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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION:

An excavator, technically speaking, is any machine which excavates rock or earth and
swings of transports it, within narrow limits to an adjacent place or dumps it on to a
receptacle like a dumper or railway wagon.

1.1.1 Shovel:

Shovel is an excavator which excavates the rock or ore by digging from its operating
base to upwards and dumps it either on a dumper or railway wagon or over the spoil
dump for back filling after swings itself within its limit. It is highly productive machine
and capable to handle all types of ores, rocks ranging from fine to very hard bulky lumps,
has lower operating cost, higher production and productivity etc. It requires less man
power to operate and requires less surface preparation. It can also load in various mining
conditions which have a longer life, higher availability and it can also do production by
staying in the incline terrain.

Shovel can be used in strip mining method and in tandem operations.

Strip Mining: Loading, swinging, dumping of overburden material into adjoining


excavated area by over casting.

Tandem Operation: Where two or more shovels used for re-handling of overburden
successfully.

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Selection of a Shovel:

Selection of shovel is basically done by considering the factors like.

 Requirement of daily production.

 Type and quality of material to be excavated.

 Geotechnical parameters of mineral body or overburden rock.

 Working cycle time.

 Based on bucket fill factors – large shovel dig better than the smaller one.

 Weight and maximum lump size of material to be excavated.

 Height of bench and height of cut.

 Availability of power.

 Working gradient – maximum gradient may be upto 120 depending upon the type of
shovels.

 Ground pressure – due to bucket filling with digging, swinging of shovel and
unloading of materials, average ground pressure may increase 15 to 20 times.

 Climatic condition and drainage condition.

 Reliability of machine.

 Capital cost of the equipment.

 Operating and maintenance cost.

 Availability of spare parts and facility of sales service and service engineers.

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CHAPTER 2

ClASSIFICATION OF SHOVEL

CLASSIFICATIONS OF SHOVELS:

Classification of shovels is again classified into different types

2.1 Classification based on Power:

1) Diesel powered.

2) Electric powered.

Diesel powered:

This is one of the oldest type of power shovel in which prime mover is an IC engine
in which diesel fuel is used.

Electric powered:

In this type of shovel prime mover is an electrically operated induction motor.

Classification based on Working Mechanism:

a. Rope shovel.

b. Hydraulic shovel.

Rope shovel:

In this type of shovel, the transmission of power from the prime mover to different
parts of components is carried with the help of rope.

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Fig.1 Rope Shovel

Hydraulic Shovel:

In this type of shovel, the transmission of power from the prime mover to different
parts of the components is carried with the help of hydraulic oil.

Fig.2 Hydraulic Shovel

2.3 ClASSIFICATION BASED ON TYPE OF ATTACHMENT:

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1) Face Shovel (Loader attachment)

2) Back hoe

Loader:

The shovel which delivers the load through the front portion of the bucket is known as
loader. These shovels mainly handle loose materials in dumping yards either to load
railway wagons or other modes of transport equipment.

Back hoe:

This is also known as pull shovel or drag shovel. It is used for loading dumpers and its
best application is for digging below the level on which it stands. As the attachments to
the bucket are by the dipper stick and not by cables, the bucket is under positive control
of the operator and there for suitable for hard digging.

The shovel is used for stripping top soil and making shallow cuts and trenches up to a
depth of 6 meters.

2.4 ClASSIFICATION BASED ON BUCKET SIZES:

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a) 0.9 cu m

b) 2.8 cu m

c) 3.0 cu m

d) 3.9 cu m

e) 5.2 cu m

f) 6.5 cu m

g) 12 cu m and Fig.3 Bucket of Shovel


so on
The bucket sizes from 0.9 cu m to 3.9 cu m are the oldest type of shovels.

The bucket sizes of 5.2 cu m and 6.5 cu m are started working from the year 2005.

The bucket size of 12 cu m is started working from the year 2010.

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CHAPTER 3

DESCRIPTION OF DIESEL POWERED


HYDRAULIC SHOVEL

3.1 DIESEL POWERED HYDRAULIC SHOVEL:

Hydraulic shovels are slowly replacing the conventional rope shovels because of their
higher productivity, higher efficiency, higher machine availability ,smoother and easier
control, possibility of application in both the pushing pulling forces, efficient, smooth
controlled digging and slumping, faster loading cycle possessing fewer parts as compared
to a conventional rope shovel, less maintenance cost, low down time possibility of
continuous health monitoring system, less bulkiness and weight compared to a
conventional shovels ability to selective mining at any designed horizon, ability to dress
the high wall(face) etc. Hydraulic shovels are gaining much popularity in modern surface
mining operations. Some of the hydraulic excavators employs step less control of traction
and its speed which offers simple reversing and operating mechanism with high reduction
speed ratio. The machine is also very much reliable in operations. The main operations in
a hydraulic excavates are done by the hydraulic pressure.

Fig.4 Diesel Powered Hydraulic Shovel

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3.2 WORKING PRINCPLE:

The hydraulic pressure is generated by a prime mover i.e. by a diesel engine which
drives number of, hydraulic motors via a gear box, used to perform most of the working
functions the hydraulic pump generates fluid pressure to the valve bank which directs and
controls the maintenance of fluid pressure in numerous hydraulic circuits for the
operations of various hydraulic units with higher efficiency. The hydraulic power
operates all the crowd mechanism, hoist mechanism, swing mechanism, traction
mechanisms etc. presently a hydraulic excavator having bucket capacity varying from 0.4
cu mts to more than 54cu mts are available in the market.

3.3 SHOVEL GENERAL EXPLANATION OF MODEL PC2000-8:

This shovel is equipped with a V type 12 cylinder engine. It is attached with a 12


cubic meter capacity bucket and develops 976 HP with 1800 RPM. Here PC means power
crawler with its operating weight 200 tones. It has reinforced track components.

It is equipped with power module packaging and noise absorbing blades trap
noise inside the machine, 3-D hybrid fan minimizes air turbulence noise. It has auto
greasing system including bucket pins with 200 liters grease tank.

The most important in this shovel is it is installed technology is VHMS monitor


system.

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Overall Machine View:

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3.3
SPECIFICATION:

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3.4 WORKING RANGE DRAWING:

Fig.5 Working range drawing

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Boom length 8,7 m
Arm length 3,9 m
A Max. Digging height 13.410 mm
B Max. Dumping height 8.650 mm
C Max. Digging depth 9.235 mm
D Max. Vertical wall digging depth 2.710 mm
E Max. Digging depth of cut for 2.440 mm level 9.115 mm
F Max. Diggings reach 15.780 mm
G Max. Digging reach at ground level 15.305 mm
H Min. swing radius 7.500 mm
Bucket digging force (SAE) 626 kN (63,8 tonnes)
Arm crowd force (SAE) 74 kN (58,5 tonnes)
Bucket digging force (ISO) 697 kN (71,1 tonnes)
Arm crowd force (ISO) 586 kN (59,8 tonnes)

3.5 TECHNICAL INFORMATION OF A SHOVEL:

The information under this heading includes shovel characteristics. This will help in
visualizing the shape, size and the working spheres of a diesel powered hydraulic shovel
PC2000-8.

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CHAPTER 4

OPERATION OF A SHOVEL

4.1 OPERATION:

The operation of a shovel is totally based on hydraulic power. In this operation


includes four types of mechanisms. They are

1) Crowd mechanism.

2) Boom hoist mechanism.

3) Swing mechanism.

4) Propel mechanism.

4.1.1 Arm Crowd Mechanism:

In this mechanism extraction and retraction of mineral or overburden takes place with
the help of bucket, which is attached to the end of the arm of a shovel. Bucket curl and
bucket dump operation can be carried out in this mechanism.

4.1.2 Boom Hoist Mechanism:

In this mechanism both arm and boom operation takes place. After completion of
crowd mechanism this boom hoist mechanism will be carried out. Hoisting means lifting
up of material or overburden with the help of bucket.

4.1.3 Swing Mechanism:

A shovel deck can be rotated in 3600 with the help of swing mechanism. It can be
swinging in clock wise direction and also in anti clock wise direction.

4.1.4 Propel Mechanism:

Propel means moving either in forward direction or in backward direction. In this


mechanism shovel can be propelled with the help of under carriage unit which consists of
turntable and crawler track assembly.

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4.2 OPERATION BASED ON CONTROLES AND GAUGES:

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4.3 OPERATIONS BASED ON VEHICLE HEALTH MONITORING
SYSTEM:
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SYMBOLS DISPLAYED ON THE MON

4.4 ITOR:

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These are the some of the symbols to be observed while the machine is running. By
observing these symbols if any problem occurs it will recognize it by the appropriate
monitor lamp.

4.4.:

From the above fig. monitor warns the operator to any abnormality in the charging
system while the engine is running. If the battery is not charged properly while the engine
is running, monitor lights up red. By observing this red light, check the V –belt for
looseness.

4.4.2 Fuel Level Monitor:

When the fuel level in the tank is low the above fig. monitor lights up to warn the
operator. So fuel must be added.

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4.4.3 itor: Air Cleaner Clogging Mon

The above symbol warns the operator of a clogged air cleaner. If the monitor lights up
red stop the engine, inspect and clean the air cleaner.

4.4.4 Engine Coolant Temperature Monitor:

If this monitor shows low temperature display (A), carry out the warming operation.

If monitor will show normal display (B), carry out the warming out operation.

Display (A) at low temperature shows monitor background (D) is white.

Display (B) at correct temperature shows monitor background (D) is blue.

Display (C) when condition is abnormal monitor background (D) is red.

4.4.5 Hydraulic Oil Temperature Monitor:

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This monitor shows low temperature display carry out the warming up operation.
Continue the warming up operation for the hydraulic equipment until the above monitor
symbol shows the correct temperature display (B).

Display (A) at low temperature background monitor (D) is white.

Display (B) at correct temperature background monitor (D) is blue.

Display (C) when condition is abnormal monitor background (D) is red.

4.4.6 PTO Temperature Monitor:

From the above symbol, when this monitor is lighted up white in low temperatures,
carry out the warming up operation. Continue this operation until monitor symbol goes
out.

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4.4.7 Engine Oil Temperature Monitor:

From the above symbol, when this monitor is lighted up white in low temperatures,
carry out the warming up operation. Continue this operation until monitor symbol goes
out.

4.4.8 rease Level MoGnitor:

The above symbol on the monitor is lighted up red, it shows the remaining amount of
grease is below the low level. Add grease as soon as possible.

4.5 Operation Based on Control Levers:

Left work equipment control lever is used to operate the upper structure.

4.5.1 Arm Operation:

a) Arm OUT
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b) Arm IN

4.5.2 Swing Operation:

a) Swing to RIGHT

b) Swing to LEFT

N (Neutral): The upper structure and arm are held in position and do not move.

Fig.6 Left lever operation

Right work equipment control lever is used to operate the boom and bucket.

4.5.3 Boom Operation:

a) RAISE

b) LOWER

4.5.4 Bucket Operation:

a) DUMP
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b) CURL

N (Neutral): the boom and bucket are held in position and do not move.

Fig.7 Right lever operation.

In addition to the above hand lever a set of foot pedals provided for propel operation.

The following solenoid controlled special operating functions provided in dashboard as a


additional facilities

a. shock less boom operation

b .heavy lift

c. boom push up

d .swing lock

e. twin travel speed.

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General power transmission system in hydraulic shovel:

The attachment or work equipment consists of

1. Boom

2. Stick

3. Bucket

Boom:

The boom is made up of structural sheet metal fabricated in ‘L’ shaped hallow
structure. The boom is mounted on the machine by means two strong steel pins through
eye brackets. The up and down moment of boom is achieved by attaching the boom with
two hydraulic cylinder named boom cylinders.
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Stick:

The stick or arm is made up of structural sheet metal fabricated in ‘I’ shaped hallow
structure. The stick is mounted at the end of boom yoke end with a hard steel pin. The to
and fro motion of stick achieved by means of two hydraulic cylinders mounted on boom.

Bucket:

The bucket is the ground engaging tool of the attachment. The parabolicaly designed
bucket attain its curl and opening motion by means of two bucket cylinders attached on
the stick back acting link mechanism.

Machine propulsion and swing operation:


Propulsion:

Machine moment achieved by means of crawler chains attached in undercarriage of the


machinery. The crawler chains getting moment through the drive sprocket attached on
planetary gear box driven by a hydraulic motor. The propel motor receiving oil through a
hydraulic swivel joint from rotating upper structure.

Swing mechanism:

The swing operation of the upper structure achieved by means of two swing motors
equipped with drive pinions which roll over the ring gear.

4. 6 PROPE LLING (TRAVELIN G) ON SLOPES:

To prevent the machine tipping over or slipping to the side, take some of the
preventing measures which are mentioned below.

 Keep the work equipment aprox. 100-150 cm (39 to 59 in) above the ground..In case of
emergency, lower work equipment the ground immediately to help the stop the machine.

 When travel up slopes, set the operator’s cab facing up hill, when travel down slopes, set
the operator’s cab facing down hill. Always check the firmness of the ground under the
front of the machine when travelling.

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Fig.8 Travelling on up incline position.

4.6.1Parking the Machine:

 Park the machine on firm, level ground

 Select a place where there is no hazard of land slides, falling rocks or flooding.

 Lower the work equipment completely to the ground.

Fig.9 Parking of machine

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4.7 STEERING THE MACHINE WHEN TRAVELING:

4.7.1 When Traveling to the Left:

If the left travel lever is turned to the neutral position the machine will turn to the left.

A. Forward left turn

B. Reverse left turn

When turning to right, operate the right lever in the same way.

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CHAPTER 5

MAINTENANCE

MAINTENANCE OF HEMM

5.1 INTRODUCTION:

In quarrying operations with increasing thrust on machine mining and opencast


mining activities, there is a lot of emphasis on better maintenance and availability of
machinery. Maintenance of Heavy Earth Moving Machines like Rear Dumper,
Bulldozers, Shovels, Blast hole drills in opencast projects has acquired a great
significance in view of their high capital cost and the resulting enormous production loss
in case of their breakdowns.

Better maintenance results in better availability of machines which in turn


contributes for better production. Better maintenance is not simply implementation of
maintenance – schedules and carrying out repairs; it implies creation of good operating
conditions also. Better operating conditions include properly graded and dust suppressed
haul roads, favorable gradients well blasted overburden and coal benches, proper
illumination during nighttime etc. The good operating conditions ensure safe operation of
the equipment with reduced breakdowns and accidents. The availability of HEMM in
India in general is poor as against the standard availability. The low availability of
HEMM calls for the implementation of scientific maintenance management to prevent
breakdowns and improve the availability.
The need for maintenance is predicated on actual or impending failure – ideally,
maintenance is performed to keep equipment and systems running efficiently for at least
design life of the component(s). As such, the practical operation of a component is time-
based function. If one were to graph the failure rate a component population versus time,
it is likely the graph would take the “bathtub” shape shown in Figure 5 In the figure the Y
axis represents the failure rate and the X axis is time. From its shape, the curve can be
divided into three distinct infant mortality, useful life, and wear-out periods.

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5.2 MAINTENANCE:

Every machine is thoroughly tested and inspected by the manufacturers before


selling it and by the purchaser before it is put to use. When it is used, it will be subjected
to wear and tear hence proper attention should be given to protect the machine and its
components from undue wear and thus protect them for failure. A proper attention means
lubrication, cleaning, timely, inspection and systematic maintenance. Maintenance of
machine means efforts directed towards the up-keep and the repair of that machine.

A major part of the expenditure is generally on the machines and maintenance in


an industry. Every machine will require repair even if it is best designed, hence the repair
must be done at such a time when it may have least disruptions, so that the defect, if any
can be immediately and easily rectified without causing extensive damage.

Maintenance is responsible for the smooth and efficient working of an industry


and helps in improving the productivity. It also helps in keeping the machines in a state of
maximum efficiency with economy.

5.3 MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT:

Success of an industry like mining, manufacturing etc., largely depends on its


organization and the proper selection of persons engaged for the design and operation
work. Production in the concern depends largely on the maintenance of equipment.
Hence the organization of the maintenance department should be such that proper
maintenance and overhaul etc. can be done economically and effectively. Maintenance
department is generally kept under the control of a person who is also responsible for the

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production. A sample organization of maintenance department in a big mining industry is
shown in the following diagram.

5.4

5.4.1 BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE:

Breakdown of a machine can occur due to the following reasons

1] TYPES OF MAINTENANCE:

Generally maintenance can be done in the following two ways.

1] Breakdown maintenance.

2] Preventive maintenance.

3] Predictive maintenance.

4] Scheduled maintenance Due to unpredictable failures of components which


cannot be prevented.

2] Due to gradual wear and tear of the parts which can be eliminated to a
large extent by regular inspections called preventative maintenance.

In breakdown maintenance machine is allowed to run without any attention until it


actually breakdown and cannot perform its functions any longer causing disruption to the
production. Now-a-days no organization depends only on breakdown maintenance as it
involves more down time, cost and high labor and spares cost.

5.4.2PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE:

It is an extremely important function for the reduction of maintenance cost and keep
the good operational condition of equipment and hence increase the reliability.
Preventive maintenance aims to locate the sources of trouble and to remove them before
the breakdown occurs. Thus it is based on the idea “Prevention is better that cure”. To
take full use of equipment and to maintain it in reliable condition, necessary measures
should be taken to prevent over loading, negligence and misuse of machines. Frequency
of inspection should be decided on the basis of the importance of the machine; wear and

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tear of the machine and its delicacy. This periodic inspection or checking helps to find out
the reasons leading to breakdown and to rectify them when they are in minor stage. Thus
the repair can be done it takes lesser time. Under this preventive maintenance there are
three sub systems.

i] Planned maintenance,

ii] Planned preventive maintenance,

i] Planned Maintenance:

This is the first step towards scientific management. This system involves
planning in advance the maintenance program after having discussions with production
and maintenance staff. This maintenance work which is carried out at pre determinate
intervals can be schedule in advance and care should be taken not disrupt the production
schedules. This also takes care of in advance the list of jobs to be carried out during
maintenance, and also the materials and men to complete the job.

In other-words this maintenance, takes of the “when”, “where”, “what” and “by
whom” of the maintenance aspect in advance.

ii] Planned preventive maintenance:

This is a further improvement over planned maintenance system and takes care of
“why” of maintenance. In this system measures are adopted against anticipated
breakdowns to prevent them before they occur rather than allowing them to happen then
take action.

Planned preventive maintenance offers the best means of achieving maximum


productivity of the equipment with greatest saving in maintenance costs.

5.4.2.1 Objectives if preventive maintenance:

Preventive maintenance has following main objectives.

1] To obtain maximum availability of equipment by avoiding breakdown.

2] To keep the machine in proper condition so as to maintain the quality of

the product.

3] By minimizing the wear and tear, preserve the value of the equipment.

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4] To ensure for safety of the workers.

5] To keep the plant at the maximum production efficiency.

6] To achieve all the above objectives with most economics combination.

5.4.2.2 Good steps for preventive maintenance:

1] Equipment knowledge,

2] Planning and analysis,

3] Records keeping,

4] Training to maintenance staff,

5] Never buy spurious spares, [UN genuine.]

6] Never indulge in cannibalization.

1] Equipment knowledge:

Preventive maintenance successfully unless one knows what the equipment


consists of and that are its maintenance requirements. For this all should read thoroughly
the operation and maintenance manuals of the equipment supplied by the manufacturer,
then only the persons. Who is in charge of maintenance section would know how to
carryout various maintenance activities and he can guide the technicians and work people
to carry out the maintenance activities. The engineers and supervisors should read the
operation and maintenance manuals and they most guide the technicians for doing
maintenance activities. It is quite good if the engineer and supervisor involving them, at
least once, in each type of maintenance schedules so that the technicians and work people
will be motivated and also they came to know the difficulties in carrying out the
maintenance activities. So the involvement of Engineer and Supervisor leads to the team
spirit.

2] Planning analysis:

Every preventative maintenance work should be pre-planned in detail on the basis


of the analysis done on the past records. A scheduled program thus prepared should be in
detail specifying the points requiring daily, weekly, monthly, half-yearly and yearly
attention.

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Plan in advance for the required oils and spares otherwise the maintenance plans
fail because of non-availability and shortage of spares and lubricants.

The maintenance engineer has to plan for the required spares and initiate action
for procurement.

3] Record keeping:

Good record keeping is essential for good preventive maintenance, as it helps in


forecasting maintenance. For this purpose following records are generally maintained.

i] Operation manual,

ii] Maintenance instructions manual,

iii] History cards and Registers,

iv] Spares procurement registers,

v] Inspection Register,

vi] Log books,

vii] Defects register etc.

By maintaining above records we can –

a] Prevent defects rather than rectifying after breakdowns.

b] Know the reliability of machines, which helps for production plans.

c] Decide the life of machine.

d] Purchase the machine, which machine suits or our conditions.

e] Plan the frequency of inspection and check-ups.

4] Training to maintenance staff:

For the success of preventive maintenance a sound training is essential for the
maintenance personnel. As the technology is growing with faster rate, the machine that
we used yesterday is not using today and we will go for better one tomorrow to reach the
organization goals. Hence, the persons who are with the organization should be trained to
acquire up to date knowledge and to carryout maintenance activities properly.

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5] Never buy serious spares:

Purchase of spurious spares should never be allowed. Any maintenance plan


assumes certain life for a part. If a spurious part is fitter on the machine, it not only fails
at much shorter period but also damages other components and a series of such
unexpected failures at reduced intervals would demand for more men and materials and
finally the maintenance plan will be thrown out of gear.

6] Never indulge in Cannibalization:

Cannibalization of parts i.e., removing a part from breakdown equipment and


the same to commission another machine is one of the most dangerous practices. The
maintenance personnel will be tempted to indulge in this practice as it apparently gives a
temporary relief. It seriously affects the availability of the equipment in the long run.
The maintenance personnel never take procurement action for the removed part, as many
a times the concerned engineer would not know that a particular part was removed.

If cannibalization is encourage than chances are there that the machine purchased
last year to become skeletons that will result for large time and cost for decommissioning.

After knowing about the pre-requisites for a planned preventive maintenance like
construction of maintenance sheds appointment of trained personnel, procurement of
cranes, vehicle and spares before the equipment arrives and also the obstacles that come
in the way of implementation of preventive maintenance let us now study about the actual
operations of planned preventive maintenance.

5.4.2.3 Operations of preventive maintenance:

i] Going through the operator’s report and taking trial run.

ii] Cleaning and washing,

iii] Inspection and adjustments,

iv] Oiling and greasing,

v] Replacement of worn-out parts and carrying our minor repairs.

vi] Major overhauling,

Going through the operators report and taking trail run:

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Operator of the equipment is the most appropriate person who knows about the
behavior of the machine because of his proximity to the machine. His report should be
thoroughly gone through and taken note of to carryout of meaningful maintenance.

After going through the operator’s report a trial run of the machine should be
taken as a first step of preventive maintenance.

During the trial run all the operation what an operator do during the actual
operation of the machine should be performed by the concerned technician and while
doing this various pressures, temperatures etc. of the machine should be noted and
recorded in the log book. This helps for finding with defects.

Cleaning and washing:

Cleaning and washing is one of the important operations of the maintenance staff.
Equipment should invariably be washed before it is taken up for inspection and further
maintenance, because the heavy earth moving machinery is working in slushy and dusty
conditions. A good cleaning and washing operations helps to washout the dust collected
on the machine so we can easily identify the defects.

Inspection and adjustments:

Trial runs and washing of the machines are common for all types of maintenance
schedules but the adjustments and inspections vary depending on type of schedule. In
addition to the inspection and adjustment activities maintained in a particular schedule
prepared as per the manufactures recommendations other inspections and adjustments
also should be in corporate in the check list as demanded by the working conditions and
experience

Oiling and greasing:

This is one of the most important operations of planned preventive maintenance.


If oiling and greasing activities for the equipment is not done within the proper time may
leads to major breakdowns like engine problems, gear box problems, bearing failures etc.
large No. of breakdown can be avoided if oiling and greasing is done in correct quantities
and at correct intervals. More over the technician should know how to and when t check
this oils, water levels etc. oiling and greasing activities should be carried out as per
schedules and also at whenever required.

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Replacement of warn out parts and carrying out of minor repairs:

The necessity for replacing the worn-out parts may arise at the long running of the
equipment say 1000 hours of operation or 2000 hours of operations usually. But minor
repairs like replacing a hose, belt, minor, leakages, small bearings etc. May arise at lesser
running time of equipment and these defects will usually be detected during the course of
inspection by planned preventive maintenance staff. All such repairs should be entrusted
to the separate set of fitters without disturbing the planned preventive maintenance that is
carrying out the inspection, greasing and oiling.

Major overhauling:

Many organizations perform more or less the earlier five operations of the preventive
maintenance, but most of the organization will be lagging in implementing the operation
of “Major Overhauling”.

To implement these operations successfully a good record keeping and well spare
parts planning is required. All the manufactures should supply the required information
to carry out the major overhauling operations as to when a component requires repairs or
replacement, in the absence of such date the new organizations would find it very difficult
to take up major over hauling of the equipment at appropriate period. Even if such date
are available from manufacturer, if may not suit exactly to the concerned organizations.
If replacement and repairs of the equipment according to the manufacturer schedules are
giving required results then the organization has to generate the date regarding life of the
major components of the equipment. So that they can work out the appropriate period to
carry out the major overhauling operations.

5.4.2.4 Economics of preventive maintenance:

For discussion of economic of preventive maintenance, cost of breakdowns and


cost of scheduled maintenance are to be studied. This cost should include expenditure of
idle men, cost of idle machines, spoilage etc. It is natural that when the cost of scheduled
maintenance increases, the cost of breakdown decreases. But after some extent increase
in the expenditure on schedules maintenance becomes in economical. Graph shows
clearly the fact.

From the economic point of view, it is also necessary to decide the quantum of
inspection very carefully on the basis of past experiences and records analysis.

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Over inspection costs more and results in large loss in production while under
inspection results in more down time. Care should be taken in preparing maintenance
schedules to avoid unnecessary down time of the equipment and see that there will not be
any non-availability of equipment for production.

5.4.2.5 Requirement for good preventive maintenance:

To get the high efficiency of the equipment through preventive maintenance the
following are some of the requirements.

1] Good maintenance department.

2] Proper control of works,

3] Correct and clear instructions to the maintenance staff.

4] Operators and technicians should be well trained.

5] Proper maintenance program

6] Proper records of machine history,

7] Availability of optimum quantity of spares,

8] Proper working conditions,

9] Proper relations with purchase and planning departments,

10] Proper relations with manufacturer,

11] Proper quality of equipment.

Advantages of preventive maintenance:

1] Lesser equipment down times,

2] Increase in production because of av8ilability of the equipment,

3] Lesser spare parts consumption,

4] Lesser worker payments as over time is less,

5] Less expenditure on repairs,

6] Optimum inventory cost,


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7] Safety to the equipment and employees concerned to the equipment as breakdown.

PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE:

Predictive maintenance can be defined as follows: Measurements that detect the onset
of system degradation (lower functional state), thereby allowing causal stressors to be
eliminated or controlled prior to any significant deterioration in the component physical
state. Results indicate current and future functional capability.
Basically, predictive maintenance differs from preventive maintenance by basing
maintenance need on the actual condition of the machine rather than on some preset
schedule. You will recall that preventive maintenance is time-based. Activities such as
changing lubricant are based on time, like calendar time or equipment run time. For
example, most people change the oil in their vehicles every 3,000 to 5,000 miles traveled.
This is effectively basing the oil change needs on equipment run time. No concern is
given to the actual condition and performance capability of the oil. It is changed because
it is time. This methodology would be analogous to a preventive maintenance task. If, on
the other hand, the operator of the car discounted the vehicle run time and had the oil
analyzed at some periodicity to determine its actual condition and lubrication properties,
he/she may be able to extend the oil change until the vehicle had traveled 10,000 miles.
This is the fundamental difference between predictive maintenance and preventive
maintenance, whereby predictive maintenance is used to define needed maintenance task
based on quantified material/equipment condition.
The advantages of predictive maintenance are many. A well-orchestrated predictive
maintenance program will all but eliminate catastrophic equipment failures. We will be
able to schedule maintenance activities to minimize or delete overtime cost. We will be
able to minimize inventory and order parts, as required, well ahead of time to support the
downstream maintenance needs. We can optimize the operation of the equipment, saving
energy cost and increasing plant reliability. Past studies have estimated that a properly
functioning predictive maintenance program can provide a savings of 8% to 12% over a
program utilizing preventive maintenance alone. Depending on a facility’s reliance on
reactive maintenance and material condition, it could easily recognize savings
opportunities exceeding 30% to 40%. In fact, independent surveys indicate the following
industrial average savings resultant from initiation of a functional predictive maintenance
program:

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• Return on investment: 10 times
• Reduction in maintenance costs: 25% to 30%
• Elimination of breakdowns: 70% to 75%
• Reduction in downtime: 35% to 45%
• Increase in production: 20% to 25%.
Advantages:

• Increased component operational life/availability.


• Allows for preemptive corrective actions.
• Decrease in equipment or process downtime.
• Decrease in costs for parts and labor.
• Better product quality.
• Improved worker and environmental safety.
• Improved worker morale.
• Energy savings.
• Estimated 8% to 12% cost savings over preventive maintenance program.
Disadvantages:

• Increased investment in diagnostic equipment.


• Increased investment in staff training.
• Savings potential not readily seen by management.
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE:

DAILY MAINTENANCE CHECK LIST

( PC2000 EXCAVATOR) Date:

Sl Machine
. Number
Activity
N K K K
o
Hour Meter Reading Rec
ord
Inspect the machine for any physical damages

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I Oil levels
a) Hydraulic Oil HLP46 Che
ck
&
corr
ect
b) P.T.O oil (C4 SAE 30) Che
ck
&
corr
ect
C Swing Gear box (C4 SAE 30). Che
) ck
&
corr
ect
II Engine : A-Check(Daily)
a) Check Engine Oil (HP 1) level Che
ck
&
corr
ect
b) Check coolant level Che
ck
&
corr
ect
c) Drain Sediments from Fuel Filter. Che
ck
&
corr
ect
d) Check Air cleaner restriction clean/change air Che
cleaner element if required. ck

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&
corr
ect
e) Check the intake system hump hoses and Che
clamps ck
&
corr
ect
f) Check & arrest leakages. Che
ck
&
corr
ect
II Bucket Condition:
I
a) Tooth points/Adopter/lock Che
ck/
Rep
lace
b) Connecting rod condition: Che
ck
I Greasing:
V
a) Bucket to Link1: 2, Link1 to Link 2 : 4, Link App
2 to Bucket Cylinder Rod End: 2 ly at
8
poin
ts
b) Check grease level in barrel Che
ck
c) Check for presence of grease at all CLS Che
points ck
d) Check for grease leakages in CLS lines Che
ck&

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corr
ect
V Hydraulic System & Leakages.
a) Boom, Stick, Bucket Cylinder. (Seal & O Che
rings.) ck
&
corr
ect
b) Boom, Stick, Bucket, Cylinder Connecting Che
Hoses and metal pipes and its clamps. ck
&
corr
ect
c) Oil leakage at Valve Banks, Swing Valve Che
Bank, Pump, Tank, Joysticks, and Foot pedal ck
and connected hoses. &
corr
ect
V Under Carriage:
I
a) Clean the under carriage
b) Track Tension and final drive oil Che
seepage(Left & Right) ck
&
corr
ect
c) Track Pads, Bolts, Front Idler, Bottom Che
Rollers and Carrier rollers. ck
&
corr
ect
REMARKS/REPORT

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Table No. 3
500 HOURS MAINTENANCE CHECK LIST
KOMATSU PC 2000 EXCAVATORS

DATE: TECHNICIAN NAME:


M/c Sl. No HMR:
Sl. Code Part
DESCRIPTION Qty Activity
No No No
1 Take used engine oil sample as per the prescribed procedure
2 Replace Engine Oil Filter. Xxxx Xxx 4 Change
xx Nos
3 Cut open the engine oil filters and check the entrapped debris
4 Change Engine oil – HP1 (C I 4 15W40) 135 Change
ltrs
5 Replace Fuel pre filter Xxxx xxxx 2 Change
Nos
6 Replace Pump drain filter 3 Change
Xxxx xxxx
Nos
7 Replace Pilot filter Xxxx Xxx 1 Change
x No
8 Replace Drain Line Filter 2 Change
Xxxx xxxx
No
9 Inspect condition of radiator , oil cooler , after cooler and Check
fuel cooler & Condenser and clean the fins and
Clean

Table No.4

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Table No.6

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5.5 OIL ANALYSIS REPORT:

From the table no.5 & 6 the oil analysis report shows different types of oil conditions,
wear metal analysis, oil contamination and additives. Which are used in the shovel
(komatsu K-6). The purpose of using oil in the shovel is engine oil and lubrication oil.

The above graphs shown in table no.6 are wear graph, additive graph, viscosity and
moisture trend graph. The different colors mentioned in graph shows the abnormal
behavior of metals which are used in the engine oil and lubrication purpose.

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CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

With the advancement that has taken place in recent past in the field of productive or
diagnostic maintenance system, it is possible to predict a failure of the machine much before
they occur, so that maintenance staff can prepare themselves and arrange necessary parts
required and skilled manpower for repairs to put the machinery back on line.

With the increase in size complexity and fleet strength of HEMM it is imperative to
follow a planned preventive maintenance to keep the machines fit for long periods and
improves the machine availability. The plan need not be elaborate initially and a humble
beginning has to be made somewhere. Whatever simple may be the plan, it should be
followed strictly.

As the advancement taken place in HEMM in mining industry which is the most
important factor playing role in the capital investment and also profts gaining for the
industry.

Hence we gained the knowledge on the operation of shovel and its maintenance.

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