&gt; & A,
COS
from which we can find both
&u
and &A.
If the instru
ment
one
so
constructed that
we can
see stars north of the
still more accurately if we select two stars, near the equator, the other near the pole, because in this case the coefficient of &A in one of the above
zenith,
we
find
AA
is
of which
equations
its
very large and besides has the opposite sign *). Example. At the observatory at Bilk the following trans
is
it
were observed with the transitinstrument, before
a Aurigae
ft
was
well adjusted:
5h 6 5
8
"
27 s
12
.
72
71.
:
Orionis
.
Since the right ascensions of the stars were a Aurigae 5 h 5 ra 33 s .25 445 50 3
.
ft
Orionis
is
57
12
.
17 .33

8
23
.
1
and the latitude
51
.
_ 545
55
from which we
find:
47 38
.
= A M _ 0.13433 A^ = 0.87178 &A,
A"
5,
we have
the
two equations:
Au
=
54 s
.
30
and
:
*)
It
is
assumed
here, that the instrument be so adjusted, that the line
If this
is
of collimation describes a vertical circle.
vations
section.
must be corrected according
to the
formulae
not the case, the obser in No. 22 of the seventh
307
23.
The time can
also
be found
by a very simple
method, proposed by Olbers, namely by observing the time, when any fixed star disappears behind a vertical terrestrial
This of course must be a high one and at consid erable distance from the observer so that it is distinctly seen in a telescope whose focus is adjusted for objects at an in
object.
finite
distance.
The
telescope
must always be placed exactly low power ought to be chosen.
in the
used for these observations same position, and a
dis
Now
if for
a certain
day the sidereal time of the
appearance of the star be known by other methods, we find by the observation on any other day immediately the error
of the sidereal clock, because the star disappears every day exactly at the same sidereal time, as long as it does not change But if a mean time clock is used for these ob its place.
into account,
servations, the acceleration of the fixed stars must be taken since the star disappears earlier every day by O h 3 m 55 s .909 of mean time.
If the
right ascension of the star changes, the time of the disappearance of the star is changed by the same quan
tity,
because the star is always observed at the same azimuth and hence at the same hour angle. But if the declination changes, the hour angle of the star, corresponding to this azimuth, is changed and we have according to the differential formulae in No. 8 of the first section, since dA as well as
d(p are in this case equal to zero:
dS
cos
8dt
= cos pdh = pdh,
sin
hence
:
at
dS. tang/?
,
&gt;
COS
where p denotes the parallactic angle. Therefore if the change of the star s right ascension and declination is A and A (5, the change of the sidereal time, at which the star disappears, is:
,
A
15
A#
15
tang p
cos&lt;f
Olbers had found from other observations, that in 1800 Coronae disappeared behind the vertical Sept. 6 the star
wall of a distant spire,
whose azimuth was 64 56
20*
21".
4, at
308
23 m 18^.3 mean time, equal to 22 h 26 m 21 s 78 sidereal time. Sept. 12 he observed the time of the disappearance of the star 10"49 m 21 s 0. Now since 6 x 3 in 55 .909 is equal to
IP On
.
s
.
23 m 35 s .4, the star ought to have disappeared at 10 h 59 42 s 9 mean time, hence the error of the clock on mean time was
"
.
equal to
+
10 m 21 s
.
9.
In 1801 Sept. 6 was:
Aa=5H42".0
and
:
A&lt;?=
13".
2,
and since we have:
^
and
:
= 37 31 ^ = t2G 41
1

,
we
find:
.
A
_ co7
"
J
hence the complete correction is +35 or 3 s 56. There fore in 1801 Sept. 6 the star d Coronae disappeared at 22 h 26 m 25 s 34 sidereal time*).
53".
. .
24.
If
we know
the time,
star,
we can
find the latitude
is
observing an azimuth of a we have:
cotang
whose place
tang
f sin cp
by known, since
A
sin
t
=
cos
(p
cos
t.
Differentiating this equation
sin
we
.
find:
Adtp
in
=
cotang lid A
cos 8 cos p
\

sin
dt
p
h
7
~
f 7
sin h
sm
do.
order to find the latitude by an azimuth as accurately as possible, we must observe the star near the prime vertical , because then sin A is at a maximum. Be
sides we must select a star which passes near the zenith of the place, since then the coefficients of dA and dt are very
Hence
small, as
we have:
cos S cos
Therefore we have then no influence
sin cp cos h h cos y sin h cos A. p see that errors of the azimuth and the time
,
=
whilst an error of the assumed de
clination of the star produces the 1 since we have then sin p
=
same error of the
latitude,
.
If
we
observe only one star,
we must observe
III.
the azi
*)
v.
Zach, Monatliche Correspondent Band
pag. 124.
309
muth
stars
itself
besides the time.
But
y
&lt;p
if
we suppose,
cos
&lt;p
that
two
have been observed,
cotang cotang
we have
cos cos
A A
sin
sin
t
t
= =
the two equations:
f sin
{~
t
.
tang tang 8
sin
(f
cos
t\
/,
.
Multiplying the
sin
,
first
equation by sin
.
the second by
we
find
t
:
.
sin
sin
t
sin (A A) sm A sin A
.,
= cos y
h
sin
(f
t
.
tang d sin
1
t
tang o sin
t
J
sin (t
*)
or as:
cos 8 sin
= cos A
[cos
sin
sin
A,
sin
.
also:
cos A cos h sin
(^
A)
= cos
h
sin
9?
8
sin 5 sin
t)
8 cos 5 sin
(&)
t
]
9?
(t
cos 8 cos 8
We
will introduce
now
the following auxiliary quantities:
%
5
sin (8 + 8) sin
(t
(&lt;
t~)
sin (8
8) cos
t}
= ?nsir\M =m M
cos
If
we
multiply the
first
the
other by sin(f
first,
sin [^
M)
M]
of these equations by eosJ(f Hf), and subtract the second equation
8 cos 8 sin
first
from the m
we
get:
(t \t)
=
sin
t
cos 8 sin 8 sin
t
.
But
the
if
we
multiply the
second by sin  ( f), from the second, we get: m sin [ IT]
&lt;)
equation by cos  (* f), and subtract the first equation
sin
=
m
sin
8 cos #
sin (
r).
Hence the equation
cos A cos k sin
;
(6) is
(^4
A)
= m cos
transformed into the following:
90
sin [\
(&lt;
+
ifef]
If
either
we assume now,
at
is
t) M] cotang 8. y sin [^ (i that the two stars were observed
the
same azimuth or
in
ference
180, we have
find:
tang
two azimuths, whose dif both cases sin (A and A)
at
=
hence we
?
= tang
sin [jfr
K)
Jf]
Therefore in this case
J,^^. not necessary
it
(B ]
to
is
know
the
by by the declination of the star by means of the formulae (A) and (5). If the same star was observed both times, the formulae become still more simple. For since we have in this case
itself,
azimuth
but
we
find the latitude
the times of ob
servation and
^=90"
according to the second formula
(^4),
we
find:
310
tang f
= tang
*
.
_R?_.
cos j
(YM)
.
(C)
at
For the general case, that two stars have been observed two different azimuths, the differential equations are:
cos h
cos h
dA dA
=
sin
s
pd
mp dd
+
H cos 8 cos p dt cos S cos p d t
sin h sin
sin h s
A
d&lt;p
m A dy.
ft
,
If
we
introduce here also the difference of the azimuths
the other
and therefore multiply the first equation by cos by cos ft, and subtract them, we get
:
cos h cos h
d(A
A)
=
\
[sin h cos h sin
cos h cos d cos pdt+ cos h cos S cos p dt sin h cos h sin ^1]
A
dy&gt;
Now
since
dt
=
are
cos h sin p
dS
cos h sin
clu {
where du and
C/M
the
d (&ii) and c?J du +errors of observation and
=
pd8.
r/
(A M),
d(&u)
that of the error of the clock,
we
find, if
we
substitute these
values in place of dt and dt
and take
at the
same time
4 =180 4 4*):
sin
Ad&lt;p
cosy cosAd(&u)
cos
(p
=
sin. \/i
77,,
;&gt;.
[d(A
(p
^4)
sin cpd(u
u)j
r~ fi)
cos
A sin h cos
,
h
cos
cos
A
sin h cos h
^^nr~
~ sin
Hence we
vations
dcp
is
/?
,
~ii^q^r~
p cos A
_
cos A
sin
sin (A
H A)
it
see again that
vertical.
is
best to
make
the obser
1
on the prime
at a
For then
of the
the coefficient of
d(u)
errors du, du and are equal to zero; and only the difference of the two errors of observation, the errors of the declination and the
maximum and
those
quantity, by which the difference of the two azimuths was greater or less than 180", will have any effect upon the re
sult.
vertical in the east
In case that the same star was observed on the prime and west, we have ft ft and sin /? == sin/?,
=
hence
:
h [d(A
A)
siny&gt;d(u
M)]
H
sin
, fi
d8
t
*)
In order to
find
the
equation given above,
we must
:
also substitute
for cos S cos
p and cos 8 cos p the following expressions
cos d cosp
cos
= = cosp
sin sin
tp
y&gt;
cos h H cosy sin h cos A cosh cosy sin h cos A,
311
and since according
sm
to
h
No. 26 of the
sin
.
first
section:
= sm
and
fp
sin
p
= cos o
cos
11)
fp
we have:
\
dy&gt;
cotang h [d(A
A)
sin
&lt;p
d(u
}
f
.
^ d&
u
see again from this equation, that it is best to ob serve stars, which pass near the zenith, because then cotang h
is
We
very large and hence errors in
little
A
A and
u have
only very
influence
upon the
result.
In this case the
is equal to 1, since the declination of stars the zenith is equal to cp, and hence the result passing through But will be affected with the whole error of the declination.
coefficient of
dd
if
the difference of latitude should be determined by this method for two places not far from each other so that the same star can be used at each place, this difference will be
entirely free
from the error of the declination*).
Example.
zenith
The
of Berlin.
star ft Draconis passes very near the Therefore this star was observed at the
between the
hence:
The interval observatory with a prime vertical instrument. transits of the star east and west was 34 m 43 8 .5
{(t
t)
=4
25
20
26".
25
and
it
was
^
= 52
26".
77.
Now
since
in
case that the observations are taken on
the prime vertical we have (Yf) 0, we mic^ from the following simple formula for finding the latitude:
=
()
and by means of
this
we
y,
= 5230
A)
obtain:
13".04.
Finally the differential equation
dcf
is:
u)}
= h 0.02310 [d(A
is
0.7934 d(u
4 0.99925 dS.
*)
that
It
the
line
again assumed, that the transit instrument is so far adjusted, of collimation describes a vertical circle. Compare No 26 of
the seventh section.
**)
This formula
is
also found simply
from the triangle between the pole,
is
the zenith and the star, which in this case
a right angled triangle.
312
25.
If
we
observe two stars on the same vertical
if
circle,
we
can find the time, since we have:
sin [i (
+
we know
the latitude of the place,
 M] =
t,
1
sin [4
(t
  M],
t)
(A}
where
:
=u
f
AW
and
m sin If m cos
Since
t
t
,
= M=
is
sin (d f
&lt;?)
sin
^
(*
t).
sin ($
,
$) cos
^ (*
that
half the interval of time between
is
the observations,
can find
J
M
expressed in sidereal time, and hence t and t
.
known, we
The
differential
for finding the time
equation given in No. 22 shows, that by azimuths it is best to observe stars
is
near the meridian, because there the coefficient of dcp a minimum, that of dt at a maximum.
vations.
at
The azimuth itself can For we have:
tang
also
be found by such obser
t
A

cos S sin
cos
&lt;f
5 sin o f.
sm
y&gt;
cos o cos
*
t
and making use of the equation
:
we
find:
_
If
__
"sin
_sinjj3in
ft
(?
 If] OjO
[4
^ (i
""
_
we
write here
^
+
M
&lt;
instead of
M,
we
easily obtain:
sin
(f
If the time of both observations
t t
is
the
same
or:
=
a, at
the formula
(.4) gives the time, the same vertical circle.
which two
stars are
on
places of Lyrae of the year 1849: ginning
a Lyrae
ft
The
and a Aquilae are
75
S 8
+
for the be
a
= 18
19
h
31
47*
.
38
8
38
52".
2
Aquilae
43
23 ,43
=+
28 30 .5.
313
Therefore
t
we
t
have:
I
1
=
4(
1 l
If
we
take then
f/&gt;
= 52
:
m 35* 68
.
=
16",
17
53
55".
2.
30
we
find:
3/=19255
53".0
^=158
1
7
0.4
38"
.
and from
hence
:
this
we
\
get
(t
+
(*
M= 142
M)
35
28
6,
.1
= =
.
24
1&gt;
28".
4
37n53 .9
2 h 13 m 41 s
.
and
*
=
lh
2m 6s
1
,
*
=
7.
Therefore the sidereal time at which the two stars are
on the same vertical
circle is:
Hence
on the same
time
if
we
observe the clocktime
when two
stars are
vertical circle, if for
instance we. observe the clock
when two
stars are bisected
by
a plumbline,
the error of the clock at least approximately, the latitude of the place and compute the time by means of It is best to take as one of the the formulae given above.
we can find when we know
always the polestar, since it changes its place very slowly, a circumstance which makes the observation more
stars
easy.
V.
DETERMINATION OF THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE MERIDIANS OF TWO PLACES ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH, OR OF THEIR
DIFFERENCE OF LONGITUDE.
26.
If the
local
the
are
surface
of the
times, which two different places on earth have at the same absolute instant,
known, the hour angle of the vernal equinox for each But the difference of these hour angles, place is known. hence the difference of the local times at the same moment, is equal to the arc of the equator between the meridians passing through the two places and hence equal to their dif ference of longitude; and since the diurnal motion of the
heavenly sphere
west,
it
is
follows,
that a place,
going on in the direction from east to whose local time at a certain
314
moment
is
earlier
place, and that
it is
than that of another place, is west of this east of it, if its local time is later than that
of the other place. For the first meridian, from which the of all other places are reckoned, usually that of a longitudes certain observatory, for instance, that of Paris or Greenwich,
taken. But in geographical works the longitudes are more frequently reckoned from the meridian of Ferro, whose lon or 20 m West. gitude from Paris is 20
is
1"
In order to obtain the local times which exist simulta
neously on two meridians, either artificial signals are ob served or such heavenly phenomena as are seen at the same
moment from
ses
all
places.
Such phenomena are
since
first
of the moon.
For
the
moon
at
the time
earth,
the eclip of an
the be
eclipse
enters the cone of the
shadow of the
ginning and the end of an
eclipse as well as the obscura tions of different spots are seen from all places on the earth simultaneously, because the time in which the light traverses
the semidiameter of the earth
is
insignificant.
The same
is
true for the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter. These phenomena therefore would be very
for
convenient
finding differences of longitude, since they are simply equal to the differences of the local times of observations,
if
they
the
could
be
observed
with
greater
accuracy.
s
But
never
since
shadow of the earth on the moon
disc
is
well defined^ and thus the errors of observation
to
may amount
one minute and even more, and since likewise the begin ning and end of an eclipse of Jupiter s satellites cannot be
accurately observed, these phenomena are at present hardly If however the eclipses ever used for finding the longitude. of Jupiter s satellites should be employed for this purpose, it
is
absolutely necessary, that the observers at the two stations
have telescopes of equal power and that each observes the same number of immersions and emersions and those only of the
first
satellite,
whose motion round Jupiter
is
the most rapid.
The
arithmetical
mean of
all
these observations will give a
measurably free of any error, though any very great accuracy cannot be expected.
result
Benzenberg has proposed
pearance of shooting
to observe the time of disap
stars for this purpose.
These can be
315
observed with great accuracy, but since
forehand,
it
is
not
known be
what region of the heavens a shoot ing star will appear, it will always be the case, that even if a great mass of shooting stars have been observed at the two stations, yet very few, which are identical, will be found among them; besides the difference of longitude must be
in
when and
already
approximately known,
in
order to find out these.
Very accurate results can be obtained by observing artifi which are given for instance by lighting a quantity of gunpowder at a place visible from the two stations. Although this method can be used only for places near each
cial signals,
other,
yet the
difference
in
be determined
two
let
places,
whose
etc.
of longitude of distant places may the following way: Let A and B be the difference of longitude / shall be found, and
An AM A 3
that
that
/!
ces,
whose unknown
is
so
/2
be other places, lying between those pla differences of longitude shall be / n A2 / 3 etc. the difference of longitude between A l and J,
,
between A z and A l
etc.
the stations 4,, A a , the signal from A
tl /!
Ab
is
etc.
at
the
at
If then signals are given at local times / T , f 3 , /, etc.,
= 0, =
seen
the
place
A
at
tl
the
I,
and
at the station
A^ at the time
t
+
=
time
fc^.
Further the signal given from A. is seen at the station A^ at the time t 3 /3 and at the station A 4 at the time 2 But since the difference of longitude of the ^3 f I* &*
=
6&gt;
,
places A and nal station is
B
is
equal to
/
f
^
+
.
.
.
+
/,
if
the last sig
A H .\,
or since:
0} 4(6&gt;
/== (0,
3
a )
H
(6&gt;
5
4)
etc.,
we
find:
/= 0,,it
1
(&
2
0,, a)
.
.
.
(6&gt;
2
(9,
)
Therefore at the stations, where the signals are observed, not requisite to know the error of the clocks but only their rate, and it is only necessary to know the correct time
is
at
the
two places, whose difference of longitude
is
to
be
found.
is
better
Instead of giving the signals by lighting gunpowder, to use a heliotrope, an instrument invented
it
by
Gauss, by which the light of the sun can be reflected in any
direction to great distances.
If the heliotrope is directed to
316
the other station, a signal can be given by covering
denly.
it
sud
The difference of longitude of two places can also be determined by transporting a good portable chronometer from one place to the other and finding at each station the error
of the
if
the error found at the

chronometer on local time as well as its rate. For first place be /\u and the daily rate
",
be denoted by
u
then the error after a days will be
j\u{a
.
Now
if after
a days the error of the chrono
meter at the other place should be found equal to /\ M ? we have, denoting the longitude of the second place east of the
first
by
I:
d
n
I
U
h
A M H

d^
u
=u
h
AM
,
hence
,= A
,+^
A
..
It is assumed here that the chronometer has kept a uni form rate during the interval between the two observations. But since this is never strictly the case, it is necessary, to transport not only one chronometer from one place to the other, but as many as possible, and to take the mean of all
In this way the results given by the several chronometers. the difference of longitude of several observatories, for in stance that of Greenwich and that of Pulkova has been de
termined.
method, being determined at the place from which the ship sails and the time at sea being found by altitudes of the sun.
27.
Likewise the longitude at sea is found by this the error of the chronometer as well as its rate
The most accurate method
is
of longitude
that
by means of the
electric telegraph.
of finding the difference Since
telegraphic signals can be observed like any other signals, the method is of the same nature as some of those mentioned
before,
and has no other advantage than perhaps its greater convenience but when chronographs are used for recording the observations at the two stations, it surpasses all other me
;
thods by the accuracy of the results. The chronograph is a cylinder, about which usually constructed in this way, that
317
a sheet of paper is wrapped, is moved around its axis with uniform velocity by a clockwork, which at the same time carries a writing apparatus, resting on the paper, slowly in a
direction
parallel
to the axis of the cylinder.
Therefore,
if
the
motion of the cylinder and of the pen is uniform, the latter markes on the paper a spiral, which when the sheet is
taken from the cylinder, appears as a system of parallel lines on the paper. Now the writing apparatus is connected with
for
an electromagnet so that, every time the current is broken an instant and the armature is pulled away from the
magnet by means of a spring attached to it, the pen makes a plain mark on the paper. If then the pendulum of a clock breaks the current by some contrivance at every beat, every second of the clock is thus marked on the sheet of paper, and since the chronograph is always so arranged that the
cylinder revolves on its axis once in a minute, there will be on every parallel line sixty marks, corresponding to the sec onds of the clock, and the marks corresponding to the same second in different minutes will also lie in a straight line per
will suppose now, that pendicular to those parallel lines. at first the current is broken and that the pen is marking an
We
unbroken line; then if the current be closed just before the secondhand of the clock reaches the zerosecond of a certain
minute, the
first
secondmark on the paper
will
correspond
to this certain second, and hence the second corresponding to any other mark is If then the current can easily found. also be broken at any time by a breakkey in the hand of the
observer,
who
gives a signal at the instant
when a
star is seen
on the wire of the instrument, the time of this observation is also marked on the sheet, and hence it can be found with
great accuracy by measuring the distance of this the nearest secondmark.
If the current
mark from
gitude
is
to
goes to another observatory, whose lon be determined, and passes there also through a
key
in the hand of the observer, the signals given by this observer will be recorded too by the chronograph at the first station hence if this observer gives also a signal at the time
;
when
the
the
same
difference
star is seen on the wire of his instrument, of the two times of observation, recorded on
318
the paper and corrected for the deviations of the two instru ments from their respective meridians and for the rate of the clock in the interval between the
two observations,
will
be equal to the difference of longitude of the two places. Since the electrical current, when going to a great dis tance, is only weak, this main current, which passes through the keys of the two observers, does not act immediately upon
the electro magnet of the chronograph, but merely upon a relay which breaks the local current passing through the
chronograph.
If a chronograph is used at each station
and the clocks
are on the local circuits, the signals from each observer and the seconds of the local clock are recorded by each chronograph,
and hence we get a difference of longitude by every star from the records of each chronograph after being corrected for the errors of the instruments and the rate of the clock.
But the
at
each station
difference of longitude thus recorded independently For since the velo is not exactly the same.
city of electricity is not indefinitely great, there will elapse a very short, but measurable time, at least if the distance of the two stations is great, till the signal given at the sta tion A, being the farthest east, arrives at the station B.
the time of the signal recorded at the station B cor responds to a time, when the star was already on the me
Hence
dian of a place lying west of A, and the difference of longi tude recorded at B is too small by the time, in which the A to B. But the same electricity traverses the distance from
time will elapse when the signal from B is given, and the time recorded at the station A will correspond to the time when the star was on the meridian of a place a little west of
B, hence the difference of longitude recorded at the station A will be too great by the same quantity. Therefore the mean
of the differences of longitude recorded at both stations is the true difference of longitude and half the difference (sub tracting the result obtained at the station B from that ob
tained at the station
A) is equal to the time in which the traverses the distance from A to B *). electricity
*)
The armature time
is
also a cause of this difference.
319
A
accurate
single star, observed in this way, gives already a more result than a single determination of the longitude
,
made by any other method
and since the number of
stars
can be increased at pleasure, the accuracy can be driven to
a very high degree, provided that also the greatest care is taken in determining the errors of the two instruments. Since the
same
stars are observed at
is
of longitude
stars.
free
both stations, the difference from any errors of the places of the
is
In case that the distance between the two stations
great, sometimes a large is therefore preferable, to
number of
signals are lost and it let the main current for a short
time at the beginning and end of the observations pass through both clocks, so that their beats are recorded by the chrono
If then the current is closed at graphs at both stations. each station at a round minute, after having been broken for a short time, so that the clocktimes corresponding to the
records
on the chronographs are known, the difference of
the two clocks can be obtained from every recorded second or better from the arithmetical mean of all. These differences,
differ again by twice the time, which the current passes from one station to the other, and which in this way can be determined even with greater accuracy. A few such comparisons are already sufficient to
as obtained at both stations,
in
give a very accurate result, since the accuracy of one com parison probably surpasses the accuracy with which the er
rors of the clocks can be obtained from observations.
tainly
Cer
the comparisons
obtained
during a few minutes are
than sufficient for the purpose so that the telegraphic part of the operation is limited to a few minutes at the be ginning and the end of the observations. After the first set of comparisons has been made, the clocks as well as the
more
keys
of both
are put on the local circuit of each ob servatory and the errors of the clocks determined by each ob server. If these errors of the clocks are applied with the
observers
proper signs to the difference of the time of the two clocks,
in this case it is advisable,
the difference of longitude of the two stations is found. Also that the observers use as much as possible the same stars for finding the errors of their
320
respective clocks, in order to eliminate the influence of any errors of the right ascensions of the stars. Besides errors arising from an inaccurate determination
of the errors of the two instruments, there can remain another error in the value of the difference of longitude, produced
the
by the personal equation of the two observers, that is, by relative quickness, with which the two observers per But this source of ceive any impression upon their senses.
not peculiar to this method, but is common to all and even of less consequence, when the observations are re
error
is
corded by the electro magnetic method.
In this case the
error depends upon the time, which elapses between the mo ment, when the eye of the observer receives an impression
and the moment, at which he becomes conscious of this im pression and gives the signal by touching the key. If this time is the same for both observers, the determination of the
of the longitude is not at all affected by it; but is not equal and there exists a personal equation, the difference of longitude is found wrong by a quantity equal
difference
if this
time
to
error arising from this source can be entirely eliminated (at least if the personal equation does not change), if the same observers determine the difference of longitude
it.
But the
ference
a second time after having exchanged their stations; the dif of the two results is then equal to twice the per sonal equation, whilst their arithmetical mean is free from it.
The observers can also determine their when they meet at one place and observe
personal equation, the transits of stars
by an instrument furnished with many wires, so that one ob server takes always the transits over some of the wires and
the
other those
over the remainder of the wires.
If then
of observation are reduced to the middle wire, VII No. 20) the results for every star obtained by (Section the two observers will differ by a quantity equal to the per
these
times
now
sonal equation. The observations are then changed so, that the second observer takes the transits over the first set
of wires, and the first one those over the other wires. Then nearly the same difference between the observers will be ob
tained and the arithmetical
will
mean
of the two values thus found
be free from any errors of the wire distances used for
321
reducing the observations to the middle wire. After the per sonal equation has thus been found, the value obtained for
the difference of longitude must be corrected on account of observer whose station is farthest to the east ob it. If
the"
serves later than the
E
is
W=\a,
too
to
it.
other, or if the personal equation is the value found for the difference of longitude small by the same quantity, and hence ~f a must be
added
Example.
On
the
29 th of June 1861 the difference of
longitude was determined between Ann Arbor in the State O of Michigan and Clinton in the State of New York and from
of the two stations
(recorded at Cl.)
126 comparisons of the clocks recorded by the chronographs it was found that:
29s .56 A. A. clockt.
b m (recorded at A. A,) 13 59 3s.0 Clinton clocktimc=19 58
13 59
3 .0
=19
58
29 .40
The clock at the observatory at Clinton was a mean time clock and its error on Clinton sidereal time was at the
time 13 h 59 m 3 s .O equal to 433 46 s 07, while the error of the clock at Ann Arbor on local sidereal time was f l m 1 s 87.
"
6"
.
.
From
20 h
the records
:
by the chronograph
sidereal time
at
Ann Arbor we
find
therefore
32&gt;M9s.07
Cl.
= 19 = 19
h
59
"
31 .43 A. A. sidereal time
and by the chronograph
20 h 32
"
at Clinton:
h
49s. 07 ci. sidereal time
59
31 s
.
27 A. A. sidereal time.
at
Hence we find the Ann Arbor equal to
difference of longitude
33 m 17s.64,
by the records
and by those
at Clinton:
or the
mean
33 M7s.SO, 33 rn 17 s 72.
.
equation is in this case E hence the corrected difference of longitude
The personal
The
W=
is
f
s
.
04 *),
33 m 17 s .76.
diffeience of lon
Note.
gitude
is
electro
magnetic method for finding the
usually called the American method, since it was proposed by Ame ricans. The idea originated with to Sears C. Walker and W. Bond Esq., to whom the honour of inventing it must be accorded, although Mitchel of Cin
cinnati completed the
first
instrument for recording the observations.
*) Dr. Peters observed at Clinton, the author at
Ann
Arbor.
21
322
28.
Besides the observations of natural or
artificial sig
nals, which are seen at the same instant at the two stations, whose difference of longitude is to be found, we may use for this purpose also such celestial phenomena, which, though
they are not simultaneous for different places, yet can be re duced to the same time; and they afford even this advantage, that they can be observed with great accuracy, and that they
are visible
over a large portion of the surface of the earth
is
possible to find the difference of longitude of places very distant from each other. Such phenomena are the occultations of fixed stars and planets by the moon, eclipses
it
so that
Venus.
of the sun, and transits of the inferior planets Mercury and Since all these heavenly bodies with the exception of the fixed stars have a parallax, which in the case of the
is
moon
from
very considerable, they are seen at the same instant
different places on the surface of the earth at different places on the celestial sphere, and hence the occultations as
well as the other phenomena mentioned before are not si multaneous for different places. Hence in this case the ob servations need a correction for parallax, since we must know the time, when those phenomena would have occurred, if there had been no parallax or rather, if they had been observed from the centre of the earth.
we must find first the parallaxes in longitude and the apparent semidiameters of the heavenly bodies at the time of the beginning and the end of the eclipse or occupation (or the parallax in right ascension and decli
Therefore
and
latitude
nation, if
it
should be preferable to use these coordinates).
triangle
Then
the
in
the
between the pole of the
ecliptic
and
centres
of the two
complements of the
bodies the three sides, namely the apparent latitudes and the sum or the
difference of the apparent semidiameters, are known; hence we can compute the angle at the pole, that is, the difference
of the apparent longitudes of the two bodies at the time of observation and, applying the parallaxes in longitude, we find the difference of the true longitudes, as seen from the centre of the
earth.
From
this,
the relative velocity
of the
two
bodies being known, we obtain the time of true conjunction, that is, the time, at which the two bodies have the same
323
geocentric longitude, and expressed in local time of the place of observation. If the beginning or end of the same eclipse
or
occultation
find
in
has
also
been
observed
at
another
place,
we
the
same way the time of true conjunction ex
pressed in local time of that place. Hence the difference of both times is equal to the difference of longitude of the two
places. If the times
for the
reduction
of observation, as well as the data used to the centre of the earth were correct,
the difference of longitude thus obtained But since they are subject to rect.
would
also be cor
errors,
we must
examine, what influence they have upon the result, and try to eliminate it by the combination of several observations.
This is the method, which formerly was used for find ing the difference of longitude by eclipses. At present a dif ferent method is employed. Starting from the equation, which
in contact with each other
tric
expresses the condition of the limbs of the two bodies being and which contains only geocen
unknown
29.
tact,
another equation is obtained, in which the quantity is the time of conjunction or rather the difference of longitude.
quantities,
The limbs of two heavenly bodies
are seen in con
the eye is anywhere in the curved surface envel Since the heavenly bodies are so oping the two bodies. nearly spherical, that we can entirely disregard the small deviation from a spherical form, the enveloping surface will be the surface of a straight cone, and there will always be two different cones, the vertex being in one case between
when
the
two bodies while in the other case it lies beyond the smaller body. If the eye is in the surface of the first cone, we see an exterior contact, whilst when it is in that of the
,
second,
it
cone is the most simple, if referred to a rectangular system of axes, one of which coincides with the axis of the cone. If the cone is gene rated by a right angled triangle revolving about one of its sides, the equation of its surface is:
of a straight
is
we see an The equation
interior contact.
where
c
is
the
ar zY tang/ (c y distance of the vertex from the fundamental 21*
,
a
2
=
2
324
plane of the coordinates,
and f
is
the vertical angle of the
generating triangle.
must now find the equation of the cone enveloping the two bodies and referred to a system of axes one of which
passes
We
through the centres of the two bodies.
in
If then
we
place of the indeterminate coordinates ar, ?/, z the coordinates of a place on the surface of the earth, re
substitute
ferred to the
tal
equation determine the position of the line joining the centres of the two bodies. But if a and d be the right ascension and de
for
same system of axes, we obtain the fundamen For this purpose we must first eclipses.
clination of that point, in which the centre of the more dis tant body is seen from the centre of the nearer body or in
which the
line passing through both centres intersects the sphere of the heavens, and if G denote the distance, of the two centres, further a, d and A be the geocentric right as
cension,
ce
i
&lt;5
declination
?
A
the
and distance of the nearer body and same quantities for the more distant body, we
cos S cos cos 8 sin
sin&lt;?
have the equations:
G cos d cos a = A G cos d sin a = A
sin&lt;/=A
ft
A A
&lt;?,
cos
cos #
ft
cos S sin
A
sin
or:
G cos d cos G cos d sin
If
earth,
(a
a
(a
G sin
= A cos A cos S cos (a = A cos S 8 d= A A
)
)
)
sin
(
)
sin
sin S.
we
take as unit the equatoreal semi diameter of the
take sin
we must
n
.
and
sin
n
instead of
A and
A, since
A
and A are expressed in parts of the semi major axis of the earth s orbit, where n is the mean horizontal equatoreal parallax of the nearer body, n the same for the more dis
tant body; thus
sin
sin
we
r
obtain:
)
n G cos d cos
nG
cos
(a
d
sin (a
)
sin
n G sm d
since
cos
=A = =A
.
sin
n
cos 8
cos 8 cos (a
)
cos 8 sin
.
(
)
sin 7t
sin
:
,
,
n
,
sin o
sin d.
Now
sin
we
also have
f
TF
nG
d
=
A 
cos 8 cos (a
)
cos 8 cos (a
),
sin
*
325
we
find:
,
,.
tang
)
=
1
A
sin TC cos , , sin SHITT cos d r 5 sin TT cos d
(ft
)
and:
,
.
c, /N
tang
(r/
)
=1
771 A smTT sin n TJ. A smn
..
s?
cos
cos o
sin (o

(ft
a)
S)
A
Since in
the case
.
cos
(()
of an eclipse of the sun 
 is
a
obtain from this by mula (12) in No. 11 of the introduction:
small quantity,
we
means of the
for
a
a
,
sin
TC
.
cos S
COS
A
S1117T
;
(a
)
. ,
\A)
and putting:
ff
=
1
s
}
we
also find
:
a
=
s in
,
A
,
rm
sin??
We
will
imagine
now
is
origin the axis of y be directed towards the north pole of the equator, whilst the axes of z and x are situated in the plane of the
coordinates, whose
a rectangular system of axes of at the centre of the earth. Let
equator and directed to points, whose right ascensions are a and 90 + a. Then the co  ordinates of the nearer
body
with respect to these axes are:
z
= & cos S cos
(ft
),
y = Asin(9,
x
= A cos S
sin (a
a).
the axes of y and z to be turned in the plane of yz through the angle d *), so that the axis of z is directed towards the whose right ascension point
If
now we imagine
and declination are a and
sin
d,
we
find the coordinates of the
nearer body with respect to the
# sin
rf
new system
a)
of axes:
+ cos 8 cos d cos (a
sin
n
sin
sin
S cos d
cos
sin
d cos
(a
a)
n
cos 8 sin (a
sin 7t
a)
*)
The angle d must be taken
is
negative,
since the positive side of the
axis of z
turned towards the positive side of the axis of y.
326
or:
cos
sin sin
(fl
cos
H
d) sin
(
n
cQcosi(
(a
a)
a
g)
(sin
(j+d)sin^ (
2
a)
_ cos $ sin
The
with this
nates
axis
sin TT
of *
is
now
centres of the
two bodies.
centre
parallel to the line joining the If we let the axis of z coincide
line, the
coordinates
of the
x and y will be the coordi of the earth with respect to the new
origin but taken negative. Let (f be the geocentric latitude of a place on the sur face of the earth, its sidereal time and y its distance from
the centre, then the coordinates of this place, taking the at the centre of the earth and the axis of origin parallel
to the line joining the centres of the
two bodies,
a)]
are:
*?
=
== C
[
gi
n d
sin
&lt;p
ftp
cos
sin
a).
(* [
cos d sin
95
d cos y cos (0 d cos cos (0
y&gt;
a)]
(Z&gt;)
f
C cos
sin
(0
coordinates of this place with respect to a system of axes, whose axis of z is the line joining the two centres
itself,
The
are:

x,
rjy
and
and the equation, which expresses, that the place on the sur face of the earth, given by o, f/ and 6), lies in the surface of the cone enveloping the two bodies, is:
(x

2
I)
f
(y
 nY = (c
)"
tang/
2
,
where
to
c
and f are yet
to
be expressed by quantities referred
the centre of the earth.
But the angle f
r =t= r
is
found, as
is
easily seen,
by
the equation:
sin/==
~

,
Or
where r and r are the semidiameters of the two bodies and where the upper sign must be used for exterior contacts, the
lower one for interior contacts. Now since the unit we use for G is the semi diameter of the equator of the earth,
we must
refer
r
and
r
to
the
same
unit.
Therefore
if k
denotes the semidiameter of the
moon expressed
in parts of
the semidiameter of the equator of the earth and h the ap
327
parent semidiameter of the sun seen at a distance equal to the semimajor axis of the earth s orbit, we. have, since:
,
sin
also:
sin /
=
(JT
sm n
r [sin
h =t= k sin
n
}
or:
sin/= A 9
[sin
h
== k
sin
n ].
(JE)
But we have:
log sin
n
= 5. 6186145,
to
further
& = 0.2725
we have according
and
Burkhardt
according to Bessel h
k sin k sin
= 15
s
Lunar Tables
59".
788, hence
we
have:
log [sin h log [sin h
f7t
]
1
n
}
= =
7. 1
.
6688041
for exterior contacts,
6666903
for interior contacts.
must still express the quantity c, that is, the dis tance of the vertex of the cone from the plane of xy. But
We
we
easily see, that:
where again the upper sign
is
used
If
for
an exterior, the lower
one for an interior contact.
/",
that is , quantity c tang the plane of xy intersects the cone, and tang f by /L, the ge neral equation for eclipses, which expresses, that the place
then denote by / the the radius of the circle in which
we
on the surface of the earth given by
&
q&gt;\
and
is
o, lies in
the
:
surface of the cone enveloping both bodies,
as follows
(x)
Since
negative,
tion (F).
/
2
f(
&lt;
y7
2
7
)
= (Z^)
we must
2
.
is
always positive,
find
take tang f or
/I
if
we
a negative value
of c from the equa
The values of the quantities used for computing ic, ?/, z and , 77, by means of the equations (C) and (D) are taken from the tables of the sun and the moon. Since these are
always a
erroneous, the computed values of x, y etc. Therefore if will also differ a little from the true values.
little
A#,
A^
an(i
A^
are the corrections,
which must be applied
328
to
the computed values x, y
H
and
is
/
in
order to obtain the
*)
:
true values, the above equation
(x
transformed into
2 A* I)* + (y 4 fry T/) (I } AZ 1) 2 We will assume now, that the values of d TT, , and TI have been taken from" the tables or almanacs for the
.
=
,
,
first meridian. Then if the unknown time of meridian, at which a phase of the eclipse has been observed, be Tf T , we have, denoting by x n and y the values of x and y corresponding to the time T and by x
time
the
T
of the
first
(}
and y the
differential coefficients of
^
=
x&lt;&gt;
4
x
T
and
x and y: y=y +y T
.
way the quantities , r] and J will consist of two parts. But since these quantities change only slowly and an approximate value of the difference of longitude, and
hence of the time of the
time of observation
is
In the same
first
always known,
meridian corresponding to the we can assume, that
these quantities are known for the time of observation. Hence the equation is now:
[x
I
+
x
T
+ Ar]
2
H [y,

rj
f
y
T
+ Ay] = + A  A).
2 (I
I
If the changes of
x and
y
x and y were proportional to the time, would be constant, and therefore it would not be
necessary to
know
the
time
Tf
T
for
their computation.
Now
this is not the case, but since the variations of
?/,
x and
y very small compared with those of x and solve the equation by successive approximations.
are
If
we
can
we
put
:
x
i
y
+
i&gt;
and
:
m
sin
M=x
y
a
i
x
i
= A* = A#
n sin

rj
N=x
y
(G)
}
mcosM=y
the above equation
(L
+
l
)l
= L,
ncosN
i
is
transformed into:
n
a
i
AO 2 = [m cos (M N} 4 n (T + OP + [m sin (M N] and we obtain, neglecting the squares of i and /V
5
J
,
the fol
lowing equation of the second degree for
T
ft:
~ sin (M
n
*) Errors in
a,
.V)
i
f

n
d and k are here neglected, since they cannot be de
termined by the observations of eclipses.
329
Now
since
:
putting
:
L
sin
y = ?sin(X L cos
yj
i
N\
=P tang y
(//)
we find from
T
this equation:
=
jT
m
cos (J/
iV)
&l
?"
=p
is
=p
sec
y&gt;,
or except in case that
\jj
very small:
z
= m
n
sm(MN==v&gt;)
sin
\i)
=p tang v
AI
z
=p
sec
i/&gt;.
n
Now
phase of
than
for
since
it
T
for
the beginning
of the
eclipse or
any
must have
the end,
a less positive or greater negative value the upper sign must be used for the be
ginning, the
lower sign for the end of the eclipse or any
phase,
if
we take
But
for the beginning of the ifr quadrant *). or any phase in the first or fourth quadrant and for eclipse the end in the second or third quadrant, we have in both
the angle if we take
/&gt;
always in the
first
or fourth
cases
:
1
=
m
n
wsn
11
iv
sin
?
?
y
L
COS
n
tang
w
n
sec
i/&gt;
or:
r=
Tit
cos (.If
/*r
N)
AT\
W
i
.,
A/
tang
u&gt;
?
sec w.
n
f 7N (./)
The equation
For
this
(J) is solved
by successive approximations.
purpose compute the values of x, y, z, a, d, g, I and / by means of the formulae (4), (fi), (C), (E) and (F) for several successive hours, so that the values x and y and their differential coefficients can be interpolated for any time.
{}
{}
Then assume a value of tely known value of the
interpolate for this find an approximate
T, as accurately as the
approxima
difference of longitude .will permit, time the quantities a? , ?/, x and y and
value
of
T
by means of the formulae
With the value TH T repeat, if (D), (6?), (#) and (J). the whole computation. If we denote again by necessary, T the value assumed in the last approximation and by T the correction found last, we have T + 2 V t d, where
=
is
the time of observation and d
*)
is
the longitude of the place
We
find this
easily
from the
first
expression for
T
,
330
reckoned from the
first
a?,
meridian,
i/,
that
is,
that meridian, for
which the
quantities
z etc.
is
have been computed, and
east of the first meridian.
taken positive
when the place Hence we have:
t
d
= =
T Hn
cos
(M
n sin
N)
\
 cos w
n
i1:
f
i
4
i
tang
w \n
sec w.
sec
W
TO sin
t
Ti~
(M
N+y)
y
+
i
tang
v H
A/
n
W
Since the values of x
the unit of time, it is referred to the
is
and y
have one mean hour as
if
assumed,
unit.
that d in the above formula
same
Therefore
we wish
to find
the difference of longitude expressed in seconds of time, we must multiply the formula by the number s of seconds con
tained in one hour of that species of time, in which the ob T is also servations are expressed. By this operation t
expressed in seconds of the same species of time, in which is given or T is expressed in the same species of time as t.
t
the equation (/if) does not give the longitude of the place of observation from the first meridian, but only a relation between this longitude and the errors of the several
Now
elements used for the reduction.
But
if
the same eclipse has
been observed
as
places, equations as phases of the ecliptic have been ob served. By the combination of these equations we can eli as will be shown hereafter, the errors of several of minate, these elements and thus render the result as independent as
at different
we
obtain for each place
many
possible of the errors of the tables. It yet remains to develop the
quantities
i
and
i
,
de
termined by the equations
:
or:
ni
ni
= =
sin sin
The
Therefore
quantities
if
x and we suppose
Ax Ay
d and n. d cf, y depend upon a these quantities to be erroneous,
)
we have
:
=AA =A&
(
h
BA
(a
a) 4
S d) h C A n B b(8d)+ C &Tt,
(
where A, B,
C
are the differential coefficients of
x with
re
331
d and TT, and A , # , C those of y with a, d sped to since A( respect to the same quantities. ), d) and A 7? are always small quantities, we can neglect in the expressions for the differential coefficients the terms contain
Now
A(&lt;*
ing sin (a a) and sin d) as factors, and can write of cos (a and cos (JS Then we obtain: place a) rf).
(&lt;)
1
in
A=
cos S  cos (a
sin
7i
a)
_
sin
8
sin (a
sin
= cos n _
sin
a) a) cos
n
n
a)
r
C_
A=\jD
cos S sin (a
;
sin
7i
cos 8 sin
d
sin
TT
1
(
= ^x n tang =
sin
D
,
= cos n =
(8

d) 
sin
sin TC
Now
and
since
i
and
t
,
and hence also
A(
A
7*
are expressed in part of the radius,
)? A(^ d) we must divide
the differential coefficients
by 206265,
if
we wish
if
to find the
errors of the elements in seconds.
Therefore
we
put:
20G265
.
n sin
n
we have:
i
i
Asin2v~cos&lt;*A(
)
H h cosJVA (S
d}
hcosn&Ti
[x
sinN+ycosN]
y
sin
h cos NCOS
S&(a
a)tAsiniVA(&lt;?
d) +h COSJC^TT
,
[&gt;coszV
A
],
or multiplying the
by
i
sin
fi
\\)
upper equation by cos?/ and adding them
:
the lower one
tangy]
=
we
(
sin
(N
y;)
cos
&
(a
y/)
a) f cos (^V
^)
y;)].
A
(S
d)
cosn&Tt[x
sin (2V
\y cos (2V
From
this
* 6
obtain:
^+ v)
~
sin
M
sin y,
(^ + h ~ CO
,
,
sin
y)
y&gt;
COS
s
A *A
,
(

)
+ A cosJ2V y M ^_ cos y
,)
M

j
206265
sin
cos
332
or putting:
(9
= JVcos (a H cos 2V A (S = cos 2V cos S A 2V A (8 n A/ ^ = 2062 65 = cos n &7t y cos (2V _ x (2V
sin
&lt;?A
a)
d)
(
a)
f
sin
d)
sin
()
sin
y;) f
y&gt;)
cos
y
we
finally
have:
.
(Af)
the observation of every phase of an eclipse gives such an equation and since this contains five unknown quan five such tities, equations will be sufficient to find them.
T
Now
However
the quantities ?; and cannot be determined in this the observations are made at places which are way, at a great distance from each other. Nevertheless the com
unless
putation of the coefficients will show us the effect, which errors of n and I can have upon the .result. Generally it will only be practicable to free the difference of longitude
from the errors of and but the latter quantity can only be determined, if the longitude of one place from the first meridian is already known. When s and are known, the
,
errors of the tables are obtained
cos S
by means of the equations
cos 2V
sin 2V.
:
A( A (S
)
d)
= =
sin 2V
E cos 2V7 +
the formulae necessary for computing the difference of longitude from an eclipse of the sun, they are as follows:
If
collect
all
we
a
=a
_
=
A
sin 7t j,
cos S
COS
=,
.
SinTT
(a
)

Asinw sin n
"
(
d and n are the right ascension, declination and r) horizontal equatoreal parallax of the moon, A an(i ^ ,
where
,
r
,
the right ascension, declination, distance and equatoreal parallax of the sun.
mean
horizontal
333
cos S sin (a
sin
a)
2
n
a)

y
=
sin (S
&lt;/)cosr(a
f sin


(S\d) sin A (a
i*/

v
,
n
,
)
(2)
SlllTT
2
= cos(^
ef)
cos I (a
&gt;&lt;!
2
a)
cos(S\d~) sin}(
a)
sm
sin
jr
TT
/= A 9 [sin A =p
ffc
A;
sin
TT ],
(3)
where
:
log [sin A
sin TT
]
=
7
.
6588041
for exterior contacts
and
k sin
?r
J
log [sin A
=7
.
6666903
for interior contacts.
c
=
*
A., sm/
(4)
where the upper sign
for interior contacts.
is
used for exterior contacts, the lower
,
=c.l,
where
I has always the
I;
77
= =
same sign as
(6&gt;
c.
cos
(&gt;
(&gt;
90
rf
sin
sin
a)
[cos
[
9?
sin
===
^ sm
f^
sm 9s H~
cos
d cos 9? cos ^ cos 9 cos (^
(&lt;9
a)]
(6)
a)J
and are the geocentric latitude and the distance (f of the place from the centre and is the observed sidereal time of a phase.
(&gt;
where
If then
we have
for the time T:
dx
.
we compute m sinM=x
:

ij
wsin^V=o:
m
cos
M =y
Itf
L
where
and:
sin
y=m
ncosN=y
sin
AT
I
I
 Ag =
l&gt;
(7)
for the beginning i/j quadrant and for the end
(M N) must be taken
,
(8)
in the first or fourth
in the
second or third quadrant,
r=
.
:
n
=_
i/j
.
cos
_
n
sin
n
Finally
we
have:
d=t
T
T
+ AeHA^tangy,
(10)
334
where
:
E
= =
206265. n
sin
sin TT
(
)
N cos 8 A
A A
(
4 cos
)
cos 2V cos 5
A
(
+
N &(S
sin
d\
c/),
^V^ (8
cos iV
hence
:
cos $
ct)
rf)
(5
= =
s sin
e
iV
cos .Vt ^ sin N.
red,
Example. In 1842 July 7 an eclipse of the sun occur which was observed at Vienna and Pulkova as follows:
Vienna
Beginning of the
total eclipse
:
18 h 49
51
n
25 s .O Vienna mean time 22
.
End
of the total eclipse 18
Pulkova:
Beginning of the eclipse *End of the eclipse
19 h
21 7m
3s
.
5 Pulkova
mean time
12
52 .0
According to the Berlin Jahrbuch we have the following
places of the sun and the
moon:
Z^"
1
.
OJ
OD.
If
we compute
a
18
19"
first
the quantities a, d and g by
find:
d
log g
2".
means
of the formulae (1)
106
we
21".
53
53
4 22
33
55 50 .33
107
04 32 46 .47
9.9989808
11
20 h
21h
58 19 10 47 .88
.
32 30 .87
15
19.
32 15 .25
Then we
and
(5):
find
by means of the formulae
(2),
(3),
(4)
335
i
log;.
Interior contact.
Exterior contact.
Exterior contact.
Interior contact.
7
.
6605084,,
85
87
88
89
91.
Now
the time of the beginning of the total eclipse
was
observed at Vienna at:
18M9 m 258.0,
or at the sidereal time:
0= lh 52m 29. 8 = 28
Further we have:
^,==48
12
35".
7
27".0;
5,
hence the geocentric latitude:
^
= 48
11
1
S".9
and:
log?
= 9. 999 1952.
,
If
we
take
x
T=
=
18 30
h
we
#
find for this time:
0.727530
=
4
0.643413,
and by means of the formulae (6):
!=
duction
:
0.654897
r/
= h
.
635482
in
log g
= 9.606857;
intro
moreover by means of the formulae
x
No. 15 of the
= H 0.557185
54"
.
/=
0.121140,
:
hence by means of the formulae (7), (8) and (9) 276 13 8 863708 log m ^=102 1558 9. 756030 log n
M=
y;
T
Since in this case
putation,
it
= = = 39 57 = 6 40*
is
10"
.
85,
not necessary to repeat the
:
com
we
d
= + Oh 12
obtain by
"
means of the formula (10)
44s
.
15 H
1
.
7553
e f 1
.4703
.
336
In the same
way we
TI
find
from the observation of the
end of the

=
total eclipse, if
0.
we
.
retain the
same value of T:
If =277
G53763 46
40"
= + 633338 log m = 8. 87 1874
log
= 9 .612367
8.
logL=
078638
^=150"
T
hence
:
=
54 51
".5
8"&gt;54".74,
d
=+O
h
12
n
27s 26 H.
1
.
7553
s
.
9764
.
Likewise from
the observations at
5^
= 59
Pulkova, since:
46
18".
6,
and hence:
and:
9)
= 59 36 8 log o = 9. 9989172
16".
we
find the following equations: d 1 .7559 lh 8 26 .57
d
f
= =
"
+
"
e
e
+ 0.5064
0.
,
1
8
22
.
67 h
1
.
7541
3034
.
We
hence:
have therefore:
d
&lt;?
d
&lt;*
= h 55 = + 55
42^
.
42
.
9639
,
55
.41+0. 6730
8
,
d
d= + 55 m 50
.07
and:
=
In order to find the error
7".
94.
e,
we must assume
the lon
gitude of one place reckoned from the meridian of Berlin as known. But the difference of longitude of Vienna and Ber
lin is
:
+
and with
Since
this
h
Il n
56.40
first
55.
we
obtain from the
=
we
have:
cos S
equation for d:
20"
.
&((t) = scosNl
A
(a
a)
=
t
sin
.ZV
cos
sin
N
N,
we
find:
cosd(a
and:
30.
= d) =
a)
21".
78
3".38.
the formulae
have a
=
In the case of occupations of stars by the become more simple. Since then n
,
mulae
(1),
d d Hence we need not compute the for and the coordinates of the place of observation
.
=
=
moon we
,
337
are independent
of the place
sin
of the
moon,
since
we have
simply
:

77
= cos =Q
(&gt;
tp
(0
)
[sin
cos
y&gt;
cos
is
cp
sin
8 cos (&
)].
we have and hence A so that we have instead 0, of the enveloping cone a cylinder. The radius / of the circle, in which the plane of the coordinates intersects this cylin
third coordinate
in this case
The
fQ
=
also not used, since
der,
is
Hence we need not compute
simply
:
equal to the semidiameter of the moon or equal to k. the coordinate z and we have
cos 8 sin
(
a
)
_ sin S cos 8
cos 8 sin 8 cos (a
sin 7i
)
Thus the fundamental equation
into the following:
(fc
for eclipses is
transformed
+A
2
/
)
= (x 4 A x "same
a
)
4 (y
t
\y

a
i?)
,
which
t
d=T\T
?/
and
cients,
way Taking again and denoting by x and y the values of a; for the time 7 by x and ?/ their difierential coeffi we must compute the auxiliary quantities:
is
lt
solved in the
as before.
,
in sin
M= x
k sin
y^

n sin
jV= x
mcosM*=y,
=m
77
ncosN=i/
sin (J/*
iV)
and we
find:
^Z
=
t
/ H,
m
sin (J/
s

where
ft,
and J
y have the same
w
sin
H A
(
H A C tang
v&gt;
signification as before.
Example.
In 1849 Nov. 29 the immersion and emersion
of a Tauri was observed at Bilk as follows: Immersion 8 h 15 m 12 s 1 Bilk mean time
.
Emersion
i)
18
10.8.
The immersion
burg
at
of the same star
was observed
at
Ham
The
2 Hamburg mean time. place of the star on that day was according to the
.
8 h 33 m 47
Nautical Almanac:
= 4h = + 15
11".
16s
.
24
= 62
2.
49
3".
6
15
32".
22
338
Further
we have
for Bilk:
9?
= 51
1
10".0
log
== 9.999 1201
and
for
Hamburg:
^
log Q
= 5322 = 9.9990624.
Almanac:
4".2
Finally
we have
a
the
following places of the
moon
ac
cording to the Nautical
7"
n
1
4 4 4
1
6"
2
.
35
69
H 15
15
47
2
24".
G
60
50".
8
S
9h
8 35 11
9
.
54 48
.
8
60 51
.
8
.31
16
6 .5
60 52 .9.
Hence we
x
7h
8"
find for those three times:
I.
Diff.
9b
1.240980 0.634228 0.027364
nrnr ~ 9
+ 0.527577
+0.646318 +0.764974
y
I.
Diff.
*
at Bilk:
Now we
hence
:
have for the time of the immersion h 49 29. 93
&lt;9
= a =
h
50
26
34".
6
0. 643216.
I
=
!=
0.484015 and
rj
=
\
Taking then
TO
T=7
.
50 m
,
we
yo
obtain for this time:
x
=+
0.251346
606789
/ = j^= + 78
77
=
0.016682
.
118713,
hence
:
J/=266 12 logm= 9.401226
.10"
T = h We
find therefore
^
=
log n
6
2
=
55
50"
9.791194
43
Os
.
11"
85.
from the immersion observed at Bilk the following equation between the difference of longitude from Greenwich and the errors s and
:
d
= h 27= H 27
12s
.
95 h
1
.
5945
_Q
e
.
1879
,
and
in
:
the
same way we
d
27
.
find
+ 1
.
from the emersion observed
5937
at
at Bilk
10
+
0\.
.
5336
^,
and from the emersion observed
d
= + 40
d
rf
Hamburg:
e
3
.
76 H
I
.
5945
1362
g.
We
have therefore the two equations:
d= +
12"
whence we
d find: d
= {12
50s
.
81
I
.
0517
,
36.66
and
0.6698^,
_ rf=H 12m 49s. 80
=
19".
61.
339
The fundamental equations for eclipses and occul31. tations given in No. 29 and 30 serve also for calculating the time of their occurrence for any place. If we take for T
a certain time
eclipse,
of the
first
meridian near the middle of the
a?
,
and compute
[*o i
for this time the quantities
is:
a
?/
,
x\ y
and L, the fundamental equation for eclipses
*
T
.

J
H
[y
+y
T ri*=L*
1
*),
where
are the coordinates of the place on the earth Therefore if we denote by at the time T\ T the side
i]
()
and
real time corresponding to the time T, will be the + d local sidereal time of the place, for which we calculate the
eclipse,
and
if
we
denote by
6^
and
+d 05
v/
the values of
and
77
corresponding to the time

we
have:
=
+
Q cos
y cosC^,
fp
 a h
rf a )
T^
U
J.
Z"
rj
=
rj
Q j
Q cos
sin
(6&gt; fl
Therefore taking now:
m sin
M= x

,
n sin
N=x
(&gt;
cos
y cos(0
sin
y&gt;
a\d
}
~r^r"~
m cosM=y
^
?
n
cosN=y
sin
g cos
sin
(&lt;9
atd
()
)
,
d
J.
sin
d
y
=
(J/
JV),
where L
denotes the value of
L
corresponding to the time T,
we
find:
T
where
ijj
=
n
cos
(M
N) =p
Zn
cosw=tTd,
and
the lower for the
must be taken
in the first or fourth quadrant,
the upper sign is used for the beginning, end of the eclipse, or if we take:
cos
n cos
(M
N)
N} H

cos
w
=T
mean time
n
n
(M
Ln
cos
w =T
is
:
the time of the beginning expressed in local
and the time of the end:
*)
For an occultation we have
L=k=
.
2725.
22
340
By
the
first
approximation
we
find the time of the eclipse
within a couple of minutes, therefore already sufficiently ac curate for the convenience of observers. But if we wish to
find
it
now T h
more accurately, we must repeat the r and T f T instead of T.
calculation, using
It is also convenient to know the particular points on the limb of the sun (or the moon in case of an occupation), where the contacts take place. But if we substitute in
aV
for
tha?7"
and y Q
r]+yT
cos w.
T
the value:
cos n
(M
jYsin
JV)
=p
n
we
find: x
=
=f=
[in
sin
Mcos NCOS
sin
y
m
cos
m
sin
M cos N N cos
m
sin
u&gt;
== m cos
M cos N Nsin y M N N cos w]
sin
sin
sin

or:
(M
(N=f=
N}
y;)
= =p L
and likewise:
y
rj
sm y
sin
= =p L cos (N=f=
v)
y).
Hence we have
x

y
n
= =
for the beginning of the eclipse: L sin (N y/) L sin (2V+ 180 y)
Lcos (N
= = L cos (iVh 180
} y;)
y),
and
for the end:
x
I
rj
^
= L (N = L cos (N\ y).
sin
v
Sow we
have seen in No. 29 that
# and
;/
i/
are
the coordinates of a place on the earth situated in the en veloping surface of the cone and referred to a system of axes, in which the axis of z is the line joining the centres of the
two heavenly bodies, whilst the axis of x is parallel to the and y are the coordinates of that equator hence x point, which lies in the straight line drawn from the place
;
i]
on the earth to the point of contact of the two bodies, and
whose distance from the vertex of the cone
is equal to that of the latter point from the place on the surface of the earth.

Hence

L
and ^  are the
L
sine
and cosine of the an^le,
circle
which the axis of y or the declination
passing through
341
the point Z*) makes with the line drawn from Z to the But since this point is always very near point of contact. the centre of the sun, we can assume without any appre
ciable error, that

and y
Lt
lj
n
are the sine and the cosine
the
of the angle, which the declination circle passing through centre of the sun makes with the line from the centre of the sun to the point of contact. Thus this angle is for the beginning of the eclipse or any phase of the eclipse:
AThlSO"
y
)
and
for the end:
AT hy.
are as follows.
J
(A)
)
Therefore the formulae serving for calculating an eclipse first compute for the time T of the first
We
meridian to which the tables or ephemerides of the sun and the moon are referred (for which we take best a round hour
eclipse) the formulae (1), (2), (3), and (5) in No. 29 and the differential coefficients x and (4) y\ and then denoting by 6* the sidereal time corresponding to the mean time T and by d n the longitude of the place
near the middle of the
reckoned from the
east,
first
meridian and taken positive
:
when
we compute

the formulae
ff
=
()
cos
sin
(6&gt;
f
d
a)
f
r io
So
Q [cos
d sin
y&gt;
C [ sin d sin
y
f
d cos y cos (0 cos d cos cos (0
sin
&lt;f
d
d
a)]
a)].
f
Computing then the formulae:
m sin
M=x
y
Q
1
,
n sin
N=x
(&gt;
cosy cos (0 Hd
e?
a)
dl,
*?&gt;
ncosN=y
^cosy
sin(&lt;9
a)
^
dt
J
sin
d
sin
y
r
=
^o
sin
(M
N)
(y;
always
&lt;
== 90)
=
n
cos (J/
JV)

cos
n
v
r
=
 cos
n
(MN) +
n
cos y,
is that point, in which the axis of z or the line *) The point joining the centres of the two bodies intersects the sphere of the heavens.
Z
342
we
time
find
:
the time of the beginning expressed in local
mean
and the time of the end:
;= T+d
The
HT
.
expressions (A) give then the particular points on the limb of the sun, where the contact takes place.
lows.
For calculating an occultation the formulae are as fol We compute again for the time T of the first meridian, which is near the middle of the occultation:
cos 3 sin (a
a
)
y
_ ~ sin S cos
by
cos S sin
~
cos (a
a)
Bin*
and the
differential coefficients
x and
y
.
Further we com
pute, denoting mean time T:
o
r]
the sidereal time corresponding to the
== C cos T sn
=
(&gt;
[sin 90 cos
$
cos
90
sin
cos(&lt;9
a h
r/
)].
Then we compute:
m sin M=x Q
1
,
n sin
N=x
(&gt;cos9p
cos(0
sin
+&lt;/
)
7
yQ
mcosM=y
where
:
??
,
ncosN=y
(&gt;
cosy
(6&gt;
f(/
a)

sin
,
log
~
sin
=
9.
41016*)
sin
^
= /J
,
y;&lt;;==
and:
log
jfc
=
9.
43537
A:
m
n
*)
cos
(M
f
N)
ATN
n
COST/&gt;=T
cos
(M
N) H
cos
;
t^=T
taken as the unit of the differential coefficients, at 86 of sidereal is the change of the hour angle in one mean hour or in 3609 s time. If we multiply by 15 and divide by 206265 in order to express the
As one hour
is
.
differential coefficient in parts
of the radius,
we
find:
log
= 9. 41916.
343
Then
the immersion takes place at the local
mean
time:
t=T+
and the emersion
at the time:
The angle of
position of the particular point on the limb,
place,
is
where the immersion takes
whilst for the
found from
y
:
Q=r2VM80 emersion we have
:
Example. If we wish to calculate the time of the be ginning and end of the eclipse of the sun in 1842 July 7 19 h Berlin mean time. For this for Pulkova, we take time we have according to No. 29:
T=
.r
a
= 0.44893, = 106 55
.
yn
8,
f 0.55718, / =40.58280, x d=j22 32 8, 2=0.53614, log A
.
=
1
= =
0.12133
7. 66262.
Then we have:
6&gt;
=2
a
h
3"
8s
,
and since the difference of longitude between Pulkova and Berlin is equal to fl h 7 m 43 s we get:
\d
= 300
log
,
46
.
9,
and with
I
this:
=
0.43361,
?= + 0.69560,
cos
= 9.75470,
log
L
H
= 9.72716.
*)
Further we find:
^
cosy
cos
(0
+d
a)
a)
pL = H 0.06762
sin
f at
hence:
=
/,
y
sin
(6&gt;
+ d,
d
=
at
0.04352,
_ffli
= + 0.48956
and y
^=
0.07781.
*)
We
have:
^=
dt
or:
3609s. 86
=+
57147".
90;
Further we have:
=+
hence:
148"
.78
d(0
dt
the logarithm of which
a)
_ 56999 ^
12?
is
number expressed
in parts of the radius
9.41796.
344
Then we
get:
J/=18744
log
.
= 9.05628 = 12 19 v
m
,
.
1
JV=99"1 .9
log n
= 9.69522
hence:
T
= =
1.057
lh
T
.4
o
= 1.046 = hlh2n.8,
therefore the
beginning and the end of the eclipse occur at
the times:
*=19h
These times
4m. 3
differ only 3 m from the true times. If we h h the calculation, using 7 and we should repeat , find the time still more accurately.
=18
T=20
The angle of position of the point on the limb of the sun, where the eclipse begins, is 267 and that of the point,
where
it
ends,
is
111
*).
32. Another method for finding the longitude is that lunar distances, and since this can be used at any time, by whenever the moon is above the horizon, it is one of the chief methods of finding the longitude at sea.
For this purpose the geocentric distances of the moon from the sun and the brightest planets and fixed stars are
first
given in the Nautical Almanacs for every third hour of a meridian. If now at any place the distance of the moon
from one of these stars or planets has been measured, it is freed from refraction and parallax, in order to get the true distance, which would have been observed at the centre of
the
If then the time of the first meridian, to which same computed distance belongs, is taken from the Al manac, this time compared with the local time of observation But since it is assumed gives the difference of longitude.
the earth.
here,
that
the
tables
of the
the
moon
same
give
its
method
does
not
afford
accuracy
true place, this as that ob
tained by corresponding observations of eclipses.
*)
Besides the
die
Compare on
the calculation of eclipses: Bessel,
Ueber
Berechnung
der Lange aus Stern bedeck nngen.
in
Astr. Nachr. No. 151 and
152, translated
the
Philosophical Magazine Vol. VIII
II pag.
and Bessel
s
Astronomische UnterEclipses.
suchungen Bd.
95
etc.
W.
S. B.
Woolhouse,
On
345
time of the beginning and end of an eclipse of the sun can be observed with greater accuracy than a lunar distance. In order to compute the refraction and the parallax of the two heavenly bodies, their altitudes must be known. There fore at sea, a little before and after the lunar distance has
been taken, the altitudes of both the moon and the star are taken, and since their change during a short time can be supposed to be proportional to the time, the apparent alti
tudes for the time of observation are easily found and from these the true altitudes are deduced.
A
greater accuracy
is
obtained by computing the true
two bodies. For this pur pose the longitude of the place, reckoned from the first me ridian, must be approximately known, and then for the approx
altitudes of the
and the apparent
imate time of the
first meridian, corresponding to the time of observation, the places of the moon and the other body are taken from the ephemerides. Then the true altitudes are computed by means of the formulae in No. 7 of the first
section,
and,
if
the
spheroidal
shape of the earth be taken
into account, also the azimuths.
The
then
computed by means of the formulae
the formulae used for the
parallax in altitude is in No. 3 of the
third section,
moon being
the
ri
gorous formulae: v
sin
/A
p
=
(&gt;
sin
p
sin [z
(&lt;p
y&gt;
)
cos A]
cos
L\
p
=
I
(&gt;
sin
p cos
[s
(&lt;f&gt;
y&gt;")
cos A],
and
finally
is
for
the
altitudes
affected
with
parallax
the re
fraction
found with regard to the indications of the
me
But since the teorological instruments. affected with parallax and refraction,
apparent altitude, ought to be used for computing the refraction, this computation must be repeated. The distance of the centres of the two bodies is never
observed, but only the distance of their limbs. Hence we add or subtract from tfie observed distance the sum of the
to
apparent semidiameters of the two bodies, accordingly as the contact of the limbs nearest each other or that of the other limbs has been observed. If r be the horizontal semidiameter
of the moon, the semidiameter affected with parallax will be
:
346
r
=
r [1
}/&gt;
sin Aj,
where p
radius.
is
the horizontal parallax expressed in parts of the
since
refraction
Now
ter
diminishes the vertical semi dia
meter of the
leaves the horizontal semidiame unchanged, that in the direction of the measured distance will be the radius vector of an ellipse, whose major and mi nor axis are the horizontal and the vertical diameter. The
disc,
it
while
effect of refraction
by means of the formulae given
tion,
on the vertical diameter can be computed in VIII of the seventh sec
or
it
Nautical works.
can be taken from tables which are given in all If we denote by n the angle, Avhich the
through the centre of the moon makes with the direction towards the other body, by ti the altitude
vertical circle passing
we
of the latter and by have:
A
the distance between the
two bodies,
sin
sin TI
(A
sin
A)
cos
ti
A
A
sin h
,
and:
cos
n
=
4 (A
sin h sin
cos
A
cos h
hence:
,
__ cos ~
h h
ti
+h
Then
if
we
A) s7nT(l4denote the vertical and the horizontal semi
 K) cos i (h hT
)
sin
(A H A
h
}
diameter by b and a,
the ellipse:
we
find
by means of the equation of
b
I/ cos
r
7t
2
H
a2
sii
After the apparent distance of the centres of the bodies has thus been found, the true geocentric distance is obtained
by means of the apparent and true altitudes of the two bod ies. For if we denote by /T, h and A the apparent alti tudes and the apparent distance of the two bodies and by
E
the difference of their azimuths, we have in the triangle between the zenith and the apparent places of the two bodies: sin H sin h + cos H cos h cos E cos A 2 cos H cos h sin 4 E* h cos (H Likewise we have, denoting by #, h and A their true
= =
1
1
}
.
altitudes
and the true distance:
347
cos
A
= cos (//
=
:
sin
Hsin
h
f
cos
A)
2 cos
Hcos h cos E Hcos h sin
find
:
^
and
if
we
cos
eliminate 2 sin
2 we  E
A
= cos (Htake
A) f
f
cos
[cos
A
 cos
(JET
h
,
)}
(a)
If
we
now:
cos If cos h
1
.v
cos // cos
&gt;
h!
G
the altitude of the
1 we shall have always C except when moon is great and the other body is very If we then take:
,
near the horizon.
H
and take d and d
1
h
=d
d"
and
Hh =
=
d
(B)
positive, we can always put: cos A cos d . .; ,,,  cos A and cos c c
=
(C)
/^,N
because in case that
C&lt;1,
both cos d and cos
d
cos d
A
are small.
Thus the equation
or
if
(a) is
transformed into:
A"
cos
A
cos
cos
we
introduce the sines
of half the
sum and
sin
half the
A")
difference of the angles
and write instead of
,,
)
(A
the
arc
itself:
sii
If
we
take here at
first sin 
(A h
A")
instead of sin(AhA")
and put:
we
obtain:
A=A"Har,
(E)
only approximately true, but in most cases accurate. If A should differ considerably from A ? sufficiently we must repeat the computation and find a new value of x
a value which
is
by means of the formula:
We
have assumed here that the angle
is
E
as seen
from
the centre of the earth
the surface.
But we
the same as seen from a place on have found in No. 3 of the third section,
*) Bremicker, iiber die Reduction der Monddistanzen. Nachrichten No. 716.
Astronomische
348
that parallax changes also the azimuth of the moon and that, if we denote by A and // the true azimuth and altitude, we
have to add to the geocentric azimuth the angle:
AA
in
=
o sin p
f

(cp
OP )
sin
A
cos
a
face
order to find the azimuth as seen from a place on the sur of the earth. Therefore in the formula for cos A we
ought to use cos (E
or
A ^4)
cos
instead
of cos
E
= cos (A
0),
we ought
to
add
dA
to /\ the correction:
=
o sin
Hcos h sin {A sm A
OP )
a)
dA
(A
a)
or:
a
=
p
(OP
cos h sin
^
sin
sm A
at
:
7
23 h 8 m 45 s apparent time the distance of the nearest limbs of the sun and the moon
Example.
In 1831 June 2
a^ a place, whose north lati was observed A 96 47 tude was 19 3V, while the longitude from Greenwich was estimated at 8 h 50 m The height of the barometer was 29 6
10"
.
=
.
English inches, height of the interior thermometer 88 that of the exterior 90 Fahrenheit. Fahrenheit, According to the Nautical Almanac the places of the
the
sun and the moon were as follows:
Greenwich m.
t.
right asc. ((
decl. ([
parallax
June 2
12 h
IS"
336
337
6
24".
7
10
50
41
58".
56
44".
38
4.7
.
.
48.4
.
45 .9
47
.
14h
15^
9 45
32 35
23 17
9 9
41 27
.
9
49
.
right asc.
decl.
23".
June 2
12&gt;
70
5
2
f
22
11
48".
9
13 h
14"
7 56 .9
12
8 .4
10
13
30.5
4
.
12 27 .9
12 47 .3
15 h
1
The time
right asc.
decl.
of observation corresponds to 14 h 18 m 45 s
this time
19
39".
Green
5
wich time and for
we
have:
d
=
337
10
6
right asc.
decl.
=
70
IV
18".
(C=
this
2941.3
56 48 .5
p=
we
=H22 1233.9 TT= 5.
8".
From moon and
find the true altitude and azimuth of the
the sun for the hour angles:
+
80"
2
,56".
8
349
and:
 12
H== 5 A = h
The
parallax
41
58".
48
45".
4
76
43 6
.
= 77 43 a= 75 4
h
0:
56".7
.
4.
of the
moon computed by means
p
.
of the
rigorous formula:
.
tang/;
is //
==
1
sin
sin [z 
&gt;
(a&gt;
n sin
= 56
p cos
r
[z
f ((p
)
cos A]
^
(f )
cos A\
n
35".4,
is
4 45
(&gt;
23".
0.
hence the apparent altitude // of the moon In order to find the refraction, we first find
,
the
we repeat it, and applying it to H computation of the refraction with regard to the indi cations of the meteorological instruments. We then find 9 2 and hence the apparent altitude affected with re p
an approximate value for
=
3".
fraction
:
# = 4 054
the sun
96".
2.
For
we
find in the
A
= 77
/= 15
same way:
6".
44
5.
tiplying the horizontal parallax
Further we find the semidiameter of the moon by mul by 0.2725 and obtain:
28".
8
and from
parallax:
this
the
apparent semi diameter, as increased by
The
refraction,
moon
in
by the and the angle n being 5 48 the radius of the the direction towards the sun is
26".
,
:
vertical semi diameter is diminished
r
=15
4".6,
and since the semi diameter of the sun was 15 the 47".0, apparent distance of the centres of the sun and the moon is: 97 18 A 6. Further we find by means of the formulae (4), (#) and (0)
=
1".
:
log
C= 0.000463
J=72
of
d"
= 72 = 12
1
5S"
49 40 50 48
17 33
A"
=97
and at last, computing x twice by means of the formulae (#) and (E), we find the true distance of the centres of the sun and the moon:
A
= 96
30
39".
350
according to the Almanac the true dis tance of the centres of the bodies for Greenwich apparent
find
Now we
time from the following table:
12h
13h
97 96
43
0".
4
5 5
13 4
.
14 h
15^
,
43 6
.
13 6 .2,
39"
whence we see that the distance 96 30 corresponds to m h the Greenwich apparent time 14 24 55 2, and since the m h time of observation was 23 8 45 .O, the longitude of the
s
.
s
place
is:
gh
43111
498
.
8 east of Greenwich.
The longitude which we find here is so nearly equal to which we made in that, which was assumed, that the error moon can only be small. computing the place of the sun and If the difference had been considerable, it would have been
the places of the necessary to repeat the calculation with h m 55 s Greenwich time. sun and moon, interpolated for 14 24
Bessel has given in the Astronomische Nachrichten No. 220 another method *), by which the longitude can be found with
But the method given great accuracy by lunar distances. a similar one is always used at sea, and on land above or better methods can be employed for finding the longitude.
An excellent way of finding the longitude is that 33. On account of the rapid motion of lunar culminations. by the moon the sidereal time at the time of its culmination is
very different for different places.
Hence
if it is
known, how
in a certain
much
the
right ascension of the
moon changes
the dif time, the longitude can be determined by observing times at the time of culmination of ference of the sidereal
the moon.
Since these observations are
made on
the
me
ridian, neither the parallax nor the refraction will influence on the result. In order to render it also independ ent of the errors of the instruments, the time of culmination
have any
of the
moon
itself is
not observed at the two stations, but
rather the
interval
of time between the time of culmination
of the
moon and
that of
some
is
fixed stars near her parallel.
*)
The example given above
taken from this paper.
351
A
list of such stars is always published in the astronomical almanacs, in order that the observers may select the same
stars.
The method was proposed already in the last century by Pigott, but was formerly not much used, because the art
of observing had not reached that high degree of accuracy which is required for obtaining a good result. Let a be the right ascension of the moon for the time T of a certain
for the
first
meridian, and the differential coefficients
same time be
^,
*,
etc,
We
will
then suppose,
first
that
is
at
d,
a place whose longitude east of the the time of culmination of the moon
meridian
was observed
at the local time
TMtd?, corresponding to the time T\t
of the
first
meridian.
Then
,
&lt;*
the right ascension of the
d2 a
clr
, 2
moon
at this time is:
da
HIf likewise
at
*
tSH T dt
+
;
t*
n dt*
d3 a
*..
another place, whose longitude east from eT, the time of culmination of the moon was observed at the time T + t , corresponding to the time T f  1 of the first meridian , the right ascension of the moon for this time is:
the
first
meridian
is
+&lt;/
made on the meridian, the sidereal times of observation are equal to the true right ascensions of the moon. If we assume, that the tables, from which the values of a and the differential coefficients have
since these observations are
Now
,
been taken, give the right ascension of the moon too small by A ? and if we put:
we have
the following equations
dt
hence
:
352
and since we have
d
it
also
:
d=(&
0}
(t
0,
(6)
t by means of the equation (a). only necessary to find t In order to do this, we will introduce instead of T the arith
is
metical
mean
of the times
TM
and T\t\ that
is,
the time
jli (_!_
wr ite
T
we ) which and \(f
if
will
denote by
f)
T
.
Then we must
T \\(t
7",
in
place of
TM
and
etc.
Tit\ and
we assume,
that the values of
and of
y
belong
now
also to the time
we have
the equations:
and hence:
a *= O^+^C ^ ^.
(/
.
1
, c?
3
From
neglect
if at first we the last equation we can find t , term of the second member and afterwards the second
t
substitute this approximate value of
t
in that term.
Thus
we
find:
 =
.
[0
L
dt
@Y
J
d*
d
da
dt
"
\~da
If the difference of longitude does not exceed two hours, the last term is always so small, that is may safely be ne
The solution of the problem is again an indirect glected. the longitude ap one, since it is necessary to know already
the time T proximately in order to determine For the practical application it is necessary to add a few remarks. is ex are given in sidereal time, h and If t Thus in order to find also t in sidereal seconds. pressed in seconds, the same unit must be adopted for expressed
.
&
6&gt;
d
"
dt
c a or L must be equal to the change of right ascension in dt
one second of time.
Therefore
if
we denote by
h the change
of the right ascension expressed in arc in one hour sidereal time, we have: da h_
~
dt
f5
3600
353
Now
in the
given for sidereal time but for
ephemerides the places of the mean time, and
them the change of the right ascension of the hour of mean time. But since 366.24220 sidereal days are equal to 365.24220 mean days or since we have: one sidereal da} =0.9972693 of a mean day
7
moon are not we take from moon in one
we
denotes the change of right ascension expressed find, in time in one hour of mean time:
if ti
da
r/7
i
=
0. 9972693
""
,
/i
3600
,_
15x3600
"0.9972693
&& ~
"~
A
or from the equation (6):
.
_/
(/&gt;
*\(\\
l? x
?69()_
1
\
0. 9972693 A /
Now
in this
greater than
the second term within the parenthesis is always 1 , and hence it is better to write the equation
way:
,/
 =
&lt;i&gt;
(0&gt;
 0}
(5
_L_^__
_
!)
,
(e)
and the second place, at which the moon was observed at $ is west from the other place, if & is pos and east, if & is negative. itive,
the time
,
Now
the time of culmination of the
moon
;
s
centre can
not be observed, but only that of one limb hence the latter must be reduced to the time, at which the culmination of the centre would have been observed. In the seventh section
the
the rigorous methods for reducing meridian observations of moon will be given, but for the present purpose the fol call the first limb the one lowing will be sufficient.
We
whose
right
ascension
is
less
than that of the centre, the
second limb the one, whose right ascension is greater. Hence if the first is observed, we must add a correction in order to find the time of culmination of the centre, and subtract a
is
observed, and this correction s semi diameter passing over the meridian, which according to No. 28 of the first
is
correction, if the second limb equal to the time of the
moon
section
is
equal to
~
15
7?
1
=
.
;
cos o
1
/
,
where
(&lt;f).
/I
is
equal to the value
if ft
of
as
given by the formula
Therefore
and
ft
354
denote the times at which the
the meridian of the
moon s limb was observed on two places, we have:
R&gt; ..
 *
cos dJ
h
1

.
,
cosd
A
0.9972693
~3600
and hence we
find
from formula
(e)
:
where
ft
moon expressed
denotes the change of the right ascension of the in time during one hour of mean time and
if
where the upper sign must be used,
the
first
limb
is
ob
served, whilst the lower one corresponds to the second limb. If the instrument, by which the transit is observed at
one place, is not exactly in the plane of the meridian of the ob place, then the hour angle of the moon at the time of servation is not equal to zero, and if we denote it by s, the
difference of longitude
which we
/
find,
must be erroneous by
\
/
the quantity:
15X3600
is
S
_
VO. 9972693 h
not perfectly adjusted, the found by this method, can be considerably wrong. longitude But any error arising from this cause is at least not increased,
Therefore
if
the instrument
if
the differences
of right ascension of the
moon and
stars
on the same parallel be observed at both places, since these are free from any error of the instruments. Nevertheless since
the
right ascension of the
its hour angle a place, whose difference of longitude from that place is equal to 5, we find of course the difference of longitude between Therefore we the two places wrong by the same quantity.
when
moon was observed at one place was s, or when it was culminating at
the hour angle s, if the meridian of the inO between the meridians of the two places, and subtract s from the difference of longitude, if the meridian of the instrument corresponds to that of a place which is far ther from the other place *). How the hour angle s is found
to
it
,
must add
strument
lies
*)
We
can add also to the observed difference of right ascension of the
*
moon and
the star the quantity =*=
355
from the errors of the instrument,
of the seventh section.
will
be shown in No. 18
use the same
In order that the observers
may always
comparison stars, a
minating stars
is
of stars under the heading mooncul annually published in the Nautical Almanac
list
and copied
it
in all other
Almanacs,
for every day,
on which
is
possible to observe the
moon on
the meridian.
Example.
In 1848 July 13 the following clocktimes of
the transit of the
moon and
*)
rj
:
the moonculminating stars were
17
1
observed at Bilk
Ophiuchi
s
l"52s.64
Q Ophiuchi
12
6 .59
moon
1
centre
27
18
34
52
.
60
99
12.
/t
Sagittarii
4
18
.
I Sagittarii
48
.
On
at
the
same day the following
r]
transits
were observed
Hamburg:
Ophiuchi
I.
$ Ophiuchi
([
1
ft
Sagittarii
I Sagittarii
= = Limb = = =
the
2".
17 h
1&gt;"
42
56
.
61
11
.
91
25
18
4
18
50 43
38
.
43
53
56,
.
.
The semi diameter of
nation at
moon
for the time of culmi
.
18 10 1, 10, the declination Hamburg was 15 and the variation of the right ascension in one hour of mean time equal to 129 8, hence A 0.03596. We find therefore
s
.
=
:
TVvT (1
?;, = A)cosd
differences
65".
66,
s
hence the time of culmination of the moon
centre
:
Then we
stars
find
the
s
of right ascension of the
for
and the moon
ri
centre:
Hamburg:
14
41*. 96
for Bilk:
Ophiuchi
425
f
{f
25 ra 13^. 48
59
.
Q Ophiuchi
15
28
.
01
18
^
at
Sagittarii
37
51
18 .39
13 .52
37
51
I Sagittarii
47 .44 42 .47,
at Bilk
hence the differences of the times of culmination
and
Hamburg
*)
are:
Compare No. 21 of
the seventh section.
23
356
0=
}28.48
28 .83 29 .05
28^95_
mean
f
28
.
83.
Now we
have found in No. 15 of the introduction the
following values of the motion of the Berlin time: lOb 4 2 m 9 77
.
moon
in
one hour for
11"
2
9 .91
12
2 10 .05,
and since the time of observation
about 10 30
h
111
at
Bilk
Berlin time, that at
Hamburg
corresponds to to about ID 16 ,
1
111
we have:
T
hence
:
= 10
1
23 m
/i
= 2n9s.S2
(e)
:
and we obtain by means of the formula
*)
Since h
is
is
about 30
,
the value
of the coefficient of
#
#
in the
about 29, hence the errors of observation have a great in s & pro 1 in & fluence on the difference of longitude, since an error of duces ah error of 3 s in the longitude.
equation (A)
.
SIXTH SECTION.
ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE DIMENSIONS OF THE EARTH AND THE HORIZONTAL PARALLAXES OF THE HEAVENLY
BODIES. In the former section we have frequently made use of the dimensions of the earth and the angles subtended at the heavenly bodies by the semidiameter of the earth or their ho
rizontal parallaxes, and we must show now, by the values of these constants are determined.
rizontal
what methods Only the ho
directly
of planets and comets by from the earth, the semimajor axis of the earth s orbit being the unit of distance, are derived from the theory of their
orbits,
parallax of the sun and the observations, since the distances
moon
is
found
which they describe round the sun according to Kep
Therefore in order to obtain the horizontal par ho
ler s laws.
allaxes of those bodies, it is only necessary to know the rizontal parallax of the sun or of one of these planets.
I.
DETERMINATION OF THE FIGURE AND THE DIMENSIONS OF
THE EARTH.
1.
The
figure
of the earth
is
according to theory as
well as actual measurements and observations that of an ob
late spheroid, that is,
of a spheroid generated by the revo
axis.
It
is
lution
this
of an
ellipse
round the conjugate
true,
would be
a fluid mass, curved surface which comes nearest to the true figure of the surface of the earth.
true only in case that the earth were but the surface of an oblate spheroid is that
strictly
358
The dimensions
of this spheroid are found by measuring
the length of a degree, that is, by measuring the linear di mension of an arc of a meridian between two stations by
geodetical operations
and obtaining the number of degrees
corresponding to it by observing the latitudes of the two sta tions. Eratosthenes (about 300 b. Ch.) made use already of
this
method, in order to determine the length of the circum ference of the earth which he supposed to be of a spherical form. He found that the cities of Alexandria and Syene in Egypt were on the same meridian. Further he knew that
on the day of the summer
solstice the
sun passed through
the zenith of Syene, since no shadows were observed at noon on that day, whence he knew the latitude of that place. He
observed then at Alexandria the meridian zenith distance of
the sun on the day of the solstice and found it equal to 7 12 Hence the arc of the meridian between Syene and Alexan
dria
.
must be
7
12
or
equal to the
fiftieth
part of the cir
Thus, since the distance between the two places was known to him, he could find the length of the entire
cumference.
But the result, obtained by him, was very from several causes. First the two places are not on wrong the same meridian, their difference of longitude being about
circumference.
3 degrees; further the latitude of Syene according to recent determinations is 24 8 , whilst the obliquity of the ecliptic at the time of Eratosthenes was equal to 23 44 , and lastly the
latitude of Alexandria
and the distance between the two pla was likewise wrong. But Eratosthenes has the merit of having first attempted this determination and by a method, which even now is used for this purpose. Since Newton had proved by theoretical demonstrations,
ces
that
the
earth
is
not a sphere but a spheroid,
at
it
is
not
one place on the surface in order to find the dimensions of the earth, but two such de it is necessary for this purpose to combine
sufficient to
measure the length of a degree
terminations
made
at
two
distant places
so as to
determine
the transverse as well as the conjugate axis of the spheroid. In No. 2 of the third section we found the following
expressions for the
referred to a system of axes
coordinates of a point on the surface, in the plane of the meridian,
359
the origin of the coordinates being at the centre of the earth and the axis of x being parallel to the equator:
~
V\
a cos
cp
_ ~
where a and
e
denote the semi transverse axis and the ex(p
and centricity of the ellipse of the meridian, of the place on the surface.
is
the latitude
Furthermore the radius of curvature for a point of the is: ellipse, whose abscissa is #,
_ (a
where
for
2
2
xrf
~^b~
we
substitute
b denotes the semiconjugate axis, or if
x
the expression given before:
(1
Therefore
expressed
in
if
G
is
some
linear
the length of one degree of a meridian measure and cp is the latitude of
the middle of the degree,
we
have:
e *)
G =  7ia(l180(1
e
2
r
,
sin
y
2
75
)
where n
is
the
number 3.1415927.
If
now
the length of
(p
another degree, corresponding to the latitude
has been
measured, so that:
180(1
we
obtain the
:
excentricity
of the
ellipse
by means of the
equation
and when this is known, the semi transverse axis can be found by either of the equations for G or G
.
Example.
that
The
distance of the parallel of Tarqui from
of Cotchesqui in Peru
was measured by Bouguer and
360
The
and
Condamine and was found to be equal to 176875.5 toises. latitudes of the two places were observed as follows:
3
I
4
2
32".
068
387.
31".
Furthermore Swanberg determined the distance of the parallels of Malorn and Pahtawara in Lappland and found it to be equal to 92777.981 toises, the latitudes of the two
places being:
65
31
8
30".
265
and
67
49".
830.
From
a degree:
the observations in Peru
we
obtain the length of
G = 56734. 01
y
toises,
corresponding to the latitude
=
131
0".34,
and from the observations in Lappland we get:
y/
= 6620 = 57196.15
a
10".05:
toises.
By means
of the formulae given above
we
find
from
this
:
2=0.0064351
= 327 1651
toises,
and since the
ellipticity of the earth
a
is
equal to
1
j/i_ f 2,
we
obtain:
a
=
310^9
&lt;
In this way the length of a degree has been measured with the greatest accuracy at different places. But since the combination of any two of them gives different values for
the dimensions
servation
of the earth on account of the errors of and especially on account of the deviations of actual shape of the earth from that of a true spheroid, osculating spheroid must be found, which corresponds
ob
the
an
as
nearly as possible to the values of the length of a degree as measured at all the different places.
The length s of an arc of a curve 2. of the formula:
l
is
found by means
dy ~Si&lt;
dx
2 

dx
,

361
If we differentiate the expressions of x and ?/, given in and substitute the values the preceding No. with respect to of dx and dy in the formula for s. we find the expression
&lt;p
for the
length of an arc of a meridian, extending from the
equator to the place
s
whose
t
latitude is
cf
i
= a(\
But we have:
and
if
we
sines of the multiples of
introduce instead of the powers of sin (f the co and integrate the terms by means (f
of the formula:
we
obtain:
s
/I
cos
kx dx
=
z sin
hx
A
=
2
(1
)
E
sin
[y&gt;
2y&gt;
f /? sin
4
q&gt;
etc.],
where
:
If
we
take here
^
= 180,
=
(1
we
2
obtain, denoting
by g the
average length of a degree: 180^ and hence:
,y
)/i\7r,
==.
[y,
a
sin 2
cp f {3
sin
4
cp
.
.
.]
Therefore the distance of two parallels whose latitudes
are
(f
and
&lt;^
;
,
is

:
ft
.9
=


[y
cp
2 a sin (y
(f)
cos (y
f
y)
+2
or
/?
sin 2
&lt;&gt;
y) cos 2
fy&gt;
+
y)],
denoting
r//
y by
also
latitudes
by L, 206264.8 by
3600
,
,
and the arithmetical mean of the expressing / in seconds and denoting
/
?,
we
find:
2
?y
(s
,v)
=
s
/
a sin
/
cos 2 Z/ + 2 ?t?/9 sin 2
/
/
cos 4
j&.
If
we
substitute here for
s
the difference of the observed
latitudes
and for
the measured length
of the arc of
362
the meridian, this equation would be satisfied only in case that we substitute for g and e and hence for y , a and ft some certain values. But if we substitute the values, de
duced from the observations
at all different places,
we can
satisfy these equations only by applying small corrections to If we write thus the observed latitudes. + x and cp tx
cp
instead
and ^ where x and x are small quantities whose squares and products can be neglected, we obtain,
of y
,
neglecting also the influence of these corrections upon
r&gt;roo
L
:
(*
s)
=
I
2 w a sin
/
cos 2
L
f
2
w8
sin 2
1
cos 4
L
+
(x
x) o,
9
where
:
o
=
&lt;7
1
2
cos
I
cos 2
L h 4 /? cos
2
I
cos 4 L.
Hence we have:
x x
=
(

V
(s
s)
(l
2 iva sin
I
cos 2
L
j 2?/;/3
sin 2
/
cos 4
LY\
/
.
and a similar equation is obtained from every determination of of two places and of the length of the arc of Therefore if the num the meridian between their parallels.
the latitudes
ber of these equations is greater than that of the unknown quantities, we must determine the values of g and s so that x etc. is the sum of the squares of the residual errors x
a
minimum. If we take g and take g and
:
ti
and
as
approximate values of
y
=
.
and
=
(I f
fc)
we
and
x
find,
k:
if
we
*
neglect the
squares and the products of
i
x=
H$
1
360
3600
go
  A + 2?0
)
[
sin
/cos 2
L
&lt;//?
sin 2 /cos
4
,
,
(
s)
i
HC
2w
r [
sin
I
cos 2
L
sm
o
2
I
cos
4LJ
fc.
Here /? denotes the value of /? corresponding to but in order to get this as well as the differential coefficient
,
dn
,
,
we must
first
express
*
ft
as a function of a.
Now we
find:
1^ + 15 ^ 32
8
h
525 1024
e
+ ^
363
and likewise:
If
we
reverse the series for a
f
2
we
3
find:
=
a

2
+4
ft:
and
if
we
introduce this in the expression for
hence
:
da
6
27
Therefore
n
if
,
we
s)
put:
\
I
) /
=
H
1
/3GOO
I
(6
O \
gr
t
ao
si n I
cos 2
^
a
2
f
^n
"o
H~ in a a o 4
(
)
sin
2
/
cos 4 L]
=
L
1
3600
and:
6
=2
iv
sm
/ 5
I

/
cos 2
a n * f^,
, 4
,
.
n
sin 2 /cos
4
we
obtain the equation:
x x
is
=n
+
ai
+
b &,
()
set of observations equation for measuring a degree by combining the station which is farthest south with one farther north.
and a
similar
found from a
If
we
treat these equations
least squares, the equations for the
#,
i
according to the method of minimum with respect to
and k are for
all
this set of observations, if
u
is
the
num
ber of
observed latitudes:
px+ [a] z+
[a]
[b]
[b] k+ [n]
x h x
+
re,
[a a] i{[a b] k f [a n]
[a b]
i
+
[6 b]
k H
[b n]
= =
=0
0,
and
if
we
eliminate
i
probable values of
= [on,]
each set of observations gives the most and k by means of the equations:
4
[aa,] if[a&,]fc
l ]Jfc.
*[*,] 4 [aft i] ef[66 Therefore if we add the different quantities [Wj] which we obtain from different sets of observations made in dif ferent localities and designate the sum by (an^, likewise
364
the
sum
:
of
all
quantities
[aaj by (aa^
f
etc.,
we h nd
the
equations
= (an,)
(aa.)
z
4
(a
M
&
from which we derive the most probable values of i and k according to all observations made in different localities. As an example we choose the following observations:
1)
Latitude
Peruvian
/
arc.
Tarqui
Cotchesqui
3
4
32".
068
387
3
7
3".
+0
Distance of the parallels
2 31
45
176875.5
toises
2) East Indian arc. Trivandeporum 411 44 52". 59 Paudru 13 19 49 .02 1 34 56. 43
89813.010.
Trims
Konigsberg
54
54 55
13
11".
3) Prussian arc. 47
29
1
39".
4250.50
43 40
.
03
98
28211.629
86176.975.
Memel
45
30 28
.
4)
Malorn
Pahtawara
65
67
31
30".
Swedish
265
1
arc.
8 49 .830
37
19".
56
92777.981.
Taking now:
57008
i
4 k
we
find:
2
3
f1
log[yo
2
log[o
If further
H
= 39794 = 4.41567 Q go ] = 71670.
log
7.
4
4.
^
&lt;V&gt;]
we
put:
10000
10
i=y
k
=
z,
we
obtain the following equations for the four arcs:
1)
x x x
"
}
Xl
=
41".
.
97 4 1.1225^4 5.6059 z 94 4 0.5697 y 4 2.5835 37 4 0.1779 y 0.2852
z
2)
x\
3
^2
=40
3)
x3
X3
=
Q
.
z z
3
== 4 3
.
4)
.r 4
xi
=
79 4 0.5433^ .51 0.5839^
0.9157
1.971 1
+
365
and from these we
find:
Hence
the
= + 2.3956 + 1162^+ 3.0471s = + 5.2413 + 3.0471 y + 21.4315
1.
two equations by which y and
2,
z are found,
and we
find:
2
#
= + 0.099012 = 2.4165,
0.0099012:
hence
:
=
0.00024165 and k
therefore
57008
1

0.00024165
= 57021.79
0.002524753.
and
:
1
+ 0.0099012
before:
32
=T"T"
Now
we
find:
since
we had
I
H 4
0.006710073,
and the
ellipticity of the earth


366
Moreover we have:
log
= log
I/I

"
1
"e
= 9.9985380,
and since we had:
180$r
(1
e^En
we
find:
log
and:
log b
= 6.5147884, = 0.5133264.
the dimensions of the
In this
way Bessel*) determined
earth from 10 arcs, and found the values, which were given before in No. 1 of the third section:
the ellipticity
a
= ^axis
the seraitransverse the semi conjugate
axis a
= 3272077. 14 = 3261139.33 = 6.5148235 log a = 6.5133693. log
fi
^
toises
b
II.
DETERMINATION OF THE HORIZONTAL PARALLAXES OF THE
HEAVENLY BODIES.
3.
If
we observe
the place of a heavenly body,
is
whose
distance from the earth
on the
or
its
not infinitely great, at two places surface of the earth, we can determine its parallax
of the earth as unit.
we
expressed in terms of the equatoreal radius Since the length of the latter is known, can find then the distance of the body expressed in terms
distance
of any linear measure.
will suppose, that the two stations are on the same meridian and on opposite sides of the equator, and that the zenith distance of the body at the culmination is observed
We
the parallax in altitude will be for one place according to No. 3 of the third section:
at
both stations.
Then
y )], the horizontal parallax, z the observed zenith dis tance cleared from refraction, (f the latitude,, (p the geocen/&gt;
sin
==(&gt;
sin
p
sin [z
(y&gt;
where p
is
*) In
Schumacher s Astronomische Nachrichten No. 333 and 438.
367
trie latitude
and
(&gt;
the distance of the place from the centre
1
of the earth.
Hence we have:
_ __ $
sin [z
sin
(y&gt;
y )]
sin
p
if
cp
p
We
and
centre
:
have also,
(&gt;j
is
the geocentric latitude
the latitude of the other place, and the distance from the
sin
/7
sin/,
consider the two triangles which are formed .the place of the heavenly body, the centre of the earth by and the two stations, the angle at the body in one of the
If
we now
triangles
(p,
that at the place of observation 180 and the angle at the centre (p =^= where
is
p
,
z \&lt;p
r&gt;
is
&lt;?,
the
geocentric declination of the body and where the upper or the lower sign must be used, if the heavenly body and the place of observation are on the same side of the equator or
on
180
different
sides.
The
cp\
z l j (fi
and
angles in the other triangle are =t= 8. have therefore:
&lt;p\
p 19
We
and:
&gt;
p
+ p t=g + VVi&gt;
~
l
Therefore
TT,
if
we denote
(y_^J&gt;
the
known
quantity p
f
p\ by
we have
&gt;
the equation:
(i
sin [z
)]
_
9?
(&gt;i
sin[g,
sin (TT
(y,
jo )
y
,)]
sin
p
(&gt;
whence
lg
follows:
,
P
_
$
,
sin TT sin [2
,
(90
90 )]
sin [2
,
(99,
)]
H(&gt;
cos
n
sin [s
(y
9? )]
or
:
__ tang y
_
(&gt;
gi sin7Tsin[.g,
(&lt;p
&lt;f&gt;
(y,
y
,
,)]
(9?
,
sin [2
)]
+
$

cos
n
sin [z
9?
,
)]
When
equations,
either
p or p\ has been found by means of these
p either from:
sm ;?
we
find
=
^
sm
7
 7
sin

[z
(y
r
9? )]
)
or from:
It
sin
p
=
&gt;,
i3ini
sin [2,
(95,
y&gt;
,)
was assumed, that the two places are on opposite sides of the equator, a case, which is the most desirable for determining the parallax. But if the two places are on the
368
side of the equator, the angles at the centre of the earth in the triangles used before are different, namely =p$ If we put in in one triangle and (f\ =p t) in the other. this case:
&lt;/
same
TV
=
]&gt;
,
V
.c
,

(y,
&lt;p),
p or p\ from the same equations as before. If the two places are not situated on the same meridian, the two observations will not be simultaneous, and hence the
find
we
change of the declination in the interval O taken into account.
In this
of time must
be
way
the parallaxes of the
moon and
of
Mars were
For this purpose determined in the year 1751 and 1752. Lacaille observed at the Cape of Good Hope the zenith dis
tance of these bodies at their culmination, while correspond ing observations were made by Cassini at Paris, Lalande at
Berlin, Zanotti at Bologna and Bradley at Greenwich. These The greatest difference places are very favorably situated. in latitude is that between Berlin and the Cape of Good
"
Hope, being 8G, whilst the greatest difference in longitude is that of the Cape and Greenwich, being equal to 1~ hour, a time, for which the change of the declination of the moon
can be accurately taken into account.
By
at its
these observations the horizontal parallax of the
moon
5".
A
57
mean distance from the earth was found equal to 57 new discussion of these observations was made by Olufsen,
ellipticity
who, taking the
2".
64,
while the
found of the earth equal to 302 Q^ ellipticity given in the preceding No.,
2".
would give the value 57 80 *). Latterly in 1832 and 1833 Henderson observed at the Cape of Good Hope also the meridian zenith distances of the moon, from which in con nection with simultaneous observations made at Greenwich
he found for the mean parallax the value 57 8**)value adopted in Burkhardt s Tables of the Moon is 57
1".
Tne
0".
52,
while that in Hansen
s
is
56
59".
59.
The problem
above in
*)
**)
its
the parallax was represented but in the case of the moon it simplest form,
of finding
Astron. Nachrichten No. 326.
Astron. Nachrichten No. 338.
369
is
not quite as simple, since only one limb of the moon can be observed, and hence it is necessary to know the apparent
semidiameter, which itself depends upon the parallax. If r and r denote the geocentric and the apparent semidiameter, A and A the distances from the centre of the earth
and from the place of observation, we have: sin r A sin r A Further in the triangle between the centre of the earth, that of the moon and the place of observation, we have sin (180 z ) A A sin(z X) where z is the angle, which the line drawn from the place
:
"
of observation
to
the
centre
of the
moon makes
with the
radius of the earth produced through the place, and since:
z
= z(yrt*S
where the observed zenith distance of the moon s limb and where the upper sign corresponds to the upper limb, we
z
is
have
:
_A
=
Sin [z sin [z
A
If
(yy ^p
(y
y ) ==
/]
r
]
=fe=
we introduce
1
this expression in the equation for
sin r
sinr
and eliminate p by means of the equation:
sin
p
=
(}
sin
p
sin [z
(tp
y ) ==
r
]
,
we
(ff
obtain,
&lt;^
writing for the sake of brevity z instead of z
)
sin r
=
and taking Q
sin r f sin r sin
=
1
:
p cos (z
==
?
) f
\
sin r sin
p
2
sin (2
=t
r )
2
,
or neglecting terms of the third order: r r f sin r sin p cos (z == r) f { sin r sin
=
2
/&gt;
sin (z
==
2
r)
.
the geocentric zenith distance Z of the pressed by the zenith distance z of the limb, is:
r =t= ^ = z __ r
,
i
Now
moon, ex
sin
p Bin
/
(z
==
r
;\
sin
3
r )
sin (2=t=r )
3
,
6
or
if
we substitute for r its expression found before: 2 Z = z =t= r == sin r sin/) cos (2 =t= r) dt= sin r sin (2 == ?)
4sin/&gt;
sin
p
sin (a
... ==
r)
sin n 3 sin (2 
==r)
3
If we develop this equation and again neglect the terms of a higher order than the third, we find:
370
Z = z == r
sin r
2
sin
p
sin z
sin.
==
4
sin r sin
y&gt;
2
sin z
2 3
sm p
or introducing
sin
1
cos r
z +
*
sin
p
sin r
sin z
sin/;
3 sin z
,
 sin
r
2
instead
of cos r
2
and replacing
2 2
sin/&gt;
p by
y sin
p
:
Z=z^=i
Q sin/? sin z
I Q sin;) sin z sin r
3
(&gt;
=i=
7}
sin r sin 2
2
^&gt;
sinp
3
sin z
3
"T"
and
finally, if
we
take:
sin r
=k
sin
p
3
,
and hence:
/
=k
and introduce again
z
p + A: sin yr A in place of a,
sin
jt
3
where
A
=^
i)
&lt;/&gt;
,
we
have:
Z=z
If
a
is
sm P
[f,
sin
(s

A)
=F
A;]
6
fe sin (2
=F
3
*]
.
D=
the
(f
the geocentric declination of the moon s centre, observed declination of the limb, we have also, since
D
Xand
d
=
{&gt;
&lt;f
(z
A) =j=
fc]
A)
:
I)
=
&lt;?
4
sin
p
[o sin (s
+ ~^^to
[Q sin (s
3
A) =f= ^]
.
The
earth
,
quantities
it
and
is
A
depend on the
ellipticity
of the
moon
other
find the parallax of the desirable, in such a wr ay, that it can be easily corrected for any
and since
value of the
ellipticity,
we must transform
But according
the
to
ex
pression given above accordingly. of the third section we have:
No. 2

r
a2
sin 2
y
+ v
.
.
gf
If
we
introduce here the
a
ellipticity,
making use of the
equation:
and neglect
all
terms of the order of m a sin 2 K
1
2
,
we
find:
(fi
= =
cos
2
9P 2
&lt;p.
Moreover we had:
,
__
2
2
_ ~
1
_
sin
p
2
(1
1
g)
2
2
2
siny
sin
"sfn"^
y
2
_1
2
2
sin
2
1
9 2
H
*
sin
"
371
If
we
introduce here also a by means of the equation:
2
=2a
1
a2
2
,
and neglect
all
terms of the order of
a
sin
y&gt;
we
find:
2
.
(&gt;
Thus
the last
{ [sin 2
expression for
fc]
D
is
changed
sin 2
90
into:
2]
D=
=p
sin
p
2
[sin
sin 2
.... 8
&lt;p
~h

cos
a
sin
p
sin
p
3
f[sms=T=fc]
^.
moon, made
at a
Every
observation of the limb of the
place in the northern hemisphere of the earth, leads to such an equation, in which the upper sign must be taken in case that the upper limb of the moon has been observed, whilst
the lower sign corresponds to the lower limb of the moon. Likewise we find for a place in the southern hemi
sphere
:
D
,
=
&lt;?!
[sin z
2
,
=p
k\ sin
p
,
[sin z
,
=p
3
k]
~
b
f [sin tp
,
sin z, +~ sin
2y&gt;,
cos z
t
]
sin;?,.
Now
let
t
and ^ be the mean times of a certain
first
meridian, corresponding to the two times of observation, let Z) be the geocentric declination of the moon for a certain
time
T and
c
.
its
t
a
variation in one hour of mean time
and taken
positive, if the moon approaches the north pole, then we find from the two equations for D and D 1
:
(*i
^t
=
^j
jt
^
[sin 2,
=pl
2
(sin y,
sin z
t
hsin 2^, cos 2,)] ship,
9?
[sin
.c
=p k =f
71 3 ,
a
2
(sin
y&gt;
sin z f sin 2
cos 2)] sin
3
.
p
^fy
,
sinp,
3
[sin 2,
k]

sin
[gin 2

=p
A;J
f
Moreover
if
pQ
is
the parallax for the time
T and
^
its
change in one hour, we have:
sin
p
=
,
l
sin
p
f
cos
p f at
jf
(t
T}
T),
sin
p
=
sin
p
+ cos p
(t
t
therefore
we find the following equation for determining the parallax for the time T:
24*
372
=

tf,
S Hcos
(t
/,)
[(sins, =f= &)
3
H=p
sin
.
p
[(sin 2 =f=
fc) (/
7")
f (sin c,

(
sin
4
[sm2, fsin2=pA=F/.Jsin;?
y
09
2
sin s
+
.
sin 2
sin z
OP
cos
.
2
.
)
..
Hrtsinp
J
v
sin
.
sin z
nn
rns 2
j
&gt;
*).
If at
the
two places opposite limbs of the moon
are
observed, the coefficient of sin p Q is rendered independent of /c, and since this quantity thus only occurs in the small
terms multiplied by sinp
3
and
j
,
the value
of/&gt; ()
,
which
is
k.
found from the equation,
is
independent of any error of
the parallaxes from former determinations suf Since ficiently accurately so as to compute the third and the fourth term of the formula without any appreciable error, we can
we know
consider the
all
first
four terms of the formula as
known,
since
quantities
contained in them
have either been observed
Therefore
if
or can be taken from the tables of the moon.
we denote
sin
the
sum
of these terms
sin
by
6,
ft,
the coefficient of
p
:
{)
by a and that of a
p
(a
by
we
obtain the equa
tion
=n
{}
sin/&gt;
b a),
from which p
can be found as a function of
a.
But
in
stead of the parallax p for the time T it is desirable to find immediately the mean parallax, that is, the horizontal parallax for the mean distance of the moon from the earth **). There
is the value of the mean parallax adopted in the lunar tables, and n the value taken from those tables for the time T, we have, if we denote the sought mean horizontal
fore if
K
parallax
by
II:
sin
p
==~
A
sin
11= fi sin ZT,
is
hence the equation found before
transformed into:
ba).
= ft
sin 77 (a
*) If the
second differential coefficients are taken into account, we must
add the term:
but
this
if
we
take:
T=\
(/,+/),
term vanishes.
**)
Namely
the distance equal to the semimajor axis of the
moon
s orbit.
373
Example.
In
1752 February 23 Lalande
S
observed
at
Berlin the declination of the lower limb of the
moon:
declination of
= + 20
26
25".
2,
and Lacaille
at
the
Cape of Good Hope the
l
the upper limb:
= + 21
r=6
h
46
44".
8.
For the arithmetical mean of the times of observation,
corresponding to the Paris time:
40,
we
take from Burkhardt
s
tables:
^
= 59
24".
54
^
dt
finally
we have:
y
and
&lt;p
{
= 52 = 33
30
16"
56 3 south.
m Since the longitude of the Cape of Good Hope is 20 19 s 5 East of Berlin and the increase of the ascension right of the moon in one hour was 38 the culmination of the moon took place 21 m 11 s later at Berlin than at the Cape, hence we have:
.
10",
*&lt;,
=t21
Ml&lt;S
hence
(t
*,)
~=
at
6.
,
12".
06
further
we
have:
?
&lt;y,
= MO 20
19".
The
third
if
OM2,
3 we find equal to term, depending on sin p we take ft therefore if we omit the 0.2725;
=
insignificant
term multiplied by
n
,
we
42
find:
=
M&lt;&gt;
20
7".
or expressed in parts of the radius: n h 0.023307
=
and since the value of the mean parallax adopted
hardt
s
in
Burk
tables is:
^=57
we have:
log^
0".52
=
0. 01792,
hence
:
= + 0.022365.
374
If
we compute
z
the coefficients a and
51"
= 323
:
6,
48"
we
find, since:
and
^=55
42
the following values
a
= 4 1.3571
and
/,=+ 1.9321
and hence
the equation for determining sin 77 is: sin 77(1.3571 1.9321 ). 4 0.022365
=
Every combination of two observations gives such an
equation of the form:
0=If there
is
x(a
ba)
value
of
x corresponding
only one equation, we can find from it the to a certain value of nr. For in

stance taking a
=
ij i)
10
we
II
find
:
log sin
77= 8.21901
=56
55".
4.
there are several equations, we find for the equa tion of the minimum according to the method of least squares
But
if
:
[a a]
x
[a b]
ax
a
=
0,
hence:
.
[a a]
[a a]
r
= L ^J^L
[a a]
a n~]
r
a
[a a]
[a a]
Thus Olufsen found
the
for the
2".
mean
horizontal parallax of
rnoon the value
is
57
moon
so large,
it
may
Since the parallax of the *). even be determined with some de
80
gree of accuracy from observations made at the same place by combining observations made near the zenith, for which the parallax in altitude is small, with observations in the
neighbourhood of the horizon, where the parallax
at its
nearly the parallax of the moon was discovered by Hipparchus, since he found an irregularity in the motion of the moon, depending on its altitude above the
is
maximum.
In this
way
horizon and having the period of a day.
*) Astron. Nachrichten No. 32G.
375
This method does not afford sufficient accuracy for determining the horizontal parallax of the sun, but the first
4.
approximate determinations were obtained in this way. In 1671 meridian altitudes of Mars were observed by Richer in Cayenne and by Picard and Condainine at Paris, and from
these the horizontal parallax of Mars was found equal to 25 5. But as soon as the parallax of one planet is known, the parallaxes of all other planets as well as that of the sun
.
to
can be found by means of the third law of Kepler, according which the cubes of the mean distances of the planets from
from
the sun are as the squares of the times of revolution. Thus this determination the parallax of the sun was found
9".
5. Still less accurate was the value found from equal to the observations ofLacaille and Lalande, namely 25; nei
10".
ther have
the
observations
made
latterly in Chili
by
Gilliss
contributed anything towards a more accurate knowledge of
this
But allthough all results hitherto important constant. obtained by this method have been insufficient, it is still de
sirable, that they should be repeated again with the greatest
care, since the great accuracy of modern observations may lead to more accurate results even by this method *). The best method for ascertaining the parallax of the sun
is
Venus over the disc of the sun at her inferior conjunction, which was first proposed by Halley. The computation of such transits can be made in a similar
that
by the
transits of
way
as that given for eclipses in No. 29 and 31 of the pre The following method, originally owing to ceding section. was published by Encke in the Berliner Jahrbuch Lagrange,
for 1842.
If
,
&lt;&gt;
,
A
and
D
declination
tain
first
of Venus
are the geocentric right ascension and and the sun for the time T of a cer
meridian, which is not far from the time of con then we have in the spherical triangle between the junction, pole of the equator and the centres of Venus and the sun, denoting the distance of the two centres by m and the angles
at the
*)
sun and Venus by
Such observations
1862 and seem
luive
M
and 180
made
since
IT:
during the oppositions of
been
Mars
in
to give a greater value of the parallax than the
one
considered hitherto as the best.
376
sin 
m m cos ^ w
sin
$
.
sin \
.
cos \
sin ^
(M (M
(
1
+1
f1
.
M
cos 4
TO
.
cos 4
(M
M} = sin M) = cos (a M} = sin \ (a M) = cos ^(a
\
(
]
A)
sin i (#
/&gt;)*
.4) sin
^
(8 +
(tf
D)
Z&gt;),
A) cos
or since a
A
and d
D
and hence
(a
also
m
and
M
M
are
for the times of contact small quantities:
m
sin
M
A) cos ^
Z).
(&lt;?
+&gt;)
Taking then:
n cos
=
dt
where
and
dt
dt
are
the
relative
changes of the
right ascensions and declinationa in the unit of time, and de noting the time of contact of the limbs by Tfr, we have: 2 2 2 f rn cos N] [m sin M+ r n sin N] H [m cos [R == r]
M
=
,
and r denote the semi diameter of the sun and of Venus, and where the upper sign must be used for an ex terior contact, the lower sign for an interior contact.
where
R
From
this equation
we
obtain:
Therefore
if
sin
m
we (M
put:
2V)
r
^_^_
=
sin y;,
where
y
&lt;
=b 90,
(C)
we
obtain
:
r
=
n
cos
(M
N}
=f=
cos w.
n
(D)
where again the upper sign must be used for the ingress and the lower for the egress. Therefore at the centre of the earth
the ingress
is
seen at the time of the
first
r
meridian:
T
and the egress

cos
n
(M
N}
cos
n
y
at the time:
T
n
cos
(M
N)
+ R=n
^T
cos y.
is the angle, which the Finally if great circle drawn from the centre of the sun towards the point of contact ma
377
kes with the declination circle passing through the centre of
the sun,
we have
:
dt= r) (/2
cos
(ft =t= r) sin
= m coe M n cos N t = m M+ n N .r
+.
sin
sin
or:
cos
sin
= =
sin sin
N sin y =p cos N cos y y cos .2V =p cos y; sin JV,
&gt;
hence for the ingress we have:
= 180H2V
and for the egress
:
(^)
These formulae serve for computing the times of the in In order to gress and egress for the centre of the earth. find from these the times for any place on the surface of the earth, we must express the distance of the two bodies, seen at any time at the place, by the distance seen from the cen
tre of the earth.
We
If
,
have:
cos
&lt;)
m
=
sin
8 sin
D f cos 8 cos
I.)
cos
(
A).
,
A and D
of
be the apparent right ascensions and
Venus and the sun, seen from the place on the surface of the earth, and m the apparent distance of the centres of the two bodies, we have also:
declinations
cos
m
=
sin
sin
D
f
cos 8 cos
D
sin
cos
(
A}
1
and hence:
cos
m
= cos m +
4
(
8
1
8) [cos 8 sin
D
8 cos
D cos (a
Z&gt;
A)]
A)]
4 (D (a
D) [sin^cosZ*
a ) cos 8 cos
cos # sin
cos (a
D sin
Z&gt;
(a
A)
4).
(A
1
A) cos 8 cos
sin (a
But according
tion
to the formulae in
No. 4 of the third sec
we have
We
o
*)
:
*)
have according to the formulae given there:
o
s
Ti
w
sin
cp
sin(&lt;?
;
v)
;=
7t
sm
sin
cp
Ism o cotangy
cos
ol.
y
but since:
cotang Y
= cos
sin
(
0}
.
cotang
y&gt;,
we
have:
8
8= n [cos
cp
8 cos (a
(9)
sin
y&gt;
cos
8].
378
S
//
I)
A
= =p a = A =p
S
7t
[cos
rp
&lt;p
sin sin
$ cos (a
0)
0)
cos
ip
sin sin
y
cos 8]
/&gt;j
[cos
D cos (a
6*)
ycos
rt
sec S sin (a
sec
D sin (J.
0) cos
y,
where n and p are the horizontal parallaxes of Venus and the sun; and if we substitute these expressions in the equa
tion for cos
m we
,
obtain
:
cos
f [cos
m
= cos m
[TTCOS&lt;JP
8 sin/J
$cos.Z&gt;
sin
8 cos
D cos
(
(
A}}
sin$cos(
sin/&gt;cos(
0)
6&gt;)
Trsinycos
#]
4+
[sin
cos$sin/&gt;cos
(a
^1)J [79
cosy
cos
D sin
If
(
(
A)
^4)
.
n
/&gt;
sin
cos $ sin
.
sin (A
0) cos y 0} cos y.
p sin y cos/)] ()
we develop
:
this equation,
we
2
find first for the coef
ficient of cos
7i [sin
tf
S cos S sin
D cos
/&gt;
(
6&gt;)
sin #
cos
D cos (
(
0) cos
sin
(
(
(
^4)
cos Jj sin
\
0)
(
A)]
p
[sin
$ cos
D sin
cos
(
0)
f
cos S sin JJ* cos cos S sin
(
0} cos
vl)J
(
^4)
0~) sin
or since:
sin
71
(V
=
1
cos S* and sin
Z&gt;
D
2
=
(
1
cos
D*
:
[(sin
8
sin/&gt;
+
cos #cos
cos (a
A) ) cos $ cos
0}
0}
cos
D cos (A
0)]
0)],
f/&gt;[(sin^sinZ&gt;Hcos^cosZ&gt;cos(
^l))cosDcos(^4
cos S cos (a
hence
:
71
COS
/ft
COS S COS cos
Z&gt;
(rt
0)
6&gt;)
71
COSZ&gt;
COS (A
(
0)
0).
H
/)
cos
m
cos
(^l
cos 8 cos
/&gt;
This
we can transform
?r
in the following
way:
cos
m
?.
cos $ cos a cos
n
cos
Z&gt;
cos
cos
^4]
J
cos cos
sin sin
6&gt;,
f
[p cos
D cos ^1
D
sin
p cos J
f [TT
cos
+ [p cos
M m
cos $ sin
cos
A
7t cosD sin^] p cos 8 sin
j
and hence the term multiplied by cos ^ becomes cos D cos ^4] cos (n ;) cos m} [(71 cos m p} cos $cos
t [(TT
:
cos
&lt;f
.
.
sin A] cos y sin 0. p cos m) cos Further the coefficient of sin y in the equation (a)
cos
/ft
p} cos $ sin
(it
Z&gt;
is
:
7i
[
cos 8
sin
2
*
sin
D H sin
1
&lt;?
cos ^ cos
D cos (a
(
^1)] ^Ijj,
+;&gt;
[
^ cos //2
sin/^cosjL cos ^ cos
2
or since cos
TT
[
r)
=1
D + sin
8
+
sin
&lt;)
and cos
/&gt;+
2
/&gt;
=1
Z&gt;
sin
(
(
D
2
:
sin
H p
[
sin
$ (sin 8 sin sin/) (sin 8 sin
cos 5 cos
cos
^4))J
^4))J
D f cos ^ cos /) cos
Therefore the term of the equation (a), which
tiplied
is
mul
by
sin y, is
(?r
:
cos
m
sin
/&gt;)
^ sin
y
(TT
jt&gt;
cos m) sin Z) sin
&lt;p,
379
and thus the equation () cos m cos in J [(Vr cos m p) cos S cos a
is
=
transformed into the following:
p cos
y&gt;
(n
(TT
(jt
TO)
cosL&gt;
cos
^4]
cos
(p (p
cos
sin
(9
6&gt;
+ [(ft f [O/r
cos cos
TO
p) cos S sin
p) sin
(V
cos m) cos
TO.)
D sin yl} cos
D]
sin y.
(
c
)
TO
p cos
sin
If
we
take
now:
it
cos
m

p
TT
sin
m
=
=f sin
/ cos
s
s,
we
have:
7t
p
cos
TO
=fsm (s
TO),
and henee:
cos
in.
= cos
in.
H/[sin
ft
cos
&lt;?
cos a
sin
(.s
m) cos L) cos A] cos
in)
y
&lt;f&gt;
cos
sin
(e)
fyfsin s cos $ sin a
sin
(*
cosl) sin
jDj sin
^4]
f/&gt;.
cos
+/[sin
s sin
$
sin (s
m) sin
Further
if
we
8 cos
take:
sin
(.s
sin s cos
?//)
cos
cos
sin s cos $ sin
a
$
sin
(*
(,v
in)
I) cos .4 = P cos A cos D sin .4 = P sin A cos
Z&gt;
/?
ft
sin
A
sin
sin
TO) sin
=P
(/ )
sin
/^,
we
find
by squaring these equations the following equation
for P:
P
2
==
=
^
,v
sin s
sin
A
z
H sin
sin
1&lt;!
(s
2
.s
/)
cos
2 sin s sin
f
(s

2
m2
cos
.$
sin TO
=
TO
m) cos
m
2
.
sin TO
Hence we may put:
sin s cos sin s cos sin
$ cos a
sin
sin (s
sin (s
sin
(.s
TO)
cos /) cos
a ^
m) cos
TO)
sin
D sin J. = sin sin = sin m sin sin D
sin (a
(
A = sin m
cos 1 cos
A,
(3
cos
/9
(3,
or:
sin
TO
//
sin (A
J) cos
sin
TO
ft
sin
cos (A
A) cos p
sin
:
/^
= = =
sin a cos
S S
J)
^1)
TO)
sin s cos
S cos
sin (s
sin
/&gt;.
m)
cos/&gt;