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# http://www.onlineGTU.

com
Seat No.: ________ Enrolment No.___________

## GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

BE - SEMESTER–III • EXAMINATION – SUMMER 2013
Subject Code: 130602 Date: 28-05-2014
Subject Name: Fluid Mechanics
Time: 02.30 pm - 05.00 pm Total Marks: 70
Instructions:
1. Attempt all questions.
2. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary.
3. Figures to the right indicate full marks.

## Q.1 (a) Define and explain following fluid properties. 07

(1) Surface tension
(2) Dynamic viscosity
(3) Capillarity

(b) What is the use of manometer? Prove that intensity of pressure at any point in a 07
fluid at rest has same magnitude in all directions.
Q.2 (a) State Bernoulli’s equation for compressible flow. Derive Bernoulli’s equation 07
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(b) A circular plate 3.5 m diameter is immersed in water in such a way that its 07
greatest and least depth below free surface is 4 m and 1.5 m respectively.
Determine the total pressure on one face of the plate and position of the center
of pressure.
OR
(b) Define force of buoyancy and meta-centre. Discuss the conditions of equilibrium 07
for floating and sub-merged bodies with neat sketches.
Q.3 (a) (i) A stream function in a two dimensional flow is ѱ = 4xy. Calculate the 04
velocity at the point (4, 3). Find the corresponding velocity potential ɸ.

(ii) State Bernoulli’s equation for steady incompressible fluid flow. What 03
assumptions are made in its derivation?

## (b) What is venturimeter? Derive an expression for discharge through a 07

venturimeter.
OR
Q.3 (a) (i) Define the terms : Stream line , Equipotential line , Flownet 03

(ii) What is pitot tube? How velocity at any point is determined by pitot tube? 04

## (b) A horizontal venturimeter with inlet diameter 30 cm and throat diameter 10 cm 07

is used to measure the flow of oil of specific gravity 0.8. The discharge of oil
through venturimeter is 50 liters/s. Find the reading of the oil-mercury
differential manometer. Take Cd = 0.98.
Q.4 (a) What are major and minor energy losses in pipes? Derive an expression for loss 07
of head due to sudden enlargement and sudden contraction of pipe.

(b) (i) Explain hydraulic gradient line and total energy line 03

(ii) Classify orifices and mouthpieces based on their shape, size and sharpness. 04
1
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OR
Q.4 (a) A horizontal pipe of diameter 450 mm is suddenly contracted to a diameter of 07
250 mm. The pressure intensities in larger and smaller pipe are given as 14.5
N/cm2 and 12.5 N/cm2 respectively. If Cc = 0.62. Find loss of head due to
contraction and discharge of water.

(b) (i) What do you understand by pipes in series and pipes in parallel? 04

## (ii) Define: Co-efficient of velocity, Co-efficient of discharge, Vena-contracta. 03

Q.5 (a) Derive an expression for discharge through fully submerged and partially 07
submerged orifice.

(b) Water is flowing in a rectangular channel of 1.5 m wide and 0.75 m deep. Find 07
discharge over a rectangular weir of crest length 65 cm, if head of water over
the crest of weir is 25 cm and water flow over the weir. Take C d = 0.62. Take
approach velocity into consideration.
OR
Q.5 (a) (i) What is orifice and mouthpiece? What is its use? 02

## (ii) A circular tank of diameter 3 m contains water up to height of 4 m. The tank 05

is provided with an orifice of diameter 0.4 m at the bottom. Find time taken by
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water to fall from 4.0 m to 1.0 m and for completely emptying the tank.
Take Cd = 0.98.

## (b) Prove that the discharge through a triangular notch or weir is 07

*************

2
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Seat No.: ________ Enrolment No.___________

## GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

BE - SEMESTER–III • EXAMINATION – WINTER • 2014
Subject Code: 2130602 Date: 30-12-2014
Subject Name: Fluid Mechanics
Time: 02.30 pm - 05.00 pm Total Marks: 70
Instructions:
1. Attempt all questions.
2. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary.
3. Figures to the right indicate full marks.

## Q.1 (a) Write statements of the following: 05

(i). Hydrostatic law
(ii). Pascal’s law
(iii). Bernoulli’s theorem
(iv). Newton’s law of viscosity
(v). Archimedes principle for the buoyant force
(b) 1) Define the following terms: 05
Metacentric height, Kinematic viscosity, Surface tension,
Velocity potential function and Reynolds number.
2) Differentiate between the following in brief: 04
(i). Rotational flow and Irrotational flow
(ii). Laminar flow and Turbulent flow
(iii). Compressible flow and Incompressible flow
(iv). Uniform flow and Non-uniform flow

Q.2 (a) Derive expressions for total force and centre of pressure on a vertical 07
plane surface submerged in static liquid.
(b) A dam section is shown in Fig. 1. Calculate, (i) total force exerted by 07
static water on the dam section, (ii) inclination of the force with
horizontal and, (iii) depth at which this force acts. Take length of the
dam section (perpendicular to the section given in Fig.1) equal to 1 m.
OR
(b) Derive theoretical equation for the metacentric height of a floating 07
body.

Q.3 (a) Derive Bernoulli’s equation for incompressible fluid flow. State 07
assumptions made in the derivation.
(b) For a fluid flow, velocity components in x and y directions are u = 2xy 07
and v = x2 – y2 + 4 respectively. Show that the components represent a
possible case of fluid flow. Derive stream function and the flow rate
between the stream lines corresponding to points (1, 0) and (1, 1).
OR
Q.3 (a) Derive equation for rate of flow through the venturimeter. 07
(b) A sharp-edged orifice of 125 mm diameter is fixed on vertical side of a 07
tank under a constant head of 9 m. The orifice is discharging water at a
rate of 105 liters/sec. A point on the jet has horizontal and vertical
coordinates of 4.25 m and 0.55 m respectively, which are measured
from the vena contracta. Calculate coefficient of velocity, coefficient of
discharge and coefficient of contraction. Also estimate area of the jet at
the vena contracta.
1/2
Q.4 (a) Derive equation for discharge over a rectangular weir. Also explain 07
significance of velocity of approach.
(b) 1) Calculate capillary effect in a glass tube of 3 mm diameter when 04
immersed in (i) water and, (ii) mercury (specific gravity = 13.6) at
temperature of 20o C. The surface tension of water and mercury
at temperature of 20o C are 0.074 N/m and 0.52 N/m. The contact
angles water and mercury are 0o and 130o respectively. Take
specific weight of water at 20o C as equal to 9.8 KN/m3.
2) Define compressibility of a fluid. When the pressure of liquid is
increased to 7.5x103 KN/m2 from 4x103 KN/m2, its volume is 03
found to reduce by 0.075 percent. Calculate the bulk modulus of
elasticity of the liquid.
OR
Q.4 (a) Differentiate between a stream lined body and a bluff body. Prove that 07
the coefficient of drag for the drag on sphere is given by CD = 24/Re,
when Re (Reynolds’ number) ≤ 0.2.
(b) Experiments on a flat plate of 1 m length and 0.5 m width were 07
conducted in a wind tunnel in which wind was blowing horizontally at a
speed of 60 Km/hour. The plate was kept at such an angle that the
coefficients of drag and lift were 0.2 and 0.88 respectively. Calculate,
(i) drag and lift forces, (ii) resultant force and its direction and, (iii)
power exerted by the air stream on the plate. Take specific weight of air
equal to 11.28 KN/m3.

Q.5 (a) Derive equation for sonic velocity of sound wave in a compressible fluid 07
in terms of the bulk modulus of elasticity of the fluid medium.
(b) An aeroplane is flying at 950 Km/hour through still air having an 07
absolute pressure of 80 KN/m2 and temperature -7o C. Calculate
stagnation pressure, stagnation temperature and stagnation density, on
the stagnation point on the nose of the plane. Take R = 287 J/ Kg K and
γ = 1.4 for air.
OR
Q.5 (a) Derive continuity equation for three dimensional incompressible flow. 07
(b) (i). An inverted differential manometer, having an oil of specific 04
gravity 0.8 as manometric liquid, is connected two pipes A and B
which are at same level and both carrying water. Level of the oil
in left limb is 0.2 m above centre of pipe A and, level of the oil in
right limb is 0.45 m above centre of pipe B. Calculate difference
in pressure between the two pipes.
(ii). A solid cylinder having 1.5 m diameter and 2 m height is floating 03
in water with its axis vertical. If the specific gravity of material of
cylinder is 0.85, calculate metacentric height and state whether
the equilibrium is stable or unstable.

2/2
Seat No.: ________ Enrolment No.___________

## GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

BE - SEMESTER– III (NEW) EXAMINATION – SUMMER 2015

## Subject Code: 2130602 Date:04/06/2015

Subject Name: Fluid Mechanics
Time: 02.30pm-05.00pm Total Marks: 70
Instructions:
1. Attempt all questions.
2. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary.
3. Figures to the right indicate full marks.

Q.1 (a) Define the terms: (1) kinematic viscosity (2) surface tension (3) specific gravity 07
(4) specific weight (5) Ideal fluid (6) capillarity (7) Newtonian fluid
(b) A square plate of size 1m x 1m and weighing 500 N slides down an inclined 07
plane with a uniform velocity of 2 m/s. The plane makes an angle of 30 0 to the
horizontal and has oil film of 1.5 mm thickness. Find the dynamic viscosity of
oil.
Q.2 (a) State Pascal’s law of pressure and prove it. 07
(b) Absolute pressure at a point is 30 kPa. Convert this pressure in terms of gauge 07
pressure. Also calculate the corresponding height in terms of oil of specific
gravity 0.9 for both of the above values. Take atmospheric pressure = 101.39
OR
(b) Write a short note on (1) piezometer & (2) inverted U-tube differential 07
manometer with neat sketches.
Q.3 (a) Rectangular lamina of size 3m x 5m is immersed vertically in water such that 5m 07
side is parallel and lies below 1m to the free water surface. Determine the total
hydrostatic force and centre of pressure.
(b) Discuss the equilibrium conditions for floating and submerged bodies with 07
proper sketches.
OR
Q.3 (a) Briefly discuss about (1) uniform and non-uniform flow (2) velocity potential 07
function & (3) uses of flow net.
(b) Tapering pipe has diameters of 40 cm and 25 cm at two different sections. Oil of 07
specific gravity 0.85 flows through it. If the velocity of flow at 25 cm section is
3 m/s and pressure is 200 kPa, determine the pressure at the other end. Assume
pipe is laid horizontal and losses are negligible between two sections.
Q.4 (a) Open cylindrical tank of 15 cm diameter and 35 cm deep contains water upto the 07
brim. Tank is rotated at 400 rpm about its vertical axis. Determine the volume of
water left in the tank.
(b) Give derivation of Bernoulli’s equation from Euler’s equation of motion. 07
Enumerate assumptions made in derivation and explain the meaning of each term
of Bernoulli’s equation.
OR
Q.4 (a) Derive the equation for determining the discharge from Borda’s mouthpiece 07
running full.
(b) Briefly discuss about drag force and lift force. Explain the types of drag. 07
Q.5 (a) Define various hydraulic coefficients. How to determine coefficient of velocity 07
experimentally?

1
(b) A tank has two identical orifices in one of its vertical side. The upper and lower 07
orifices are 3m and 5 m below the water surface respectively. Determine the
point of intersection of two jets if coefficient of velocity is 0.92 for both the
orifices.
OR
Q.5 (a) Classify various types of notches. Derive the equation for discharge through a 07
rectangular notch.
(b) Define Mach number. Give classification and explanation of the type of flow 07
based on Mach number.

*************

2
Seat No.: ________ Enrolment No.___________

## GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

BE - SEMESTER–III (New) EXAMINATION – WINTER 2015

## Subject Code:2130602 Date:29/12/2015

Subject Name: Fluid Mechanics
Time: 2:30pm to 5:00pm Total Marks: 70
Instructions:
1. Attempt all questions.
2. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary.
3. Figures to the right indicate full marks.

MARKS
Q.1 Short Questions 14
1 Define surface tension.
2 What is Magnus effect?
3 State Newton’s law of viscosity.
4 Define specific gravity.
5 Define metacentric height.
6 Define stream line.
7 State Bernoulli’s theorem.
8 Define drag and lift.
9 Define elasticity.
10 State Archimede’s principle.
11 Define total pressure and center of pressure.
12 Define circulation.
13 Define co-efficient of discharge.
14 What is the value of atmospheric pressure head in terms
of water column?
Q.2 (a) What is hydrostatic paradox? Explain with figure. 03
(b) of water column
A 150mm diameter shaft rotates at 1500rpm in a 200 mm 04
long journal bearing with 150.5 mm internal diameter.
The uniform annular space between the shaft and the
bearing is filled with oil of dynamic viscosity 0.8 Poise.
Calculate the power dissipated as heat.
(c) Explain construction and working of vertical and inclined 07
single column manometer with equation.
OR
(c) Explain construction and working of Bourdon tube 07
pressure gauge.
Q.3 (a) Derive generalized equation of total pressure on inclined 03
plane surface.
(b) An isosceles triangle of base 3m and altitude 6m, is 04
immersed vertically in water, with its axis of symmetry
horizontal. If the head of water on it is 9m, Determine (i)
total pressure on plate ,(ii) The position of center of
pressure.
(c) State and define different types of fluid flow. 07
OR
Q.3 (a) A rectangular pantoon is 5m long, 3m wide and 1.2m 03
high. The depth of immersion is 0.8m in sea water. If the
center of gravity is 0.6m above the bottom of pantoon,
1
determine the metacentric height. Take density of sea
water as 1025 kg per meter cube.
(b) Derive expression for rate of flow through venturimeter 04
(c) Derive the equation of pressure at the bottom of the 07
container when liquid in it is subjected to uniform
acceleration in vertically upward and downward
direction.
Q.4 (a) What is Pitot tube? Derive equation of velocity for flow 03
of fluid through it.
(b) A stream function for a two dimensional flow is given by 04
ψ = 2xy, calculate the velocity at point P (2,3). Find the
velocity potential function ϕ.
(c) Derive Bernoulli’s equation from Euler’s equation of 07
motion. State assumptions also.
OR
Q.4 (a) Explain possibilities of dam failure in short. 03
(b) Derive the equation of discharge over a rectangular 04
notch.
(c) Prove that velocity of sound wave is square root of the 07
ratio of change of pressure to the change of density of the
fluid
Q.5 (a) Explain working of rotameter with figure. 03
(b) Define Mach number and various flow on its basis 04
(c) An aero plane weighing 40 kN is flying in a horizontal 07
direction at 360 km/hr. The plane spans 15m and has a
wing surface area of 35 m2. Determine the lift coefficient
and the power required to drive the plane. Assume drag
coefficient =0.3 and for air ρ = 1.20 kg/m3. Also work out
the theoretical value of the boundary layer circulation.
OR
Q.5 (a) Define various parts of an aerofoil. 03
(b) A reservoir discharges through a sluice 0.915m wide by 04
1.22m deep. The top of the opening is 0.65m below the
water level in the reservoir and the downstream water
level is below the bottom of the opening. Calculate (i) the
discharge through the opening if Cd= 0.6 and (ii) % error
if the opening is treated as a small orifice.
(c) Derive equation of discharge through a convergent- 07
divergent mouthpiece.

*************

2
Seat No.: ________ Enrolment No.___________

## GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

BE - SEMESTER–III(New) EXAMINATION – SUMMER 2016

## Subject Code:2130602 Date:04/06/2016

Subject Name:Fluid Mechanics
Time:10:30 AM to 01:00 PM Total Marks: 70
Instructions:
1. Attempt all questions.
2. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary.
3. Figures to the right indicate full marks.
MARKS
Q.1 Short Questions 14

## 1 What do you meant by ideal fluid?

2 Define Newtonion fluid.
3 What do you meant by TEL and HGL
4 Define Path line.
5 What is pressure head?
6 Define coefficient of discharge (Cd)
7 What is sonic flow?
8 Define term “Total pressure.”
9 What is compound pipe?
10 Define rotational flow.
11 What is stagnation point?
12 Define Mach Number.
13 Define steady flow.
14 What is buoyant force?

Q.2 (a) Explain the terms Dynamic Viscosity and Kinematics Viscosity. 03
(b) Explain piezometer. 04
(c) What is Euler’s equation of motion? How will you obtain 07
Bernoulli’s equation from it?
OR
(c) A circular tank of diameter 5 m contains water up to a height of 4.5 07
m. the tank is provided with an orifice of diameter 0.5 m at the
bottom. Find the time taken by water (i) to fall from 4.5 m to 1.5 m
(ii) for completely emptying of tank. Take Cd= 0.62
Q.3 (a) The weight of 5 m3 of certain oil is 45 KN. Calculate its specific 03
weight, mass density and specific gravity.
(b) Distinguish between laminar flow and turbulent flow in pipes. 04
(c) Derive darcy-weisbach equation for friction loss in the pipe. 07
OR
Q.3 (a) State Pascal’s law and give some examples where this principle is 03
applied.
(b) Discuss relative merits and demerits of venturimeter with respect to 04
orifice meter.
(c) Derive an expression for the depth of center of pressure for inclined 07
plane surface submerged in the liquid.
Q.4 (a) Explain surface tension. 03
(b) A projectile is traveling in air having pressure and temperature as 9 04
N/cm2 and -50C. If the mach angle is 350, find the velocity of

1
projectile. Take k=1.4 and R=287 J/kg0K
(c) Explain the procedure of measuring vaccum pressure with the help 07
of U-tube manometer.
OR
Q.4 (a) An open tank contains 2 m of water covered with 1 m of oil 03
(specific gravity 0.85). Find the pressure of the interface and the
bottom of the tank.
(b) What are the advantages of triangular notch over a rectangular 04
notch?
(c) A solid wooden cylinder of 3 m diameter and 2 m height floating in 07
water with its axis vertical. Find the metacentric height of cylinder.
Specific gravity of wood = 0.6
Q.5 (a) What is weir? How it different from a notch. 03
(b) What are the advantages of providing mouth piece? 04
(c) A 200 m long pipe is laid on a slop of 1 in 50. It has 1 m diameter 07
at the high end and reduces to half of its diameter at lower end.
Water is flowing at a rate of 60 liter/sec. If the pressure at the high
end is 35.72 KN/m2. Find pressure at the low end. Neglect losses.
OR
Q.5 (a) Explain term metacentre and metacentric height. 03
(b) Explain characteristics of airfoil. 04
(c) Water is flowing in a rectangular channel of 1.2 m width and 0.08 07
m depth. Find the discharge if the crest length is 50 cm, if the head
of water over the crest of weir is 18 cm and water from channel
flows over weir. Take Cd= 0.62. Neglect end contraction. Take
velocity of approach in to consideration.

*************

2
Seat No.: ________ Enrolment No.___________
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
BE - SEMESTER–III(New) • EXAMINATION – WINTER 2016
Subject Code:2130602 Date:06/01/2017
Subject Name:Fluid Mechanics
Time:10:30 AM to 01:00 PM Total Marks: 70
Instructions:
1. Attempt all questions.
2. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary.
3. Figures to the right indicate full marks.

MARKS
Q.1 Short Questions 14

## 1. ___________ cannot retain any unsupported shape and volume.

(a) Liquid, (b) gas, (c) fluid, (d) solid.
2. The cohesive forces are more in case of
(a) Liquid fluid, (b) gaseous fluid, (c) equal in both, (d) none of the above.
3. The value of normal atmospheric pressure is
(a) 1.01325 bar, (b) 10.33 m of water, (c) 760 mm of mercury,
(d) All the above.
4. The numerical value of 1 bar = __________ in terms of Pa.
(a) 1 Pa, (b) 1.1352 Pa, (c) 105 Pa, (d) 100 Pa.
5. Which of the following is a cause/s of dam failure
(a) due to overturning, (c) due to sliding,
(b) due to tension/compression, (d) All of the above.
6. For ___________ flow, path line, streamline and streak line are identical.
(a) Steady, (b) uniform, (c) laminar, (d) one dimensional.
7. The equation of continuity holds good when the flow
(a) is steady, (c) velocity is uniform at all the cross sections,
(b) is one dimensional, (d) all of the above.
8. The rate of change of linear momentum equals
(a) Force, (b) torque, (c) energy, (d) work done.

## 9.The length of divergent portion of venturimeter in comparison to convergent portion

is
(a)More, (b) same, (c) less, (d) less or more.
10.Total energy line is obtained by adding __________ head to hydraulic gradient
11.For pipes, laminar flow occurs when Reynold’s number is
(a) Less than 2000, (c) more than 4000
(b) Between 2000 and 4000, (d) less than 4000.
12.Which of the following is dimensionless?
(a) Force, (b) power, (c) efficiency, (d) torque.
13.A fluid flow taking place continuously round a curved path about a fix axis of
rotation , is known as
(a) Rotational flow,(b) vortex flow, (c) radial flow, (d) circular flow.

1
14._________ is the ability of fluid to change its volume under pressure
(a) Vapour pressure, (c) compressibility,
(b) Surface tension, (d) capillary.

## Q.2 (a) Explain Compressibility and Bulk modulus. 3

(b) Obtain an expression for Capillary rise of liquid. 4
(c) State the Pascal’s law and prove it. 7

OR
(c) Write a short note on 7
(i) U-tube Manometer, (ii) Diaphragm pressure gauge.

Q.3 (a) Define the terms metacentre, metacentric height and absolute pressure. 3
(b) Derive the expression for total pressure for a vertical plate submerged in the 4
Liquid.
(c) A solid cylinder of diameter 4 m has a height of 4 m. Find the metacentric 7
height of the cylinder if the specific gravity of the material of cylinder is 0.7
and it is floating in water with its axis vertical. State whether the equilibrium
is stable or unstable.
OR
Q.3 (a) Explain Buoyancy and Centre of Buoyancy. 3
(b) Explain equilibrium in floating bodies. 4
(c) Derive an equation for time period of oscillation of floating body. 7

## Q.4 (a) Define following terms 3

i) Path line, ii) streamline, iii) streak line
(b) Explain Reynold’s experiment with neat sketch. 4
(c) Derive Euler’s equation of motion along streamline. 7

OR
Q.4 (a) How volumetric flow rate can be measured by pitot tube? 3
(b) Write a short note on the hydraulic co-efficient. 4
(c) Derive an expression for the discharge through a venturimeter. 7

## Q.5 (a) Explain characteristics of laminar flow and turbulent flow. 3

(b) Explain hydraulic gradient and total energy line. 4
(c) Derive Darcy-Weisbach formula for head loss due to friction in pipe flow. 7

OR
Q.5 (a) Classify various types of notches. 3
(b) Briefly discuss about drag force and lift force. 4
(c) Define Mach number. Give classification and explanation of the type flow 7
based on Mach number.

*************

2
Seat No.: ________ Enrolment No.___________

## GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

BE - SEMESTER–III (NEW) - EXAMINATION – SUMMER 2017
Subject Code: 2130602 Date: 05/06/2017
Subject Name: Fluid Mechanics
Time: 10:30 AM to 01:00 PM Total Marks: 70
Instructions:
1. Attempt all questions.
2. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary.
3. Figures to the right indicate full marks.

## Q.1 Short Questions 14

1 What is a Newtonian fluid? 
2 Distinguish clearly between an ideal fluid and real fluid. 
3 Define dynamic viscosity of fluid. 
4 Explain the capillary action of rise and fall of liquid columns. 
5 Explain the term Buoyancy and Archimedes principle. 
6 A spherical sea mine of diameter 0.9 m is weighing 2300 N. It is chained to the bottom 
of a harbor. What external force must the chain provide to keep the sea mine floating to
the surface? Take mass density of sea water ρ = 1025 kg/m3.
7 Calculate the height of capillary rise of water in a glass tube of diameter 1 mm. The air- 
water surface tension at room temperature is 0.073 N/m. The contact angle for air-water-
glass system is taken as 0O.
8 How is the atmospheric pressure measured? 
9 What is the difference between gauge and absolute pressure? 
10 Why mercury is preferred as an indicating liquid in a U tube manometer? 
11 Distinguish between a laminar and turbulent flow. 
12 How is the metacentric height calculated experimentally? 
13 Write the working principle of a Pitot tube. 
14 What do you understand by stagnation pressure? 
Q.2 
(a) Explain with a neat sketch a U-tube differential manometer. When do we use an inverted 
U-tube manometer?
(b) The underground oil storage tank as shown in Figure 1 has developed a leak such that 
water has entered the tank. The depth of oil is 2.0 m and water depth is 0.5 m. For the
dimension given, determine the hydrostatic pressure at the (i) water –oil interface and (ii)
at the base of the tank. Take specific gravity of oil = 0.87.

(c) A circular annular area of 2.0 m outer diameter and 1.0 m inner diameter is immersed 

1
vertically in water with the centre of area at 3.5 m below the water surface. Find (i) the
force exerted on one side of the area, and (ii) location of the centre of pressure.

OR
(c) An open cylindrical tank of 0.9 m in diameter and 2 m high contains water up to 1.5 m 
depth. If the cylinder rotates about its vertical axis what maximum angular velocity can
be attained without spilling any water?
Q.3
(a) Explain free and forced vortex with suitable examples. 
(b) Explain the use of flow net for a two dimensional flow. 
(c) Sketch the jet trajectory from a small circular orifice located on the side wall of a liquid 
container. Show the vena contracta. What do you understand by coefficient of
contraction? Give typical values of Cc for small circular orifice.
OR
Q.3
(a) What is the difference between Euler equation and Bernoulli’s equation? 
(b) Explain the components of a venturimeter with a neat proportionate sketch. 
(c) A pitot tube is inserted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter. The static pressure of the tube is 10 
cm of mercury, vacuum. The stagnation pressure at the centre of the pipe recorded by the
pitot tube is 1.1 N/cm2. Calculate the rate of flow of water through the pipe if mean
velocity of flow is 0.85 times centre line velocity. Take coefficient of pitot tube = 0.98.
Q.4
(a) Verify whether the given stream function ψ = y2 – x2 represent irrotational flow. 
(b) Write the Bernoulli’s equation for ideal fluid and real fluid. Also list the applications 
where Bernoulli’s equation is used.
(c) Estimate the discharge over a 90o triangular notch having head over crest as 45 cm. The 
coefficient of discharge Cd = 0.62. If the head over crest becomes 55 cm calculate the
percentage increase in discharge.
OR
Q.4
(a) What is the difference between a mouthpiece and an orifice? 
(b) Explain the terms Total drag, Frictional drag, pressure drag with suitable examples. 

2
(c) A car has frontal projected area of 1.5 m2 and travels at 55 km/h. Calculate the power 
required to overcome wind resistance if coefficient of drag is 0.35. If the drag coefficient
is reduced by streamlining to 0.25 what speed of the car is possible? Take ρair = 1.2
kg/m3
Q.5
(a) Distinguish between subsonic and supersonic flow. 
(b) Explain with neat sketches the Convergent-Divergent mouthpiece and the Borda’s 
mouthpiece
(c) Define Mach number. A supersonic plane in its flight has a Mach angle of 400 and is 
flying in air with -20 0C. Calculate the speed of plane. Assume k = 1.4 and R = 287
J/Kg.K
OR
Q.5
(a) Calculate the discharge for flow passing through a trapezoidal notch having base width 
of 0.75 m and side slope of 1:1. Take the head over crest of notch = 50 cm. The
coefficient of discharge Cd= 0.63.
(b) Explain with neat sketches the contracted rectangular notch and Cippoleti notch. 
(c) Derive the equation for time (T) required to empty a rectangular tank filled with liquid. 
The tank has an orifice at its bottom. The initial depth of water in the tank is H1.