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A Junior Thesis Presented to the Faculty of The School of EducationXavier University (Ateneo de Cagayan) Cagaan de Oro City

In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements of the subjects Educ 51: Educational Research I Educ 52: Educational Research II

By Dangcal, Bebeche O. Pangan, Chalna B. Semana, Giraldyne D. Undalay, Alija T.

July 30, 2010


This thesis entitled : THE CRITICAL PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY THE FIRST YEAR EDUCATION STUDENTS OF XAVIER UNIVERSITY CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY AND THER IMPACT TO THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCES FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2010-2011 is prepared and submitted by in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Educ 52 and 52:Educational Research, has been examined and is recommended for Oral Examination. Ms. Michell Suazo Adviser PANEL OF EXAMINERS Approved by the committee on Oral Examination with a grade of ________.

______________________ Member _______________________ Member

_____________________ Member _____________________ Member

Approved and accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Educ 51 and 52: Educational Research.


__________________________ (Date of Defense) ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page APPROVAL SHEET TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Introduction Conceptual Framework Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Scope and Delimitation of the Study Definition of Terms II III REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design Research Setting Sampling Procedure Data Gathering Instrument and Procedure BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES A LETTER OF APPROVAL B INFORMED CONSENT C THE QUESTIONNAIRE D CURRICULUM VITAE iii 1 3 5 6 7 8 9 14 14 14 15 16 ii iii


THE PROBLEM Introduction Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan, School of Education freshmen students range from sixteen to nineteen years of age. Freshmen students can either be beginning students, returnees, or transferees. These education freshmen students are in their adolescence stage. Adolescence is a period of transition, exploration, and experimentation characterized by interests and new outlook in life. Many marked physical, psychological and social changes occur suddenly in the developing adolescent as the students take place in the new world. Unsatisfied human needs, complexity of motivation and adjustments, advances, and science and technology that changes the modern lives create confusion and result in frustration among many adolescents who make normal adjustments. The adolescent is a confusion stage of individuals. Students begin to discover how to cope or blend in the new environment that they are having. The confusion begins whether how to be able to act independently to fit in college life. Freshmen students are more concerned about their status in life and how some other students accept them in school. The adolescent is a unique package of confused mass of individuals. These appears barely little intelligent guidance and instructions given by the parents and some adults, it is not strange that the

2 adolescents venture into this new stage in life seemingly at loose ends. Many seem to find this period quiet a difficult stage to live in. The adolescent confronted with many conflicts relating to his own self, his family, his peers and classmates and his environment in varying degrees of intensity. Different psychologists have various ways classifying youth problems. Jones for instance, classified these youth problems as : (1) health and physical development, (2) home and family relationships, (3) personality, (4) religious and church affiliations , (5) and School. Cole also grouped adolescents into eight areas as: (1) the establishment of heterosexual interests, (2) freeing from home, (3) emotional maturity, (4) social maturity, (5) beginners of economic independence, (6) intellectual maturity, (7) use of leisure, and (8) philosophy of life. According to Bernardino and Fresnoza the types of problems that confront young people are those relating to (1) problems of health and physical development, (2) problems involving home and family relationships, (3) leisure time problems, (4) personality problems, (5) problems relating to religious life and church affiliation , (6) educational problems, (7) social problems(including moral and civic), Considering the intensity of youth problems, to guide and to assist adolescents grow in self-realization pose challenging demands upon teachers and educators. Schools are placed in strategic positions to render assistance to the youth. This is the challenge which prompted the researchers to conduct this

3 study in an effort to understand better Filipino adolescents beginning their first year in college to identify their problems and find appropriate solutions to them. Conceptual Framework This study is anchored on the concept that “Critical problems of freshmen students reflect on what bothers them to become successful students”(Princes, Sofia C. The Critical Problems of the College Freshmen of Notre Dame of Midsayap College. Thesis M.A. – Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro City, 1972. XU) Students encounter these critical problems since they are in college level now, specifically first year students. Freshmen students are still adjusting the new environment, facing the changes which includes maturity and the pressures among peers. There are different areas that define to be critical problems that most first year students are confronted. Family Relationship Problem Area included items concerning how the students bond at home with parents, and other members of the family. This will help students think how they are doing their responsibilities at home together with working with their families. Financial Problem Area centered around low adequate income of the family are the sacrifices of parents, all resulting in insufficient allowances for school and personal needs. This concerns the income of the students on how he handles his allowance practically.

4 School Problem Area concentrates on conflicts about grades, difficulty, books, study materials and relationship with teachers. This area concentrates more on the academics of freshmen students. Furthermore, it concludes how they are well and good in class when it comes to participation, recital and cooperation. Emotional Problem Area is the fourth area which dealt on inner conflicts such as moodiness, jealousy, lack of confidence, shyness and love problems. This examines the freshmen students whether they have emotional problems which contributed to have a good grade or a failing grade. Emotions are carried by the students if they are well motivated to go to school and be inspired of what they truly feel inside. Moral and Spiritual Problem area focuses on freshmen college student’s

religious faith and spiritual beliefs in their lives. Confusions about what is right from wrong .

5 Statement of the Problem This study is designed to come up with the critical problems of Xavier University freshmen education students 2010-2011,based on an assessment after distributing the problem sheets to the respondents. Most specifically, the study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents according to: a. Gender b. Major c. Type of school last attended d. Residence: 1) Living with parents 2) Living without parents 2. In which of the five conflict areas are the problems heavily concentrated? 3. How do these critical problem areas affect your academic performance in freshmen college life this SY 2010-2011?

6 Significance of the Study The result of the study will be useful for the guidance counselor, faculty, parents students and the future researchers because measures for the improvement and development of freshmen students to cope up easily for the next semesters. To the guidance counselor, it will serve as how to constantly understand these first year students to guide them on the accurate path whether on what to decide and what to plan on first. To give more enlightenment, hope and encouragement to evaluate how to deal with the true to life situations that trials are natural in college students.

To the faculty, it will help the teachers to improve their strategies in teaching and motivation styles. Teachers may also sense that some students are sensitive and they need to adjust to cope with these freshmen students. Encouragement may also be practiced to let the students improve and enhance their capability to be independent in the society. They can also help freshman students to solve problems in many possible ways. Teachers may also communicate with parents through PTA meetings. To the Parents, they will be aware of what is recently going on about their children’s academic studies. The parents also have to adjust and

understand that being a college students is not an easy task. That there are some changes that needs to put prior into. They should be the one showing

7 support and have the responsibilities to let their children budget its allowance for the school materials and equipment. They should listen to the attentions of their children and let them feel worth that they are striving hard just for them. To the students, they will decide how to improve their natural skills to deal in college life. Adjustments are also practiced to be able to easily understand their situations. For the improvement of their self-esteem and selfconfidence for the following years. They are the primary recipients of the success of the study as the focus is more on maturity, growth and development which will contribute to avoid conflict areas.

To the future researchers, the findings will be as the baseline date for any related studies.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study The study focused only on the critical problems of Xavier University freshmen education students. The study used the data of the following areas: emotional, financial, school, family , moral and spiritual problems. Furthermore, the study is limited only to the relevant data supplied by the respondents in the problem sheet as the bases for work out up the study. The respondents are all the freshmen students from the college of education.

8 Definition of terms For better understanding of this study, some terms are defined in accordance with the researcher’s point of view: Critical Problems. In this study, the term critical problems means those problems which the students commonly encounter serious difficulty specifically on emotional, financial, family, school and moral and spiritual areas. Family relationship problems. These are problems which pertain to one’s home, parents and other members of the family. This problem area covers all things which keep the home a harmonious place to live in. School problems. These are the difficulties encountered by the individual in school such as study habits, dealings with teachers, relationships with classmates, school work and achievements, and study materials. Emotional problems. These are the inner conflicts in oneself such as moodiness, jealousy, lack of proper direction in life, lack of confidence, and love problems. Financial problems. They are conflicts arising from the need of money for school expenses, for books, for board and lodging, and for recreation. Moral and Spiritual problems. These are difficulties met in knowing what is wrong, and problems in relation to worship and religion.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE For further discussions about the critical problem of freshmen college students, here are some areas : Family , Financial, School, Emotional , and Moral and Spiritual problem areas. Family Relationship Problem Area According to Erickson’s theory, families with teenagers confront challenges when their children go to college schools. It would be difficult for them how to balance freedom and responsibilities. Parents must let their children struggle for independence, yet always hold an invisible safety net in case the teen falters.( Janina Jolly,2004) Several investigators have shown that conflict between parents and adolescents, especially between mothers and son is the most stressful during the apex of pubertal growth (Hill and others 2004; Steiberg new Edition, 2001) In an analysis of a number of studies, it was conducted that parentadolescent conflict decreases from early adolescence (Laursen, coy, and Collins, 2004). In one of the studies, homeless adolescents experienced more parental maltreatment, were scolded more often, and reported that their parents loved them less than housed adolescents.( Wolfe, Toro, and McCaskill, 2000)

Usually, teenagers try to achieve independence for their parents through their peer groups. As adolescents increasingly focus on people outside the family unit, they adjust to and incorporate the opportunities and norms of 10 those outsiders. How do parents react to these changes in teenagers? Although some changes are more easily assimilated by the family than others, conflict is most inevitable.(Mitchell,1996) Fortunately, parents realize that these conflicts and their reduced power to influence the child means that is less dependent on the parent. That is, just as the parents now have less power over their child, they also have, or soon

will have less responsibility for the child. Thus, after spending much of their young adulthood and some of their middle age serving their child, parents can see the light at the end of the tunnel. They realize that they are slowly being freed from their parental responsibilities and will soon be free to get on with their own lives. (Greg Coher,2000) Financial Problem Area Every student is under constant stress, whether under personal, financial or any other type of problems. In order to achieve better results while not being under stress every student has to know how to cope its financial problems. There are several ways of reducing the stress but first it is good to know how financial problems affect students in negative ways. Unfortunately, financial problems is one of the most common phenomenon. It has been showed in recent surveys that almost 7 of 10 people are susceptible to stress connected

with money. What is shocking only 1 of 10 respondents do not care about money problems. What make things look even worse, the number of people who is concerned about money is still rising (Edith Abbot,2001). 11 School Problem Area According to Alice Moriarty, school problems occur when students encounter such demands and requirements that are needed to comply in every subject that they need to pass on. Also, peer pressure is unavoidable to come across with. These triggers them to have difficulties on handling such situations that may be hard for them to do, because they have not they have not yet experience this challenges during their high school years. Over 10 years ago, Henry Maier (2002) said that the use of term “adolescent” suggested that the use of distinct word define adolescence entity rather than as a period of transition and change during which a person moves from childhood to that “peer associations and peer groups”, with their relevant group norms serve as the major avenue for ego development and ego repair in adolescence. Emotional Problem Area 1) Parents-Child Conflict Conflicts between parents and children increase during early adolescence and remain common until they decline in late adolescence (Arnett,2000). These conflicts typically focus on dating, how lone teenagers should be away from home, where they can go and they can be with. 2) Mood Changes

Many studies show that, compared with childhood and adulthood, adolescents experience more shifts to mood and more extremely positive and negative moods( Gregor Mile, 2004). Compared with children and adults, 12 adolescents also are much more likely to feel self-conscious, embarrassed. awkward, lonely, curios and ignored.

Moral and Spiritual Problem Area There is no doubt that college students struggle with moral issues, but are these moral issues the result of mere circumstance or are there deeper spiritual matters at work? After the examination of three recent surveys of hundreds of teenagers and over 100,000 college students, it seems as though college students’ beliefs concerning the existence of God, eternal punishment, the religious beliefs of their parents, and a general security in their own faith have been swayed since their teenage years. While many teenagers seem to have a strong foundation for their faith, college students are slipping into doubt and insecurity. Through surveying these statistics, it is obvious that the moral problems with college students are directly influenced by their spiritual fervor or lack thereof. This conclusion brings new insight and motivation for ministers and teachers of teenagers and college students(Dean Hardy, 2000). The transition from high school to college is one of the most pivotal times in a young persons’

life. After departing from under the protective wings of parental figures, young adults often have problems that manifest themselves in various ways. Whether mental/intellectual, spiritual, physical addictions or health difficulties, college 13 seems to be the time when the most serious problems arise. Katie, a strong Christian and a college freshman said that she experienced difficulties mentally, relationally and physically disturbed in freshmen year in college. She also stated that current weakness of economy affect her studies. (Charles C. McArthur, 2007)


This chapter discusses the research design, research setting, sampling procedures, data gathering instrument and procedure and scoring procedures.

Research Design The data of this study were gathered with the use of problem sheet which is prepared by the researchers. The researchers used the descriptive method of research which is considered the most appropriate in determining the critical problem among freshmen students. Descriptive method requires a more detailed analysis of the various aspects of the interrelationships.

Research Setting The research will be conducted at the Xavier University Main Campus, owned and managed by the Jesuit Priests, located at Corrales Avenue a Jesuit school in Cagayan de Oro City.

15 Respondents and Sampling Procedures The sampling procedure will be conducted in six steps. First, the researchers will submit a letter to the Dean of the School of Education requesting a list of all freshmen students enrolled in their college in the School year 20102011 first semester. Second, the researchers will choose the respondents using the purposive sampling. Third, after gathering 100 respondents, the researchers will distribute to their respondents their letter for request, together with it are the Informed Consent and the authorization for a minor to serve as a subject form. Fourth, the questionnaires will be sent to them for them to answer. Fifth, the questionnaires will then be collected for tallying and analyzing. Sixth, the data will be interpreted and the results will be known. The critical problems which include family, school, emotional, financial and moral and spiritual problem areas will be the basis of the respondents’ problem checklist. The researchers will be getting their percentile rank whether which critical problem area is most checked. We will use the formula Standard Deviation of the data gathered. It will be presented in a graph form.

16 Data Gathering and Instrument Procedures The study used the problem sheet made by the researchers concerning specifically the five critical problems according to category. The procedure data gathers the information of first, the assessment of critical problem areas affecting freshmen students, second is the evaluation on how these problems affect student’s performances. The researchers will use a problem sheet for the determining the critical problem areas. The students will be able to identify which area are they most affected on. The process will be done at time based on their free time.

Statistical Instruments/Procedure

The researchers revised the problem sheet by grouping the items into five conflict areas. The modified problem sheets were typed and were distributed to administrators and teachers of guidance to examine and evaluate on these criteria : (1) appropriateness of the categories, and(2) the categories of the items placed under each category. They were also asked to write such criticisms and suggestions as they saw fit or helpful.


Aeker, David, V. Kumar and George S. Day. College freshmen, New York : John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1998. Baruch, Dorothy W. How To Live With Your Teenager. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1990. Blalock, Hubert. Social Statistics. New York : McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1993. Best, John W. and Kain, James V. Research in Education ninth ed. Pearson Education Publishing as Allyn & Bacon,2001. Cole, Luella. Psychology of Adolescence. 3rd ed. New York :Rinehart and Company Curran, Charles A. Counseling In Catholic Life and Education. New York: The Mcmillan Company, 1995. Froehlich, Clifford P. Guidance Services In Schools. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1998. Jolley, Janina M. Lifespan Development A Topical Approach. United States of America: The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc, 2004. Jones, Arthur J. Principles of Guidance and Pupil Personnel Work. New York:McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1990. Fraenkel, Jack R. and Wallen, Norman E. How Design and Evaluate Research in Education 5th ed. Published by Mc-Graw-Hill Companies.2003.

Good, Timothy and Brophy, John. Guiding Teenagers, 1991.

Keen, Jorge M. Critical Problems in the Society. New York:McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1993. Moriarty, Alice PH.D.and Tousseing, Povl W, M.D. Adolescent Coping. Published by Grune and Stratton,Inc. Santrock, John W. Adolescence,Eighth Edition Published by McGraw-Hill NewYork, Book Company, 2001.

Letter of Approval To the Dean of School of Education Dr. Lourdes G. Tolod Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan Corrales Avenue Cagayan de Oro City Dear Madam : Greetings! We are the School of Education students of Xavier University. We are assigned to conduct a research entitled “Critical Problems Experienced by The First Year Education Students of Xavier University and Their Impact to their Academic Performances for School Year 2010-2011”. In line with this, we will be distributing problem checklist sheet to Freshmen Education students as our respondents. We assure you the confidentiality of the records being used in this study. We will return any gathered data given by the students in your college. We humbly look forward to your response about our research study. Your cooperation will be a very great help in the fulfillment of our research. Thank you very much and God bless! Respectfully yours,

Dangcal, Bebeche O. Researcher Pangan,Chalna B. Researcher Semaňa, Giraldyne D. Researcher Undalay,Alija T. Researcher

Noted: Ms. Michele Suazo_ Research Adviser


I consent to serve as a subject in the research investigators entitled: The Critical Problems of First Year Education Students of Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro City for School Year 2010-2011. The nature and general purpose of the research procedure and the known risks involved have been explained to me by Bebeche Dangcal, Chalna Pangan, Giraldyne Semaňa and Alija Undalay. The researchers are authorized to proceed on the understanding that I may terminate my service as a subject the risks are: knowing ones personal information about my critical problems during Freshmen year and my confidentiality will be publicized. I understand also that it is not possible to identify all potential risks in an experimental procedure, and I believe that reasonable safeguards have been to minimize both the known and the potentially unknown risks.

Witness_______________________________ Signed___________________ Date____________________ To be retained by the principal investigator

PROBLEM SHEET I.D. No.:________________________ Gender_____Date of birth_______________ Midterm QPI:____________________ Course________________ Address_________________________________________ Religion______________ School last attended__________________________________Address_____________________ DIRECTIONS: This is not a test. This is a problem sheet concerning the top five critical problems in freshmen education students. Please put a check mark(/) in each box that you most agreed on. For the corresponding answers: 1-Always,2-Sometimes,3-Never 4 1. My parents punish me severely. 2. I quarrel with my brothers/sisters. 3. My parents don’t give me encouragements. 4. My parents criticize me so much. 5. My parents expect too much from me. 6. My parents are separated. 7. I shoulder heavy home responsibilities. 8. I lack privacy at home. 9. My parents criticize me so much. 10. My parents are both out of the house. 11. I need money for school expenses. 12. Our financial sources are not stable. 13. I don’t know how to budget money wisely. 14. My monthly allowance is not enough. 15. I need money for health care when I get sick. 16. I go to school with very little money. 17. I have no money to spend. 18. My parents can’t finance all of us in the family. 19.I have too little money for board and lodging. 20.My parents sacrifice too much but earn a little. 21. I am getting low grades. 22. I am in too many student activities. 23. I am not used to independent learning. 24. I am afraid to speak in class discussions. 25. My teacher is very strict. 26. I have difficulties in dealing with my teachers. 27. I don’t know how to manage my time. 28. I don’t have time to study. 29. I am weak in reasoning out. 30. My vocabulary is limited. 3 2 1

4 31. I am shy to talk to everybody. 32. I lose my temper easily. 33. I am afraid to make mistakes in everything I do. 34. I get discouraged when I get low scores in my exam. 35. I don’t know how to handle my feelings. 36. I can’t see the value of the things I do. 37. I lack self-confidence. 38. I am stubborn. 39. I lack sense of belongingness. 40. I am unwilling to face serious problems. 41. I don’t’ know what is right from wrong. 42. I am confused by the different religious beliefs. 43. I yield to temptation to cheat. 44. I failed to attend church services. 45. Telling a lie is tolerated by my peers. 46. I indirectly tell the truth. 47. I think God is unfair. 48. I need more chances for religious workshop. 49.I am bothered by vulgarity in college talk. 50. I am confused with the different religious beliefs.




1) Why do these factors affect your studies? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2) How do these factors affect your freshmen college life in Xavier University? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________