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Original Title: 70566852-Caesar-II-Technical-Reference-Manual.pdf

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- Static & Dynamic analysis of piping system
- 10 Dynamic Analysis
- CAESAR II User Guide
- Caesar II Application Guide
- CAESAR II User's Guide
- Load Cases and Combination
- Caesar II Technical Reference Guide
- Version 5.10 CAESAR II Applications Guide
- Signals and Systems
- Stress calculation at tube-to-tubesheet joint using spring model and its comparison with beam model
- Procedure for Piping Stres Analysis Offshore)
- Total Piping Stress Analysis
- Attributes Revisited - Rsi
- Stress Combination Load Cases
- Dynamic Models for Structural Plasticity (1993)
- Strength of Materials Syllabus
- Frequency Spectrum1
- ME 3813-Su14
- Matsuda 2004
- BASES & Strap

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1

Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

Overview ......................................................................................................................................................2

Program Support / User Assistance ..............................................................................................................3

COADE Technical Support ..........................................................................................................................4

Generation of the CAESAR II Configuration File........................................................................................2

Computation Control ....................................................................................................................................3

Use Pressure Stiffening .....................................................................................................................3

Missing Mass ZPA ............................................................................................................................3

Bend Axial Shape ..............................................................................................................................3

Rod Tolerance (degrees)....................................................................................................................3

Rod Increment (degrees) ...................................................................................................................4

Alpha Tolerance ................................................................................................................................4

Ambient Temperature........................................................................................................................4

Friction Stiffness ...............................................................................................................................4

Friction Normal Force Variation .......................................................................................................4

Friction Angle Variation....................................................................................................................4

Friction Slide Multiplier ....................................................................................................................5

Coefficient of Friction (Mu) ..............................................................................................................5

WRC-107 Version .............................................................................................................................5

WRC-107 Interpolation Method........................................................................................................5

Incore Numerical Check ....................................................................................................................5

Decomposition Singularity Tolerance ...............................................................................................5

Minimum Wall Mill Tolerance (%)...................................................................................................6

Bourdon Pressure...............................................................................................................................6

Include Spring Stiffness in Hanger OPE Travel Cases......................................................................6

Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness .........................................................................................................6

Hanger Default Restraint Stiffness ....................................................................................................7

Default Translational Restraint Stiffness...........................................................................................7

Default Rotational Restraint Stiffness ...............................................................................................7

SIFs and Stresses ..........................................................................................................................................8

Default Code......................................................................................................................................8

Occasional Load Factor .....................................................................................................................8

Yield Stress Criterion ........................................................................................................................9

B31.3 Sustained Case SIF Factor ....................................................................................................10

B31.3 Welding and Contour Insert Tees Meet B16.9......................................................................10

Allow User's SIF at Bend ................................................................................................................10

Use WRC329...................................................................................................................................10

Use Schneider ..................................................................................................................................10

All Cases Corroded..........................................................................................................................11

Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable................................................................................................11

WRC329 ..........................................................................................................................................11

Base Hoop Stress On ( ID/OD/Mean/Lamés ).................................................................................11

Use PD/4t ........................................................................................................................................11

2 Contents

Add Torsion in SL Stress.................................................................................................................12

Stress Stiffening Due to Pressure ....................................................................................................12

Reduced Intersection .......................................................................................................................13

Class 1 Branch Flexibility ...............................................................................................................13

B31.1 Reduced Z Fix.......................................................................................................................14

Schneider .........................................................................................................................................14

No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs ...........................................................................................14

Apply B31.8 Note 2.........................................................................................................................14

Pressure Variation in Expansion Cases ...........................................................................................14

Geometry Directives ...................................................................................................................................15

Connect Geometry Through Cnodes ...............................................................................................15

Auto Node Number Increment ........................................................................................................15

Z-Axis Vertical ................................................................................................................................15

Minimum Allowed Bend Angle ......................................................................................................16

Maximum Allowed Bend Angle......................................................................................................16

Bend Length Attachment Percent ....................................................................................................16

Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend..................................................................................................16

Loop Closure Tolerance ..................................................................................................................16

Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance ...........................................................................................16

Plot Colors ..................................................................................................................................................17

Pipes ................................................................................................................................................17

Nodes...............................................................................................................................................17

Rigids/Bends....................................................................................................................................17

Hangers/Nozzles..............................................................................................................................17

Structure ..........................................................................................................................................17

Background......................................................................................................................................17

Axes.................................................................................................................................................18

Labels ..............................................................................................................................................18

Highlights ........................................................................................................................................18

Displaced Shape ..............................................................................................................................18

Stress Level 1 ..................................................................................................................................18

Stress Level 2 ..................................................................................................................................18

Stress Level 3 ..................................................................................................................................18

Stress Level 4 ..................................................................................................................................18

Stress Level 5 ..................................................................................................................................18

Stress < Level 1 ...............................................................................................................................18

Stress > Level 1 ...............................................................................................................................18

Stress > Level 2 ...............................................................................................................................18

Stress > Level 3 ...............................................................................................................................18

Stress > Level 4 ...............................................................................................................................19

Stress > Level 5 ...............................................................................................................................19

FRP Pipe Properties ....................................................................................................................................20

Use FRP SIF ....................................................................................................................................20

Use FRP Flexibilities.......................................................................................................................20

FRP Property Data File....................................................................................................................21

BS 7159 Pressure Stiffening............................................................................................................21

FRP Laminate Type.........................................................................................................................21

Exclude f2 from UKOOA Bending Stress.......................................................................................22

FRP Pipe Density ............................................................................................................................22

FRP Alpha (e-06) ............................................................................................................................22

FRP Modulus of Elasticity ..............................................................................................................22

Ratio Shear Mod:Emod ...................................................................................................................22

Axial Strain:Hoop Stress (Ea/Eh*Vh/a) ..........................................................................................22

Contents 3

Database Definitions...................................................................................................................................23

Structural Database..........................................................................................................................23

Piping Size Specification (ANSI/JIS/DIN/BS)................................................................................23

Valves and Flanges..........................................................................................................................23

Expansion Joints ..............................................................................................................................24

Units File Name...............................................................................................................................24

System Directory Name...................................................................................................................24

Load Case Template ........................................................................................................................24

Default Spring Hanger Table...........................................................................................................24

Enable Data Export to ODBC-Compliant Databases ......................................................................24

Append Reruns to Existing Data .....................................................................................................24

ODBC Compliant Database Name ..................................................................................................25

Miscellaneous .............................................................................................................................................26

Output Table of Contents ................................................................................................................26

Output Reports by Load Case..........................................................................................................26

Displacement Reports Sorted by Nodes ..........................................................................................26

Time History Animation..................................................................................................................27

Dynamic Example Input Text..........................................................................................................27

Memory Allocated...........................................................................................................................27

User ID ............................................................................................................................................27

Disable "File Open" Graphic Thumbnail.........................................................................................27

Disable Undo/Redo Ability .............................................................................................................27

Enable Autosave ..............................................................................................................................28

Autosave Time Interval ...................................................................................................................28

Prompted Autosave .........................................................................................................................28

Set/Change Password..................................................................................................................................29

Access Protected Data .....................................................................................................................29

Change Password.............................................................................................................................29

Remove Password ...........................................................................................................................29

Units File Operations ..................................................................................................................................30

Make Units File ...............................................................................................................................30

Review Existing Units File..............................................................................................................30

Create a New Units File...................................................................................................................31

Existing File to Start From ..............................................................................................................32

New Units File Name ......................................................................................................................32

View/Edit File .................................................................................................................................32

Convert Input to New Units........................................................................................................................33

Name of the Input File to Convert...................................................................................................33

Name of the Units File to Use .........................................................................................................33

Name of the Converted File.............................................................................................................33

Material Database .......................................................................................................................................34

Material - Add .................................................................................................................................34

Material - Delete..............................................................................................................................34

Material - Edit..................................................................................................................................35

Piping Spreadsheet Data ...............................................................................................................................2

Help Screens and Units......................................................................................................................2

Auxiliary Fields - Component Information ................................................................................................13

Bends ...............................................................................................................................................13

Rigid Elements ................................................................................................................................17

Expansion Joints ..............................................................................................................................17

SIFs & Tees .....................................................................................................................................19

4 Contents

Reducers ..........................................................................................................................................25

Auxiliary Fields - Boundary Conditions.....................................................................................................28

Restraints .........................................................................................................................................28

Hangers............................................................................................................................................31

Nozzles .......................................................................................................................................................41

Nozzle Flexibility - WRC 297.........................................................................................................41

API 650 NOZZLES .........................................................................................................................44

PD 5500 Nozzles .............................................................................................................................46

Displacements.............................................................................................................................................49

Auxiliary Fields - Imposed Loads...............................................................................................................50

Forces and Moments........................................................................................................................50

Uniform Loads.................................................................................................................................50

Wind Loads .....................................................................................................................................51

Wave Loads .....................................................................................................................................51

Auxiliary Fields - Piping Code Data...........................................................................................................53

Allowable Stresses...........................................................................................................................53

Material Fatigue Curves ..................................................................................................................63

Archive Password ............................................................................................................................64

Available Commands..................................................................................................................................65

Break Command ..............................................................................................................................65

Valve/Flange Database ....................................................................................................................67

Find Distance...................................................................................................................................70

Find Element ...................................................................................................................................70

Global Coordinates ..........................................................................................................................70

Insert Element..................................................................................................................................71

Node Increment ...............................................................................................................................71

Show Informational Messages.........................................................................................................71

Tee SIF Scratchpad..........................................................................................................................71

Bend SIF Scratchpad .......................................................................................................................76

Expansion Joint Modeler .................................................................................................................80

Expansion Joint Modeler Notes.......................................................................................................83

Expansion Joint Design Notes .........................................................................................................84

Torsional Spring Rates ....................................................................................................................84

Bellows Application Notes ..............................................................................................................84

Available Expansion Joint End-Types.............................................................................................84

Pressure Rating ................................................................................................................................85

Expansion Joint Styles.....................................................................................................................85

Materials ..........................................................................................................................................86

Title Page.........................................................................................................................................87

Hanger Data.....................................................................................................................................88

Special Execution Parameters..........................................................................................................94

Combining Independent Piping Systems.......................................................................................103

Including Structural Models ..........................................................................................................104

List/Edit Facility ............................................................................................................................105

Block Operations ...........................................................................................................................106

Printing an Input Listing................................................................................................................110

Input Plotting .................................................................................................................................111

Model Rotation, Panning, and Zooming........................................................................................111

Views.............................................................................................................................................112

Volume Plotting.............................................................................................................................113

Displaying Element Information ...................................................................................................113

Contents 5

Piping Input Graphics ...............................................................................................................................116

Static Output Graphics..............................................................................................................................119

Overview ......................................................................................................................................................2

The Structural Steel Property Editor.............................................................................................................3

New File ............................................................................................................................................3

Units File ...........................................................................................................................................4

Vertical Axis......................................................................................................................................5

Material Properties ............................................................................................................................6

Cross Section (Section ID) ................................................................................................................7

Model Definition Method ................................................................................................................10

General Properties.......................................................................................................................................12

Add ..................................................................................................................................................12

Insert................................................................................................................................................12

Replace ............................................................................................................................................12

Delete...............................................................................................................................................12

UNITS Specification - UNIT......................................................................................................................13

Axis Orientation Vertical............................................................................................................................14

Section Identification - SECID ...................................................................................................................16

Section ID........................................................................................................................................16

SECID .............................................................................................................................................16

Name ...............................................................................................................................................16

User-Defined ...................................................................................................................................17

Setting Defaults - DEFAULT .....................................................................................................................19

Setting Nodes in Space - NODE, NFILL, NGEN.......................................................................................20

NODE ..............................................................................................................................................20

NFILL..............................................................................................................................................21

NGEN..............................................................................................................................................22

Building Elements - ELEM, EFILL, EGEN, EDIM...................................................................................24

ELEM ..............................................................................................................................................24

EFILL ..............................................................................................................................................25

EGEN ..............................................................................................................................................27

EDIM...............................................................................................................................................30

Resetting Element Strong Axis - ANGLE, ORIENT..................................................................................32

ANGLE ...........................................................................................................................................32

ORIENT ..........................................................................................................................................33

End Connection Information.......................................................................................................................35

Free End Connections - FREE.........................................................................................................35

Standard Structural Element Connections - BEAMS, BRACES, COLUMNS ...............................38

BRACES .........................................................................................................................................40

COLUMNS .....................................................................................................................................42

Defining Global Restraints - FIX ....................................................................................................44

Loads ..........................................................................................................................................................46

Point Loads - LOAD........................................................................................................................46

Uniform Loads - UNIF ....................................................................................................................47

Gravity Loads - GLOADS...............................................................................................................49

Wind Loads - WIND .......................................................................................................................50

Utilities .......................................................................................................................................................52

LIST.................................................................................................................................................52

Material Identification - MATID ................................................................................................................53

MATID............................................................................................................................................53

6 Contents

YM...................................................................................................................................................54

POIS ................................................................................................................................................54

G ......................................................................................................................................................54

YS....................................................................................................................................................54

DENS...............................................................................................................................................54

ALPHA............................................................................................................................................54

Data Processing - STAT .............................................................................................................................55

Structural Databases ...................................................................................................................................56

AISC 1977 Database .......................................................................................................................56

AISC 1989 Database .......................................................................................................................60

German 1991 Database....................................................................................................................66

Australian 1990 Database................................................................................................................67

South African 1992 Database ..........................................................................................................70

UK 1993 Database...........................................................................................................................72

Korean 1990 Database.....................................................................................................................72

Dynamic Analysis Input ...............................................................................................................................2

Dynamic Analysis Overview ........................................................................................................................3

Random .............................................................................................................................................3

Harmonic ...........................................................................................................................................3

Impulse ..............................................................................................................................................6

Harmonic Analysis .......................................................................................................................................8

Input Excitation Frequencies .............................................................................................................8

Harmonic Forces .............................................................................................................................10

Harmonic Displacements.................................................................................................................12

Response Spectra / Time History Load Profiles .........................................................................................15

Response Spectrum / Time History Profile Data Point Input ..........................................................18

Force Response Spectrum Definitions.............................................................................................19

Building Spectrum / Time History Load Cases ..........................................................................................21

Spectrum /Time History Profile.......................................................................................................21

Factor...............................................................................................................................................21

Direction ..........................................................................................................................................22

Combining Static and Dynamic Results ..........................................................................................28

Spectrum Time History...............................................................................................................................32

Force................................................................................................................................................32

Lumped Masses ..........................................................................................................................................37

Mass.................................................................................................................................................37

Snubbers ..........................................................................................................................................38

Dynamic Control Parameters......................................................................................................................40

Analysis Type (Harmonic/Spectrum/Modes/Time-History) ...........................................................42

Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status..............................................................................52

Stiffness Factor for Friction (0.0-Not Used)....................................................................................53

Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated (0-Not used) ..........................................................................54

Frequency Cutoff (HZ) ....................................................................................................................57

Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) .........................................................58

Load Duration (Time History or DSRSS Method) (Sec.)................................................................58

Damping (Time History or DSRSS) (Ratio of Critical) ..................................................................59

ZPA (Reg. Guide 1.60/UBC'G's)/# Time History Output Cases .....................................................60

Re-use Last Eigensolution ...............................................................................................................63

Spatial or Modal Combination First ................................................................................................64

Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) .....................................................................................65

Modal Combination Method (GROUP/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS)..................................................65

Contents 7

Include Missing Mass Components (Y/N) ......................................................................................68

Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS).....................................................68

Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) ..........................................................................69

Directional Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) ..............................................................................69

Sturm Sequence Check on Computed Eigenvalues (Y/N)...............................................................70

Advanced Parameters .................................................................................................................................71

Estimated Number of Significant Figures in Eigenvalues ...............................................................71

Jacobi Sweep Tolerance ..................................................................................................................72

Decomposition Singularity Tolerance .............................................................................................72

Subspace Size (0-Not Used) ............................................................................................................72

No. to Converge Before Shift Allowed (0-Not Used) .....................................................................73

No. of Iterations Per Shift (0-Pgm computed) .................................................................................73

Percent of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization ................................................................74

Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N) ........................................................................74

Use Out-Of-Core Eigensolver (Y/N)...............................................................................................74

Frequency Array Spaces ..................................................................................................................74

Pulsation Loads...........................................................................................................................................75

Relief Valve Thrust Load Analysis.............................................................................................................77

Relief Load Synthesis for Gases Greater Than 15 psig ...................................................................77

Relief Load Synthesis for Liquids ...................................................................................................82

Output From the Liquid Relief Load Synthesizer............................................................................84

Rigid Element Application ...........................................................................................................................2

Rigid Material Weight .......................................................................................................................2

Rigid Fluid Weight ............................................................................................................................2

Rigid Insulation Weight.....................................................................................................................2

Cold Spring...................................................................................................................................................4

Expansion Joints ...........................................................................................................................................6

Hanger Sizing Algorithm..............................................................................................................................8

Spring Design Requirements .............................................................................................................8

Restrained Weight Case.....................................................................................................................8

Operating Case ..................................................................................................................................8

Installed Load Case ...........................................................................................................................9

Setting Up the Spring Load Cases .....................................................................................................9

Constant Effort Support...................................................................................................................10

Including the Spring Hanger Stiffness in the Design Algorithm .....................................................10

Other Notes on Hanger Sizing.........................................................................................................10

Class 1 Branch Flexibilities ........................................................................................................................11

Modeling Friction Effects ...........................................................................................................................14

Nonlinear Code Compliance.......................................................................................................................15

Sustained Stresses and Nonlinear Restraints ..............................................................................................16

Notes on Occasional Load Cases.....................................................................................................19

Static Seismic Loads...................................................................................................................................20

Wind Loads.................................................................................................................................................22

Elevation..........................................................................................................................................24

Hydrodynamic (Wave and Current) Loading .............................................................................................25

Ocean Wave Particulars...................................................................................................................26

Applicable Wave Theory Determination .........................................................................................26

Pseudo-Static Hydrodynamic Loading ............................................................................................27

AIRY Wave Theory Implementation ..............................................................................................28

STOKES Wave Theory Implementation .........................................................................................28

8 Contents

Technical Notes on CAESAR II Hydrodynamic Loading...............................................................29

Input: Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters in CAESAR II .........................................................33

Current Data ....................................................................................................................................33

Wave Data .......................................................................................................................................35

Seawater Data..................................................................................................................................36

Piping Element Data........................................................................................................................36

References...................................................................................................................................................37

Evaluating Vessel Stresses..........................................................................................................................38

ASME Section VIII Division 2 - Elastic Analysis of Nozzle ..........................................................39

Procedure to Perform Elastic Analyses of Nozzles .........................................................................40

Description of Alternate Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Nozzle Analysis ..............................41

Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Elastic Nozzle Analysis..........................................................42

Inclusion of Missing Mass Correction ........................................................................................................43

References .......................................................................................................................................46

Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II...........................................................................................................47

Fatigue Basics..................................................................................................................................47

Fatigue Analysis of Piping Systems ................................................................................................48

Static Analysis Fatigue Example .....................................................................................................48

Fatigue Capabilities in Dynamic Analysis.......................................................................................56

Creating the .FAT Files ...................................................................................................................58

Calculation of Fatigue Stresses........................................................................................................59

Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping ............................................................................................................61

Underlying Theory ..........................................................................................................................61

FRP Analysis Using CAESAR II ....................................................................................................74

Code Compliance Considerations...............................................................................................................82

General Notes for All Codes ...........................................................................................................82

Code-Specific Notes ........................................................................................................................87

Local Coordinates .....................................................................................................................................113

Other Global Coordinate Systems .................................................................................................114

The Right Hand Rule.....................................................................................................................115

Pipe Stress Analysis Coordinate Systems......................................................................................116

Defining a Model...........................................................................................................................119

Using Local Coordinates ...............................................................................................................121

CAESAR II Local Coordinate Definitions ....................................................................................122

Applications - Utilizing Global and Local Coordinates.................................................................127

Transforming from Global to Local ..............................................................................................133

Frequently Asked Questions..........................................................................................................135

Accounting....................................................................................................................................................2

Accounting File Structure .............................................................................................................................8

Batch Stream Processing ..............................................................................................................................9

CAESAR II Fatal Error Processing ............................................................................................................11

Chapter 8: Interfaces 1

Overview of CAESAR II Interfaces .............................................................................................................2

CAD Interfaces .............................................................................................................................................4

CADWorx/PIPE Link........................................................................................................................4

DXF AutoCAD Interface...................................................................................................................4

CADPIPE Interface ...........................................................................................................................5

Contents 9

Intergraph Interface .........................................................................................................................21

PCF Interface...................................................................................................................................57

Generic Neutral Files ..................................................................................................................................59

CAESAR II Neutral File Interface ..................................................................................................59

Data Matrix Interface.......................................................................................................................75

Computational Interfaces ............................................................................................................................77

LIQT Interface.................................................................................................................................77

PIPENET Interface ..........................................................................................................................92

Data Export to ODBC Compliant Databases ..............................................................................................94

DSN Setup .......................................................................................................................................94

Controlling the Data Export ............................................................................................................97

Data Export Wizard .........................................................................................................................98

CAESAR II File Guide .................................................................................................................................2

CAESAR II Operational (Job) Data Files...................................................................................................14

CAESAR II Initial Capabilities (12/84)........................................................................................................2

CAESAR II Version 1.1S Features (2/86) ....................................................................................................3

CAESAR II Version 2.0A Features (10/86) .................................................................................................4

CAESAR II Version 2.1C Features (6/87)....................................................................................................5

CAESAR II Version 2.2B Features (9/88)....................................................................................................6

CAESAR II Version 3.0 Features (4/90) ......................................................................................................7

CAESAR II Version 3.1 Features (11/90) ....................................................................................................8

Graphics Updates...............................................................................................................................8

Rotating Equipment Report Updates .................................................................................................8

WRC 107 Updates.............................................................................................................................8

Miscellaneous Modifications.............................................................................................................8

CAESAR II Version 3.15 Features (9/91) ....................................................................................................9

Flange Leakage and Stress Calculations............................................................................................9

WRC 297 Local Stress Calculations..................................................................................................9

Stress Intensification Factor Scratchpad............................................................................................9

Miscellaneous ....................................................................................................................................9

CAESAR II Version 3.16 Features (12/91) ................................................................................................10

CAESAR II Version 3.17 Features (3/92) ..................................................................................................11

CAESAR II Version 3.18 Features (9/92) ..................................................................................................12

Codes and Databases .......................................................................................................................12

Interfaces Added..............................................................................................................................12

Miscellaneous Changes ...................................................................................................................12

10 Contents

CAESAR II Version 3.20 Features (10/93) ................................................................................................15

CAESAR II Version 3.21 Changes and Enhancements (7/94) ...................................................................16

CAESAR II Version 3.22 Changes & Enhancements (4/95)......................................................................18

CAESAR II Version 3.23 Changes (3/96) ..................................................................................................20

CAESAR II Version 3.24 Changes & Enhancements (3/97)......................................................................21

CAESAR II Version 4.00 Changes and Enhancements (1/98) ...................................................................23

CAESAR II Version 4.10 Changes and Enhancements (1/99) ...................................................................24

CAESAR II Version 4.20 Changes and Enhancements (2/00) ...................................................................25

CAESAR II Version 4.30 Changes and Enhancements (3/01) ...................................................................26

CAESAR II Version 4.40 Features .............................................................................................................27

CAESAR II Version 4.40 Technical Changes and Enhancements ( 5/02)..................................................28

1

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

In This Chapter

Overview .....................................................................................2

Program Support / User Assistance .............................................3

COADE Technical Support.........................................................4

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Overview

This CAESAR II Technical Reference Guide is the reference manual for CAESAR II. It presents the theory

behind CAESAR II operations, and explains why certain tasks are performed. Users are urged to review the

background material contained in this manual, especially when applying CAESAR II to unfamiliar types of

analysis.

Chapter 2 (see "Configuration and Environment" on page 1) discusses the configuration of CAESAR II and

the resulting environment. This includes language support and program customization. In addition to the

COADE supplied routines, several third-party diagnostic packages are also mentioned.

Chapter 3 (see "Piping Screen Reference" on page 1), Piping Input Reference, contains images of program

generated screens, and explains each input cell, menu option, and toolbar button. Also discussed in detail

is the Plot Screen, which displays the input model graphically.

Chapter 4 (see "Structural Steel Modeler" on page 1) examines the Structural Steel Modeler and describes

all commands, toolbar buttons, menu items, and input fields.

Chapter 5 (see "Controlling the Dynamic Solution" on page 1) discusses the Dynamic Input and Control

Parameters: each input cell, toolbar button, and menu item is examined. The purpose and effects of the

various Dynamic Control Parameters are detailed.

Chapter 6 (see "Technical Discussions" on page 1) contains theoretical overviews of various technical

methods used in CAESAR II. Both common and advanced modeling techniques are covered.

Chapter 7 (see "Miscellaneous Processors" on page 1) provides information regarding a few

miscellaneous auxiliary processors.

Chapter 8 (see "Interfaces" on page 1) details interfaces between CAESAR II and other programs.

Chapter 9 (see "File Sets" on page 1) presents a list of files associated with CAESAR II.

Chapter 10 (see "Update History" on page 1) lists the CAESAR II update history.

Chapter 1 Introduction 3

COADE’s staff understands that CAESAR II is not only a complex analysis tool but also, at times, an

elaborate process—one that may not be obvious to the casual user. While our documentation is intended to

address the questions raised regarding piping analysis, system modeling, and results interpretation, not all

the answers can be quickly found in these volumes.

COADE understands the engineer’s need to produce efficient, economical, and expeditious designs. To

that end, COADE has a staff of helpful professionals ready to address any CAESAR II and piping issues

raised by users. CAESAR II support is available by telephone, e-mail, fax, and the internet; literally

hundreds of support calls are answered every week. COADE provides this service at no additional charge

to the user. It is expected, however, that questions focus on the current version of the program.

Formal training in CAESAR II and pipe stress analysis is also available from COADE. COADE schedules

regular training classes in Houston and provides in-house and open attendance training around the world.

These courses focus on the expertise available at COADE — modeling, analysis, and design.

4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Phone: 281-890-4566 E-mail: techsupport@coade.com

Fax: 281-890-3301 WEB: www.coade.com

(http://www.coade.com/c2articles/c2_faq_

web.html)

1

CHAPTER 2

In This Chapter

Generation of the CAESAR II Configuration File ......................2

Computation Control...................................................................3

SIFs and Stresses.........................................................................8

Geometry Directives....................................................................15

Plot Colors...................................................................................17

FRP Pipe Properties ....................................................................20

Database Definitions ...................................................................23

Miscellaneous..............................................................................26

Set/Change Password ..................................................................29

Units File Operations ..................................................................30

Convert Input to New Units ........................................................33

Material Database........................................................................34

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Each time CAESAR II starts, the configuration file caesar.cfg is read from the current data directory. If this

file is not found in the current data directory, the installation directory is searched for the configuration

file. If the configuration file is not found, a fatal error will be generated and CAESAR II will terminate.

The configuration or setup file contains directives that dictate how CAESAR II will operate on a particular

computer and how it will perform a particular analysis. The caesar.cfg file is generated by selecting

TOOLS/CONFIGURE/SETUP (or the Configure button from the toolbar) from the CAESAR II Main Menu.

Note: You must click the Exit w/Save button on the bottom of the Configure/Setup window to create a

new configuration file or to save changes to the existing configuration file. The configuration program

produces the Computation Control (on page 3) window. Use the tabs to navigate to the appropriate

configuration spreadsheets.

Important: The caesar.cfg file may vary from machine to machine and many of the setup directives

modify the analysis. Do not expect the same input file to produce identical results between machines

unless the setup files are identical. It is advised that a copy of the setup file be archived with input and

output data so that identical reruns can be made. The units file, if modified by the user, would also need to

be identical if the same results are to be produced.

The following section explains the CAESAR II setup file options. They are grouped as they appear when

chosen from the tabs on the Configure window.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 3

Computation Control

This flag enables CAESAR II to include pressure-stiffening effects in those codes that do not explicitly

require its use. In these cases pressure-stiffening effects will apply to all bends, elbows, and both miter

types. In all cases, the pressure used is the maximum of all pressures defined for the element.

The default for this option is Extracted, which means that CAESAR II will use the spectrum value at the last

“extracted” mode. Changing this value to SPECTRUM instructs CAESAR II to use the last spectrum value

as the ZPA for the missing mass computations.

For bends 45 degrees or smaller, a major contributor to deformation can be the axial displacement of the

short-arched pipe. With the axial shape function disabled this displacement mode is ignored and the bend

will be stiffer.

The angular plus-or-minus permitted convergence error. Unless the change from iteration “n” to iteration

“n+1” is less this value, the rod will NOT be converged. The default of CAESAR II is 1.0 degree. For

systems subject to large horizontal displacements, values of 5.0 degrees for convergence tolerances have

been used successfully.

4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The maximum amount of angular change that any one support can experience between iterations. For

difficult-to-converge problems, values of 0.1 have proven effective here. When small values are used,

however, the user should be prepared for a large number of iterations. The total number of iterations can

be estimated from:

Where:

x - maximum horizontal displacement at any one rod.

r - rod length at that support

Alpha Tolerance

The breakpoint at which CAESAR II decides that the entry in the Temp fields on the input spreadsheet is a

thermal expansion coefficient or a temperature. The default is 0.05. This means that any entry in the Temp

fields whose absolute magnitude is less than 0.05 is taken to be a thermal expansion coefficient in terms of

inches per inch (dimensionless). Use of this field provides some interesting modeling tools. If an Alpha

Tolerance of 1.1 is set, then an entry in the Temp 2 field of -1 causes the element defined by this

expansion coefficient to shrink to zero length. This alternate method of specifying cold spring is quite

useful in jobs having hanger design with cold spring (see chapter 6 (see "Technical Discussions" on page

1) for more details regarding Cold Spring).

Ambient Temperature

If 0.0 is entered here, the default ambient temperature for all elements in the system is (degrees ^07) ^^07

1H ,F8.2^70.000E0.

If this does not accurately represent the installed, or zero expansion strain state, then enter a different

value in this field.

Friction Stiffness

Friction restraint stiffness. The default is 1E6 lb/in. This value is used when a friction restraint is "non-

sliding." In the "non-sliding" state, stiffnesses are inserted in the two directions perpendicular to the

restraint’s line of action and opposing any sliding motion. This is the first parameter that should be

adjusted to help a slowly converging problem where friction is suspected. Lower stiffness values permit

more "non-sliding" movement, but given the indeterminate nature of the friction problem in general, this

error is not considered crucial.

This tolerance, default of 0.15, or 15 percent, is the amount of variation in the normal force that is

permitted before an adjustment will be made in the sliding friction force. This value normally should not

be adjusted.

Friction sliding angle variation. The default is 15 degrees. This parameter had more significance in

versions prior to 2.1. This parameter is currently only used in the first iteration when a restraint goes from

the non-sliding to sliding state. All subsequent iterations compensate for the angle variation automatically.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 5

This is an internal friction sliding force multiplier and should never be adjusted by the user unless so

directed by a member of the COADE/CAESAR II support staff.

The value specified here is applied by default as the coefficient of friction to all translational restraints.

Specifying a value of zero, the default, means that no friction is applied.

WRC-107 Version

This directive sets the Version of the WRC-107 bulletin used in the computations. Valid options are:

August 1965

March 1979

March 1979 with the 1B1-1 and 2B-1 off axis curves (default)

The curves in WRC Bulletin 107 cover essentially all applications of nozzles in vessels or piping;

however, should any of the interpolation parameters i.e., U, Beta, etc. fall outside the limits of the

available curves then some extension of the WRC method must be used.

The default is to use the last value in the particular WRC table. Alternatively, the user may control this

extensions methodology interactively. This causes the program to prompt the user for curve values when

necessary.

Enables the in-core solution module to test the stability of the solution for the current model and loadings.

This option, if enabled, adds the solution of an extra load case to the job stream.

The default value is 1.0 e+10. CAESAR II checks the ratio of off-diagonal coefficients to the on-diagonal

coefficient in the row. If this ratio is greater than the decomposition singularity tolerance, then a numerical

error may occur. This problem does not have to be associated with a system singularity. This condition

can exist when very small, and/or long pipes are connected to very short, and/or large pipes. The out-of-

core solution will, however, stop with a singularity message. This solution abort will prevent any

possibility of an errant solution. These solutions have several general characteristics:

When machine precision errors of this type occur they are very local in nature, affecting only a single

element or very small part of the model, and are readily noticeable upon inspection.

The 1E10 limit can be increased to 1E11 or 1E12 and still provide a reasonable check on solution

accuracy. Any solution computed after this limit has been increased should always be checked closely

for “reasonableness.” At 1E11 or 1E12 the number of significant figures in the local solution has been

reduced to two or three.

The 1E10 limit can be increased to 1E20 or 1E30 to get the job to run, but the user should remember that

the possibility for a locally errant solution exists when stiffness ratios are allowed to get this high.

Solutions should be carefully checked.

6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Use this directive is to specify the default percentage of wall thickness allowed for mill and other

mechanical tolerances.

Note: For most piping codes, this value is only used during the "minimum wall thickness" computation.

Mill tolerance is usually not considered in the flexibility analysis.

By default this value is 12.5, corresponding to a 12.5% tolerance. To eliminate mill tolerance

consideration, set this directive to 0.0.

Bourdon Pressure

Select the BOURDON PRESSURE EFFECT from the drop list. The BOURDON EFFECT causes straight

pipe to elongate, and bends to "OPEN UP" translationally along a line connecting the curvature end

points. If the BOURDON EFFECT is not activated there will be no global displacements due to pressure.

rotational effects on bends. OPTION #2 may apply for bends that are formed or rolled from straight pipe,

where the bend cross section will be slightly oval due to the bending process.

Note: OPTION #1 is the same as OPTION #2 for straight pipe. For elbows, OPTION #1 should apply for

forged and welded fittings where the bend cross section can be considered essentially circular.

Note: The BOURDON EFFECT (translation only) is always considered when FRP pipe is used,

regardless of the actual setting of the BOURDON FLAG.

Enabling this option defaults CAESAR II to place the designed spring stiffness into the Hanger Operating

Travel Case and iterate until the system balances. This iteration scheme therefore considers the effect of

the spring hanger stiffness on the thermal growth of the system (vertical travel of the spring). If this option

is used, it is very important that the hanger load in the cold case (in the physical system) be adjusted to

match the reported hanger Cold Load.

Disabling this option defaults the program to design spring hangers the traditional way.

Enabling this option causes CAESAR II to ignore the stiffness of spring hangers in the analysis. This option

is consistent with hand computation methods of spring hanger design, which ignored the effects of the

springs.

Important: COADE recommends that this value never be changed.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 7

Where hangers are adjacent to other supports or are themselves very close (for example where there are

two hangers on either side of a trunnion support), the CAESAR II hanger design algorithm may generate

poorly distributed hot hanger loads in the vicinity of the close hangers. Using a more flexible support for

computing the hanger restrained weight loads often allows the design algorithm to more effectively

distribute the system’s weight. A typical entry is 50,000; the default value is (1.0E12 lb/in).

This directive defines the value used for non-specified translational restraint stiffnesses. By default this

value is assumed to be (1.0E12 lb./in).

This directive defines the value used for non-specified rotational restraint stiffnesses. By default this value

is assumed to be (1.0E12 in-lb/deg).

8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Default Code

The piping code the user designs to most often should go here. This code will be used as the default if no

code is specified in the problem input. The default piping code is B31.3, the chemical plant and petroleum

refinery code. Valid entries are B31.1, B31.3, B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.5, B31.8, B31.8 Chapter

VIII, B31.11, ASME-NC(Class 2), ASME-ND(Class 3), NAVY505, Z662, BS806, SWEDISH1,

SWEDISH2, B31.1-1967, STOOMWEZEN, RCCM-C, RCCM-D, CODETI, Norwegian, FDBR, BS-

7159, UKOOA, IGE/TD/12, and DNV.

The default value of 0.0 tells CAESAR II to use the value that the active piping code recommends. B31.1

states that the calculated stress may exceed the maximum allowable stress from Appendix A, (Sh), by 15%

if the event duration occurs less than 10% of any 24 hour operating period, and by 20% if the event

duration occurs less than 1% of any 24 hour operating period. The default for B31.1 applications is 15%.

If 20% is more suitable for the system being analyzed then this directive can be used to enter the 20%.

B31.3 states, “The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to pressure, weight, and other sustained loadings

(S1) and of the stresses produced by occasional loads such as wind or earthquake may be as much as 1.33

times the allowable stress given in Appendix A. Where the allowable stress value exceeds 2/3 of yield

strength at temperature, the allowable stress value must be reduced as specified in Note 3 in 302.3.2.”

The default for B31.3 applications is 33%. If this is too high for the material and temperature specified

then a smaller occasional load factor can be input.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 9

The 132 column stress report produced by CAESAR II contains a value representative of the maximum

stress state through the cross section, computed per the indicated yield criteria theory.

CAESAR II can compute this maximum stress (note, this is not a Code stress) according to either Von

Mises Theory or the Maximum Shear Theory. The selected stress is computed at four points along the axis

normal to the plane of bending (outside top, inside top, inside bottom, outside bottom), and the maximum

value is printed in the stress report. The equations used for each of these yield criteria are listed below:

SI = Maximum of:

S1OT - S3OT

S1OB - S3OB

Max(S1IT,RPS) - Min(S3IT,RPS)

Max(S1IB,RPS) - Min(S3IB,RPS)

Von Mises Stress (Octahedral)

OCT = Maximum of:

(S3OB2+S1OB2+(S3OB-S1OB)2)1/2 / 3.0

((S3IB-RPS)2+(S3IB-S1IB)2+(RPS-S1IB)2)1/2 / 3.0

(S3OT2+S1OT2+(S1OT-S3OT)2)1/2 / 3.0

((S3IT-RPS)2+(S3IT-S1IT)2+(RPS-S1IB)2)1/2 / 3.0

Where:

S1OT=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top

= (SLOT+HPSO)/2.0+(((SLOT-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2)1/2

S3OT=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Top

=(SLOT+HPSO)/2.0- (((SLOT-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2

S1IT=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Top

=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0+(((SLIT-HPSI)/2.0)2+TSI2) 1/2

S3IT=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Top

=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0- (((SLIT-HPSI)/2.0)2+TSI2) 1/2

S1OB=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top

=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0+ (((SLOB-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2

S3OB=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Bottom

=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0- (((SLOB-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2

S1IB=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom

=(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0+ (((SLIB-HPSI)/2.0)2+TSI2) 1/2

S3IB=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom

=(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0- (((SLIB-HPSI)/2.0)2+TSI2) 1/2

RPS=Radial Pressure Stress, Inside

HPSI=Hoop Pressure Stress (Inside, from Lame’s Equation)

HPSO=Hoop Pressure Stress (Outside, from Lame’s Equation)

SLOT=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Top

10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

SLOB=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Bottom

SLIB=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Bottom

TSI=Torsional Stress, Inside

TSO=Torsional Stress, Outside

B31.3 Code Interpretation 1-34 dated February 23, 1981 File: 1470-1 states that for sustained and

occasional loads an SIF of 0.75i, but not less than 1.0 may be used. This setup directive allows the user to

enter his/her own coefficient. The default is 1.0. To comply with this interpretation the user would enter

0.75. B31.3 Code Interpretation 6-03 dated December 14, 1987 permitted users to ignore the stress

intensification for sustained and occasional loads.To comply with this interpretation, the user would enter

0.0.

This flag controls the "assumption" that the geometry of B31.3 welding and contour insert tees

(sweepolets) meet the dimensional requirements of the code, and can be classified as B16.9 tees. The

default setting for this directive is "NO", which causes the program to use a flexibility characteristic of

3.1*T/r, as per the A01 addendum.

Selecting this checkbox, allows the program to assume that the fitting geometry meets the requirements of

Note 11, introduced in the A01 addendum, and a flexibility characteristic of 4.4*T/r will be used.

Note: In order to match runs made with CAESAR II prior to Version 4.40, this checkbox must be

selected. Prior to Version 4.40, CAESAR II always used a flexibility characteristic of 4.4*T/r.

This feature was added for those users that wished to change the stress intensification factor for bends.

Previously this was not permitted, and the code defined SIF was always used. If the user enables this

directive, he may override the code’s calculated SIF for bends. The user entered SIF acts over the entire

bend curvature and must be specified at the “TO” end of the bend element. The default is off.

Use WRC329

This directive activates the WRC329 guidelines for all intersections, (not just for reduced intersections).

The recommendations made by Rodabaugh in section 5.0 of WRC329 will be followed exactly in making

the stress calculations for intersections. Every attempt has been made to improve the stress calculations for

all codes, not just the four discussed in Rodabaugh’s paper. Users not employing either B31.1, B31.3 or

the ASME NC or ND codes, and who wish to use WRC329 are encouraged to contact COADE for

additional information. Throughout this document WRC330 and WRC329 are used synonymously (330

was the draft version of 329). When finally published, the official WRC designation was 329.

Use Schneider

This directive activates the Schneider reduced intersection assumptions. It was because of observations by

Schneider that much of the work on WRC 329 was started. Schneider pointed out that the code SIFs could

be in error when the d/D ratio at the intersection was less than 1.0 and greater than 0.5. In this d/D range

the SIFs could be in error by a factor as high as 2.0. Using the Schneider option in CAESAR II results in a

multiplication of the out of plane branch stress intensification by a number between 1 and 2 when the d/D

ratio for the intersection is between 0.5 and 1.0. For B31.1 and other codes that do not differentiate

between in and out-of-plane SIFs the multiplication will be used for the single stress intensification given.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 11

A recent version of the B31.3 piping code mentioned reducing the section modulus for sustained or

occasional stress calculations by the reduction in wall thickness due to corrosion. Several users have

interpreted this to mean that the reduced section modulus should be used for all stress calculations,

including expansion. This directive allows those users to apply this conservative interpretation of the code.

Enabling All Cases Corroded causes CAESAR II to use the corroded section modulus for the calculation of

all stress types. This method is recommended as conservative, and probably more realistic as corrosion

can significantly affect fatigue life, i.e., expansion. Disabling this directive causes CAESAR II to strictly

follow the piping code recommendations, i.e. depending on the active piping code, some load cases will

consider corrosion and some will not.

Activate this check box in order to cause CAESAR II to default new jobs to use the “Liberal Expansion

Stress Allowable” – to add the difference between the hot allowable stress and the sustained stress to the

allowable expansion stress range (if permitted by the particular code in use).

Deactivating this option causes new jobs to default to not using this allowable.

WRC329

Base Hoop Stress On ( ID/OD/Mean/Lamés )

This directive is used to indicate how the value of hoop stress should be calculated. The default is to use

the ID of the pipe. Most piping codes consider the effects of pressure in the longitudinal component of the

CODE stress. Usually, the value of the hoop stress has no bearing on the CODE stress, so changing this

directive does not affect the acceptability of the piping system.

If desired, the user may change the way CAESAR II computes the hoop stress value. This directive has the

following options:

ID—Hoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where “d” is the internal diameter of the pipe.

OD—Hoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where “d” is the outer diameter of the pipe.

Mean—Hoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where “d” is the average or mean diameter of the pipe.

Lamés—Hoop stress is computed according to Lamés equation, = P ( Ri2 + Ri2 * Ro2 / R2 ) / ( Ro2 - Ri2 )

and varies through the wall as a function of R.

Use PD/4t

Enabling this directive causes CAESAR II to use the simplified form of the longitudinal stress term when

computing sustained stresses. Some codes permit this simplified form when the pipe wall thickness is thin.

This option is used most often when users are comparing CAESAR II results to those from an older pipe

stress program. The more comprehensive calculation, i.e. the Default, is recommended.

Determines whether or not the axial stress term is included in the code stress computation. Setting this

directive to Default causes CAESAR II to use whatever the currently active piping code recommends. Only

the B31.3-type piping codes (i.e. codes where the sustained stress equation is not explicitly given) have

the F/A stresses included in the sustained and occasional stress equations. The B31.1-type codes do not

include the F/A stresses because the equations given explicitly in the code do not include it. The F/A

stresses discussed here are not due to longitudinal pressure. These are the F/A stresses due to structural

loads in the piping system itself.

12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Some piping codes include torsion in the sustained and occasional stresses by explicitly including it in the

stress equation (i.e. B31.1), and some don’t include torsion in the sustained and occasional stresses by

implicitly calling for “longitudinal stresses” only (i.e. B31.3). Setting the Add Torsion in SL Stress

directive to Yes forces CAESAR II to include the torsion term in those codes that don’t include it already by

default. Setting this directive to Default causes CAESAR II to use whatever the currently active piping code

implies. In a sustained stress analysis of a very hot piping system subject to creep, it is recommended that

the user include torsion in the sustained stress calculation via this parameter in the setup file.

This flag instructs the program to include pressure stiffening effects on straight pipes. The options for this

flag are:

1 - elemental stiffening using Pressure #1

2 - elemental stiffening using Pressure #2

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 13

Reduced Intersection

Available options are B31.1(Pre 1980), B31.1(Post 1980), WRC329, ASME SEC III, and Schneider:

Allows the B31.1 code user to have the pre-1980 code rules used for reduced intersection. These rules did-

not define a separate branch SIF for the reduced branch end. The branch stress intensification factor will

be the same as the header stress intensification factor regardless of the branch-to-header diameter ratio.

Allows the B31.1 code user to employ the post-1980 code rules for reduced intersections. The reduced

intersection SIF equations in B31.1 from 1980 through 1989 generated unnecessarily high SIFs because of

a mistake made in the implementation. (This is as per WRC329.) For this reason many users opted for the

“Pre 1980” B31.1 SIF calculation discussed above. CAESAR II corrects this mistake by the automatic

activation of the flag: B31.1 Reduced Z Fix = On. Users can vary the status of this flag in the CAESAR II

setup file to generate any interpretation of B31.1 desired. The default for a new job is for B31.1(Post

1980) and for the B31.1 Reduced Z Fix = On.

The No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs flag also affects the SIF calculations at reduced intersections

and is also available in this release.

WRC 329

Allows the user to use the recommendations of WRC329 for reduced intersections. A reduced intersection

is any intersection where the d/D ratio is less than 0.975. The WRC329 recommendations result in more

conservative stress calculations in some instances and less conservative stress calculations in others. In all

cases the WRC329 values should be more accurate, and more truly in-line with the respective codes intent.

Allows the user to use the 1985 ASME Section III NC and ND rules for reduced intersections.

Schneider

Activates the Schneider reduced intersection stress intensification factor multiplication. Has the same

effect as the Use Schneider option.

Activates the Class 1 flexibility calculations. The appearance of this parameter in the setup file will

completely change the modeling of intersections in the analysis. For intersections not satisfying the

reduced branch rules that d/D<= 0.5 and that D/T <= 100, the branch will start at the surface of the header

pipe. A perfectly rigid junction between the centerline of the header and surface will be formed

automatically by CAESAR II using the element offset calculations. SIFs act at the surface point for the

branch. When the reduced branch rules are satisfied, the local flexibility of the header is also inserted at

this surface point. Intersections not satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be “stiffer” and carry

more load, while intersections satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be more flexible and will carry

less load. All changes to the model are completely transparent to the user. In systems where the

intersection flexibility is a major component of the overall system stiffness, the user is urged to run the

analysis both with and without the Class 1 Branch Flexibility active to determine the effect this modeling

on the analysis. There is more technical discussion in the section entitled: “CLASS 1 BRANCH

FLEXIBILITY”.

14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This directive is used in conjunction with B31.1, and makes the correction to the reduced branch stress

calculation that existed in the 1980 through 1989 versions of B31.1. This error was corrected in the 1989

version of B31.1, and the B31.1 Reduced Z Fix is on by default in CAESAR II.

Schneider

No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs

There has been considerable concern involving the SIFs for reduced fittings. Part of the discussion centers

around just what should be considered a reduced fitting. The CAESAR II default is to assume that welding

tees and reinforced fabricated tees are covered by the reduced fitting expressions, even though the reduced

fitting expressions do not explicitly cover these intersection types. Users wishing to leave welding tees and

reinforced tees out of this definition should enable this directive.

The B31.8 piping code defines both "in-plane" and "out -of -plane" SIF values. The notes to Appendix E,

B31.8 states that a more conservative approach can be taken, by using the "out-of-plane" SIF value for the

"in-plane" value (Note 2). This directive controls whether or not this more conservative approach is used.

Prior to Version 4.30, CAESAR II always applied Note 2, the more conservative approach, and there was no

way to alter this behavior.

The user can control (through the use of this directive) whether or not Note 2 is implemented. The default

behavior is to use the two different SIF values and not employ Note 2.

This directive controls whether or not any pressure variation (between the referenced load cases) will

appear in the resulting expansion load case.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 15

Geometry Directives

Restraints, flexible nozzles, and spring hangers may be defined with connecting nodes. By default

CAESAR II ignores the position of the restraint node and the connecting node. They may be at the same

point or they may be hundreds of feet apart. This directive allows the user to insist that each restraint,

nozzle, or hanger exists at the same point in space as its connecting node. In many cases, enabling this

option will cause “plot-wise” disconnected parts of the system to be re-connected and to appear “as -

expected” in both input and output plots.

This directive sets the value for the Automatic Node Numbering routine. Any non-zero, positive value in

this data cell is used to automatically assume the “TO NODE” value on the piping input spreadsheets. The

new (TO) node number is determined as:

“To Node” = “From Node” + Auto Node Number Increment.

If this value is set to 0.0, automatic node numbering is disabled.

Z-Axis Vertical

By default CAESAR II assumes the Y axis is vertical with the X and Z axes in the horizontal plane. If

desired, the Z axis can be made vertical by checking this box. In this case, the X and Y axes will be in the

horizontal plane.

16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Very small angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during solution. When the user has a

reasonable radius and a small angle there are usually no problems. However, if the small angle bend is

grossly small compared to the surrounding elements then the bend should probably not be used and a

different modeling approach employed. Enabling this directive allows the user to reset the minimum angle

CAESAR II will accept for a bend angle. The default is 5.0 degrees.

Very large angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during solution. When the user has a

reasonable radius and a large angle there are usually no problems. However, if the large angle bend plots

compared reasonably well to the surrounding elements then the bend can probably be used without

difficulty. Well-proportioned bends up to 135 degrees have been tested without a problem. Enabling this

directive allows the user to reset the maximum angle CAESAR II will accept for a bend. The default is 95

degrees.

Whenever the element leaving the tangent intersection of a bend is within (n)% of the bend radius on

either side of the weldline, CAESAR II inserts an element from the bend weldline to the “TO” node of the

element leaving the bend. The inserted element has a length equal to exactly (n)% of the bend radius. The

user may adjust this percentage to reduce the error due to the inserted element, however, the length

tolerance for elements leaving the bend will also be reduced. To obtain more accurate results the user must

include less “slop” in the system dimensions around bends. The default attachment is 1.0 percent.

Nodes on a bend curvature that are too close together can cause numerical problems during solution.

Where the radius of the bend is large, such as in a cross country pipeline, it is not uncommon to find nodes

on a bend curvature closer than 5 degrees. In these situations the user may enable this directive to change

the CAESAR II error checking tolerance for the “closeness” of points on the bend curvature. The default is

5.0 degrees.

The loop closure tolerance used by CAESAR II for error checking can be set interactively by the user for

each job analyzed, or the user can enter the desired loop closure tolerance via this directive and override

without distraction the program default value of 1.0 in. See the following section for a discussion of the

CAESAR II units file.

This directive enables the user to specify the maximum slope of a straight pipe element for which thermal

bowing effects will be considered. Thermal bowing is usually associated with fluid carrying horizontal

pipes in which the fluid does not fill the cross section. In these cases, there is a temperature differential

across the cross section. This directive allows the user to define the interpretation of “horizontal.” By

default, the program uses a value of 0.0001 as the horizontal threshold value. If a pipe element’s pitch is

less than this tolerance, the element is considered to be horizontal, and thermal bowing loads can be

applied to it. An element’s pitch is computed from:

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 17

Plot Colors

Pipes

Enter the color for the center-line and volume plots of pipe elements. Excludes valves, other rigids and

expansion joints.

Nodes

Enter the color for the node numbers.

Rigids/Bends

Enter the color for the rigid elements and for bend highlighting in the input plot.

Hangers/Nozzles

Enter the color for the hanger and nozzle symbols that are displayed on the input plot.

Structure

Enter the color that the structural elements should be plotted in. The color selected should contrast with

the color entered for the Pipes.

Background

Enter the color for the plot background. The user should be careful setting this parameter because all other

colors need to coordinate with the background color selected.

18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Axes

Enter the color of the plot axes that appear in the bottom left corner of the screen.

Labels

Enter the color for the geometry labels exclusive of the node numbers. Examples are, Diameter,

Thickness, Length, Plot Labeling.

Highlights

Enter the color for the input level plot highlight. The color selected should contrast with the color entered

for the Pipes.

Displaced Shape

Enter the color for the displaced shape overlay. The color selected should contrast with the color entered

for the Pipes.

Stress Level 1

Enter the stress value that defines the lower limit cutoff.

Stress Level 2

Enter the stress value that defines the second lowest stress color-plot limit.

Stress Level 3

Enter the stress value that defines the third lowest stress color-plot limit.

Stress Level 4

Enter the stress value that defines the fourth lowest stress color-plot limit.

Stress Level 5

Enter the stress value that defines the upper limit cutoff.

Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress lower than Stress Level 1.

Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater than Stress Level 1 and less than Stress

Level 2.

Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater than Stress Level 2 and less than Stress

Level 3.

Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater than Stress Level 3 and less than Stress

Level 4.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 19

Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater that Stress Level 4 and less than Stress

Level 5.

Enter the color for the portion of the pipe element that has a stress greater than Stress Level 5. The color of

an element from one end to the other varies as the stress varies.

20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

By default, when FRP pipe is selected (Material #20), CAESAR II sets the fitting SIF to 2.3. Some users

have requested that the standard “code” SIF be used, others have requested the ability to specify this value

manually.

By disabling this directive, the standard “code” SIF equations will be applied to all FRP fittings. This also

allows manual specification of these values by the user.

If the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, code SIFs will always be used, regardless of the setting of

this directive.

By default, when FRP pipe is selected (Material #20), CAESAR II sets the fitting flexibility factor to 1.0.

Some users have requested that the standard “code” flexibility factor be used.

By disabling this directive, the standard “code” flexibility factor equations will be applied to all FRP

fittings.

If the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, code flexibility factors will always be used, regardless of

the setting of this directive.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 21

Standard FRP material properties may be read in from files. The user may select the available files. Once

selected, the program will give the user the option of reading in from that file.

Users may create FRP material files as text files with the .frp extension; these files should be stored in the

CAESAR\SYSTEM sub-directory. The format of the files must adhere to the following format:

Note: The data lines must follow exactly the order shown above. The four data lines defining the

UKOOA envelope are intended for future use and may be omitted.

The BS 7159 code explicitly requires that the effect of pressure stiffening on the bend SIFs be calculated

using the Design Strain (this is based upon the assumption that the FRP piping is fully pressurized to its

design limit). This is CAESAR II’s default method.

When the piping is pressurized to a value much lower than its design pressure, it may be more accurate to

calculate pressure stiffening based on the Actual Pressure stress, rather than its design strain. Note that

this alternative method is a deviation from the explicit instructions of the BS 7159 code.

The default Laminate Type (as defined in the BS 7159 code) of the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used

should be entered. Valid laminatetypes are

Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface

tissue reinforced layer.

Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construction with internal and external surface

tissue reinforced layer.

All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.

This entry is used in order to calculate the flexibility and stress intensity factors of bends; therefore this

default entry may be overridden using the Type field on the bend auxiliary spreadsheets.

22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Some sources, such as Shell's DEP 31.40.10.19-Gen. (December 1998) and ISO/DIS 14692 suggest that,

when using the UKOOA code, the axial bending stress should not be multiplied by the Part Factor f2 (the

System Factor of Safety) prior to combination with the longitudinal pressure stress. Users wishing to

modify the UKOOA requirements in this way should enable this check box. Users wishing to use

UKOOA exactly as written should disable this check box.

Weight of the pipe material on a per unit volume basis. This field is used to set the default weight density

of FRP materials in the piping input module.

In this field, the thermal expansion coefficient for the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used (multiplied by

1,000,000) should be entered. For example, if the value is: 8.5E-6 in/in/deg, then the user would enter 8.5

in this field. The exponent (E-6) is implied.

If a single expansion coefficient is too limiting for the user’s application, the actual thermal expansion

may always be calculated at temperature in inches per inch (or mm per mm) and entered directly into the

Temperature field on the Pipe spreadsheet.

Axial elastic modulus of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic pipe. This is the default value used to set the data in

the input processor. The user may override this value in the input when necessary.

In this field, the ratio of the shear modulus to the modulus of elasticity (in the axial direction) of the

fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used should be entered. For example, if the material modulus of elasticity

(axial) is 3.2E6 psi, and the shear modulus is 8.0E5 psi, the ratio of these two, 0.25, should be entered

here.

The product of the ratio of the axial to the hoop elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio which relates the

strain in the axial direction to a stress in the hoop direction.

Ea - Elastic modulus in the axial direction.

Eh - Elastic modulus in the hoop direction.

Vh/a - Poissons ratio relating the strain in the axial direction due to a stress in the hoop direction.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 23

Database Definitions

Structural Database

This directive specifies which database file is to be used to acquire the structural steel shape labels and

cross section properties from. The structural databases provided include AISC 1977, AISC 1989, German

1991, South African 1991, Korean 1990, Australian 1990, and United Kingdom.

By default, CAESAR II uses the ANSI pipe size and schedule tables in the input processor. Users may

optionally select the standard tables of another piping specification using this directive. The available

tables are

American National Standard (ANSI)

Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS)

German Standard (DIN)

This directive enables the user to specify which Valve/Flange database should be referenced by CAESAR

II during subsequent input sessions. The databases provided include the following: a generic database, the

Crane database, a database (generic) without attached flanges, and the CADWorx/Pipe database.

24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Expansion Joints

This directive enables the user to specify which Expansion Joint database should be referenced by

CAESAR II during subsequent input sessions. The databases provided include Pathway, Senior Flexonics,

IWK, and Piping Technology.

This directive allows the user to scroll through the available units files and select one to activate. Since the

CAESAR.CFG file is written to the local data directory, different data directories can be configured to

reference different units files.

Units files are searched for first in the local data directory, and then in the “active SYSTEM” directory.

The active units file is used for new job creation and all output generation.

This directive enables a user to select which “SYSTEM” directory is used by CAESAR II. All of the various

system directories contain formatting files, units files, text files, and other “user configurable” data files.

Some of these formatting files are language specific or Code specific. Therefore, users may want to switch

between system directories depending on the current job. The directive allows the user to scroll through

the available system directories and select one to be ACTIVE. Since the CAESAR.CFG file is written to

the local data directory, different data directories can be configured to reference different system

directories.

All system directory names must be of the form: SYSTEM.??? where the .??? is a three character suffix

identifying the directory. Users can create system directories as needed, following this required naming

convention. The CAESAR II distribution diskettes contain language files for English, French, German, and

Spanish. These formatting files can be installed in separate system directories, with an appropriate suffix,

to allow switching between languages.

Note that there must be a primary system directory, named system, for the program to place accounting,

version, and diagnostic files that it creates during execution. The secondary system directories are only

referenced for llanguage and formatting files.

This directive allows the user to scroll through the available load case templates and select the one to be

active. Since the CAESAR.CFG file is written to the local data directory, different data directories can be

configured to reference different template files.

Template files are searched for first in the local data directory, and then in the "active SYSTEM"

directory. The active template file is used to "recommend" load cases.

This directive is used to set the value of the default spring hanger table, referenced during the spring

hanger design stage of the solution. CAESAR II includes tables from more than 20 different vendors.

This directive turns on the capability to create ODBC-compliant databases for static output.

The default of NO (unchecked) causes a rerun to overwrite data from previous runs in the ODBC

database. Turning this directive on (checked) causes a rerun to add new data to the database, thus storing

multiple runs of the same job in the database.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 25

This field contains the name of the ODBC project database. All jobs run in this data directory will write

their output to the database specified here.

26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Miscellaneous

This directive allows the user to control the generation of a Table of Contents, normally produced after a

static or a dynamic output session.

By default this directive is turned on, which causes the output processors to generate a Table of Contents

upon exit. Turning this directive off disables the generation of the Table of Contents.

By default, CAESAR II generates output reports sorted by load case. As an option, this directive may be

turned off, which will cause the output reports to be sorted by type. For reports by type, all displacement

reports will be generated, then all restraint reports, then all force reports, etc.

By default CAESAR II sorts the nodes in ascending order during the force/stress computations. This

produces a displacement output report in which the nodes are ordered in increasing magnitude. This

directive can be turned off to disable this nodal sort. The resulting displacement reports will be produced

in the order the nodes were entered during model building.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 27

This directive allows the user to disable the creation of the file used to animate the “time history”

displacement of the piping system. By default this directive is turned on, which instructs CAESAR II to

generate a file of displacements, <jobname>.XYT, for every time step. This file is used in subsequent

interactive animation sessions by the user. Note, however, that the size of this file is dependent on the size

of the model and the number of time steps analyzed. It may therefore be advantageous from a “disk usage”

point of view not to create this file. To instruct CAESAR II not to create this file, turn this setting off.

This directive allows the user to control how much example text is placed in “new” dynamic input files.

By default, CAESAR II places example text and spectrum definitions in the input stream of “new” dynamic

input files. Once a user is familiar with the input, this example text may be undesirable. This directive

allows the user to vary how much of this example text is incorporated in the input.

MAX - This setting is the default and instructs CAESAR II to place all of the examples and spectrum

definitions in the input stream of “new” dynamic input files.

NONE -This directive eliminates all of the example text and all of the built in spectrum definitions. This

setting is intended for experienced users.

SPEC -This setting eliminates all of the example text, but leaves the predefined spectrum definition. This

means that the built in spectrum definitions (El Centro etc.) will still be defined, and available for use.

Memory Allocated

This setting modifies the Windows registry to increase the amount of RAM available to the CAESAR II

application. Setting this directive to a number greater than the available RAM will cause Windows to use

Virtual Memory (Hard Disk Space to be used as RAM) to be used. This may slow the program, however,

and is normally recommended only for very large piping models.

User ID

When more than one workstation attempts to the CAESAR II data in the same directory at the same time it

causes a corruption of the control file in the data directory, which may cause abnormal program execution.

Therefore, in situations where there may be more than one concurrent user running CAESAR II in a given

data directory each user (or more exactly, each workstation) should enter a three-character User ID in this

field. This creates a separate control file for each User ID to allow simultaneous access of the CAESAR II

data within the same directory.

Note: This User ID is not a password and is specific to the computer requiring access and not to the

user.

This directive disables the graphic thumbnail plot in the File Open dialog boxes. The graphics thumbnail

plots a small image of the model as a single line drawing. On some slower, memory limited processors, or

when scanning very large models, this thumbnail graphic may take a few seconds to plot the model. To

prevent this delay check this box to turn off the graphics.

It may be desirable on some installations to disable the UNDO/REDO feature of the input module. With

UNDO/REDO enabled, CAESAR II can process a job approximately one-half the size of that which can be

processed when UNDO/REDO is disabled (for similar memory settings). Likewise, with UNDO/REDO

enabled, the input module speed may be reduced.

28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Enable Autosave

When this option is checked, CAESAR II will automatically save the piping input at specified intervals.

This value (in minutes) is the time interval used to perform the auto-save function. Autosave will be

initiated every "X" minutes, where the value of "X" is specified in this edit box.

Prompted Autosave

When this option is checked, CAESAR II will prompt the user, at the specified time interval, to save the

input. If this option is not checked, the input will be saved automatically at the specified time intervals

(assuming autosave is enabled).

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 29

Set/Change Password

The Password button provides the user with the option of providing a password protection scheme for the

configuration file. By setting a password on the primary configuration file (done by setting the default data

directory to the CAESAR II program directory), a corporate standard can be enforced throughout the

network. Subsequent use of the configuration module in other data directories will allow modification

only of display or other environment directives (i.e., those that do not affect calculated results).

When this button is clicked, a secondary window is displayed with four possible selections:

New Password

Access Protected Data

Change Password

Remove Password

Once a password has been entered, the user has the ability to change configuration settings from the

program directory, or alter or remove the password. When entering a new password the user is prompted

for the new password a second time to ensure the password was typed as expected by the user the first

time.

This option is accessible once a password exists. Assuming the correct password is given for access, the

user is then allowed to modify “protected” directives. The use of this option is not necessary if there is no

previously specified password. If no password has been set, all directives can be modified by the user.

Change Password

The current password may be changed at any time by a user who has authorization (he/she must enter the

correct existing password for access to this directive).

Once a password has been set, all computation controls, stress directives, and any other directives which

could affect the CAESAR II computations are disabled and cannot be changed by the user. All protected

directive labels, edit boxes, and default buttons are grayed out when disabled.

Remove Password

The current password may be removed at any time by a user with authorization to do so (he/she must enter

the correct existing password for access to this directive). Once a password has been removed, all

directives in Configure/Setup are modifiable by the user from any directory where he/she has read/write

access rights.

30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The active units file as specified in the configuration file is used in conjunction with all new input files

and all existing output files in the given data directory. The units file specified in the configuration file

will not modify the units in an existing CAESAR II input file Convert Input to New Units.

The user may create a custom units file or review an existing units file by choosing TOOLS /MAKE UNITS FILE

from the CAESAR II Main Menu. An explanation of each input field and button under this option follows.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 31

Clicking this button highlights a list box to the right that contains all existing units files located in both the

data directory and the program directory. Choose the units file to review from the list, then click the

View/Edit File button to proceed. A window will display (see below) containing all CAESAR II

dimensional items, their internal units, the conversion factor between the internal units and the user-

specified units, and the user’s units.

32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Units Maintenance

Choose this option to create a new units file. Clicking this button activates the next two items described

below. When all items are completed choose the View/Edit File button to proceed. A window will appear

in which the entries for the user's units and the conversion factor can be edited. If the user-defined units

for a given item exist in the list then there is no need to choose a conversion factor as it will be updated

automatically. If a new set of units is desired (miles in the length category for instance) then the user may

type in (or select from the drop down list) the new unit name (mi.) and the new conversion factor

(.00001578 in this example).

In CAESAR II a new units file is created by using an existing units file as a template. Choose an existing

units file from the list. It is simplest to choose a file that has many units in common with the file to be

created.

A unique file name must be entered here without the extension.

View/Edit File

Click this button to proceed once all activated lists on the Create New Units dialog have been completed.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 33

The user may convert an existing input file to a new set of units by choosing TOOLS / CONVERT INPUT TO NEW

UNITS from the CAESAR II Main Menu. A window will be created that contains the following three input

fields:

Type the full path name followed by the input file name (including the ._a extension) to be converted. The

Browse button to the right of this text box may be used to choose the appropriate input file.

Select the name of the appropriate units file from the list provided.

Type the full path name followed by the input file name that corresponds to the new input file.

Caution: By using the Browse button here and picking an existing ._a file the converted file will overwrite

the existing ._a file chosen from the list.

34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Material Database

CAESAR II provides a material database (accessed with TOOL/MATERIAL DATABASE from the MAIN MENU listing

physical properties and code-dependent allowable stresses of more than 300 materials. These materials can

be edited and additional materials can be added to the database by the user.

Note: It is incumbent upon the user to check material allowables and other physical property data for the

particular code being used. While COADE attempts to keep the material database up-to-date the codes are

subject to change frequently and the accuracy of the database is not guaranteed. Below is an explanation

of the input fields for the Material Database.

Material - Add

To add a new material spreadsheet to the database. This command saves any data currently shown on the

spreadsheet and clears the spreadsheet for a new entry. At least a material number and code must be given

for the data to be saved.

Material - Delete

This operation deletes the entire material spreadsheet from the database. The user may choose the

spreadsheet to delete from the list which contains only user-defined database spreadsheets. The user

cannot delete the material database spreadsheets supplied with the CAESAR II program.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 35

Material - Edit

To edit an existing material spreadsheet in the database. A window will appear from which the user must

either type the name of the material or pick the material from the list. The piping code ID on the right side

corresponds to the piping code ID on the piping input spreadsheet when allowables are chosen.

Number

Enter a number by which the material is to be referenced. The number must be between 101 and 699

inclusive and should not already be a reference for another material.

Name

Enter the material name as listed in the applicable code.

Applicable Piping Code

Enter the CAESAR II piping code number for the material. A list of the piping code numbers for the various

codes are listed below.

ALL B31.5 NAVY 505 Stoomwezen FDBR

B31.1 1967 B31.11 BS 806 RCC-M D UKOOA

B31.3 ASME NC Swedish 1 CODETI IGE/TD/12

B31.4 ASME ND Swedish 2 Norwegian TBK-6 DNV

36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Eff, Cf, z

This factor is necessary for various piping codes as defined below:

STOOMWEZEN - The cyclic reduction factor, referred to in the code as Cf.

NORWEGIAN - This is the circumferential weld strength factor, “z”. If not entered, it defaults to 1.0.

BS 7159 - This field is the ratio of the design stress sd, in the circumferential (hoop) direction to the

design stress in the longitudinal direction. Since design stress is defined in Sec. 4.3 of the code as:

dÆ = d * ElamÆ, sd x = d * Elamx

and design strain should be the same for both directions, this entry will also be the ratio of the moduli of

elasticity

ElamÆ (hoop) to Elamx (longitudinal).

If left blank, a value of 1.0 will be used.

Density

Enter the density of the material.

Minimum Temperature Curve (A-D)

As defined by B31.3 (Section 323.2.2), some carbon steels are limited to a “minimum metal” temperature

as shown in Figure 323.2.2. This cell is used to specify which curve should be used to check this material.

If this code section is applicable, specify either A, B, C, or D. If this code section is not applicable, leave

this cell blank. Note that this information is not currently used by CAESAR II.

FAC

A factor necessary for various piping codes as defined below:

Stoomwezen—This value should be either 0.44 or 0.5 and is used in computing the equilibrium stresses as

discussed in Section 5.2 of the code. The value of 0.5 can be used for steel if the design and fabrication are

such that stress peaks are avoided.

Norwegian (units: 106) Material ultimate tensile strength at room temperature “Rm”. If not entered, this

factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.

Poisson's Ratio

For Metals only.

Enter the value to be used for Poisson’s Ratio for this material.

Temperature

In this field enter the temperatures corresponding to the database values you will add to the right. In the

database supplied with CAESAR II all temperatures are in 100°F increments. Note that some of the codes

list physical property values in 50°F increments, therefore small discrepancies may occur between

CAESAR II and a given code because of the interpolation of data.

Exp. Coeff.

Enter the expansion coefficient at the corresponding temperature. This coefficient must be multiplied by

106 F prior to being input here.

(ex. An expansion coefficient of 1.2 x 10-5 in/in/F would be input as 12).

Allowable Stress

Input the code allowable stress corresponding to the temperature to the left.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 37

Elastic Modulus

This is the Modulus of Elasticity corresponding to the temperature to the left.

Yield Stress

This is the Yield Stress corresponding to the temperature to the left.

Ult Tensile Stress

BS 806—Mean Stress to Failure for design life at temperature

Swedish Method 1—Creep Rupture Stress at temperature.

Stoomwezen—Rrg average creep stress to produce 1% permanent set after 100,000 hours at temperature

(vm).

IGE/TD/12 - Ultimate Tensile Strength

Norwegian - (UNITS: lb./sq.in.) Material ultimate tensile strength at room temperature "Rm". If not

entered, this factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.

1

CHAPTER 3

This chapter illustrates how to enter job parameters through the program's menus, fields, and commands.

In This Chapter

Piping Spreadsheet Data..............................................................2

Auxiliary Fields - Component Information .................................13

Auxiliary Fields - Boundary Conditions......................................28

Nozzles........................................................................................41

Displacements .............................................................................49

Auxiliary Fields - Imposed Loads ...............................................50

Auxiliary Fields - Piping Code Data ...........................................53

Available Commands ..................................................................65

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The question mark key <?> or the <F1> function key if pressed while in any of the input data cells, will

produce interactive help text for that particular input item. Additionally, while resting the cursor on a field,

a tool tip indicating the current units will appear.

From

The From node number defines the starting end of the element. Node numbers must be numeric, ranging

from 1 to 32000. Normally, the From node number is “duplicated forward” by CAESAR II from the

preceding element. The node numbers may be changed by the user, who should take care not to use the

same node number more than once in the model.

To

The To node number defines the end of the current element. Node numbers must be numeric, ranging from

1 to 32,000. The node numbers may be changed by the user, who should take care not to use the same

node number more than once in the model.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3

Name

The Name check box is used to assign non-numeric names to node points. Double-clicking this check box

activates an auxiliary spreadsheet where names, of up to 10 characters, can be assigned to the From and/or

To nodes. These names will show up in place of the node numbers in graphic plots and reports (possibly

truncated in 80 column reports).

DX

Delta X (DX) defines the element’s projected length along the global X direction.

CAESAR II accepts [compound length]—[length]—[fraction] formats (such as feet - inch - fraction or

meter - decimal - centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication,

and division may be used as well as exponential format.

Enter the DISTANCE between the "TO" and the "FROM" node along the direction specified.

DY

Delta Y (DY) defines the element’s projected length along the global Y direction.

CAESAR II accepts [compound length]—[length]—[fraction] formats (such as feet - inch - fraction or

meter - decimal - centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication,

and division may be used as well as exponential format.

Enter the DISTANCE between the "TO" and the "FROM" node along the direction specified.

4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

DZ

Delta Z (DZ) defines the element’s projected length along the global Z direction.

CAESAR II accepts [compound length]—[length]—[fraction] formats (such as feet - inch - fraction or

meter - decimal - centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication,

and division may be used as well as exponential format.

Enter the DISTANCE between the "TO" and the "FROM" node along the direction specified.

Element Cosines

Element Length

Enter the DISTANCE between the "TO" and the "FROM" node.

Note that a "tic mark" ( ' ) can be used in place of the first dash ( - ), to indicate feet in the above examples.

Element Direction Cosines

Direction vector or direction cosines which define the center-line of the element.

For an element aligned with the "X" axis,

Cos X ..... 1.0

Cos Y ..... <Blank>

Cos Z ..... <Blank>

For an element aligned with the "Y" axis,

Cos X ..... <Blank>

Cos Y ..... 1.0

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 5

For an element aligned with the "Z" axis,

Cos X ..... <Blank>

Cos Y ..... <Blank>

Cos Z ..... 1.0

Element Offsets

Element Offsets are used to correct an element’s modeled dimensions back to its actual dimensions.

1 Activate by double-clicking the Offsets check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by

double-clicking a second time.

2 Specify the distances from the TO node’s position in 3-D space to the actual TO end of the element.

3 Specify the distances from the FROM node’s position in 3-D space to the actual FROM end of the

element.

Thermal expansion is “0” for the offset portion of an offset element. No element flexibility is generated

for the offset portion of the element. A common usage for the offset element is shown in the following

figure:

6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Diameter

The Diameter field is used to specify the pipe diameter. Normally, the nominal diameter is entered, and

CAESAR II converts it to the actual outer diameter necessary for the analysis. There are two ways to

prevent this conversion: use a modified UNITS file with Nominal Pipe Schedules turned off, or enter

diameters whose values are off slightly from a nominal size (in English units the tolerance on diameter is

0.04 in.). Use <F1> to obtain additional information and the current units for this input field. Available

nominal diameters are determined by the active pipe size specification, set via the configuration program.

The following are the available nominal diameters.

ANSI Nominal Pipe ODs, in inches (file ap.bin)

½ ¾ 1 1½ 2 2½ 3 3½ 4 5 6 8

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

34 36 42

15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150

200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650

15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 200

250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400

1600 1800 2000 2200

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 7

Wt/Sch

The Wall Thickness/Schedule field is used to specify the thickness of the pipe. Normal input consists of a

schedule indicator (such as S, XS, or 40), which will be converted to the proper wall thickness by

CAESAR II. If actual thickness is entered, CAESAR II will accept it as entered. Available schedule indicators

are determined by the active piping specification, set via the configuration program. The available

schedules are listed below.

ANSI B36.10 Steel Nominal Wall Thickness Designation:

S - Standard

XS - Extra Strong

XXS - Double Extra Strong

10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

5S 10S 40S 80S

1990 Steel Schedules:

10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

5S 10S 40S

none

Note: Only the s (standard) schedule applies to wall thickness calculations for DIN

+Mill Tol %

The Positive Mill Tolerance is used by the IGE/TD/12 code for determining the effects of increased

weight and thermal force due to a potentially thicker wall. The user may change this value on an element

by element basis. This option is only activated when the IGE/TD/12 code is active.

-Mill Tol %

The Negative Mill Tolerance is read in from the configuration file for use in minimum wall thickness

calculations. Also, for the IGE/TD/12 code, this value is used in conjunction with the corrosion allowance

to calculate a reduced section modulus for use in stress calculations. The user may change this value on an

element by element basis.

Seam-Welded

This directive is only activated when the IGE/TD/12 code is active. This is used to indicate when straight

pipes are seam welded and affects the Stress Intensification Factor calculations for that pipe section due to

Seam Welded fabrication.

8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Corrosion

Enter the corrosion allowance to be used order to calculate a reduced section modulus. A “setup file”

directive is available to consider all stress cases as corroded.

Insul Thk

Enter the thickness of the insulation to be applied to the piping. Insulation applied to the outside of the

pipe will be included in the dead weight of the system, and in the projected pipe area used for wind load

computations. If a negative value is entered for the insulation thickness, the program will model refractory

lined pipe. The thickness will be assumed to be the thickness of the refractory, inside the pipe.

Temperatures

There are nine temperature fields, to allow up to nine different operating cases. Temperature values are

checked (by the error checker) to insure they are within the code allowed ranges. Users can exceed the

code ranges by entering the expansion coefficient in the temperature field in units of length/length. The

expansion coefficient can be a useful method of modeling cold spring effects. Also when material 21(user-

defined material) enter temperature *expansion coefficient as in the example below.

Values entered in the temperature field whose absolute values are less than the Alpha Tolerance are taken

to be thermal expansion coefficients, where the Alpha Tolerance is a configuration file parameter and is

taken to be 0.05 by default. For example; if the user wanted to enter the thermal expansion coefficient

equivalent to 11.37in./100ft., the calculation would be:

11.37in./100ft. * 12= .009475

This would be entered into the appropriate temperature field.

Note: A cut short is no more than reducing a pipe element's length to zero (for example; if we wanted

8.5 cm of cold spring we could put in an 8.5 cm long element and then thermally shrink its length to zero).

This allows cold spring to be manipulated as an individual thermal case rather than as a concentrated

force.

Access to operating conditions 4 through 9 is granted through the Extended Operating Conditions input

screen, accessible via the Ellipses Dots button directly to the right of the standard Temperature and

Pressure input fields. This dialog box may be kept open or closed for the convenience of the user.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 9

Pressures

There are ten pressure fields, to allow up to nine operating, and one hydrotest, pressure cases. When

multiple pressures are entered, the user should be particularly careful with the set up of the analysis load

cases, and should inspect CAESAR II’s recommendations carefully before proceeding.

Access to operating pressures 3 through 9 is granted through the Extended Operating Conditions input

screen, accessible via the Ellipses Dots button directly to the right of the standard Temperature and

Pressure input fields. This dialog box may be retained open or closed at the convenience of the user.

Entering a value in the HydroPress field signals CAESAR II to recommend a Hydrotest load case.

Piping Materials

Material Name

Materials are entered either by name or number. All available material names and their CAESAR II material

numbers are displayed in the drop list. Since this list is quite long, entering a partial material name (such

as A106) allows the user to select from matching materials. Numbers 1-17 correspond to the generic

materials, without code allowable stresses. Material 18 represents the cold spring element for “cut short”

and material 19 represents the cold spring element for “cut long.” Material 20 is used to define Fiberglass

Reinforced Plastic (FRP) pipe. FRP Pipe requires slightly different material modeling and the spreadsheet

changes to accommodate the difference. Analysis of fiberglass pipe is described in greater detail in

Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual.

When a material has been selected from the database, the physical properties as well as the allowable

stresses are obtained and placed on the spreadsheet. At any later time, if the temperature or piping code is

changed, these allowable stress values are automatically updated.

Material Properties

Modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio, and pipe density fields are automatically filled in when a material

number is entered. If the user wishes to override any material property extracted from the database, simply

by changing the value to be modified after the material number has been entered.

Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP)

The CAESAR II FRP pipe element models an orthotropic material whose properties can be defined by:

Ea - Axial Modulus of Elasticity

Eh - Hoop Modulus of Elasticity

h/a - Poisson’s ratio of the strain in the axial direction resulting from a stress in the hoop direction.

G - Shear Modulus (Not related to the Elastic Modulus and Poisson’s ratio in the conventional

manner.)

10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

FRP pipe is invoked from the CAESAR II element spreadsheet with a material type 20. The material name

will be immediately printed and FRP properties from the configuration file will be input on the

spreadsheet.

Some of the material parameters are renamed when the FRP material is selected: “Elastic Modulus”

changes to “Elastic Modulus/axial” and “Poisson's Ratio” changes to “Ea/Eh*n h/a”. The latter entry

requires the value of the expression: (Ea*n h/a) / Eh (which happens to be equal to na/h, Poisson's ratio of

the strain in the hoop direction resulting from a stress in the axial direction). The shear modulus G can be

defined by entering the ratio of G/Ea (shear modulus to axial modulus) on the special execution

parameters screen. Only one ratio can be entered per job.

Because the hoop modulus is usually considerably higher than the axial modulus for FRP pipe, the

decrease in flexural stiffness at bends and intersections due to changes in the circular cross-section is

typically negligible, and so a default flexibility factor of 1 is used for these components. Similarly, since

the fatigue tests performed by Markl on steel pipe will likely have no bearing on FRP design, an SIF of 2.3

is applied for all fittings. CAESAR II uses these recommendations for all FRP fittings unless specifically

overridden by the user. This can be overridden on a point-by-point basis, or by forcing all calculations to

adhere to the requirements of the governing code (through a CAESAR II configuration parameter). Note

that if the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, all SIFs and flexibility factors will be calculated as per

that code regardless of the configuration parameter settings.

Densities

Pipe Density

The appropriate pipe density is filled in automatically when a proper material number is input. This value

may be overridden by the user at any time. It will then be the user’s value that gets column-duplicated

through the remainder of the input.

Insulation Density

Enter the weight density of the insulation on a per unit volume basis. (If the insulation thickness specified

above is negative, this field is the weight of the refractory lining, on a per unit volume basis.)

If left blank then CALCIUM SILICATE is assumed for insulation having a density of: ^^12 1H

,E10.4E1^6.655E-3

Insure that this "assumed" value is appropriate for the current application. Refractory densities are much

higher than insulation densities and could lead to under sized restraints. Sample density values for both

insulation and refractory materials are listed below.

MATERIAL DENSITY

(lb/cu.in.)

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 11

CALCIUM SILICATE .006655

CAREYTEMP .005787

FIBERGLASS (OWEN/CORNING) .004051

FOAM-GLASS/CELLULAR GLASS .004630

HIGH TEMP .01389

KAYLO 10 (TM) .007234

MINERAL WOOL .004919

PERLITE / CELO-TEMP 1500 .007523

POLY URETHANE .001273

STYRO FOAM .001042

SUPER X .01447

MATERIAL DENSITY

(lb./cu.in.)

A.P. GREEN GREENCAST 94 .09433

A.P. GREEN KRUZITE CASTABLE .08681

A.P. GREEN MC-30 .08391

A.P. GREEN MC-22 .07234

A.P. GREEN KAST-SET .06655

A.P. GREEN KAST-O-LITE 25 .05208

A.P. GREEN VSL-35AST 94 .02257

B&W KAOCRETE 32-C .08333

B&W KAO-TAB 95 .09549

B&W KAOLITE 2200 .03241

B&W KAOLITE 2200-HS .04745

B&W KAOLITE 2500-LI. .03472

12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Fluid Density

When the internal fluid the piping system transports would significantly effect the weight loads, the fluid

density should be specified. When the specific gravity of the fluid is known, it can be entered here instead

of the density, e.g. .85SG. Specific gravities are converted to the appropriate densities immediately on

input. Note that to enter specific gravity, follow the numeric value with the letters SG (no spaces); this

value will then be converted to density.

Note: In the default ENGLISH units system, densities are entered in pounds per cubic inch.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 13

Bends

Activate by double-clicking the Bend check box on the pipe element spreadsheet. Deactivate by double-

clicking a second time.

Radius

CAESAR II makes the long radius bend calculation whenever a bend is input. If the user wishes to use

some other bend radius the new bend radius can be entered in this field.

Type

For most codes, this refers to the number of attached flanges, and can be selected from the drop list. If

there are no flanges on the bend then leave the Type field blank. A bend should be considered “flanged” if

there is any heavy/rigid body within 2 diameters of the bend that will significantly restrict the bends

ability to ovalize.

When using the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes with Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) pipe, this entry

refers to the material laminate type, and may be 1, 2, or 3. These laminate types are

All chopped strand mat (CSM) constructing with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.

Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface

tissue reinforced layer.

Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construction with internal and external surface

tissue reinforced layer.

Laminate type affects the calculation of flexibility factors and stress intensification factors for the BS 7159

and UKOOA Codes only.

14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Angle

Angle to a point on the bend curvature. The user may place additional nodes at any point on the bend

curvature provided the added nodes are not within 5 degrees of each other. (The 5 degree node-spacing

limit may be changed via the configuration file if necessary.) Note that the element To node is always

physically located at the far end of the bend. By default CAESAR II places a node at the midpoint of the

bend (Designated by the letter M in this field), as well as at the 0-degree position (start) of the bend if

possible.

Node

Node number to be associated with the extra point on the bend. CAESAR II places unique node numbers in

these fields whenever a bend is initiated. New, unique node numbers must be assigned to the points

whenever the user adds points on the bend curvature. If numbering by 5’s and the To node number for the

bend element is 35, a logical choice for the node number for an added node at 30 degrees on the bend

would be 34. The added nodes on the bend can be treated like any other nodes in the piping system. Nodes

on the bend curvature may be restrained, displaced, or placed at the intersection of more than two pipes.

Nodes on a bend curvature are most commonly used as an intersection for a dummy leg, or for the location

of a restraint. All nodes defined in this manner will be plotted at the tangent intersection point for the

bend.

Miter Points

Number of cuts in the bend if mitered.

The bend SIF scratch pad may be invoked from the pipe spreadsheet by choosing Kaux - Review SIFs at

Bend Nodes. When the user enters a valid mitered bend node number, CAESAR II tells the user if the

mitered bend input is closely or widely spaced. If the bend is determined to be widely spaced and the

number of miter cuts is greater than 1, then it is recommended that the bend be broken down into “n”

single cut widely spaced miters, where “n” is the total number of cuts in the bend. The number of cuts and

the radius of the bend are all that is required to calculate the SIFs and flexibilities for the bend as defined

in the B31 codes. The bend radius and the bend miter spacing are related by the following equations:

Closely Spaced Miters

R= S / (2 tan )

q= Bend Angle / (2 n) where n = number of miter cuts

R= r2 (1.0 + cot q) / 2.0

r2 = (ri + ro) / 2.0

= Bend Angle / 2.0

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 15

Fitting Thickness

Enter the thickness of the bend if different than the thickness of the matching pipe. If the entered thickness

is greater than the matching pipe wall thickness, then the inside diameter of the bend will be smaller than

the inside diameter of the matching pipe. Section modulus calculations for stress computations are made

based on the properties of the matching pipe as defined by the codes.

The pipe thickness is used twice when calculating SIFs and flexibility factors -- once as Tn, and once

when determining the mean cross- sectional radius of the pipe in the equation for the flexibility

characteristic (h):

h = (Tn)(R) / (r2)

Tn = Thickness of bend or fitting

R = Bend radius

r = Mean cross-sectional radius of matching pipe

= (OD - WT) / 2

OD = Outside Diameter of matching pipe

WT = Wall Thickness of matching pipe

16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Most codes use the actual thickness of the fitting (this entry) for Tn, and the wall thickness of the

matching pipe for the calculation of the mean cross-sectional radius of the pipe (the WT value). More

specifically, the individual codes use the two wall thicknesses as follows:

For Tn: For Mean Radius Calculation:

B31.1 Fitting Fitting

B31.3 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.4 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.5 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.8 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.8 Ch VIII Fitting Matching Pipe

SECT III NC Fitting Matching Pipe

SECT III ND Fitting Matching Pipe

Z662 Matching Pipe Matching Pipe

NAVY 505 Fitting Fitting

B31.1 (1967) Fitting Fitting

SWEDISH Fitting Matching Pipe

BS 806 N/A N/A

STOOMWEZEN N/A N/A

RCC-M C/D Matching pipe Matching Pipe

CODETI Fitting Fitting

NORWEGIAN Fitting Fitting

FDBR Fitting Fitting

BS 7159 Fitting Fitting

UKOOA Fitting Fitting

IGE/TD/12 Fitting Fitting

The bend fitting thickness (FTG) is always used as the pipe thickness in the stiffness matrix calculations;

however, note that the thickness of the matching pipe (WT) is always used in the bend stress calculations.

K-Factor

Normally the bend flexibility factor is calculated as per the requirements of the active code. The user can

override this calculation by entering a value in this field.

Seam-Welded

Used by the IGE/TD/12 piping code to calculate the stress intensification factors due to seam welded

elbow fabrication as opposed to extruded elbow fabrication. This directive is only available when the

IGE/TD/12 piping code is active.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 17

Rigid Elements

Activate by double-clicking the Rigid check box on the pipe element spreadsheet. Deactivate by double-

clicking a second time.

Enter the rigid element weight. This value should always be zero or positive and should not include the

weight of any insulation or fluid.

CAESAR II automatically includes 1.0 times the fluid weight of equivalent straight pipe.

CAESAR II automatically includes 1.75 times the insulation weight of equivalent straight pipe.

Rigid elements with zero weight are considered to be modelling constructs and do not have fluid or

insulation weight added.

The rigid element stiffness is proportional to the matching pipe, i.e. a 13 in. long 12 in. diameter rigid

element is stiffer than a 13 in. long 2 in. diameter rigid element. This fact should be observed when

modelling rigid elements that are part of a small pipe/large vessel, or small pipe/heavy equipment model.

The stiffness properties are computed using 10 times the entered thickness of the rigid element. For

additional details see Chapter 6 of this manual.

The length must be entered in the Delta Length field (DX, DY, DZ).

See the discussion of the valve and flange database (see "Valve/Flange Database" on page 67) for the

automatic input of these types of components.

Expansion Joints

Activate by double-clicking the Expansion Joint check box on the pipe element spreadsheet. Deactivate

by double-clicking a second time.

18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Used to model hinged and gimballed joints. Leave the DX, DY, and DZ fields blank or zero. Define

completely flexible stiffnesses as 1.0, and completely rigid stiffness as 1.0E12. All stiffnesses must be

entered.

Finite Length Expansion Joints

The DX, DY, and DZ fields should describe the change in dimensions required to get from one end of the

flexible bellows connection to the other. The transverse and bending stiffnesses are directly related for

finite length joints. The user should input only one of these stiffnesses. CAESAR II will calculate the other

stiffness automatically based on flexible length, effective ID, and the other stiffness. It is recommended

that the user enter the transverse stiffness and leave the bending stiffness blank.

Bellows Stiffness Properties

If the element length is zero then all stiffnesses should be defined by the user. If the element length is not

zero then either the bending or the transverse stiffness should be left blank. CAESAR II will automatically

calculate the stiffness not entered. (For rubber expansion joints, all stiffnesses may be entered.)

If the torsional stiffness value is not specified, CAESAR II will use a default value of ^^15 1H

,E12.5^1.0E5

Bending "STIFFNESSES" from EJMA (and from most expansion joint manufacturers) that are to be used

in a finite length expansion joint model should be multiplied by (4) before being used in any piping

program. Bending "STIFFNESSES" from EJMA (and from most expansion joint manufacturers) that are

to be used in a ZERO length expansion joint model should be used without modification.

Use (1.0) for bellows stiffnesses that are completely flexible.

Use (1.0E12) for rigid bellows stiffnesses.

Zero Length expansion joints can be used in many modelling applications to define struts, hinged ends,

etc. The orientation of zero length expansion joints is taken from the element that precedes the expansion

joint providing the "TO" node of the proceeding element is equal to the "FROM" node on the expansion

joint element. If the preceeding element does not go "INTO" the expansion joint, then the orientation will

be taken from the element that follows the expansion joint providing it properly "LEAVES" the joint.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 19

Effective ID

The effective inside diameter for pressure thrust (from the manufacturer’s catalog). For all load cases

including pressure CAESAR II will calculate the pressure “thrust force” tending to blow the bellows apart

(provided the pressure is positive). If left blank, or zero, then no axial thrust force due to pressure will be

calculated. Many manufacturers give the effective area of the expansion joint: Aeff. The Effective ID is

calculated from the effective area by:

Effective ID = (4Aeff / )1/2

Activate by double-clicking the SIFs and Tees check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate

by double-clicking a second time.

Three element “intersection” components, and

Two element “joint” components.

A fully defined intersection model requires that three pipes frame into the intersection node, and that two

of them are co-linear. Partial intersection assumptions are made for junctions where the user has coded

one or two pipes into the intersection node, but these models are not recommended. Two element “joint”

components can be formed equally well with one or two elements framing into the node.

As usual, the intersection or joint type and properties need only be entered on one of the elements going to

the junction. CAESAR II duplicates the intersection characteristics for all other pipes framing into the

intersection. Users are urged to fully review the WARNING messages coming from CAESAR II during

error checking. These messages detail to the user any assumptions made during the assembly and

calculation of the intersection SIFs.

The available intersections and joint types are shown in the table that follows, along with the other

parameters that can affect the stress intensification factors for the respective component.

20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Enter the node number where a Stress Intensification exists. This may be any node in the system, but is

most often at a pipe intersection or joint.

If the node is at an Intersection, stress intensification factors will be automatically calculated for all pipes

going to the intersection providing the intersection "TYPE" is specified. The intersection type needs to

only be entered once. CAESAR II will find all other pipes framing into the intersection and apply the

appropriate SIFs accordingly.

If the node is at a two-pipe Joint, i.e. a butt weld, stress intensification factors will be calculated for the

two pipes going to the joint node providing the joint "TYPE" is specified. The joint type needs to only be

entered once. CAESAR II will find the other pipe completing the joint.

If the node is not at an intersection or a joint then the Type field should be left BLANK and the "USER

DEFINED" SIFs entered in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) fields. User entries in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) fields only

apply to the element on which they are defined.

User defined stress intensification factors, must be greater then or equal to one.

The user can get CAESAR II to calculate and display code defined SIFs while in the SIF scratchpad. This

scratchpad is accessed via the K-Aux option on the pipe spreadsheet. Parameters used in the scratchpad

may be modified so that the effects of different geometries and thicknesses can be observed. Most

changes made in the scratchpad may be automatically transferred back into the input, if desired.

If the node is on any part of a bend's curvature then the following applies:

1 User defined SIFs won't override code calculated SIFs for bends, although a SETUP file directive

exists to override this default, i.e. ALLOW_USERS_BEND_SIF=YES. If this parameter appears in

the setup file then users may specify SIFs for bend "to" nodes. The SIFs so specified will apply for

the entire bend curvature.

2 User defined SIFs will apply to straight pipe going to points on a bend curvature regardless of any

parameter in the setup file. This option is commonly used to intensify injector tie-ins at bends, or

dummy legs, or other bend attachment-type of supports.

1 Reinforced Fabricated Tee Pad Thk Ftg Ro CROTCH

2 Unreinforced Fabricated Tee Ftg Ro CROTCH

4 Sweepolet CROTCH

5 Weldolet CROTCH

11 Threaded Joint

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 21

22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Pad Thk. Thickness of the reinforcing pad for reinforced fabricated or full encirclement tees, intersection

type #1 and #17 respectively. The pad thickness is only valid for these intersection types. Note that in

most piping codes the beneficial effect of the pad’s thickness is limited to 1.5 times the nominal thickness

of the header. This factor does not apply in BS 806 or Z184, and is 2.5 in the Swedish piping code. If the

thickness of a type 1or type 17 intersection is left blank or zero the SIFs for an unreinforced fabricated tee

are used.

Ftg Ro. Fitting outside radius for branch connections. Used for reduced branch connections in the ASME

and B31.1 piping codes, Bonney Forge Insert Weldolets, and for WRC 330/329 intersection SIF

calculations. Setup file directives exist to invoke the WRC 330/329 calculations, and to limit the

application of the reduced branch connection rules to unreinforced fabricated tees, sweepolets, weldolets,

and extruded welding tees. If omitted, FTG ro defaults to the outside radius of the branch pipe.

Crotch R. The crotch radius of the formed lip on an extruded welding tee, intersection type 6. This is also

the intersection weld crotch radius for WRC330 calculations. Specifying this value when it is known can

result in a 50% reduction in the stress intensification at the WRC 330 intersection. Basically, if the user

makes an attempt to reduce the stress riser at a fabricated intersection, by guaranteeing that there will be a

smooth transition radius from the header to the branch pipe, then he may reduce the resulting stress

intensification by a factor of 2.0.

Weld(d). Defines the “average” circumferential weld mismatch measured at the inside diameter of the pipe.

Used for Butt Welds and Tapered transitions. Note that this is the average, and not the maximum

mismatch. Users must themselves make sure that any maximum mismatch requirements are satisfied for

their particular code.

Fillet. The fillet leg length, and is used only in conjunction with a socket weld component. For an unequal

leg fillet weld, this value is the length of the shorter leg. Note that if a fillet leg is given, both socket weld

types result in the same SIF. See appendix D of the B31 piping codes for further clarification.

Weld ID. The following are valid entries: 0 and 1. 0 indicates an as welded fitting, 1 indicates a finished or

ground flush fitting. This entry is used for Bonney Forge sweepolets and insert weldolets, as well as butt

welds in the Swedish piping code.

B1. This entry defines the primary stress index to be used for the given node on the current element. This

entry is only applicable for ASME Class 2 and 3 piping.

For the BS 7159 Code, the B1 field is used to enter the pressure stress multiplier (m), if other than as per

the code requirements. For straight pipe, m = 1.0; for bends and tees, m is defined in Figures 7.1 and 7.12

of the BS 7159 Code.

B2. This entry defines the primary stress index to be used for the given node on the current element. This

entry is only applicable for ASME Class 2 and 3 piping.

If omitted, B1 and B2 are defaulted as shown as follows:

Straight Pipe: B1=0.5 B2=1.0

Curved Pipe: B1=-0.1+0.4h; but not <0 or >0.5

B2=1.30/h2/3; but not <1.0; h=tR/rm2

Intersections: B1=0.5

Butt-Welded Tees:

B2b=0.4(R/T)2/3 but not <1.0

B2r=0.5(R/T)2/3 but not <1.0

Branch Connections: (r<0.5R)

B2b=0.50 C2b but not <1.0

B2r=0.75 C2r but not <1.0

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 23

C2r=1.15(r/t)1/4 but not <1.5

The SIF(IN) and SIF(OUT) fields may be used to override the CAESAR II calculated values for any

intersection. Override values only apply for the single element they are defined on. SIFs may be calculated

for partial intersections and dummy legs.

User-Defined SIFS Anywhere in the Piping System

Unless the piping element is a bend, SIFs for non-intersection points are normally taken to be 1.0. If for

some reason the SIF should be greater than (1.0) the user may enter the non-unity SIF in the Intersection

Auxiliary field without specifying the intersection type. The most common occurrence of user defined

SIFs on straight pipe is at reducers where a SIF of 2.0 is usually used. Note that a user defined SIF only

acts at the node on the current element.

Stress Intensification Factors (Details)

Stress intensification factors are calculated automatically for bends and defined intersections as specified

by the applicable piping code.

The user may enter specific stress intensification factor for any point in the piping system by activating the

SIFs and Tees check box on the pipe spreadsheet. The node number where the stress is to be intensified is

entered in the first available Node field, and the in-plane and out-plane stress intensification factors are

entered in the SIF(i) and the SIF(o) fields, respectively. The only exception is that users cannot specify

SIFs for bend elements (unless the User Bend SIF directive is activated in the configuration file). Code

defined SIFs always apply.

CAESAR II will not allow user-defined stress intensification factors to be less than 1.0.

The node to be intensified must be the To or the From node on the current element.

Stresses are only intensified at the element end going to the specified node. For example, if two pipes

frame into node 10, one going from 5 to 10, and the other from 10 to 15; and a stress intensification factor

of 2.0 for node 10 is defined on the element from 5 to 10, then the 10 end of the element from 5 to 10 will

have a stress intensification of 2.0, and the 10 end of the element from 10 to 15 will have a stress

intensification of 1.0.

User defined stress intensification factors can be used to override code calculated values for nodes at

intersections. For example, let node 40 be an intersection defined by an unreinforced fabricated tee. The

header pipes framing into the intersection go from 35 to 40 and from 40 to 45. The branch pipe framing

into the intersection goes from 175 to 40. The code-calculated values for the stress intensification factors

in the header pipes are:

SIF(i) = 4.50

SIF(o) = 3.75

and in the branch pipe are

SIF(i) = 6.70

SIF(o) = 5.58

24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Also assume that finite element analysis of the intersection showed the header stress intensification factors

to be 2.3 and 1.87, respectively, and the branch stress intensification factors to be equal to the code

recommended values, i.e. 6.70 and 5.58. To properly override the code-calculated stress intensification

factors for the header pipes, two pipe elements will have to be modified:

35 to 40 Node 40

Type:

SIF(i): 2.3

SIF(o): 1.87

40 to 15 Node 40

Type:

SIF(i): 2.3

SIF(o): 1.87

The stress intensification for the branch pipes can be calculated according to the code, so, part of the

branch pipe spreadsheet might appear:

175 to 40 NODE 40

Type: 2 - Unreinforced

SIF(i):

SIF(o):

If either of the SIF fields for the header elements going to 40 were left blank, the code-calculated value

would be used in its place. This is only true where code-calculated values exist along with user-specified

values.

If the element from 110 to 115 is a reducer and the stress intensification factors for each of its ends is 2.0,

then a part of the reducer’s element spreadsheet might appear:

110 to 115 Node 110

Type:

SIF(i): 2.0

SIF(o):

Node: 115

Type:

SIF(i): 2.0

SIF(o):

Leaving the out-of-plane stress intensification factor blank implies that it is equal to the in-plane stress

intensification factor. There are no code-calculated values to override these user-input values.

The user is not permitted to override code-calculated stress intensification factors for bend elements

(unless the Allow User's Bend SIF directive is activated in the configuration file). Additionally, bend

stress intensification factors will supersede any code-calculated intersection stress intensification factors

for the same node. This characteristic allows the user to apply code-calculated intersection stress

intensification factors to dummy legs without disturbing the normal bend stress intensification factors. The

node on the dummy leg, that is also on the bend curvature, is defined as an intersection on the Intersection

SIF Scratchpad. The intersection stress intensification factors will be calculated and can be applied to the

dummy leg end that connects to the bend. Bend stress intensification factors are unchanged.

Stress intensification factors can be calculated for intersections having one, two, or three pipes framing

into it. Where two pipes form a partial intersection, CAESAR II assumes that the larger pipe is the header

and the smaller the branch.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 25

Where one pipe forms a partial intersection, CAESAR II assumes that the intersection is full sized.

CAESAR II will not calculate stress intensification factors for intersections having more than three pipes

framing into it.

The stress intensification factors calculated by CAESAR II can be viewed interactively from the pipe

spreadsheet by selecting either the KAUX - REVIEW SIFS AT INTERSECTION NODES menu item or the KAUX -

REVIEW SIFS AT BEND NODES menu item. One of the following SIF scratchpads will appear after typing in the

node number to review when prompted. Note that the Node must be a valid Bend node when Reviewing

SIFs at Bends.

At this point the user may interactively change any of the spreadsheet data and recalculate the SIFs. This

allows the user to see the effect that changing geometries and properties have on code stress intensification

factors.

Note: CAESAR II gives the user the opportunity to transfer back to the actual model any data which

might be changed in the scratch pad.

Reducers

26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Activate or deactivate this option by double-clicking on the Reducer check box on the piping element

spreadsheet.

Optionally, enter the TO END Diameter 2, Thickness 2, and Alpha values of the reducer. The FROM

END diameter and wall thickness of the reducer element will be taken from the current piping element

spreadsheet.

CAESAR II will construct a concentric reducer element made of ten pipe cylinders, each of a successively

larger (or smaller) diameter and wall thickness over the element length. CAESAR II will calculate SIFs

according to the current piping code (see Code Compliance Considerations in the CAESAR II Technical

Reference Manual for more information) and apply these internally to the Code Stress Calculations.

These SIFs are dependent on the slope of the reducer transition (among other code-specific

considerations), labeled Alpha in the figure above. If no Alpha is entered the program will calculate this

value based on the change in pipe diameter over 60% of the entered element length. If entered, Diameter2

and Thickness2 will be carried forward when the next pipe element is created as Diameter and Wt/Sch. If

not specified, Diameter2 and Thickness2 will be assumed equal to those values entered as Diameter and

Wt/Sch on the following element spreadsheet.

The Piping Error Checker will report the value of alpha used by CAESAR II (see above picture) if no value

for alpha is entered on the input spreadsheet.

Diameter 2

Enter the 2nd diameter of the reducer element. (The 1st diameter is obtained from the diameter field of

the piping spreadsheet.)

Thickness 2

Enter the 2nd wall thickness of the reducer element. (The 1st wall thickness is obtained from the wall

thickness field of the piping spreadsheet.)

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 27

Alpha Angle

Define the reducer angle in degrees. If left blank, this value is determined by CAESAR II from the

difference in reducer diameters and 2/3 the reducer length.

R1

Enter the transition radius for the large end of the reducer, as shown in Appendix 4, Table 8.

R2

Enter the transition radius for the small end of the reducer, as shown in Appendix 4, Table 8.

28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Restraints

Activate the restraint auxiliary by double-clicking on the check box. Deactivate by double-clicking a

second time.

If more than four restraints are to be specified on one element, the additional restraints may be placed on

any other input spreadsheet.

Note Do not use restraints in these three situations:

1) Imposed Displacements

Specify displacements for the point using the Displacement Auxiliary field.

2) Flexible Nozzles

Use the Nozzles check box to open the Nozzles Auxiliary Data field to input the vessel or tank

characteristics required by WRC 297, PD 5500, or API 650 to calculate local nozzle flexibilities. Once

these flexibilities have been calculated, CAESAR II automatically inserts the necessary restraints and

flexibilities into the piping model.

3) Hangers program designed or pre-defined spring hangers

Use the Hangers check box to open the Hanger Auxiliary Data field.

Node

Node number where the restraint is to act.

Note: The node number does not have to be on the current element.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 29

CNode

Optional connecting node. Restraints with connecting nodes can be used to tie one node in the piping

system to any other node in the system. If left blank then the restraint node is tied, via the restraint

stiffness, to a fixed point in space. If the connecting node is specified then the restraint node is tied, via the

restraint stiffness, to the connecting node.

In all cases, CNodes associate nodal degrees of freedom. Additionally, CNodes can be used to

geometrically connect different parts of a model graphically. This option is controlled via the setup file

directive Connect Geometry through CNodes (on page 15). See Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference

Manual for additional information on this topic.

Type

The following restraints can be activated by selecting them from the drop list in the Restraint Auxiliary

field. The use of these restraints is detailed in Chapter 3 of the CAESAR II Applications Guide.

Restraint Type Abbreviation

1 Anchor ANC

2 Translational Double Acting X, Y, or Z

3 Rotational Double Acting RX, RY, or RZ

4 Guide, Double Acting GUIDE

5 Double Acting Limit Stop LIM

6 Translational Double Acting Snubber XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB

7 Translational Directional +X, -X, +Y, -Y, +Z, -Z

8 Rotational Directional +RX, -RX, +RY, etc.

9 Directional Limit Stop +LIM,-LIM

10 Large Rotation Rod XROD, YROD, ZROD

11 Translational Double Acting BilinearX2, Y2, Z2

12 Rotational Double Acting Bilinear RX2, RY2, RZ2

13 Translational Directional Bilinear -X2, +X2, -Y2, etc.

14 Rotational Directional Bilinear +RX2,-RX2, +RY2, etc.

15 Bottom Out Spring XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR

16 Directional Snubber +XSNB,-XSNB,+YSNB, etc.

Anchor

Restraint is defined for “ALL” degrees of freedom at the node.

X , Y, or Z

Translational restraints may be preceded by a (+) or (-). If a sign is entered, it defines the direction of

allowed free displacement along the specified degree of freedom. (i.e. a +Y restraint is restraint against

movement in the minus -Y direction and is free to move in the plus Y direction).

RX, RY, or RZ

Rotational restraints may be preceded by a (+) or (-). If a sign is entered, it defines the direction of allowed

free displacement along the specified degree of freedom.

30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Guide

Transverse restraint that may be skewed.

LIM

Limit stops are axial restraints that may be preceded by a (+) or (-). If a sign is entered, it defines the

direction of allowed free displacement along the element longitudinal axis.

XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB

Snubbers are restraints that engage only during quick movements such as those induced by a shock. They

only act on the piping system in the Occasional load case. Snubbers may be preceded by a (+) or a (-).

X2, Y2, Z2

Bilinear supports are restraints that have two different stiffnesses associated with them. The stiffness is

dependent upon the loading on the support. Bilinear supports may be preceded by a (+) or a (-).

XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR

Spring supports that may be preceded by a (+) or a (-).

X (cosx, cosy, cosz) or X (vecx, vecy, vecz)

Translational skewed restraints. May be preceded by a (+) or (-). If a direction vector is entered, i.e. vecx,

vecy, vecz, CAESAR II will convert the direction vector into the corresponding cosines.

RX (cosx, cosy, cosz) or RX (vecx, vecy, vecz)

Rotational skewed restraints.

XROD, YROD, ZROD

Translational, large rotation, rod or hanger-type restraints. These types of supports are described in greater

detail in Chapter 6 of this manual.

XROD (COSX, COSY, COSZ) or XROD (VECX, VECY, VECZ)

Translational skewed, large rotation rod or hanger type restraint.

Stif

:

If the restraint is rigid (1.0E12 lb./in. or as defined in the configuration file) the Stiffness field should be

left blank. If not rigid, then any non-negative value (preferably between 1.0 and 1015).

Gap

Distance along the restraint line of action the restrained node may move freely before resistance to

movement begins. If the translational restraint is not preceded by a sign, then the restraint is double

acting and the gap will be taken to exist for both positive and the negative displacements along the line of

action (i.e. if a 0.25 in. gap is specified at a +Y restraint, then the restrained node may move freely 0.25 in.

in the minus Y direction before restraint occurs. The gap specification does not affect the amount of free

displacement that can occur along the positive Y direction in this example).

When defining windows of allowed movement it is not uncommon to place two restraints having the same

line of action, but with different signs at the same node. This configuration is perfectly legal. The user is

cautioned to remember to form the window with signs on restraints rather than with signs on gaps. In

CAESAR II a gap is a measure of length and is always positive.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 31

Mu

Static friction coefficient, usually about 0.3. Restraint to sliding will be along the directions orthogonal to

the restraint line of action.

A friction coefficient may be automatically assigned to every new translational restraint by assigning a

value to the Coefficient of Friction field (see "Coefficient of Friction (Mu)" on page 5) in the

Configure/Setup module.

Hangers

Activate the hangers auxiliary by double-clicking on the check box. Deactivate by double-clicking a

second time.

Node

The node to which the hanger is connected.

CNode

The CNode, or connecting node number, is used only when the other end of the hanger is to be connected

to another point in the system, such as another pipe node.

Hanger Table

The following spring tables are currently included in CAESAR II:

32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

5. Lisega 6. Fronek

Additional design options are invoked by further modifying the hanger table number:

Add + 100 to get Extended Range

Add + 200 to get Cold Load Design

Add + 400 to get the Hot load centered if possible.

For example, to use Grinnell Springs and cold load design the user would enter:

1 + 200 = 201.

To use Grinnell “Extended Range” springs, Cold Load Design, and to get the Design Hot load centered in

the middle of the hanger table, if possible, the user would enter:

1 + 100 + 200 + 400 = 701.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 33

A single job can use any combination of tables. The hanger table can be specified on the individual hanger

spreadsheet, or can be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page

88).

If a spring table is entered in the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet then it is used as the default for all

subsequent hangers defined. The Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet defaults to the hanger table-

specified in the configuration file.

The maximum load range was included in CAESAR II to permit the selection of less expensive variable

support hangers in place of constant effort supports when the spring loads are just outside the

manufacturers recommended range. Users should make sure that the maximum load range is available

from the manufacturer as a standard item.

Cold Load Spring Hanger Design. Cold Load Spring Hanger Design is a method of designing the springs,

whereby the hot (or operating) load is supported in the cold (or installed) position of the piping. This

method of spring design offers several advantages over the more usual hot load design:

Hanger stops are easier to remove.

There is no excessive movement from the neutral position when the system is cold or when the stops

are removed.

Spring loads can be adjusted before the system is brought up to temperature.

Some feel that the cold load approach yields a much more dependable design.

In some system configurations, operating loads on connected equipment are lower. A typical

configuration resulting in this “load-reduction” is one where a hot vertical riser, anchored at the

bottom, turns horizontally into a nozzle connection. The spring to be designed is at the elbow adjacent

to the nozzle. Operating loads are lower because the difference between the hot and cold loads

counters the moment produced by the vertical thermal expansion from the anchor.

The disadvantages to cold load design are

In some systems, in the hot condition the loads on rotating equipment may be increased by a value

proportional to the spring rate times the travel.

Most installations are done on a hot load design basis.

The decision to use hot or cold load hanger design rests with the user.

Middle of the Table Hanger Design. Many designers prefer that the hot load be centered as close as possible

to the middle of the spring table. This is to provide as much “variability” either way before the spring

bottoms out when the system is hot. This was a much more needed feature, before effective computer

modelling of piping systems, when the weights at hangers were approximated by chart methods or

calculated by hand. Activating this option does not guarantee that spring hot loads will be at the middle of

the spring table, but CAESAR II makes every effort to move the hot load to this position. The CAESAR II

design algorithm will go to a higher size spring if the design load is closer to the middle of the larger

springs range, but will never switch spring types. This option can only result in a one size larger spring

when it is effective. CAESAR II will attempt to move the hot load to the next higher spring when it is within

10% of the maximum travel range for the spring. If the new spring is not satisfactory then the old one will

be used, even though its hot load is within 10% of the high end of the table load range, to get a springs hot

load close to the middle of the table.

Extended Load Range Springs. Extended load ranges are the most extreme ranges on the spring load table.

Some manufacturers build double spring supports to accommodate this range, and others adjust the top or

bottom travel limits to accommodate either end of the extended table. Before using the maximum ranges,

the user should make sure that the manufacturer can properly supply the spring. Use of the extended range

often eliminates the need to go to a constant effort support. Lisega springs do not support the "extended

range" idea. A request for extended Lisega springs results in the standard Lisega spring table and ranges.

34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This tells CAESAR II how much room, above or below the pipe, there is to install the hanger or can. If the

value entered by the user is negative, then CAESAR II will assume that a can is to be installed. If the value

entered is positive then CAESAR II will assume that a hanger is to be in installed. Hangers or cans will be

selected for a particular location only if they can be installed in the space allotted. The precise definition

of available space varies with the manufacturer. Drawings and tables for each manufacturer are shown at

the end of this section.

This is the available vertical clearance for the hanger or can:

If the Available Space is not an important design criteria, then the field should be left blank or zero.

If the Available Space is positive, then the vertical clearance will be assumed to be above the pipe and a

hanger will be designed. If the Available Space is negative, then the vertical clearance will be assumed to

be below the pipe and a can will be designed.

When the Available Space is the governing factor in a hanger design, several smaller springs are typically

chosen in place of one large spring.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 35

This is the user specified limit on the allowed variation between the hot and cold hanger loads. If not

specified, the only limit on load variation is that inherent in the spring table. This is approximately 100%

when the hot load is smaller than the cold load, and 50% when the hot load is larger than the cold load.

Hot loads are smaller than cold loads whenever the operating displacement in the Y direction is positive.

The default value for the load variation is 25%. The user is advised to enter this value in the Hanger Run

Control Spreadsheet before any hangers are defined. Bergen-Paterson is the only manufacturer that

specifically gives 25% as a design limit.

The Allowable Load Variation is the percentage variation from the hot load:

| Cold Load - Hot Load |

Variation = ——————————————-

Hot Load

or as may be more familiar:

|(Travel)(Spring Rate)|

Variation = ——————————————-

Hot Load

The Allowable Variation is entered as a percentage, i.e. twenty five percent would be entered 25.0. The

Allowable Load Variation can have different values for different hanger locations if necessary by entering

the chosen value on the individual hanger spreadsheets or it can be entered on the Hanger Design

Control Spreadsheet to apply to all hangers in the model.

Rigid Support Displacement Criteria

This is a parameter used to determine if there is sufficient travel to design a spring. The Rigid Support

Displacement Criteria is a cost saving feature that replaces springs that are not needed with rigid rods.

The hanger design algorithm operates by first running a restrained weight case. From this case the load to

be supported by the hanger in the operating condition is determined. Once the hanger design load is

known, an operating case is run with the hot hanger load installed to determine the travel at the hanger

location. If this determined hanger travel is less than the Rigid Support Displacement Criteria then a

rigid Y support is selected for the location instead of a spring.

If the Rigid Support Displacement is left blank or zero, the criteria will not be applied.

The Rigid Support Displacement Criteria may be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet, or

on each individual hanger spreadsheet. The value specified on the Run Control Spreadsheet is used as the

default for all hangers not having it defined explicitly.

A typical value to be used is 0.1 in.

Important: In some cases a Single directional restraint should be inserted instead of a rigid rod. Rigid

rods are double acting restraints which can in some cases develop large “hold down” forces that don’t

really exist because the support has lifted off, or because the rigid rod has bowed slightly. When this

condition develops the user should rerun the hanger design inserting single directional restraints where

rigid rods were put in by CAESAR II.

Hangers should probably never be replaced by rigid rods in very stiff parts of the piping system that are

usually associated with rotating equipment or vessel nozzles that need to be protected.

36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

To specify a limit on the amount of travel a variable support hanger may undergo, specify the limit in this

field. The specification of a maximum travel limit will cause CAESAR II to select a constant effort support

if the design operating travel exceeds this limit, even though a variable support from the manufacturer

table would have been satisfactory in every other respect.

Constant effort hangers can be designed by inputting a very small number for the Maximum Allowed

Travel Limit. A value of 0.001 is typical to force CAESAR II to select a for a particular location.

If left blank, CAESAR II will attempt to find a single hanger that suits all design requirements at the

location. If a single hanger cannot be found, then CAESAR II will try to find a double hanger that satisfies

all design requirements. If a double hanger cannot be found, then CAESAR II will recommend a constant

effort support hanger for the location.

If the user wants to use a different upper limit on the number of springs that CAESAR II will consider for a

location, then the negative of that number should be entered in this field. For example, if the user wants to

use as few springs as possible, yet is willing to use as many as 5 springs if necessary, -5 should be entered

in the No. of Hangers field.

To directly specify the number of springs to be designed at a location, enter that number in the No. of

Hangers field.

Note: Enter only positive numbers in the No of Hangers field.

CAESAR II gives the user the option of excluding short range springs from consideration from the

selection algorithms. In some instances short range springs are considered specialty items and are not used

unless their shorter length is required for clearance reasons. In this case, this check box should be cleared

by the user.

If this option is not activated, CAESAR II will select a mid-range spring over a short-range spring,

assuming they are more standard, readily available, and in general cheaper than their short-range

counterparts.

If the default should be that short range springs are used wherever possible, then check the box on the

Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet.

Operating Load

To override the operating load that CAESAR II is calculating, enter the desired value in the Operating

Load field. This value is normally entered when the user thinks that loads on a piece of equipment will be

reduced if a hanger in the vicinity of the equipment is artificially caused to carry a proportionately larger

part of the total load. This operating load is the hot load the hanger is designed to support after it

undergoes any travel due to the thermal expansion of the piping. CAESAR II’s calculated hanger operating

loads may be read from the hanger table printed in the output processor. The column title is “HOT

LOAD.” The user’s entered value will similarly show up in this table if defined. The total desired

operating load at the location should be entered. If there are two hangers specified at the location and each

should carry 500 lb., then the operating load specified should be 1,000 lb.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 37

The spring selection algorithm can be based on one or more operating conditions. A two-pump

installation, where only one pump operates at a time, is a good application for multiple load case hanger

design.

There are currently thirteen different multiple load case design algorithms available:

Design spring per operating case #1.

Design spring per operating case #2.

Design spring per operating case #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, and #9.

Design spring for maximum operating load.

Design spring for maximum travel.

Design spring for average load and average travel.

Design spring for maximum load and maximum travel.

The Multiple Load Case Design option can be specified at the global level in the Hanger Design

Control Data Spreadsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page 88). The globally specified option will apply for

all hanger design locations unless overridden in a specific hanger design spreadsheet.

Enter the number of operating thermal cases to be considered when sizing springs for this system in the

Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet. This value defaults to 1.0. Also enter the Multiple Load Case

Design option to be the default value (unless the design option is to be specified individually for each

hanger to be designed in the system).

Example Problem of a Multiple Load - Case Spring - Hanger Design

This example illustrates the different hanger designs that can result from the use of different multiple load

case design options.

38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 39

Anchors, or restraints, simulating equipment connections that are in the immediate vicinity of the hanger

are usually freed during the hanger design restrained weight run, so that loads normally going to the

equipment nozzle are carried by the hanger. The user should enter the node number for the equipment

where the restraint to be freed acts. The corresponding “free code” may also be specified to tell CAESAR II

which of the restraint/anchor directions to be freed. For nozzles that are further removed from the hanger

usually only the Y direction should be freed.

Hangers are commonly used around equipment nozzles to support the weight of the pipe as it thermally

expands away from the nozzle. The hanger can usually be designed to take almost the full weight of the

pipe between the anchor and the hanger if the anchor is freed when making the restrained weight

calculation. The anchor is “freed” by entering its node number in the Free Anchor/Restraint at Node

field. The pipe going to the anchor will be treated just like a free end (for the hanger weight calculation

only!!!). The Free Code field works with the Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field to limit the actual

degrees of freedom at an anchor that are released.

The Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field works in conjunction with the Free Code field. If the Free

Code is not specified for an anchor, the anchor is assumed to be completely free for the restrained weight

run.

The “Restrained Weight” hanger design pass is the first analysis step in the hanger design, and is run

automatically by CAESAR II. The following steps comprise the “Restrained Weight” run:

1 Putting rigid Y restraints at each hanger location.

2 Removing anchors and restraints that are to be “freed.”

3 Running the weight analysis to find the hot hanger loads.

Free Code

Whenever an anchor or restraint should be released for the restrained weight run, that anchor’s node

number should be put in the Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field, and the Free Code describing the

directions to be released should be put in the Free Code field on the same hanger spreadsheet. Free Codes

are

Free the anchor or restraint in the Y direction only.

Free the anchor or restraint in the Y and X directions only.

Free the anchor or restraint in the Y and Z directions only.

Free all translational degrees of freedom for the anchor or restraint. (X,Y and Z)

Free all translational and rotational degrees of freedom for the anchor or restraint. (X, Y, Z, RX, RY,

and RZ)

The last option usually results in the highest adjacent hanger loads, but should only be used when the

horizontal distance between the hanger and the anchor is within about 4 pipe diameters.

40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

When using the Predefined Hanger Data fields on the hanger spreadsheet, and there is more than one

hanger at the location, use the Number of Hangers field to specify the number of hangers. Then enter the

spring rate and pre-load applicable to a single hanger. There is no reason to try to compute the equivalent

spring rates or theoretical loads.

Pre-defined hanger data can be entered in one of two ways:

All information for the hanger can be input.

Only the spring rate for the hanger can be input.

If all information is input, the restraint configuration for the node is completely defined and it will not be

included in the hanger design algorithm. For a position to be completely pre-defined, one of the following

conditions must apply:

spring rate and theoretical cold load

constant effort support load

Spring Rate and Cold Load

The spring rate and the theoretical cold load effectively define a hanger location. If the user enters both,

then the hanger location will be completely pre-defined by the user and no analysis level design for the

hanger will take place.

Re-setting Loads on Existing Spring Hangers

If only the spring rate is given, CAESAR II will assume that the user wants to re-rate the spring at the given

location. The old spring rate should be read from the existing hanger and input directly to CAESAR II. The

Theoretical Cold Load field should be left blank for the re-rate. If more than a single spring exists at the

location, then the total number of springs should be entered in the No. of Hangers field (CAESAR II

assumes that the load is distributed evenly among multiple springs at the same point).

CAESAR II will go through its normal hanger design procedure to calculate the load and travel for all

proposed hanger locations including the location with springs to be re-set. The stiffness of the re-set

springs will not be used for this re-design. Once CAESAR II sizes the springs, a comparison will be made

with the user-entered spring rates. If the program's selected spring rate is within 5% of the user's existing

spring rate, CAESAR II will list the spring's figure number and size in the output report. If the selected

spring rate is more than 5% off the users value, no manufacturer's data will be listed. In either case,

CAESAR II will use the user-entered spring rate in all following analyses. It is up to the user to confirm that

the new hot and cold loads are within the existing spring's working range.

The major use of the re-rate capability is to find new installed loads for old springs. Springs might be re-

rated after the shutdown of a unit that has been operating continuously for a long period, or after

mechanical or process changes have been made to a piping system.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 41

Nozzles

Activate by double-clicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the

WRC 297 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by double-clicking a second

time.

Activate by double-clicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the

WRC 297 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by double-clicking a second

time.

42 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

When a nozzle node number is input, CAESAR II scans the current input data for the node and loads its

diameter and wall thickness and enters it in the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field.

Current nozzle flexibility calculations are in accordance with the Welding Research Council Bulletin No.

297, issued August 1984 for cylinder to cylinder intersections.

A valid nozzle node has the following properties:

Only a single element connects to the nozzle node.

The nozzle node is not restrained and does not have displacements specified for any of its degrees of

freedom.

Computed nozzle flexibilities are automatically included in the piping system analysis via program

generated restraints. This generation is completely transparent to the user. Six restraints are established for

each flexible nozzle input.

If a vessel node number is defined, then the vessel node acts like a connecting node for each of the six

restraints. Vessel nodes are subject to the same restrictions shown above for nozzle nodes.

Note: The user should not put a restrainer on an element between the nozzle node and any specified

vessel node. CAESAR II creates the required connectivity from the nozzle flexibility data and any user

generated stiffnesses between these two points will add erroneously to the nozzle stiffnesses.

During the error checking of the nozzle flexibilities, all useful WRC curve data is displayed on the

terminal. These values may be used to enter the illustrated nozzles in the WRC 297 bulletin. It is

sometimes helpful to know just how close a particular nozzle is to one of the several asymptotic limits, or

to a curve boundary.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 43

Note: The user will only be able to see the WRC 297 computed data during the error checking process

with warning messages activated.

Each input item on the nozzle spreadsheet is discussed in detail as follows:

Nozzle Node Number

Node that is located at the nozzle’s intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping

element connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element

should be perpendicular to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however,

the first (possibly very short) nozzle element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the

vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on

the true centerline of the nozzle.

Vessel Node Number

Node on the vessel/tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel shell. The vessel/tank

node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in

space. If the vessel node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the stiffnesses to the vessel node.

Vessel nodes are specified when the user wishes to model through the vessel from the nozzle connection

to the skirt or foundation.

Nozzle Diameter

Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the

nozzle.)

Nozzle Wall Thickness

Wall thickness of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the wall thickness of the pipe element used to

model the nozzle.)

Vessel Diameter

Vessel Wall Thickness

Wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vessel. Do not include the

thickness of any reinforcing pad.

Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness

Thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle. This thickness is added to the vessel wall thickness before

nozzle stiffness calculations are performed.

Distance to Stiffener or Head

Distance along the vessel center-line, from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the

closest stiffener or head in the vessel that significantly stiffens the cross-section of the vessel against local

deformation normal to the shell surface.

44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Distance from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the

vessel on the other side of the nozzle. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels.

Vessel centerline direction vector X, Y, Z

Direction vector or direction cosines which define the center-line of the vessel. For a vertical vessel this

entry would read:

Vessel centerline direction vector X:<blank>

Vessel centerline direction vector Y: 1.0

Vessel centerline direction vector Z:<blank>

Note: The centerlines of the nozzle and vessel cannot be collinear or CAESAR II will flag this as an error.

Estimated temperature of the vessel/nozzle junction. If input, the vessel temperature must be paired with a

valid vessel material number. The estimated temperature is used to calculate the hot modulus of elasticity.

Vessel Material No. (Optional)

If input, the vessel material number must be paired with a valid vessel temperature. The allowed vessel

material number can be any valid material number from the material database and corresponds to the pipe

materials used in the spreadsheet. If the vessel temperature and the vessel material number are left blank

or zero, an elastic modulus of 29.0E6 psi will be used.

Activate by double-clicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the

API 650 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by double-clicking the check box

a second time.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 45

CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to appendix P of API 650, "Design of Carbon

Steel Atmospheric Oil Storage Tanks."

Nozzle Node Number

Node that is located at the nozzle’s intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping

element connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element

should be perpendicular to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however,

the first (possibly very short) nozzle element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the

vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on

the true centerline of the nozzle.

Tank Node Number

Node on the tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel/tank shell.

The tank node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the API stiffnesses to a point

fixed rigidly in space. If the tank node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the API stiffnesses

to the tank node.

Tank nodes are specified when the user wishes to model through the tank from the nozzle connection to

the foundation.

Nozzle Diameter

Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the

nozzle.)

Nozzle Wall Thickness

Wall Thickness of the Nozzle. May be different than the attached pipe wall thickness

46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Outside Diameter of the Vessel or API 650 storage tank. Note that API 650 Addendum 1 does not

recommend these computations for diameters less than 120 feet.

API-650 Tank Wall Thickness

Wall Thickness of the Vessel at the point where the Nozzle connects to the vessel. DO NOT include the

thickness of any reinforcing pad.

API 650 Reinforcing 1 or 2

For API tanks, if the reinforcing is on the shell, then enter 1. If it is on the nozzle, enter a 2.

API 650 Nozzle Height

For API 650 applications, enter the height from the centerline of the nozzle to the base of the tank.

API 650 Fluid Height

Enter the liquid level of the fluid in the storage tank. This fluid level must be greater than the nozzle

height.

API 650 Specific Gravity

Enter the specific gravity of the stored liquid. This value is unitless.

API-650 Tank Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

Enter the coefficient of thermal expansion of the plate material of the tank is constructed. Values are listed

in engineering handbooks or the appropriate section of the API 650, App P. If this value is left blank, zero

will be assumed.

API 650 Delta T

Enter the change in temperature from ambient to its maximum that the tank normally experiences. For

example: If the maximum summertime temperature is 107°F. The delta T would be 107 - 70 = 37°F. If this

value is left blank, zero will be assumed.

API-650 Tank Modulus of Elasticity

For API 650 nozzles, the hot modulus of elasticity of the tank must be entered directly. If this value is left

blank, 29.5E6 will be assumed.

PD 5500 Nozzles

Activate by double-clicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the PD

5500 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by double-clicking the check box a

second time.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 47

CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to Appendix G of the PD 5500 Specification for

Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels. The input requirements for these nozzles are:

Nozzle Node Number

Node that is located at the nozzle’s intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping

element connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element

should be perpendicular to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however,

the first (possibly very short) nozzle element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the

vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on

the true centerline of the nozzle.

Vessel Node Number

Node on the vessel/tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel shell. The vessel/tank

node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in

space. If the vessel node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the stiffnesses to the vessel node.

Vessel nodes are specified when the user wishes to model through the vessel from the nozzle connection

to the skirt or foundation.

Vessel Type - Cylinder (0) or Sphere (1)

If the vessel is cylindrical, enter a 0. For cylinders, the distances to stiffeners/heads and the vessel

direction cosines are required. If the vessel is spherical, enter a 1. For spheres, the fields for the distances

to stiffeners/heads and vessel direction cosines are both ignored.

Nozzle Diameter

Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the

nozzle.)

Vessel Diameter

48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vessel. Do not include the

thickness of any reinforcing pad.

Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness

Thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle. This thickness is added to the vessel wall thickness before

nozzle stiffness calculations are performed.

Distance to Stiffener or Head

Distance along the vessel center-line, from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the

closest stiffener or head in the vessel that significantly stiffens the cross-section of the vessel against local

deformation normal to the shell surface.

Distance to Opposite-Side Stiffener or Head

Distance from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the

vessel on the other side of the nozzle. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels.

Vessel Centerline Direction Cosines

These are direction vectors or direction cosines that define the center-line of the vessel. For a horizontal

vessel aligned with the “X” axis, this entry would read:

Vessel centerline direction vector X ..... 1.0

Vessel centerline direction vector Y ..... <Blank>

Vessel centerline direction vector Z ..... <Blank>

Note: The centerlines of the nozzle and vessel cannot be co-linear or CAESAR II will flag this as an error.

This entry is ignored for spherical vessels.

Estimated temperature of the vessel/nozzle junction. If input, the vessel temperature must be paired with a

valid vessel material number. The estimated temperature is used to calculate the hot modulus of elasticity.

Vessel Material No. (Optional)

If input, the vessel material number must be paired with a valid vessel temperature. The allowed vessel

material number can be any valid material number from the material database and corresponds to the pipe

materials used in the spreadsheet. If the vessel temperature and the vessel material number are left blank

or zero, an elastic modulus of 29.0E6 psi will be used.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 49

Displacements

Activate by double-clicking the Displacements check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate

by double-clicking the Displacements check box a second time.

Enter the node number where the displacement is to be specified. There must not be a restraint at this

node.

Enter the displacements at the node. Any displacement direction not specified for any displacement vector

will be free.

To specify an anchor at node 1000 with a 1/2-in. displacement in the minus Y direction for displacement

set #1, enter data as shown in the figure above.

The displacements at a node can be specified for up to 9 different vectors, intended to correspond to the 9

temperature cases.

Note: If an imposed displacement is specified for a specific degree-of-freedom, that degree-of-freedom

will be considered restrained for all load cases whether or not they contain that displacement set.

50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Forces and Moments

FORCES (

Activate by double-clicking the Forces/Moments check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate

by double-clicking the check box a second time.

Enter the node number where the forces and/or moments are to act.

Enter the magnitudes of the forces and/or moments. Up to 9 different force vectors can be defined at each

node point.

Uniform Loads

Activate by double-clicking the Uniform Loads check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet.

Deactivate by double-clicking the check box a second time.

The uniform load specification is distributive, and will act on all following elements until zeroed or

changed. A snow load of 8.0 pounds per foot (assuming units of pounds per inch) could be entered:

Vector 1 Vector 2 Vector 3

UX

UY -8/12

UZ

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 51

or may be entered:

UX

UY -.6667

UZ

UX, UY, and UZ can be changed to GX, GY, and GZ so that uniform loads can be entered as a fraction of

the total pipe weight through the Kaux- Special Execution Parameters (see "Uniform Load in G's" on

page 97) command. The GX, GY, and GZ specifications are used most frequently for defining static

earthquake loadings.

Note: Up to 3 uniform load vectors can be defined.

Wind Loads

Activate by double-clicking the Wind/Wave check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by

double-clicking the check box a second time.

This is a shape factor as defined in ASCE #7. A value of 0.5 to 0.65 is typically used for cylindrical

sections. Activating the wind directive will enable the Wind Load Input Spreadsheets, which are accessed

from the Load Case Editor during the Static Analysis. This auxiliary is used to define the presence of

wind loads (via the wind shape factor as defined in ASCE #?) or wave loads (with associated coefficients).

The load type may be set or turned off via the radio button.

Important: This value is distributive, and will act on all following elements until changed or turned

off.

Wave Loads

Activate by double-clicking the Wind/Wave check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by

double-clicking the check box a second time.

52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Important: These values are distributive, and will act on all following elements until changed or

turned off.

Drag Coefficient, Cd

Coefficient as recommended by API RP2A. Typical values range from 0.6 to 1.20. Entering a 0.0 instructs

CAESAR II to calculate the drag coefficient based on particle velocities.

Added Mass Coefficient, Ca

This coefficient accounts for the added mass of fluid entrained into the pipe. Typical values range from

0.5 to 1.0. Entering a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to calculate the added mass coefficient based on particle

velocities.

Lift Coefficient, Cl

This coefficient accounts for wave lift, which is the force perpendicular to both the element axis and the

particle velocity vector. Entering a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to calculate the added lift coefficient based on

particle velocities.

Marine Growth

The thickness of any marine growth adhering to the external pipe wall. This will increase the pipe

diameter experiencing wave loading by twice this value.

Marine Growth Density

An entry in this field designates the density to be used if including the weight of the marine growth in the

pipe weight. If left blank, the weight of the marine growth will be ignored.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 53

Allowable Stresses

Activate by double-clicking the Allowable Stresses check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet.

Deactivate by double-clicking the check box a second time.

The Allowable Stress Auxiliary field incorporates piping codes with their associated inputs. The help

screens should be used liberally to be sure that the proper interpretation of each new input data cell is

made. A CAESAR II Piping Spreadsheet illustrating the Allowable Stress field is shown above.

Note: Allowable stress data is distributive, and applies to all following elements unless changed or

zeroed.

Codes

The piping codes are listed in the following table. Their current publication dates can be found in the

CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide.

B31.5 RCC-M C

B31.8 RCC-M D

54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

BS 806 DNV

Each of the input data cells are discussed in general in the following section. For more information about

code compliance consideration see Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 55

SC

Typically the cold allowable stress for the specific material taken directly from the governing piping code.

The value of SC will usually be divided by the longitudinal weld efficiency (Eff) before being used. See

the notes that follow for the specific piping code.

B31.1. Allowable stress tables in Appendix A include the longitudinal weld joint efficiencies where

applicable. These efficiencies should not be used for flexibility stress calculations. If the joint efficiency

(Eff) is given on this spreadsheet CAESAR II will divide the entered SC by the joint efficiency before using

it in the allowable stress equations.

B31.3. Values from tables in Appendix A don’t include the joint efficiency. Eff should be zero, blank, or

one. Note that the 1980 version of B31.3 included the longitudinal weld joint efficiencies as part of the

tables in Appendix A. If this version of the code is being used then Eff should be entered in the

appropriate field on this spreadsheet.

B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX. SC is not used!!! The only stress value in B31.4 is the yield stress taken from

Table 1 in the appendix. (See the Sy data field on this spreadsheet.)

B31.5. Values from tables in Appendix A don’t include the joint efficiency. Eff should be zero, blank, or

one.

B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII. SC is not used!!! The only stress value in B31.8 is the yield stress taken from

Appendix D. (See the Sy data field.)

B31.11. SC is not used!!! The only stress value used in B31.11 is the yield stress.

ASME NC and ND. SC is taken directly from Appendix I. “Eff” is not used, and is ignored if entered.

Navy 505. There is no mention of joint efficiency in the 505 specification; however, it is implied in

Footnote 1 of Table TIIA. If a joint efficiency is given CAESAR II will divide SC by the joint efficiency

before using it in the allowable stress equations. Eff should probably be zero, blank, or one.

CAN Z662. SC is not used. The only stress value in Z184 is the yield stress specified in the standards or

specification under which the pipe was purchased. (See the Sy data field.)

BS 806. 0.2% of the proof stress at room temperature from Appendix E. “Eff” is not used in BS 806 and is

ignored if entered.

Swedish Method 1. SC is not used. Method 1 only uses either the yield, or creep rupture stress at

temperature, (SHn and Fn respectively on this spreadsheet.) “Eff” is used, but is the Circumferential weld

joint efficiency and has a completely different meaning.

Swedish Method 2. SC is the allowable stress at room temperature from Appendix 2. “Eff” is not used, and

is ignored if entered.

B31.1 (1967). SC is the allowable stress at room temperature from the tables in Appendix A. These tables

include the Longitudinal Weld joint efficiencies where applicable. These efficiencies should not be used

for flexibility stress calculations. If the joint efficiency “Eff” is given CAESAR II will divide the entered SC

by the joint efficiency before using it in the allowable stress equations.

Stoomwezen (1989). SC is the yield stress at room temperature, referred to as Re in the code.

RCC-M C, D. SC is taken from Appendix, “Eff” is not used, and is ignored if entered.

CODETI. This is "famb" from the code. “Eff” is not used, and is ignored if entered.

Norwegian. This is "f1" from the code. “Eff” is not used for longitudinal joint efficiency.

BS 7159. SC is not used. Design stress is entered in the SH fields.

UKOOA. SC is not used. Design stress (in the hoop direction) is entered in the SH fields.

IGE/TD/12. SC is not used.

DNV. SC is not used.

56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

SH

Typically the hot allowable stress for the specific material taken directly from the governing piping code.

A value must be entered for each defined temperature case. The value of SH will usually be divided by the

longitudinal weld efficiency (Eff) before being used. See the recommendations that follow for the specific

piping code.

B31.1. Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.

B31.3. Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.

B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX . SH is not used.

B31.5. Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.

B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII . SH is used for the minimum wall thickness computations only.

B31.11.. SH is not used.

ASME NC and ND. Allowable stress from Appendix I.

Navy 505. Allowable stress from Table XIIA. See SC above.

CAN Z662. SH is not used.

BS 806. SH is 0.2% of the proof stress at design temperature Appendix E. (Eff is not used.)

Swedish Method 1. SH is the yield stress at temperature from Appendix 1.

Swedish Method 2. SH is the allowable stress at temperature from Appendix 2.

B31.1 (1967). Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.

Stoomwezen. SH is the yield stress at design temperature, referred to as Re (um) in the code.

RCC-M C, D. SH is taken from the Appendix.

CODETI. This is “f” from the code.

Norwegian. This is “"f2” from the code.

FDBR. The hot allowable defined in Section 3.2.

BS 7159. This is the design stress sd, in the longitudinal direction, as defined in Section 4.3 of the code,

i.e.: sd = Sd * Elamx. Design stress in the circumferential (hoop) direction should be specified by entering

the ratio of the circumferential design stress to the axial design stress in the Eff field below. (Note that

since design strain should be the same for both directions, the entry in the Eff field will also be ratio of

Elamf (hoop) to Elamx (longitudinal).

UKOOA. This is the allowable design stress in the hoop direction, defined in the code as f1 * LTHS. The

three “HOT ALLOWABLE STRESS” fields correspond to the three possible temperature cases.

IGE/TD/12. Yield Stress is used here instead of a Hot Allowable Stress.

Sy - Yield Stress at Temperature

This is Syt, the specified minimum yield or stated proof stress of |the pipe material at maximum

temperature.

Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if

available and applicable.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 57

Fn

This input is the stress range reduction factor for most piping codes. Exceptions are noted as follows:

CAN Z662. F1 is the location factor, as defined in Table 4.1. F2 is the temperature derating factor, obtained

from Table 4.3 of the code.

BS 806. Mean stress to failure in design life at design temperature. F1 to F9 correspond to the nine possible

thermal states.

Swedish Method 1. Creep Rupture Stress at temperature. F1 to F9 correspond to the nine possible thermal

states.

Stoomwezen. F1 is the average creep stress to produce one percent set, referred to as Rrg in the code. F2 is

the average creep tensile stress to produce rupture, referred to as Rmg in the code. F3 is the minimum

creep tensile stress to produce rupture, referred to as Rmmin in the code.

BS 7159. The term used in this code is the fatigue factor, Kn, and is used inversely compared to other

codes (so its value is greater than 1.0). Kn is calculated as:

Kn = 1 + 0.25(As/sn) (log10(n) - 3)

Where:

As = stress range during fatigue cycle

sn = Maximum stress during fatigue cycle

n = number of stress cycles during design life

UKOOA. This is the ratio r from the material UKOOA idealized allowable stress envelope. This ratio is

defined as sa(0:1)/sa(2:1) as shown on the figure below. One value should be given for each of the

operating temperature cases.

IGE/TD/12. This is the UTS value.

UTS - Ultimate Tensile Strength of Material

Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if

available and applicable.

58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Eff

The longitudinal weld joint efficiency. The use of this parameter by CAESAR II varies with the piping

code. Depending upon code requirements, the allowable stress may be either divided by Eff for use in the

flexibility calculations or multiplied by Eff for use in the minimum wall calculations. The following

describes the effect of the longitudinal joint efficiency for each of the piping codes.

B31.1, B31.1-1967, B31.5. Allowable stress tables include Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiencies where

applicable. If Eff is entered, values for SC and SH will be divided by Eff before being used in the

flexibility calculations. Eff will be ignored in the minimum wall calculation.

B31.3, B31.4, B31.8, B31.11, NAVY 505, Z662 (J), BS 806 (e), CODETI (z), FDBR (vl). Allowable

stress (or yield stress) tables do not include Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiencies, Eff will be ignored for

the flexibility calculations. SH will be multiplied by Eff when calculating the minimum wall thickness.

B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.8 Chapter VIII, ASME NC, ASME ND, RCCM-C, RCCM-D. Eff is ignored for

both flexibility and minimum wall thickness calculations, and therefore the field is disabled for these code.

Swedish Method 1, Swedish Method 2, Norwegian TBK 5-6. Eff is the circumferential joint factor z and is

used in the calculation of the code stresses, rather than in the calculation of the allowables (either for

flexibility or minimum wall thickness).

Stoomwezen. For this code, this Eff is the cyclic reduction factor, referred to as Cf in the code. Weld

joint efficiency is not considered for this code in CAESAR II.

BS 7159. This code replaces this field with Eh/Ea, the ratio of the hoop modulus to the axial modulus of

elasticity. If omitted, a default value of 1.0 is used, as though the material is isotropic.

UKOOA, IGE/TD/12. These codes replace this field with f2 and Dfac, respectively, the system design

factor (typically 0.67).

DNV. This code replaces this field with usage factor Ns (pressure yielding) from Tables C1 or C2. The

value must be between 0.77 and 0.96.

Design Factor (Unitless)

This is the system design factor, as described in Table 2 of the IGE/TD/12 code. It should normally fall

between 0.3 and 0.67.

Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will |be taken from the material database, if available

and applicable.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 59

Sy

This is a code-specific field, generally requiring input only for the transmission and non-US piping codes.

Code-specific input requirements are described as follows:

B31.1. Not used.

B31.3. Not used.

B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX . Taken from Table 1 in the Appendix.

B31.5. . Used to satisfy the requirements of Paragraph 523.2.2.f.4. This paragraph addresses ferrous

materials in piping systems between -20F and -150F. The value entered here should be the quantity (40%

of the allowable) as detailed in the Code. When Sy is defined, the OPE case will be considered a "stress

case". The allowable reported in the output report will be the value entered here. The computed operating

stress will include all longitudinal components, and ignore torsion.

B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII. Taken from Appendix 5.

B31.11. . Specified Minimum Yield Stress.

ASME Sect III Class 2 and 3 . Basic Material Yield Strength at design temperature for use in Eqn. 9 for

consideration of Level A and B service limits. Level C and Level D service limits must be satisfied in

separate runs by adjusting the value for the occasional factor in the CAESAR II configuration file. If the

occasional factor is set to 1.2, the allowable stress is the minimum of 1.2 x 1.5 SH or 1.5 SY. If the factor

is 1.5, the allowable is the minimum of 1.5 x 1.5 SH or 1.8 SY, while if the factor is 2.0, the allowable is

the minimum of 2.0 x 1.5 SH or 2.0 SY. (Note, in order to satisfy the code SH should be replaced by SM

for the latter two.)

Navy 505. Not used.

CAN Z662. Specified Minimum Yield Strength taken from the standards or specifications under which the

pipe was purchased or as per clause 4.3.3.

BS 806. Sustained Stress Limit. The lower of 0.8 X 0.2% Proof stress value or the creep rupture design

stress value defined in Appendix A under cold or any other operating condition. See 17.2(c)

Swedish Method 1. Not Used. The yield stress at temperature is entered in the respective SHn fields for the

up to nine possible thermal states.

Swedish Method 2. Ultimate Tensile Strength at room temperature.

B31.1 (1967). Not used.

Stoomwezen (1989). SY is the tensile strength at room temperature, referred to as Rm in the code.

RCC-M C, D. Not used.

CODETI. Not used.

Norwegian. This should be the allowable stress at 7000 load cycles, RS, from Code Table 10.2. If not

entered, this factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.

FDBR. Not used.

BS 7159. Not used.

UKOOA. Not used.

IGE/TD/12. Specified minimum yield stress (SMYS).

60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This is SMYS, or Sy, the specified minimum yield or stated proof stress of the pipe material at room

temperature.

Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if

available and applicable.

Fac

A unitless multiplication factor used by some transmission and non-U.S. piping codes. The specific input

required for each piping code is discussed as follows:

B31.1. Not used.

B31.3. Not used.

B31.4. Amount the pipeline may be considered under complete axial restraint, i.e. long and buried. This

option is used primarily when the user is adding bending stresses to the stresses already developed in the

pipeline due to its buried restraint. This condition occurs when, for example a branch is tieing into a long

buried header and the soil supports are not modeled. The equation for stress in CAESAR II is:

Stress = (Fac) x abs[ E (T2-T1) + (1- ) Shoop ] + (SE + SL)(1-Fac)

Where:

E = elastic modulus

= thermal expansion coefficient per degree

T2 = operating temperature

T1 = ambient temperature

= Poisson’s ratio

Shoop= hoop stress in the pipe.

SE = expansion stress due to bending

SL = sustained stress due to pressure.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 61

Fac should be a number between zero and one. One, when the pipe is fully restrained, i.e. buried for a long

distance. Zero when the pipe is subject to no buried axial restraint. The default value for Fac is 0.0. Note

that when Fac is 0.001, this indicates to CAESAR II that the pipe is buried but that the soil supports have

been modeled. This will cause the hoop stress component, rather than the longitudinal stress, to be added

to the operating stresses, conforming to the spirit of the restrained line stress calculation above.

B31.4 Chapter IX. This value is F1, Hoop Stress Design Factor, as per Table A402.3.5(a) of B31.4.

Appropriate values are 0.72 for Pipelines or 0.60 for Platform piping and Risers.

B31.5. Not used.

B31.8. Construction Design Factor, from Table 841.114B.

Construction type: (Descriptions are approx.) FACTOR

A (CLASS 1) Wasteland, Deserts, Mountains, 0.72

Grazing Land, Farmland, Sparsely Populated Areas.

B (CLASS 2) Fringe Areas Around Cities, 0.60

Industrial Areas, Ranch or Country Estates.

C (CLASS 3) Suburban Housing Developments, 0.50

Shopping Centers, Residential Areas.

D (CLASS 4) Multi-Story Buildings are 0.40

prevalent, Traffic is heavy and where there

may be numerous other utilities underground.

(0.4 is the default if not entered.)

B31.8 Chapter VIII. This value is F1, Hoop Stress Design Factor, as per Table A842.22 of B31.8.

Appropriate values are 0.72 for Pipelines or 0.50 for Platform piping and Risers.

B31.11. Amount the pipeline may be considered to be under complete axial restraint (see discussion under

B31.4 above).

ASME Sect III, Class 2 and 3. Not used.

B31.1 (1967). Not used.

Navy 505. Not used

CAN Z662. Indicates whether the pipe is restrained (i.e. long or buried) or unrestrained.

The equation for pipe under complete axial restraint is:

Stress = (Fac) x abs[ E (T2-T1) + (1- ) Shoop ] + (SE + SL)(1-Fac)

Where:

E = elastic modulus

= thermal expansion coefficient per degree

T2 = operating temperature

T1 = ambient temperature

= Poisson’s ratio

Shoop = hoop stress in the pipe.

SE = expansion stress due to bending

SL = sustained stress due to pressure.

62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Fac should be 1.0, 0.0, or 0.001. One, for pipe under complete axial restraint.One, when the pipe is fully

restrained, i.e. buried for a long distance. The default value for Fac is 0.0. Note that when Fac is 0.001,

this indicates to CAESAR II that the pipe is buried but that the soil supports have been modeled. This causes

the hoop stress component, rather than the longitudinal stress, to be added to the operating stresses if the

axial stress is compressive.

BS806. Not used.

Swedish Power Code, Method 1. Sigma(tn) multiplier. Usually 1.5. For prestressed (cold sprung) piping

this value should be 1.35. The default used is 1.5.

Swedish Power Code, Method 2. Not used.

Stoomwezen. This is a constant whose value is either 0.44 or 0.5. Refer to Stoomwezen Section 5.2 for

details.

RCC-M C, D. Not used.

CODETI. Not used.

Norwegian. This should be the material ultimate tensile strength at room temperature, RM. If not entered,

this factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.

FDBR. This cell can be used to over-ride the ratio of Ehot/Ecold, which is automatically determined by

CAESAR II.

The modulus ratio is used to compute the expansion case allowable stress, based on the material and

temperature. Normally, this field can be left blank. However, if desired, a value (greater than zero and less

than one) can be entered in this field to over-ride the program determined ratio.

To correctly utilize the FBDR code, the user should enter the Hot Modulus in the “Elastic Modulus” cell

of the spreadsheet. CAESAR II will look up the Cold Modulus and compute this necessary ratio. Note that

the use of the Hot Modulus in the flexibility analysis is a deviation of FBDR from every other piping code

in

CAESAR II.

Note that if expansion coefficients are entered directly instead of temperatures, the program cannot

determine Ecold. In this case, a value of 1.0 should be entered in this cell and the cyclic reduction factor

fields should be used to specify the product of

( f * Ehot /Ecold) for each temperature case.

BS 7159. Mean temperature change multiplier k, as defined in Section 7.2.1 of the code. This should be

0.85 for liquids, 0.8 for gases, and 1.0 for ambient temperature changes. If left blank, this value will

default to 1.0.

UKOOA. Mean temperature change multiplier k, as defined for the BS 7159 code above. If left blank, this

value will default to 1.0.

IGE/TD/12. Material shakedown factor Ksd, as specified in Table 5 of the IGE/TD/12 piping code.

DNV. Usage factor Nu (pressure bursting) from Tables C1or C2. Values must be between 0.64 and 0.84.

Ksd. (Factor) (Unitless)

This is the material shakedown factor described in Table 5 of the IGE/TD/12 code. Typical values are:

Steel 1.8

Austenitic steel 2.0

Aluminum 1.8

Non-ferrous metals 1.0

Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the material database, if available

and applicable.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 63

Pvar

This input is only used for the RCC-M, ASME Sect. III NC and ND, and DNV piping codes, the Swedish

Power Piping, and the Norwegian codes:

ASME and RCC-M C, D. This is the variance in the pressure between operating and “peak” to be used as the

component in equation 9 above that found from B1 * P * Do / 2tn. Do not enter the peak pressure for Pvar,

enter the difference between the operating pressure and the peak pressure.

Swedish Power Code, Methods 1 & 2. This is BETA for the “Seff” calculation. If not given, “beta” defaults

to 10%. Ten percent would be entered as 10.0. Values entered must be between 0.1 and 25.0. Values

entered outside of this range will be automatically adjusted to the outer limit of the allowed range. The

definition for “beta,” as given in the Swedish piping code in section 5.6.2.1, is the “maximum allowable

minus the tolerance as a percentage of the nominal wall thickness.”

Stoomwezen. PVAR is the Cm coefficient in the code whose value is usually 1.0.

Norwegian. PVAR is the difference between design pressure P (in equation 10.7) and peak pressure Pmaks

(in equation 10.8).

The table that follows defines when each of these parameters is valid input for the piping code (V) or not

required (N).

DNV. Usage factor N for equivalent stress check from Table C4. Values must be between 0.77 and 1.00.

64 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Material Fatigue Curve data may be entered here, permitting the evaluation of fatigue load cases and

cumulative usage scenarios. Cycle vs. Stress data may be entered for Butt Weld or Fillet Weld components

(currently only the IGE/TD/12 code differentiates between the two; all other codes use only the Butt Weld

values). Fatigue evaluations are explicitly specified by the IGE/TD/12 code; they are available as

extensions to other codes.

The user is also given the option of reading in fatigue curve data from a file, several of which are provided

with CAESAR II.

Cycle/Stress pairs should be entered in ascending order (ascending by cycles). Stresses should be entered

in units of ^06. Fatigue Curves should be entered with logarithmic interpolation.

Note: Fatigue Curves may also be read in from files, using the READ FROM FILE button.

Note: Static FATigue cases will be evaluated against the full range of the fatigue curve, while dynamic

FATigue cases are assumed to represent amplitudes, and are therefore evaluated against half of the range

of the fatigue curve.

Archive Password

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 65

Available Commands

Break Command

This command is initiated with the Model - Break command. This option is available from the pipe

spreadsheet and allows the user to “break” an element into two or more individual elements. The “break”

option was designed for situations where:

A straight run of pipe between two nodes needs to be broken to insert a restraint, or some other

change in properties.

A long straight run of pipe needs to be broken into multiple, uniform lengths of pipe with similar

support conditions on each length, i.e. a long straight run of rack piping, or a buried run with multiple

soil supports at each point in the run.

An example “break” screen is shown in the following figure:

66 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The example above illustrates a “single element insert” between the nodes 100 and 110. The node to be

inserted is 105 and is 6 ft. from the node 100. If there was some other node in the model with a restraint

(or imposed displacements) like the one to be put on the newly generated node 105, then the node

identifying that restraint location could be filled in at the line “Get support from Node,” and the restraint

would be automatically placed at 105.

For multiple inserts in a rack piping system the prompts might appear as follows:

At the prompt for “support condition” if the user entered the node where a +Y restraint had already been

defined, a +Y restraint would be placed at all of the generated nodes, namely 110, 112, ... , 120. The

multiple insert BREAK is used primarily for three reasons:

Rack piping supports where the total length and node spacing is known and entered directly when

requested at the “break” prompts.

Underground pipe runs where the overall length of the run is known, and the lengths of the individual

elements in the run are known.

To add mass points in order to refine a model for dynamic analysis.

Note: There are two occasions when “Break” will not work:

• The element is an expansion joint.

• The delta dimensions in the DX, DY, and DZ fields are blank or zero.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 67

Valve/Flange Database

The Valve and Flange database is accessed through the Model - Valve command.

There are four databases currently provided:

CRANE steel valves and total flange length

GENERIC valves and 2/3 flange length

Corner and Lada valves - no flanges

CADWorx/PIPE (this is the CAESAR II default)

The CRANE database contains all flanged and welded fittings in the CRANE steel valve catalog. The

GENERIC database contains information from a variety of sources. In some cases (i.e. weights for

control valves) information from different sources was found to vary considerably. In these cases the

largest reasonable weight was selected for use in the database. In other cases only the length of the fitting

was available.

The default database, the CADWorx/Pipe database, is a subset of the full component database provided

with CADWorx/Pipe, COADE’s piping design and drafting program. This database offers nine different

component types (gate, globe, check, control, ball, plug, and butterfly valves; flange pair and single

flange) as well as four different end types (flanged, no-flanged, threaded, or socket). Selection of flanged-

end components or flanges themselves automatically provides for gaskets.

Note: Selecting flanged ends (FLG) for a valve simply adds the length and weight of two flanges and

gaskets to the valve length and weight. No FLG selects a valve without including the two mating flanges.

1 Enter the node numbers for the rigid element in the From and To fields on the pipe spreadsheet.

2 Click the Valve/Flange toolbar or select MODEL - VALVE from the menu.

3 Use the mouse to highlight blocks to select the particular fitting desired.

4 Click OK to accept the selection. If the particular selection is valid for the current line size, the user

will see that CAESAR II enters the length of the element in the DX, DY, and/or DZ fields, designates

the element as RIGID, and inserts the weight in the appropriate slot in the Auxiliary field.

68 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The assumed orientation of the rigid is taken from the preceding element. The user should note that

CAESAR II is doing a table lookup based on line size, and is inserting the selected table values into the

spreadsheet. Should the line size change at some later time, the user must come back and ask CAESAR II to

perform another table look-up for the new sizes.

Use of the CADWorx/Pipe database offers several benefits over use of the other databases:

The CADWorx/Pipe database provides more accurate component lengths and weights than those

typically available in the GENERIC database.

Using the same component data for CAESAR II and CADWorx/Pipe modeling promotes the efficiency

of the bi-directional interface between the two programs, for those who are using both programs. Total

sharing of data files and specifications between CAESAR II and CADWorx/Pipe occurs when the

CADWorx program installation directive is saved in the registry. In that case, the third line of the

CADWORX.VHD file should be edited to name the actual CADWorx specifications (located in the

CADWORX\SPEC subdirectory). For more information on editing this file, see below.

Users may more easily modify the CADWorx/Pipe valve and flange database, since the specification

files and component data files are ASCII text files. This process, which involves possibly editing the

CADWORX.VHD, specification, and data files, is described below.

The CADWORX.VHD file is structured as such:

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 69

The second line, which may be edited by the user, must begin with a zero; the second number on the

line designates the number of specifications to make available to the user. It can be a maximum of 7.

The third line, which may be edited by the user, lists the available specifications. Each specification

name must consist of 8 characters, padded by blanks on the right. The specification names designate

files with extension .SPC, located in the SPEC subdirectory of the CAESAR II or the CADWorx/Pipe

specification directory (if the CADWORX directive is set in the registry).

The fourth line, which may be edited by the user, designates whether each specification uses English

or Metric nominal pipe sizes. Seven blanks followed by a 1 indicate English nominals, while seven

blanks followed by a 2 indicate metric nominals.

The last five lines should not be changed by the user.

The specification files are located in the SPEC subdirectory of the CAESAR installation directory. They

are designated by the extension .SPC. The specification files correlate pipe size and component with the

appropriate data file. Individual lines in the file list the library (subdirectory to the LIB_I or LIB_M

directory, depending on whether English or Metric units are in effect), file name (with an extension equal

to the library name), range of nominal pipe sizes for which the specified data file applies. Any of these

items may be edited by the user; the last item on the line is the component type number, and should not be

changed. Other items in the file pertain to CADWorx/Pipe and are not significant to the CAESAR II user.

The data files hold the dimensional and weight values. Data files for different types of components hold

different types of data; the data columns are labeled. The only data with significance to the CAESAR II user

involves the weight and lengths – these may be changed by the user. The following is a typical component

data file for weld neck flanges:

70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

More extensive information on editing of these files can be found in the CADWorx/Pipe User Manual.

Find Distance

Click Origin and Current Node to calculate the distance between coordinate (0.0,0.0,0.0) and the TO

node of the current element.

Click Nodes, and then enter two node numbers to calculate the distance between those two nodes.

Find Element

Enter a single node number to find the next element containing that node number (either as a FROM or

TO node).

Enter two node numbers to find the next element containing BOTH of those node numbers (in either

order).

Global Coordinates

Enter absolute (global) coordinates for the start node of each discontiguous system segment. This may be

required for three reasons:

1 -- the user may wish to show nodal coordinates in absolute, rather than relative coordinates.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 71

2 -- defining global coordinates for discontiguous segments allow the piping segments to plot in the

correct locations, rather than superimposed at the origin.

3 -- if WIND loading is present, it is important that the pipe be given the correct elevation.

Insert Element

Selecting BEFORE inserts a new element prior to the current element, with the FROM node equal to the

FROM node of the current element.

Selecting AFTER inserts a new element following the current element, with the FROM node equal to the

TO node of the current element.

Node Increment

When generating the FROM and TO nodes for new elements, CAESAR II uses the nodal increment set in

CONFIGURE/SETUP. This may be overridden by entering a different value here.

Activate the check box to display informational messages upon the conversion of Nominal to Actual

diameters, Schedule to Wall Thickness, and Specific Gravity to Density.

De-activate the check box to suppress these messages.

Enter the number of the node where you want to evaluate the Stress Intensification Factors.

72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

ID Type sif calculations:

-------------------------------------------------------------

1 - Reinforced Fabricated Tee PAD T, FTG ro, CROTCH ....

2 - Unreinforced Fabricated Tee .... FTG ro, CROTCH ....

3 - Welding Tee .... FTG ro, CROTCH ....

4 - Sweepolet (Welded-in Contour) .... .... CROTCH ....

5 - Weldolet (Branch Welded-on) .... .... CROTCH ....

6 - Extruded Welding Tee .... FTG ro, CROTCH ....

7 - Girth Butt Weld .... .... .... WELD d

8 - Socket Weld (No Undercut) .... .... .... FILLET

9 - Socket Weld (As Welded) .... .... .... FILLET

10 - Tapered Transition .... .... .... WELD d

11 - Threaded Joint .... .... .... ....

12 - Double Welded Slip-on Flange .... .... .... ....

13 - Lap Joint Flange (B16.9 Stub) .... .... .... ....

14 - Bonney Forge Sweepolet .... .... .... WELD ID

15 - Bonney Forge Latrolet .... .... .... ....

16 - Bonney Forge Insert Weldolet .... FTG ro .... WELD ID

17 - Full Encirclement Tee PAD T, FTG ro .... ....

The "TYPE" only needs to be entered once for each intersection or joint in the problem. Users CANNOT

specify two different SIFs at a single node and get an increased SIF. For example a socketweld TYPE and

an intersection TYPE cannot be specified at the same point.

Intersection SIFs can be calculated for one, two or three pipe junctions. Conservative assumptions are

made with regard to missing information and orientations. Warning messages are printed during error

checking for each intersection where assumptions must be made to apply code rules. For 2 element joints

the largest diameter and the smallest thickness are used when discrepancies exist between the two

adjoining pipes, (unless the two element fitting is a socket weld, and then the largest thickness is used).

These selections are made to generate the largest SIFs and thus the most conservative stress calculations.

Intersection SIFs can be calculated for dummy leg intersections on bend curvatures. This is a crude

method for estimating bend/dummy leg SIFs, but is often considered an improvement over an

unintensified dummy leg.

Code calculated bend stress intensification factors will always take precedence over any other SIF that

may be defined at the bend node. (A setup file directive: ALLOW_USERS_BEND_SIF=YES permits the

user to override code sif's at bends if necessary.)

Pad Thickness

Thickness of the REINFORCING PAD for reinforced fabricated tees, Intersection type 1.

Note: In most piping codes this beneficial effect of the pad's thickness is limited to pads of a thickness less

than 1.5 times the nominal thickness of the fitting. This factor does not apply in BS806 or Z662, and is

2.5 in the Swedish piping code.

Crotch Thickness for B31.3 Welding Tees and Sweepolets (intersection types 3 and 4). The crotch

thickness and radius are necessary for CAESAR II to determine if the fitting meets B16.9 requirements.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 73

The largest fitting outside radius for branch connections. Used for reduced branch connections in the

ASME and B31.1 piping codes, Bonney Forge Insert Weldolets, and for WRC329 intersection SIF

calculations. SETUP file directions allow these calculations to be incorporated into most piping codes as

an option.

SETUP file directives also exist to limit the application of the reduced branch connection rules to

UNREINFORCED FABRICATED TEES, SWEEPOLETS, WELDOLETS and EXTRUDED WELDING

TEES. (i.e. omitting REDUCED WELDING TEES and REDUCED REINFORCED FABRICATED

TEES.) If omitted, FTG ro defaults to the outside radius of the branch connection if omitted.

Crotch Radius

This is also the intersection weld crotch radius for WRC329.

Specifying this value when it is known can result in a 50% reduction in the stress intensification at the

intersection. This reduction only applies when WRC329 intersection options are selected from the setup

file, and for unreinforced fabricated tees, sweepolets, weldolets and extruded welding tees, i.e. intersection

types 2, 4, 5, and 6.

This value must be larger than Tb/2 and Th/2 to be effective |in reducing the stress intensification. (There

is another value in the code that must be checked by the user and that is (Tb'+y)/2 (y) is the largest

thickness at the intersection. The crotch radius must be larger than this value also.)

If this value is left blank, a value of zero will be used. This indicates no crotch, i.e. a corner.

Weld ID

Values:

0 or BLANK - As Welded

1 - Finished/Ground Flush

Used for:

BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLETS

BONNEY FORGE INSERT WELDOLETS

BUTT WELDS IN THE SWEDISH PIPING CODE

If entered as 1 then the weld is considered to be ground flush on the inside and out and the sif is taken as

1.0.

See the help screens for Weld Mismatch (Weld d) for more detail on how input parameters are used to

compute sif's for girth butt welds.

74 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Weld d (Mismatch)

Average circumferential weld mismatch measured at the inside diameter of the pipe. Used for Butt Welds

and Tapered Transitions.

Note: THIS IS THE AVERAGE, AND NOT THE MAXIMUM MISMATCH. USERS MUST VERIFY

THAT ANY MAXIMUM MISMATCH REQUIREMENTS ARE SATISFIED FOR THEIR

PARTICULAR CODE.

This value is used in the sif equations as follows:

For B31.1:

IF( TR.GE. 0.237 .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.13 ) THEN

S = 1.0

ELSE IF( TR .LT. 0.237 .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.33 ) THEN

S = 0.9 + 2.7*DMIS/TR

IF( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9

IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0

ELSE IF( TR .GE. 0.237 ) THEN

S = 0.9 + 2.7*DMIS/TR

IF( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9

IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0

ELSE

OUT OF THE RANGES FOR B31.1 USE THE MAX. SIF

S = 1.9

END IF

Where TR is the pipe thickness (inches), and DMIS is the entered weld mismatch. See Table D1 in

the B31.1 appendix for a further discussion and assumptions.

For B31.3, B31.4, B31.8 (including Ch VIII), BS 806, Canadian, Navy and B31.1-1967:

The sif for girth butt welds is always taken as 1.0 regardless of the input for thickness and mismatch.

For ASME III NC or ND codes:

IF( TR .GE. 0.237 ) THEN

S = 1.0

ELSE

S = 0.9 * ( 1.0 + 3.0*DMIS/TR )

IF( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9

IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0

END IF

For the Swedish and Norwegian codes:

IF( TR .GT. 4.5mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THEN

S = 1.0

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 75

S = 1.8

ELSE

IF NONE OF THE OTHER PARAMETERS GOVERN THEN USE

A MAX. SIF OF 1.8. Not sure what the code's intention

is when none of the above parameters apply. This is

certainly the most conservative.

S = 1.8

END IF

For the RCC-M C/D codes:

IF( TR .GT. 4.75mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THEN

S = 1.0

ELSE

S = 1.8

END IF

For the CODETI code:

IF( TR .GT. 5.0mm ) THEN

S = 1.0

ELSE

S = 1.8

END IF

For the FDBR code:

IF( TR .GT. 5.0mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THEN

S = 1.0

ELSE

S = 1.8

END IF

For Tapered Transitions this value is the mismatch of the inside diameters at the small end weld, and is

used as the "delta" in the equation:

sif = 1.3 + 0.0036(d/t) + 3.6("delta")/t

76 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This parameter is used when calculating SIFs of socket welds (type 8 or 9) when the B31.3, ASME-III

Subsection NC or ND codes (3, 12, or 13) are in effect. Note: If a fillet leg size is entered, both socket

weld types result in the same sif.

The sif is calculated as (2.1)(T) / Leg, where T is the pipe wall thickness and Leg is the fillet leg length. A

minimum sif of 1.3 required.

For an unequal leg fillet weld, use the length of the shorter leg.

Header Pipe Outside Diameter

If the fitting is a taper (TYPE = 10), enter the actual outside diameter of the small end of the tapered

connection.

Do not enter the fitting diameter.

Header Pipe Wall Thickness

If the fitting is a taper (TYPE = 10), enter the wall thickness of the small end of the tapered connection.

Do not enter the fitting thickness.

Branch Pipe Outside Diameter

Do not enter the diameter of the fitting.

Branch Pipe Wall Thickness

Do not enter the wall thickness of the fitting.

Bend Radius

The user may override the program calculated bend radius at any time.

The long radius bend value is obtained from a "look-up" table based on the user's specified diameter.

Users of pipes with diameters not listed as standard CAESAR II nominal diameters should compute and

enter the bend radius by hand. CAESAR II's "ON-SCREEN-MULTIPLICATION" simplifies this chore, i.e.

the bend radius for a three-eighths inch pipe could be entered: .375*1.5.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 77

Enter the number of bend end cross sections that resist ovalization, i.e. 0, 1 or 2. A bend's end cross

section resists ovalization whenever a much heavier fitting (i.e. a valve or a flange), is attached to the bend

end.

This entry serves only to modify the stiffness and stress intensification factors for the bend.

Flanges stiffen the bend and make it less susceptible to stress.

The British Piping Code BS 806 defines a bend's end cross section as resisting ovalization whenever a

rigid fitting is within two diameters of the bend's end.

For the BS 7159 and UKOOA codes, this entry refers to the material laminate type, and may be 1, 2, or 3.

These laminate types are:

1 - All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer

2 - Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface

tissue reinforced layer

3 - Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construction with internal and external surface

tissue reinforced layer.

Laminate type affects the calculation of flexibility factors and stress intensification factors for the BS 7159

and UKOOA codes only.

Fitting Thickness

Enter the thickness of the bend if not equal to the thickness of the matching pipe. Increased fitting

thicknesses result in SMALLER INSIDE pipe diameters.

The pipe thickness is used twice when calculating SIFs and flexibility factors -- once as Tn, and once

when determining the mean cross- sectional radius of the pipe in the equation for the flexibility

characteristic (h):

h = (Tn)(R) / (r¦)

Tn = Thickness of bend or fitting

R = Bend radius

r = Mean cross-sectional radius of matching pipe

= (OD - WT) / 2

OD = Outside Diameter of matching pipe

WT = Wall Thickness of matching pipe

78 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Most codes use the actual thickness of the fitting (this entry) for Tn, and the wall thickness of the

matching pipe for the calculation of the mean cross-sectional radius of the pipe (the WT value). More

specifically, the individual codes use the two wall thicknesses as follows:

For Tn: For Mean Radius Calculation:

B31.1 Fitting Fitting

B31.3 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.4 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.5 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.8 Fitting Matching Pipe

B31.8 Ch VIII Fitting Matching Pipe

SECT III NC Fitting Matching Pipe

SECT III ND Fitting Matching Pipe

Z662 Matching Pipe Matching Pipe

NAVY 505 Fitting Fitting

B31.1 (1967) Fitting Fitting

SWEDISH Fitting Matching Pipe

BS 806 N/A N/A

STOOMWEZEN N/A N/A

RCC-M C/D Matching pipe Matching Pipe

CODETI Fitting Fitting

NORWEGIAN Fitting Fitting

FDBR Fitting Fitting

BS 7159 Fitting Fitting

UKOOA Fitting Fitting

IGE/TD/12 Fitting Fitting

The bend fitting thickness (FTG) is always used as the pipe thickness in the stiffness matrix calculations;

however, note that the thickness of the matching pipe (wt) is always used in the bend stress calculations.

Miter Points

Number of CUTS (or changes of direction) in the mitered bend.

The "NUMBER OF CUTS" and the "BEND RADIUS" are the only inputs required (along with the

program-determined bend angle) to calculate the SIF'S and flexibilities defined in the various piping

codes for mitered elbows.

The RADIUS of the bend and the spacing of the cuts are directly related to one another, given one, the

other can be calculated. Closely spaced miters typically have a radius equivalent to the standard long

radius bend for the given pipe size.

Closely spaced mitered bends, regardless of the number of miter |cuts can be modelled as a single bend

element.

Widely spaced mitered bends should be modelled as "n" single cut miters, where "n" is the number of

cuts in the bend. This means that "n" bend elements should be defined, each one a single cut miter. The

bend radius associated with these individual, single cut miters is smaller than the standard long radius

bend and must be calculated separately. Examples in the CAESAR II user's Guide illustrate this

application.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 79

Enter the outside diameter of the matching pipe in the units shown.

This is used in the average cross sectional radius calculation:

r2 = (OD - WT) / 2

OD = Outside Diameter as entered

WT = Wall Thickness of attached pipe

The B31.3 (1993) code defines r2 as the "mean radius of matching pipe".

Wall Thickness of Matching Pipe

Enter the actual matching pipe nominal wall thickness. Do not subtract out any corrosion. All SIF

calculations are made ignoring corrosion.

This wall thickness is used in the mean radius (r2) calculation as defined in the piping codes.

Elastic Modulus

This is used for the pressure stiffening calculations.

Maximum Pressure

For the BS 7159 or UKOOA codes, this entry should be the product of the material Design Strain, €, and

the material modulus of elasticity.

80 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

CAESAR II will automatically generate an expansion joint model from catalog data selected by the user.

The catalog used may be selected in the CAESAR II Configure/Setup routine. The user decides where in

the model the expansion joint should go, i.e. between which two nodes, and the modeler assembles the

completed joint. Selectable joint styles include Untied, Tied, Hinged, Gimballed, Untied-Universal, and

Tied Universal expansion joints.

An example selection session is illustrated as follows. Of particular note are the following items:

Any of four material types may be selected. These material types are used to adjust the bellows

stiffnesses to the actual highest temperature in the model. This will typically result in higher

stiffnesses than those shown in the vendor’s catalog because the stiffnesses in the catalog may be

based on a higher design temperature.

Any combination of end types may be selected.

Bellows, liner, cover, rod, and hinge/gimbal assembly weights are looked up from the stored database

and automatically included in the expansion joint model.

For universal joints, the minimum allowed length is stored, but when the available space exceeds the

minimum allowed, the user is prompted for the length that he wishes the expansion joint assembly to

occupy.

The last screen that follows shows the “proposed” model to the user before it is inserted into the

CAESAR II input. This allows the user to investigate the characteristics of several joints before settling

on one.

Actual maximum pressure ratings are also a part of the database, and in many cases exceed the

nominal pressure rating shown in the catalog. Users will be permitted to use pressures up to these

actual allowed maximums.

Allowed joint movements are also stored as part of the database and are printed with each proposed

model. These values should be recorded for use in checking the model after a successful design pass

has been completed.

Pressure thrust is included in the modeling considerations for each of the expansion joint styles,

removing this concern from the user.

In the case of “tied” expansion joints, rigid elements are used to model the tie-bars. Restraints with

connecting nodes are used to contain the pressure thrust, and to keep the ends of the expansion joint

parallel.

The Expansion Joint Modeling session is started by clicking the Expansion Joint button on the toolbar or

selecting the MODEL - EXPANSION JOINT menu item from the pipe spreadsheet:

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 81

82 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

If the length of the current element exceeds the length of the expansion joint assembly, indicate whether

the expansion joint assembly should be installed at the FROM end or the TO end of the current element.

Expansion Joint Modeler - Hinge/Pin Axis

Enter the direction cosines which defines the axis of the hinge pin of the expansion joint assembly (i.e.,

the axis about which the joint can rotate).

For example, if the hinge can rotate about the X-axis, enter:

1.0 0.0 0.0

Expansion Joint Modeler - Tie Bar Plane

If an expansion joint has only two tie rods, permitting rotation about the plane defined by the tie rods,

enter the direction cosines which, when crossed with the axis of the expansion joint assembly, defines the

plane. In other words, enter the direction cosines corresponding to a line drawn from the mid-point of one

tie rod to the mid point of the other.

Expansion Joint Modeler - Overall Length

The length of a universal joint is variable, depending upon the length of the intermediate spool piece.

Enter the desired length of the universal joint, or alternatively activate the check box in order to default to

the shortest recommended length.

Expansion Joint Modeler - Expansion Joint Database

The current expansion joint vendor provides multiple databases.Select the one which you wish to use in

the modeler.

The default expansion joint vendor may be changed in CONFIGURE/SETUP (see "Expansion Joints" on page

24).

Expansion Joint Modeler - Modeler Results

The proposed model of the expansion joint assembly is shown in the window at top. Click Build to insert

this into the piping system model.

The lower window shows the bellows stiffness parameters and allowable movements (from the vendor

catalog). The allowable movements should be noted for later evaluation of the expansion joint.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 83

Expansion joints cannot be inserted on an element that is either already a rigid or an expansion joint.

Bends, however, can be at either end of the element where the expansion is being inserted.

There does not have to be a length given on the element where the expansion joint is to be inserted.

The six types of expansion joint models supported currently by CAESAR II are as listed below:

Untied single bellows

Tied single bellows

Hinged single bellows

Gimballed single bellows

Untied universal bellows

Tied universal bellows

The four possible joint end types are

Welded-end

Slip-on flange

Weld neck flange

Plate flange

If the length of the element to receive the expansion joint model is given, then the expansion joint

assembly should fit within this length. If it does not, a warning message will be displayed to the user. If a

universal joint has been requested, the length of the receiving element should be at least long enough to

accept the smallest possible universal length, as defined by the minimum spool piece size from the

manufacturers database. If the element to receive the universal expansion joint model is zero, the user will

be prompted for the desired expansion joint length. If the element to receive the universal expansion joint

model had an original length, then the maximum possible space available for the universal will be reported

and the user asked for the length desired. If the element to receive any expansion joint is longer than the

expansion joint to be inserted, the user will be prompted for the end of the element where the joint should

be inserted, i.e. the From or To end. Overall universal lengths should be limited to about 10 times the pipe

diameter before the center spool piece weight begins to become a problem.

If there is a bend at either the From or the To end of the element to receive the expansion joint, then the

length of the element must be defined.

To find extra nodes needed for the expansion joint model, CAESAR II starts with the element From node

and increments by one until a sufficient number of nodes not used elsewhere in the model are encountered.

It is these nodes that are reported in the “proposed-model” pop-up window.

Note that angular stiffnesses reported are given in the current set of units. Only the translational stiffness

label is found at the top of the bellows stiffness report. If users are unsure about the rotational stiffness

units, they may be seen either in the help screens or in the “UNITS” report from the LIST option.

The user is prompted to adjust the stiffness for the expansion joint if the highest operating temperature is

given and not equal to the expansion joint catalog design temperature. Note that this will in general

produce bellows stiffnesses greater than those published in the catalog.

Bellows, tie-bar, and hinge/gimbal assembly weights are combined together and distributed over the

expansion joint rigid end pieces.

The expansion joint modeler makes every attempt possible to generate nodes in the model that are unique.

The user should inspect the nodes that are generated closely and make sure that he does not use them

unintentionally in any future model building.

84 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

There is a fair amount of computer logic set up to make intelligent decisions about the configuration that

the user wants insofar as bends, hinges, tied bellows, and pressure thrust are concerned. Users should

review generated CAESAR II models and be sure that everything is consistent with the user’s intentions.

It was common practice in the expansion joint industry to design expansion joint bellows and hardware

(restraints) for the system pressure, and pressure thrust only. Generally, no consideration was given to the

system deadweight or thermal forces. This poor practice has been tolerated in the past (prior to the wide-

spread use of piping analysis programs) because of the following:

The deadweight and thermal forces are normally small compared to the pressure and pressure thrust.

Designers laid out expansion joints so that the thermal forces were very low and hence not significant.

The allowable stresses used in hardware designs have a significant safety factor.

The forces and moments generally were not known. Today when an expansion joint is modeled, it is

recommended that ALL information relating to the joint be submitted to the expansion joint manufacturer.

This is especially true of the forces and moments resulting from the operating loads, i.e. deadweight,

thermal forces, and operating deflections. Better evaluations of the loading conditions on the bellows and

hardware simply help the manufacturer make sure that his design is suited for the intended installation and

service.

If the torsional spring rate is unknown, a large value should be entered (i.e. 1E10) to produce conservative

results. These results will be conservative with respect to loads and non-conservative with respect to

displacements. It is very common to rate the “bellows allowed torsion” by the amount of rotation

experienced. Large torsional stiffnesses will result in small, seemingly satisfactory rotations. When results

from a piping analysis are communicated back to the expansion joint manufacturer, it is important to

report both the rotation AND the stiffness used to produce that rotation. A good estimate of bellows

stiffnesses is given in Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual.

The following considerations are important when selecting the number of convolutions for a particular

application:

Movement Capability

The more convolutions selected the greater the movement capacity of the bellows. It is a common practice

to perform a quick hand calculation to estimate the required movement and then select the number of

convolutions from the rated movements in the catalog. Once an analysis is performed, the exact evaluation

of the bellows performance can be made using the expansion joint rating module program provided with

CAESAR II.

Spring Forces

The more convolutions selected, the lower the resulting bellows spring forces will be. This is particularly

critical when the expansion joint is located near rotating equipment.

Available Space

The more convolutions selected, the greater the required overall length. If working in a confined area, the

number of convolutions may be restricted by the space.

The following are expansion joint end-types available in the CAESAR II modeler.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 85

Welded

Standard pipe beveled for welding.

Slipon

Slip-on flange.

WN

Weld neck flange.

Plate

Plate flange in accordance with the manufacturers catalog.

Slip-on, weld neck, and plate flanges may not be available in all diameters and pressure ratings, i.e. over

24-in. diameters. Consult the catalog for specific interface dimensions, codes and materials. When the user

selects a combination not available, he is warned that there is no database values for his particular

geometry and line size.

Pressure Rating

The pressure rating should be equal to, or larger than the design pressure of the system. Note, however,

that in many instances larger pressures can be tolerated than the rated pressure shown, in fact in many

small diameter expansion joints the same bellows is used in 50, 150, and 300 psi-rated joints. The

CAESAR II modeler contains the true minimum pressure limits for all of the bellows in the database, and

checks the maximum pressure in the line (as entered by the user) against the allowed pressure (which as

stated, is often greater than the rated pressure). This particular feature allows the user to select a smaller

joint with more flexibility for certain applications.

Listed as follows are the six available styles of expansion joints that are built automatically by CAESAR II.

With each type is a brief discussion of its use when associated with hot, pressurized equipment protection.

Untied

Single unrestrained expansion joint. This type of joint can absorb movement in all directions. It will also

subject the system to pressure thrust which must be designed for, external to the expansion joint !!! This

type of joint should almost never be used by the expansion joint novice needing to protect hot, pressurized

equipment. Guide restrictions limiting displacements into the joint, regular maintenance problems

(because of all of the support hardware away from the bellows), and pressure thrust make using and

analyzing this type of bellows difficult.

Tied

Tied single expansion joint that is capable of transverse (lateral) movement only. Pressure thrust is

restrained internally via the tie-bars. This is a good, dependable expansion joint to use because pressure

thrust does not have to be designed for, tie rods provide stability to the overall joint (making working with

it in the field easier), and there is a single displacement mode (i.e. lateral) that can be directly compared to

the rated lateral movement in the catalog, without the need for the relatively complicated geometric

calculations in the Expansion Joint Rating program. The drawbacks to the single TIED expansion joint

are that they are fairly stiff in practice (often not providing the needed flexibility to sufficiently reduce the

loads on sensitive equipment), and that the tie-bar assembly does provide some nonlinear restraining effect

on flexibility that is unaccounted for in the analysis that may be appreciable when the bellows

displacement becomes large (i.e. when it is most critical that it perform as predicted.)

86 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Hinged

Single hinged expansion joint. This type of joint can only angulate about one axis. Pressure thrust is

retained internally by the hinge mechanism. Hinge joints are often used in pairs to absorb considerable

displacement in a single plane, while transmitting very little load to any attached equipment. The piping

system must, however, be designed to assure that displacement into the hinges is planar for all types of

thermal and occasional loadings to be experienced by the system. Where pressure loads to be absorbed by

the hinge mechanism are high, considerable friction forces can be generated that will somewhat limit

further flexing of the joint, thus transmitting larger loads than expected back into the piping system.

Gimbal

Single gimbal expansion joint. This type of joint can angulate about two axes. Gimballed joints restrain

both pressure thrust and torsion via the gimbal mechanism. These joints are often used in pairs to absorb

considerable displacement in several directions, while transmitting very little load to any attached

equipment.

U-UNIV

Untied universal expansion joint. This type of unit is similar to a single unrestrained expansion joint. It

can absorb movement in all directions and normally has a much higher capacity for transverse (lateral)

deflection than a single bellows. An untied universal will subject the system to pressure thrust loads which

must be designed for, external to the expansion joint. Even when pressure is negligible these joints can

often be difficult to use in practice unless proper guiding of the thermal displacement protects the joint

against undesired movement. Additionally, calculations for computing effective bellows axial movements

for arbitrary movements in three dimensions is not trivial.

T-UNIV

Tied universal expansion joint. Similar to a tied single joint, except that the tied universal has much higher

transverse (lateral) movement capability. Pressure thrust loads are restrained internally via the tie-bars.

These types of joints are a good option where vertical pipe runs close to the equipment are available. The

tie-bars restrict movement to a single mode (lateral) and eliminate the worry about pressure thrust design.

Longer lengths result in smaller lateral stiffnesses, but overall length is somewhat restricted by the weight

of the center spool. A good rule of thumb is to restrict the overall length of the assembly to ten times the

pipe diameter. Users should be careful not to put the assembly into compression, as the tie bar

mechanisms are not designed to take this load and damage to the bellows can result.

These six types of expansion joints are not all of the types available, but are the most common. If a joint is

needed that is not covered by the above, it is suggested that the user select the style closest to that

required, and then edit the resulting input once the EJ Modeler is complete and processing returns to the

piping spreadsheet.

Materials

Bellows can be formed from most ductile materials that can be welded by the automatic T.I.G. butt

welding process and yield a homogeneous ductile weld structure. Due to the fact that the specific “media”

content varies from system to system, and that most “media” data specified prior to system operation is

approximate, with considerable fluctuation possible, it is not feasible to make specific recommendations

concerning bellows materials. The following are the four most common bellows materials that are

supported by CAESAR II:

304SS—A240 tp 304 Stainless Steel

316SS—A240 tp 316 Stainless Steel

600Inc—Inco 600 High Nickel

625Inc—Inco 625 High Nickel

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 87

Liners

Internal liners smooth the flow through the expansion joint. The smooth flow reduces pressure drop and

also prevents flow-induced vibration of the bellows. Liners are generally recommended when the flow

velocity exceeds 1.3 ft./sec. as a minimum, and are definitely recommended when the flow velocity

exceeds about 25 ft./sec. Consult the manufacturers catalog for additional information. Heavy gage liners

should be used in high velocity or turbulent flow systems. Also heavy liners should be used when the

media is abrasive.

Covers

External covers are used to protect the very thin bellows, (0.010 to 0.090 in.) from mechanical damage.

Covers are also recommended when the line is to be insulated.

Title Page

By pressing <Ctrl>T at any time during pipe spreadsheet input, the current job's title page will be

displayed (also may access through the MODEL - TITLE menu item). This is up to 60 lines of text that is stored

with the problem, and may be used for detailing run histories, discussing assumptions, etc. These lines

may be printed with the output report through the input echo.

88 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Hanger Data

System-wide hanger design criteria are activated from the input spreadsheet by choosing the Model

Hanger Design Control Data.

Spring hanger design can be globally controlled by entering data into the hanger control spreadsheet

shown above. The Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet contains five items that also appear on each

individual hanger design spreadsheet. These parameters can be set once in the run control spreadsheet, and

will apply for all individual hangers to be defined unless specifically overridden at the individual hanger

input level. These items are

short-range springs

rigid support displacement criteria

maximum-allowed travel limit

hanger table

multiple load-case design option

In addition, the Hanger Design Control spreadsheet tells the hanger design algorithm the number of

temperature cases to be used in the hanger design, and whether or not the actual cold loads should be

calculated. All of these options will be discussed in detail on the following pages.

Whenever hanger locations are given for the first time, default parameters are assigned for all of the fields

that show up in the Hanger Auxiliary Data field. These default parameters are taken from the Hanger

Design Control spreadsheet. The user should, therefore, enter any non-default parameters that are to apply

globally to all hangers in the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet.

An individual description of each Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet Data cell follows:

No. of Hanger - Design Operating Load Cases

The number of load cases to be considered when designing spring hangers. This value may be between 1

and 9 and corresponds to the number of thermal load cases to be used in hanger design. If more than one

Operating case is to be considered in the hanger design then the user must also select the Multiple Load

Case Design option to be used.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 89

Enable this check box to cause CAESAR II to make one additional pass after the hanger design is completed

and the hangers are installed, to determine the actual installed loads that should be used when the hangers

are first installed and the load flanges adjusted in the field. This calculation tends to be important when the

stiffness of the piping system is small, the stiffness of the hanger selected is high, and/or when the hanger

travel is large (i.e. this usually is more important in smaller diameter piping systems that for some reason

are spring supported away from equipment nozzles). Actual cold loads should definitely be calculated

when springs in smaller diameter lines are to be adjusted in the cold position.

Allow Short Range Springs

CAESAR II gives the user the option of excluding short range springs from consideration from the

selection algorithms. In some instances short range springs are considered specialty items and are not used

unless their shorter length is required for clearance reasons. In this case, this check box should be cleared

by the user.

If this option is not activated, CAESAR II will select a mid-range spring over a short-range spring,

assuming they are more standard, readily available, and in general cheaper than their short-range

counterparts.

If the default should be that short range springs are used wherever possible, then check the box on the

Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet.

Allowable Load Variation (%)

This is the user specified limit on the allowed variation between the hot and cold hanger loads. If not

specified, the only limit on load variation is that inherent in the spring table. This is approximately 100%

when the hot load is smaller than the cold load, and 50% when the hot load is larger than the cold load.

Hot loads are smaller than cold loads whenever the operating displacement in the Y direction is positive.

The default value for the load variation is 25%. The user is advised to enter this value in the Hanger Run

Control Spreadsheet before any hangers are defined. Bergen-Paterson is the only manufacturer that

specifically gives 25% as a design limit.

The Allowable Load Variation is the percentage variation from the hot load:

| Cold Load - Hot Load |

Variation = ——————————————-

Hot Load

or as may be more familiar:

|(Travel)(Spring Rate)|

Variation = ——————————————-

Hot Load

The Allowable Variation is entered as a percentage, i.e. twenty five percent would be entered 25.0. The

Allowable Load Variation can have different values for different hanger locations if necessary by entering

the chosen value on the individual hanger spreadsheets or it can be entered on the Hanger Design

Control Spreadsheet to apply to all hangers in the model.

90 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This is a parameter used to determine if there is sufficient travel to design a spring. The Rigid Support

Displacement Criteria is a cost saving feature that replaces springs that are not needed with rigid rods.

The hanger design algorithm operates by first running a restrained weight case. From this case the load to

be supported by the hanger in the operating condition is determined. Once the hanger design load is

known, an operating case is run with the hot hanger load installed to determine the travel at the hanger

location. If this determined hanger travel is less than the Rigid Support Displacement Criteria then a

rigid Y support is selected for the location instead of a spring.

If the Rigid Support Displacement is left blank or zero, the criteria will not be applied.

The Rigid Support Displacement Criteria may be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet, or

on each individual hanger spreadsheet. The value specified on the Run Control Spreadsheet is used as the

default for all hangers not having it defined explicitly.

A typical value to be used is 0.1 in.

Important: In some cases a Single directional restraint should be inserted instead of a rigid rod. Rigid

rods are double acting restraints which can in some cases develop large “hold down” forces that don’t

really exist because the support has lifted off, or because the rigid rod has bowed slightly. When this

condition develops the user should rerun the hanger design inserting single directional restraints where

rigid rods were put in by CAESAR II.

Hangers should probably never be replaced by rigid rods in very stiff parts of the piping system that are

usually associated with rotating equipment or vessel nozzles that need to be protected.

Maximum Allowed Travel Limit

To specify a limit on the amount of travel a variable support hanger may undergo, specify the limit in this

field. The specification of a maximum travel limit will cause CAESAR II to select a constant effort support

if the design operating travel exceeds this limit, even though a variable support from the manufacturer

table would have been satisfactory in every other respect.

Constant effort hangers can be designed by inputting a very small number for the Maximum Allowed

Travel Limit. A value of 0.001 is typical to force CAESAR II to select a for a particular location.

Hanger Table

The following spring tables are currently included in CAESAR II:

5. Lisega 6. Fronek

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 91

Additional design options are invoked by further modifying the hanger table number:

Add + 100 to get Extended Range

Add + 200 to get Cold Load Design

Add + 400 to get the Hot load centered if possible.

For example, to use Grinnell Springs and cold load design the user would enter:

1 + 200 = 201.

To use Grinnell “Extended Range” springs, Cold Load Design, and to get the Design Hot load centered in

the middle of the hanger table, if possible, the user would enter:

1 + 100 + 200 + 400 = 701.

92 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

A single job can use any combination of tables. The hanger table can be specified on the individual hanger

spreadsheet, or can be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page 88).

If a spring table is entered in the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet then it is used as the default for all

subsequent hangers defined. The Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet defaults to the hanger table-

specified in the configuration file.

The maximum load range was included in CAESAR II to permit the selection of less expensive variable

support hangers in place of constant effort supports when the spring loads are just outside the

manufacturers recommended range. Users should make sure that the maximum load range is available

from the manufacturer as a standard item.

Cold Load Spring Hanger Design. Cold Load Spring Hanger Design is a method of designing the springs,

whereby the hot (or operating) load is supported in the cold (or installed) position of the piping. This

method of spring design offers several advantages over the more usual hot load design:

Hanger stops are easier to remove.

There is no excessive movement from the neutral position when the system is cold or when the stops

are removed.

Spring loads can be adjusted before the system is brought up to temperature.

Some feel that the cold load approach yields a much more dependable design.

In some system configurations, operating loads on connected equipment are lower. A typical

configuration resulting in this “load-reduction” is one where a hot vertical riser, anchored at the

bottom, turns horizontally into a nozzle connection. The spring to be designed is at the elbow adjacent

to the nozzle. Operating loads are lower because the difference between the hot and cold loads

counters the moment produced by the vertical thermal expansion from the anchor.

The disadvantages to cold load design are

In some systems, in the hot condition the loads on rotating equipment may be increased by a value

proportional to the spring rate times the travel.

Most installations are done on a hot load design basis.

The decision to use hot or cold load hanger design rests with the user.

Middle of the Table Hanger Design. Many designers prefer that the hot load be centered as close as possible

to the middle of the spring table. This is to provide as much “variability” either way before the spring

bottoms out when the system is hot. This was a much more needed feature, before effective computer

modelling of piping systems, when the weights at hangers were approximated by chart methods or

calculated by hand. Activating this option does not guarantee that spring hot loads will be at the middle of

the spring table, but CAESAR II makes every effort to move the hot load to this position. The CAESAR II

design algorithm will go to a higher size spring if the design load is closer to the middle of the larger

springs range, but will never switch spring types. This option can only result in a one size larger spring

when it is effective. CAESAR II will attempt to move the hot load to the next higher spring when it is within

10% of the maximum travel range for the spring. If the new spring is not satisfactory then the old one will

be used, even though its hot load is within 10% of the high end of the table load range, to get a springs hot

load close to the middle of the table.

Extended Load Range Springs. Extended load ranges are the most extreme ranges on the spring load table.

Some manufacturers build double spring supports to accommodate this range, and others adjust the top or

bottom travel limits to accommodate either end of the extended table. Before using the maximum ranges,

the user should make sure that the manufacturer can properly supply the spring. Use of the extended range

often eliminates the need to go to a constant effort support. Lisega springs do not support the "extended

range" idea. A request for extended Lisega springs results in the standard Lisega spring table and ranges.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 93

Whenever more than one thermal load case is to be used in the hanger sizing algorithm, CAESAR II must

know how the user wishes to weigh the results from the different cases. There are currently 13 different

methods that may be used for multiple load case hanger design selection. These 13 methods are listed as

follows and are described in greater detail under the hanger auxiliary data section.

2 Design per Load Case #2

3 Design per Load Case #3

4 Design per Load Case #4

5 Design per Load Case #5

6 Design per Load Case #6

7 Design per Load Case #7

8 Design per Load Case #8

9 Design per Load Case #9

10 Design for the maximum operating load

11 Design for the maximum travel

12 Design for the average load and the average travel

13 Design for the maximum load and the maximum travel

94 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The Special Execution Parameters dialog is invoked by choosing the KAUX - SPECIAL EXECUTION

PARAMETERS option from the menu or by clicking it's toolbar from the piping spreadsheet. The Special

Execution Parameters, once chosen, remain set for that particular job.

Forces and moments are not normally printed for rigid elements and expansion joints, because the forces

that act on these elements can usually be read directly from the forces that act on the adjacent pipe

elements. Check this box to cause forces and moments to be calculated and printed for all rigid elements

and expansion joints in the system. If there are a considerable number of rigid elements in the job, this

option will cause some slowdown in the output processor, and will cause the solution intermediate files to

increase slightly in size.

Print Alphas and Pipe Properties

If the user checks this box he will be given the option, at the error checking level, to print the interpolated

expansion coefficients along with the pipe, insulation, and fluid weights. This report can be very useful

during error checking to help identify possible problems in the temperature or weight input specifications.

Rigid elements and expansion joints are treated just like straight pipe. Rigid weights and insulation factors

are not reflected in this table.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 95

Choose the option from the drop list to activate the Bourdon pressure effect. The Bourdon pressure effect

causes straight pipes to elongate, or displace along their axes, and causes curved pipes, or bends to

elongate along the line that connects the bends “near” and “far” nodes. If the Bourdon effect is not

activated there will be no global displacements due to pressure. The Bourdon effect is always considered

when plastic pipe is used, regardless of the setting of the Activate Bourdon Effects flag.

By default CAESAR II does not include the Bourdon effect in the analysis of steel piping systems, i.e. there

will be no displacements of the system due to pressure.

As an option, the user may include pressure displacement effects if he wishes. These effects can be

appreciable in long runs of pipe, or in high pressure, large diameter bends adjacent to sensitive equipment.

Bourdon effects are almost always important in fiberglass reinforced plastic piping systems. For this

reason the Bourdon (Translational) is automatically turned on for all FRP pipe runs and bends.

Two Bourdon options are available:

Translational pressure deformations only.

Translational and rotational deformations.

The Translational option should be used when the elbows in the system are forged or welded fittings and

can reasonably be assumed to have a circular cross section.

The Translational and Rotational option should be used when the bends in the system are fabricated by

the hot or cold bending of straight pipe. In these cases the slight residual ovalization of the bend cross

section, after “bending,” will cause the bend to try to “straighten out” when pressurized. Fixed end

moments are associated with this “opening” that do not exist when the original shape of the bend cross-

section is circular.

96 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This is a dual purpose flag activated by selecting the appropriate option from the drop list. The user is

prompted for two pieces of information by this input:

The loop closure tolerance.

The global coordinates of the first point of the piping system and each following piece of the piping

system that is not connected to the first.

This data is needed the first time CAESAR II prepares a global geometry calculation. This calculation is

made on three different occasions:

Before preprocessor plots are generated

Before global coordinate reports are built

Before error checking is performed

Alternatively, prompting may be avoided by entering the global coordinates by using the Edit - Global (see

"Global Coordinates" on page 70) command from the main spreadsheet.

There are several major uses for this flag:

To set the loop closure tolerance

To properly define the elevation of the piping system for wind/wave load calculations

To give the proper east-west/north-south coordinates for dimension checks

To move parts of the system around in the plotted output for visual checking

Whenever the user creates a physical “loop” in the piping system there will be at least two different sets of

dimensions between the same points. If the two dimensions are not within a certain tolerance of each

other, a fatal error will occur. This tolerance may be set interactively or in the configuration file. Selecting

"Both" for the Branch Error and Coordinate Prompts directive causes CAESAR II to interactively prompt

for this tolerance.

Thermal Bowing Delta Temperature

This field is used to specify the temperature differential which exists between the top of the pipe and the

bottom of the pipe. This differential is used to compute an elemental load, added to each temperature case

for “horizontal” pipes.

This entry should be computed from the equation:

dT = Ttop - Tbottom

For example, consider a horizontal pipe where the temperature on the top is 20 degrees hotter than the

temperature on the bottom. The proper value to enter in this field will be 20, not -20.

Liberal Stress Allowable

A conservative formulation of the allowable expansion stress range for many codes in CAESAR II is

calculated from:

f ( 1.25 Sc + .25 Sh )

When the user requests that the “Liberal Allowable” be used, the difference between Sh and Sl, provided

Sh > Sl, will be added to the term inside the parenthesis, i.e.

SA(Liberal) = f[ 1.25 Sc + .25 Sh + ( Sh - Sl) ]

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 97

The liberal expression will only be employed when there is at least one sustained stress case in the load

set. If there is more than one sustained stress case in a single problem, then the largest of Sl, considering

all of the sustained cases, for any single element end will be chosen to subtract from Sh. Because the

sustained stress varies from one pipe to another, the allowable expansion stress will also vary.

By default, CAESAR II uses the liberal stress allowable setting in the configuration file, (see "Liberal

Expansion Stress Allowable" on page 11) in its computation of the expansion stress allowable. (New

models are created using this configuration setting.) Users not wishing to utilize this default setting for

calculating the expansion can simply change the state of this check box.

Uniform Load in G's

Uniform loads can be defined in either terms of force per unit length or in terms of a magnifier times

gravitational loading (g). The loading magnifier can act in any direction and is specified by giving its

components along the three orthogonal X, Y, and Z axes.

Gravitational loading is used most often to model the static equivalent of a dynamic earthquake loading.

When activated, the uniform load fields on the pipe spreadsheet change from UX, UY, and UZ to GX,

GY, and GZ. An entry of: GX = 1.0, GY = 0.0, GZ = 0.0 represents a lg loading on the piping system in

the horizontal X direction. An entry of: GX = 0.0, GY = -1.0, GZ = 0.0 represents a 1.0g load in the minus

Y direction, and is exactly equal to the pipe weight load.

Gravitational load entries are distributive properties similar to the uniform loads they replace. Once

specified, the given g loading will act on all subsequent pipe elements until changed or zeroed.

The user may activate the gravitational load option at any time during the input of the problem. The

gravitational load option is activated by checking the box.

Note: Earthquake loads are occasional loadings and as such are not directly addressed by the CAESAR II

recommended load case logic. Users must form their own combination cases at the output processor level

that represent the algebraic sum of the stresses due to sustained and occasional loads. See Chapter 6 of the

Technical Reference Manual for more on Occasional Load Case definition.

This directive activates the Pressure Stiffening effects in straight pipes. CAESAR II applies the stress

stiffening matrix to the elemental stiffness matrices (of straight pipes only) using an axial force P equal to

the internal pressure as selected from the drop list times the internal area of the pipe. Note that other

internal forces (due to thermal or imposed mechanical loads) are not included in the P force as this is not a

non-linear effect. Note that Stress Stiffening is not currently available for pressure cases 3 through 9.

Ambient Temperature

The default ambient temperature for all elements in the system is 70°F/21°C. If this does not accurately

represent the installed, or zero expansion strain state, then enter the actual value in this field. The ambient

temperature is used in conjunction with the specified hot temperature and the interpolated expansion

coefficient to calculate the thermal expansion per inch of pipe length experienced by the element when

going from the ambient temperature to the hot temperature.

A default ambient temperature can be defined in the configuration file (see "Ambient Temperature" on

page 4). This (configuration) value is used when a new model is created to set the value of ambient

temperature.

98 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The default thermal expansion coefficient for fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe is 12.0E-6 in./in./deg.F. If

the user has a more suitable value for the particular composite then that value should be inserted in this

field. For example, if the improved value was: 8.5E-6 in./in./deg.F., then the user would enter 8.5 in this

field. The exponent (E-6) is implied. This expansion coefficient is used in conjunction with the

temperatures entered on the pipe spreadsheet for each plastic pipe element to calculate the thermal

expansion for the element. It should be noted that this method does not provide for any variation in the

thermal expansion coefficient as a function of temperature. This could prove limiting should there be parts

of the system at different non-ambient temperatures. In this case the user may always calculate the thermal

expansion at temperature in inches per inch and input this value directly into the Temperature field on

the pipe spreadsheet.

For new models, the default value is obtained from the configuration file.

FRP Ratio of Shear Modulus/Emod Axial

In this field, the ratio of the shear modulus to the modulus of elasticity (in the axial direction) of the

fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used should be entered. For example, if the material modulus of elasticity

(axial) is 3.2E6 psi, and the shear modulus is 8.0E5 psi, the ratio of these two, 0.25, should be entered

here.

For new models, the default value is obtained from the configuration file.

FRP Laminate Type

The default Laminate Type (as defined in the BS 7159 code) of the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used

should be entered. Valid laminatetypes are

Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface

tissue reinforced layer.

Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construction with internal and external surface

tissue reinforced layer.

All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.

This entry is used in order to calculate the flexibility and stress intensity factors of bends; therefore this

default entry may be overridden using the Type field on the bend auxiliary spreadsheets.

Z-Axis Vertical

Traditionally CAESAR II has always used a coordinate system where the Y-axis coincides with the vertical

axis. In one alternative coordinate system, the Z-axis represents the vertical axis (with the X axis chosen

arbitrarily, and the Y-axis being defined according to the right hand rule. CAESAR II now gives the user the

ability to model using either coordinate system, as well as to switch between both systems on the fly in

most cases.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 99

The user’s preferred axis orientation may be set using the Tools-Configure/Setup option, on the

Geometry Directives (see "Z-Axis Vertical" on page 15) tab, as shown in the figure below. Clicking the

Z-Axis Vertical check box causes CAESAR II to default any new piping, structural steel, WRC 107,

NEMA SM 23, API 610, API 617, or API 661 models to use the Z-axis vertical orientation. Old models

will appear in the orientation in which they were last saved. The default value in Configure/Setup is

unchecked or Y-axis vertical.

100 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

A new piping model will determine its axis orientation based on the setting in the Configure/Setup

module, while an existing piping model will use the same axis orientation under which it was last saved.

The axis orientation may be toggled from Y-Axis to Z-Axis vertical by clicking the check box on the

Kaux-Special Execution Parameters screen, as show in the figure below.

Clicking this check box causes the model to immediately convert to match the new axis orientation (i.e.,

Y-values become Z-values) or vice versa, so there is no change in the model only in its representation, as

shown in the following figures:

This allows any piping input file to be immediately translated from one coordinate system into the other.

When including other piping files in a model, the axis orientation of the included files need not match that

of the piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.

When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the include files need not match

that of the piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.

The axis orientation on the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind and wave loads), the Static Output

Processor, The Dynamic Input Module, and the Dynamic Output Processor is dictated by the orientation

of the model’s input file.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 101

A new structural model will determine its axis orientation based on the setting in the Configure/Setup

module, while an existing structural model will use the same axis orientation under which it was last

saved. The axis orientation may be toggled from Y-Axis to Z-Axis Vertical by changing the value of the

Vertical Command, activated by clicking the button on the toolbar, or through the

COMMANDS/MISCELLANEOUS/VERTICAL menu command as shown in the figure on the next page.

Note: Unlike the piping and equipment files elsewhere in CAESAR II, toggling this setting does not

translate the structural input file, but rather physically rotates the model into the new coordinate system, as

shown in the figures below.

When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the included files need not match

that of the piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.

When analyzing a structural model on its own, the axis orientation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e.,

wind and wave loads), the Static Output Processor, the Dynamic Input Module, and the Dynamic Output

Processor is dictated by the orientation of the structural model’s input file.

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The WRC 107, NEMA SM 23, API 610, API 617, and API 661 equipment analytical modules may also

utilize the Z-axis vertical orientation. A new equipment model will also determine its axis orientation

based on the setting in the Configure/Setup module, while an existing equipment model will use the same

axis orientation under which it was last saved. The axis orientation may be toggled from Y-Axis to Z-Axis

Vertical by clicking the check box typically found on the second data input tab of each module.

Clicking this check box causes the model to immediately convert to match the new axis orientation (i.e.,

Y-values become Z-values) or vice versa, so there is no change in the model only in its representation, as

shown in the following figures:

When using the Get Loads From Output File button to read in piping loads from CAESAR II output files,

the axis orientation of the piping files need not match that of the equipment model. Translation occurs

immediately during the read-in of the loads.

Bandwidth Optimizer Options

The bandwidth optimizer is used to order the set of equations that represent the piping system for both

static and dynamic analyses. The optimizer may be run with a variety of different switch settings. The

default settings were chosen for their combination of ordering efficiency and speed. These settings should

suffice for the majority of piping systems analyzed. For systems having greater than 100 nodes, or that are

highly interconnected, the following optimum parameters should be used.

Optimizer Method Both

Next Node Selection Decreasing

Final Ordering Reversed

Collins Ordering Band

Degree Determination Connections

User Control None

If the User Control is set to "Allow User Re-looping," CAESAR II will let the user interactively try as many

different combinations of switch settings as desired. When the most efficient ordering is obtained, the user

may continue on with the analysis. This interactive prompting for optimization parameters is done in the

analysis level processing.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 103

Input from other jobs may be “included” into the current piping model. Piping models added may have a

node offset applied and can optionally be rotated about the Y axis before being added. Choose Kaux -

Include Piping Input Files from the Pipe Input spreadsheet to "include" other input files. When including

other piping models, the user is asked for the following:

File Name. The user may browse for the file name. The file need not reside in the current data directory.

Read Now (Y/N/L)

Y, if the file is to be read immediately and stored as part of the current input (the file read may be edited as

part of the current job). N, if the file is to be read for plotting and fully processed only during error

checking (the file read may not be edited as part of the current job). The L option is discussed under

"Large Job Includes," below.

Rotation. If not zero, then gives the angle about the Y axis by which to rotate the model before including it

in the current job. The rotation applies regardless of the (Y/N) setting.

Note: Restraints, uniform loads, and concentrated forces are NOT rotated. Additionally, the rotation of

the model can be accomplished from the LIST Utility.

Node Increment. The increment to be added to all of the nodes in the model before including it in the

current job. The node increment applies regardless of the (Y/N) setting.

104 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Include Structural Input Files. This input screen is used to include an already-built structural model into the

current job. The structural model must have been built and successfully error checked in the structural

steel preprocessor accessed from the CAESAR II MAIN MENU. Once a structural model has been built,

it may be included into any piping input using the above screen. The names of up to 20 different structural

models to be included are entered into the data area available. Once this is done, the structural model may

be plotted and analyzed with the piping model. The structural models need not reside in the current

directory.

Piping systems are usually tied to structural steel models by the use of restraints with connecting nodes.

The user should make absolutely sure there are no node number conflicts between structure and pipe

models. Once a restraint with a connecting node is defined between the pipe and structure, CAESAR II

knows where to put the structure in the resulting preprocessor plot. If no connection between the pipe and

the structure is given, the structure will be plotted starting from the origin of the piping system (and the

resulting plot will most likely “look funny”).

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 105

List/Edit Facility

The CAESAR II input listings allow the display of all applicable input data in a context display. This mode

is accessed through the Edit - List command. optionally in a user specified format. The user can edit, delete

or modify data in the lists.

The List option screen contains a row of tabs at the bottom that are used to select the various list options

to be displayed. When a tab has been selected the row headings at the top of the spreadsheet will reflect

the specific input data and controlling parameters displayed in the corresponding columns. All of the input

data can be accessed through the various list reports. An example list control screen is shown below.

106 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The reports are generated in column format in a window like that shown above that the user can

interactively review or modify. The cursor can be moved into any field and a new value entered to replace

the original value. The reports may be scrolled vertically or horizontally.

Help may be requested by pressing the <F1> key while in any of the data cells. Cell input may be deleted

by highlighting the selection and pressing the <Delete> key. The list spreadsheet supports standard

windows commands such as Cut and Paste on a field-by-field basis.

The User may edit input data on the list spreadsheet, which will then update the input spreadsheets as well.

Values that carry forward on the input spreadsheet are highlighted in red where there is a change in the

data value. For example, in the sample spreadsheet shown, the diameter changes from 219.075 mm to

508.0 mm on the element from node 90 to 100 so the new diameter is highlighted in red.

Other options from the Element List include the following:

The Find command (invoked with <Ctrl> F or EDIT - FIND menu item) is used to quickly jump to the

element where the given node is located. Find remembers the last node number entered, so subsequent

“finds” of the same node can be accomplished by typing <Ctrl> F.

Access to the element Auxiliary Data screens is available by highlighting an element row and choosing

the Aux button from the toolbar or alternatively by right-clicking on an element line and picking the BLOCK

OPERATIONS-AUX item in the popup menu. By single-clicking on any checked items from the window shown

below the appropriate Auxiliary Data field will be displayed. The user may edit the data in the Auxiliary

Data field, which will in turn update the input spreadsheet. Additionally, the user may enter new data by

double-clicking on any of the unchecked boxes to bring up that item's Auxiliary Data screen. An entire

Auxiliary Data field may be deleted by double-clicking on the checked item (a prompt will warn the user

of the impending delete operation).

Block Operations

The list editor has the ability to perform global editing operations on selected parts of the piping system.

These operations include varieties of rotations, duplications, node renumbering, and status reporting.

Block operations are available on the element list only.

Move the cursor to the first element in the group to be operated on and click the row number for that item.

This element should become highlighted. Move the cursor to the last element in the group to be operated

on and click on the corresponding row number while holding the <shift> key down. The entire group of

elements will be highlighted. This “highlighting” defines the elements that any block operations will

change. A block may contain any number of elements from a single element to every element in the

model. A block must be defined before CAESAR II will allow the user to enter the BLOCK OPERATIONS menu

item.

After the block has been identified select Block and one of the following sub-menu items to perform the

indicated operation (or right-click in the list processor and select one of the following from the pop-up

menu):

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 107

Rotate

The Rotate dialog box is shown in the following figure. The user may rotate the block through some angle

about the X, Y or Z axis. The Unskew option helps the user take a skewed geometry and return it to an

orthogonal orientation. The Setup option permits the user to determine what in the block should be rotated,

including restraints, displacements, force/moments, uniform loads, and flexible nozzles. The default is for

all of these items that appear in the block to be rotated with the block. Data/message screens illustrating an

example rotation are shown as follows.

Delete

This command deletes the selected block.

Duplicate

The Duplicate dialog is shown in the figure below. The user can make identical copies of the block or can

make mirror image by "flipping" the chosen elements in one of the orthogonal planes. Mirror imaging is

done on the piping delta dimensions only (i.e. restraints are copied, but not mirror imaged, i.e.: a +Y

restraint will not become a -Y restraint when mirrored in the XZ plane.)

108 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The duplicate “setup” option works just like the rotation setup option. Restraints, displacements,

forces/moments, uniform loads and nozzles may individually be included or excluded from the

duplication.

Once the type of duplication is determined the user must decide the following:

Where in the input to put the duplicated group of elements. Either at the end of the current block, the

end of the input file, or after a specific element in the model.

What node increment to add to the nodes in the block so that they define unique pipe elements. Be

sure this increment is large enough to avoid any duplication of node numbers.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 109

Nodes

On certain occasions the node numbering in a particular area of the model may not be to the user's liking.

To renumber a part of the model in a more logical fashion use the Block-Node menu command. The two

available options are Increment and Renumber as shown in the following figure.

The user enters the starting node and the increment for the block's nodal renumbering. Every node in the

block on the piping system will be renumbered. The user must be sure that the starting node and increment

will result in unique node numbers for the elements being renumbered. This feature can be used to clean

up part, or all of the piping system. It is not unusual for an analyst to put the entire model in one block and

do a full renumber on all of the nodes. This often presents a much cleaner picture of the analysis to the

client. Users are urged to make copies of any large jobs before renumbering them. Users should be

particularly careful when renumbering systems containing large numbers of interconnected restraints with

Cnodes.

Note: It is common for CAESAR II not to renumber a Cnode in a block having perceived that the Cnode

is connected to a node outside the block. (In fact Cnode will not be renumbered if they do not connect to a

node in the block and on the piping system.)

Any possible confusion can be avoided in these instances by starting the renumbering at a node greater

than the largest node in the model. If all of the nodes are renumbered successfully (i.e. there aren't any

dangling Cnodes), then the node Increment command can be issued with a negative increment to shift the

newly renumbered nodes back into the original range.

110 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

An input listing can be printed by using the File - Print command from the spreadsheet. The program

prompts the user to select the reports to print, prior to printing.

The user can change the report contents through modification of a .inp file.

Any time an input listing is written to a file or to the printer, the format of each of the reports is obtained

from a .inp file. The .inp files are ASCII text files which can be modified to create reports of differing

styles or content. The file Initial.inp can be modified to change the page length in the report, and the

starting and stopping column positions. Any text editor (such as Notepad) can be used to change any of

the .inp files. Users changing .inp files may receive fatal errors during report generation if impossible

formats, or invalid commands are requested.

Note: For users preferring a different (more columnar) form of the basic element data, three additional

formatting files have been provided.

ELEMENT0.INP - COADE standard element format

ELEMENT1.INP - 1st alternate element format

ELEMENT2.INP - 2nd alternate element format

ELEMENT3.INP - 3rd alternate element format

To utilize any of these formatting files, change directories to the CAESAR II\System directory. Then, copy

the desired formatting file into Element.inp.

To print an Input Echo from the input spreadsheets, choose FILE - PRINT from the pull-down menu. To write

an Input Echo to the screen for review, choose FILE - PRINT PREVIEW from the pull-down menu.

Note: An input listing may also be printed from the output module, as part of the entire output report.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 111

Input Plotting

The following figure shows the CAESAR II graphics interface.

There are several methods of accomplishing nearly every command in the Input Plot Utility. Commands

may be enabled by clicking toolbar buttons, selecting drop-down menu items, or through the use of hot

keys.

In general it is faster to use the hot keys for model rotation and the mouse button for model translation. It

is much faster to turn volume plot off prior to model rotation and translation with hot keys. CAESAR II

toggles the volume off when using the mouse to pan the model and restores the volume at the conclusion

of the pan.

The shift key may be used to toggle between Rotation and Panning functionality of the arrow keys. The

letters SHFT appear at the bottom right of the Plot Window when the Shift option is enabled. Note that

the Shift key need not be held down to enable the SHFT option.

112 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Rotations:

About the Y-axis, use the right and left arrow keys.

About the Z-axis, use the insert and delete keys.

About the In-Plane axis (parallel to the display), use the up and down arrow keys.

About the X-axis, press the <z> key to view from the Z-axis or the <y> key to view from the Y-axis,

then use the up and down arrow keys.

SHFT Option Disabled

Panning:

Pan up with the <Page Up> key

Pan down with the <Page Down> key

Pan left with the <Home> key

Pan right with the <End> key

SHFT Option Enabled

Panning:

To Pan Left and Right, use the left and right arrow keys.

To Pan Up and Down, use the up and down arrow keys.

Note: Other key combinations are possible, and the User is urged to experiment with different

keystrokes to find the optimum combination for themselves.

Toolbar buttons may also be used for Rotations and Translations and the volume plot should be disabled

first. This method is generally slower than hot keys or the mouse.

A particularly effective method for quickly panning the plot is to right-click the mouse on the Plot

Window and choose Pan from the pop-up menu. Then the model will move with the mouse about the

window. To disable this directive, either press the <Esc> key or right-click the mouse and choose PAN

again.

Zooming

Zooming is accomplished with either the + or - keys or by simply left-clicking the mouse and dragging it

to draw a box around the portion of the model to be enlarged. Another effective method of zooming is

accomplished by right-clicking on the Plot Window and choosing Zoom from the pop-up menu, then

dragging the mouse up and down to zoom in and out. When satisfied with the view, either press the <esc>

key or right-click the mouse and choose Zoom again from the pop-up menu to deactivate mouse controlled

zooming.

Reset Plot

Reset Plot may be chosen from either the Toolbar, from the menu with the View-Reset command or by

pressing the <F9> function key. This returns the plot to the original default position as when the Plot

Window is first entered from the Input Spreadsheet.

Views

The Input Plot may be viewed Isometrically (default), or along any of the three global axes. To view the

plot in the two-dimensional plane normal to a given axis, either press the axis letter on the keyboard (X, Y,

or Z), choose the corresponding Toolbar button, or pick the appropriate menu item under the View menu.

To display the plot in all four views simultaneously, choose the 4 views button, press <ctrl> 4, or select

the 4 views menu item under the View menu. To return to the SE Isometric view, choose the SE ISO View

button, the <F10> function key, or select SOUTHEAST ISO VIEW from the View drop-down menu.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 113

Volume Plotting

The three different volume plots available in CAESAR II are the Volume Plot, the Wire Frame Plot, and

Rendering. Rendering views the model as a 3-D solid, while Volume Plot is the volume outline view.

Toggle Volume on and off with the <V> key, the Volume button on the Toolbar, or the VOLUME PLOT menu

item from the View menu. Toggle 3-D Rendering or 3-D Wire Frame on and off with either the

appropriate button on the Toolbar or the menu choice under the View menu.

Model information may be displayed on the plot by choosing the appropriate Toolbar button, the

dropdown menu item under the Options menu, or the appropriate Hot Key (as shown on the dropdown

menu). The following is a short description of the available model information on the plot window:

Expansion Joints and Rigids

Plotted by default and displayed in Green on the plot window.

Restraints

Also plotted in Green, translational restraints are plotted as isocoles triangles with the apex touching the

pipe in the direction of free travel (ex: a +Y restraint looks like a triangle with it's base below the pipe).

Flexible restraints are drawn with small spring symbols. “Gapped” restraints are drawn slightly removed

from the centerline of the pipe. Rotational restraints are plotted twice as wide at the base of the arrow-head

as translational restraints. The user is encouraged to experiment to determine all the symbols that CAESAR

II uses to depict various restraint types.

Anchors

Anchors are shown as green triangles with standard anchor lines protruding from the base.

Hangers

Drawn as brown (default) cylinders with a line extending to the hanger node.

Nozzles

Brown Cylinder with larger "cap" at vessel connection point.

Bends, Tees

All shown as highlighted straight lines connecting the associated boundary nodes.

Forces, Moments, Displacements

The node is highlighted and the vectors are displayed numerically.

Thicknesses, Diameter, Length, Material Number

Element pipe wall thicknesses, insulation thicknesses, material number, element diameter and length are

displayed numerically near the midpoint of the element.

Node Numbers

Node Numbers are displayed in Yellow. Only From and To nodes are displayed.

Range

The Range command may be used to plot only those elements that contain nodes within the range

specified by the User. This is particularly helpful when attempting to locate a specific node in a rather

large model.

114 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Highlight

The Highlight option is used to mark elements having similar properties.

Each subsequent Highlight is cumulative. Very descriptive color displays can be generated and

interactively rotated to give the user a clear description of the conditions used for highlighting.

3D Graphics

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 115

Not Operating System dependent

The model is only drawn once and the only thing that changes is the camera position (or users

viewpoint), and that the camera moves around the model in a spherical manner.

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Introduction

The piping preprocessor also provides interactive graphics and listing functions to facilitate model editing

and verification. Model verification can be performed using either the Graphics or List utilities, although a

combination of both modes is recommended.

When drawing the model, the status bar displays “drawing node X of Y” and changes to “Ready” when

finished. The model remains functional while drawing.

Functions

Hoops Plot Tools (toolbar):

“Reset Plot” Displays the plot in its default configuration: removes any highlighting, sets ISO view, renders

mode, and zooms to extent. This action may also be activated by clicking the “F9” function key

on the keyboard.

“Undo/Redo” Disregards or repeats the user’s last action.

“Zoom to Window” The view can be zoomed in by dragging a box around the desired area.

“Zoom to Extents” The model will zoom in or out to fit entirely on the screen.

Front/Back; Top/Bottom; Allows selecting among predefined generally used views. Pressing “X”, “Y”, or ”Z” buttons on

Left/Right the keyboard will set the model in “right”, “top”, or “front” views correspondingly. Additionally,

holding down the “SHIFT” button while pressing “X”, “Y”, or “Z” keys will show “left”,

“bottom”, or “back” views respectively.

“ISO View” View in Southeast isometric mode. This action may also be activated by clicking the “F10”

function key on the keyboard.

“Orbit” Activates an interactive rotation feature when the left mouse button is held down.

“Zoom” The model may be zoomed in/out by moving mouse up/down while holding down the “left”

mouse button. The model may also be zoomed from under any other command by rotating the

mouse wheel (when applicable).

“Pan” The model may be panned left, right, up, or down. Upon clicking the button, the cursor with

change to a “hand”; and the view may be panned by moving the mouse while holding down the

“left” mouse button. The view may also be panned from under any other command by holding

down the “middle” mouse button/mouse wheel while moving the mouse.

Freehand Markup: FreeHand, On clicking this button, the drop down menu appears with following options: “Free Hand”,

Circle, Rectangle, Annotate “Circle”, “Rectangle”, and “Annotate”. The geometry or the text entered by this command, are

not kept with the model, and get erased/deleted on any change (like zoom, pan, or rotate).

“Walk through” Allows interactively move “inside” the model, and look left, right, up, and down. A list of

available commands/keys is displayed on the screen.

“Gouraud Shading/ Hidden Will switch the corresponding view mode of the model. Pressing the “V” button on the keyboard

Lines/ Wire Frame/ Two Line will switch the views in following order: Gouraud Shading (rendered mode) -> Two Line Mode -

Mode/ CenterLine View > Center Line View.

“Select by Single Click” Clicking on elements when this option is selected causes the input spreadsheet for the chosen

element to be displayed in the background. The element is highlighted and zoomed to selection.

Additionally, a dialog box with basic element geometry information is updated within the plot

window. The Element Information screen may be moved around or away from the view. Clicking

on the empty space will de-highlight the element.

“Insert Cutting Plane” Inserts cutting plane

Annotate Model When the button is selected the user can add annotations with leader lines to the graphics. This is

done by left-clicking the mouse to start the leader line, then dragging the line to the annotation

point, typing in the annotation, and then pressing the Enter button. NOTE: The annotation font

face, size, and color may be changed by clicking “Change Display Options” button.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 117

Change Display Options Allows the setting of colors, fonts and other definable defaults for the geometry and text on the

plot. Changes to graphic settings are restored whenever plot is exited and restarted in the graphics

view. Alternatively, the user may set a "standard" setup to be always restored upon entering

graphics for this particular job. This is done through the use of this button, followed by the User

Options tab.

“Translucent Objects” Enables the “see through” of elements. The degree of translucence is set in Plot Configuration

under the Visibility tab. This option is especially useful when designing “jacketed pipe”, when

one or more pipes are hidden inside a “jacket”.

Perspective/ Orthographic/ Switches between the named model view projections. The default (set to Orthographic

Stretched Projection projection) can be set by the user for this particular job through the use of “Plot Configuration”

dialog, followed by the User Options tab.

Note: Most of the operations are also available by right-clicking the mouse and selecting an action from

the popup menu. Pressing [ESC] or re-selecting from the popup menu exits the action.

4 Views Allows viewing all four view modes simultaneously (“right”, “top”, “front”, and “ISO”). Upon

clicking the button, the splitter bars appear, move the mouse to the desired position, and click the left

mouse button. NOTE: all the four views can be operated on independently (zoom, pan, or orbit);

however, the “model-level” operations (like selection, coloring for restraints or diameters, node

numbers, etc.) update all four views simultaneously.

Expansion Joints/ Tees/ Displays and highlights with color the expansion joints, tees, or flexible nozzles correspondingly.

Nozzles

Anchors/ Hangers/ Displays anchors (alternatively, Menu PlotOptions -> Anchors or “F2” function key), hangers

Restraints (alternatively, Menu PlotOptions -> Hangers or “F4” function key), and non-anchor, non-hanger

restraints (alternatively, Menu PlotOptions -> Restraints or “F7” function button) correspondingly.

Note: the size of mentioned boundary condition symbols corresponds to the pipe sizing (OD). In

addition, size of restraints and hangers may be manually adjusted to become larger or smaller by

clicking on the black arrow to the right of the button and selecting the size option from the drop down

menu

Materials/ Diameters/ Wall Displays a list of distinct construction materials (keyboard letter “M”), pipe outside diameters

Thickness/ Insulation (keyboard letter “D”), wall thicknesses (keyboard letter “W”), and/or insulation thicknesses

(keyboard letter “I”) used in the model, and colors the corresponding elements on the view with

separate colors.

Displacements/ Forces/ Predefined displacements, Forces and Moments, Uniform Loads, and Wind/Wave loads may be

Uniform Loads/ Winds- graphically colored on the model. The corresponding legend window is filled with relevant

Waves information. The legend window may be dragged away from the viewing area. When printed, the

legend in the form of grid is printed on the second page, following the graphics view.

View Compass Toggles the display of the coordinate system compass. In addition, the “compass” symbol may be

toggled on the screen by typing the letter “P” on the keyboard.

Node Numbers Labels plot with node numbers. Note: the font face, size and color of the node numbers may be

changed by clicking “Change Display Options” button. In addition, the node numbers may be toggled

on the screen by typing the letter “N” on the keyboard.

Lengths Labels plot with element lengths. Note: the font face, size and color of the node numbers may be

changed by clicking “Change Display Options” button. In addition, the element lengths may be

toggled on the screen by typing the letter “L” on the keyboard.

Range Displays elements based on node ranges. The dialog allows select all/clear all node numbers, reverse

selection, or enter “from” and “to” nodes. Typing “U” from the keyboard will bring the range dialog

out.

View Input Spreadsheet The “View Spreadsheet” command allows the user to maintain both the plot and the spreadsheet on

the screen simultaneously. If “Select by Single Click” button is pressed, the switching among

elements in the spreadsheet view will highlight and zoom to the current element on the graphics

view.

118 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Show Temperatures/ Displays each element temperature or pressure (respectively) as a separate color. If

Pressures temperature/pressure 2-9 are used, a menu appears allowing the user to choose which

temperature/pressure range to display. The legend is displayed in a separate window, that may be

dragged away from the view.

Find Node When pressed, it will display a “find node” dialog box. Entering node numbers will select/highlight

the element (if found) and move it into the window (zoom to selection)

Note: The current plot may be output to the clipboard, a bitmap file (.TIF), or a printer through use of the

Edit-Copy, File-Save As Bitmap, or File-Print commands, respectively.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 119

Introduction

The user can also use the View-Plot menu command or the Plot toolbar to review the analytic results in

graphics mode, which can produce displaced shapes, stress distributions, and restraint actions.

Functions

The output graphics contains the same 2 toolbars as were used in the input graphics: Hoops Standard

Toolbar – with zoom, pan, orbit and related buttons, and Hoops Input Toolbar – with buttons for restraints,

materials, diameters, node numbers and other related buttons. See the description of the buttons in the

“Piping Input Graphics” section.

Load Cases Analysed This is a drop down list box with a choice of the loads cases that were analyzed for the job. You

can switch among available load cases to see the corresponding output.

Deflected Shape The plot will show the model view along with a normalized/scaled deflected shape of the system

in the operating condition for the currently selected load case. The deflection scale can be

adjusted by clicking the small black arrow on the right of the button and selecting “Adjust

Deflection Scale” option form the menu. The color of the displaced geometry can be changed by

clicking the “Change Display Options” button on the “Hoops Standard Toolbar”, and then

proceeding to the “Output Options” tab.

Grow Not active

Maximum Displacements - X/ Allows the user to put the actual magnitude for X, Y, or Z displacements on the currently

Y/ Z displayed geometry. It starts with highest value for given direction, then (on pressing “Enter”)

puts 2nd, 3rd highest, etc. Subsequent click of the same button will turn this option off and refresh

the plot. Each corresponding element is highlighted on the view. If “Zoom to Selection” button is

clicked on the toolbar, the view will be zoomed to the highlighted element. If the “Show Element

Viewer Grid” button is clicked on the toolbar, the “Event Viewer” dialog will be displayed: it

contains all the nodes in the model, report is set to Displacements for particular load case, and the

corresponding displacements column (DX, DY, or DZ) is highlighted.

Maximum Restraint Loads – Allows the user to put the magnitude for forces and moments in selected direction for the

FX/ FY/ FZ/ MX/ MY/ MZ restrained nodes. It starts with highest for given option/direction, then (on pressing “Enter”) puts

2nd, 3rd highest, etc. Subsequent click of the same button will turn this option off and refresh the

plot. Each corresponding element is highlighted on the view. If “Zoom to Selection” button is

clicked on the toolbar, the view will be zoomed to the highlighted element. If the “Show Element

Viewer Grid” button is clicked on the toolbar, the “Event Viewer” dialog will be displayed: it

contains all the nodes in the model, report is set to Restraints for particular load case, and the

corresponding Force/Moment column is highlighted.

Overstress Displays with color overstressed points on the elements. Overstressed conditions are only

detected for load cases where a code compliance check was done (i.e., where there are allowable

stresses available). This operation is similar to “Show Code Stress by Percent”; but only points

with code stress to allowable ratio of greater than 100% are displayed.

120 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Maximum Code Stress Displays code stresses one at a time from the largest to the smallest values. Subsequent click of

the same button will turn this option off and refresh the plot. Each corresponding element is

highlighted on the view. If “Zoom to Selection” button is clicked on the toolbar, the view will be

zoomed to the highlighted element. If the “Show Element Viewer Grid” button is clicked on the

toolbar, the “Event Viewer” dialog will be displayed: it contains all the nodes in the model, report

is set to Stresses for particular load case, and the “Code Stress” column is highlighted.

Show Code Stress Colors by Plots the piping system in a range of colors, where the color corresponds to the value or percent of

Value / Show Code Stress allowable (respectively) of the code stress. The Legend window can be resized and/or moved

Colors by Percent away from the view. Colors and corresponding stress levels are initially set in the

Configuration/Setup module. They can also be adjusted by clicking the small black arrow on the

right of the button and selecting “Adjust Settings” option form the menu.

Show Element Viewer Grid If “Show Element Viewer Grid” button is clicked on the toolbar, the “Event Viewer” dialog will

be displayed whenever any of the Displacements, Restraint Loads, or Stresses buttons is used.

The “Event Viewer Grid” contains a selection of load cases analyzed, a set of reports to choose

from, all the nodes in the model and other useful information in tabular form. Upon selecting any

of the “output options” buttons, the “Event Viewer” will be pre-set to the corresponding load case

and report. The summary of the reports for any particular element may also be obtained by

clicking “Select by Single Click” button on the Hoops Standard Toolbar and pointing to an

element on the view.

Zoom to Selection If “Zoom to Selection” button is clicked on the toolbar, the view will be zoomed to the

highlighted element whenever any of the Displacements, Restraint Loads, or Stress buttons is

used. If the button is not “ON”, the elements will still be highlighted, but view will not be zoomed

to the selection.

Notes: on operating “Output Options” buttons (max. displacements, restraint loads, and stresses):

(1) Each corresponding element is highlighted on the view.

(2) If “Zoom to Selection” button is clicked on the toolbar, the view will be zoomed to the highlighted

element.

(3) If the “Show Element Viewer Grid” button is clicked on the toolbar, the “Event Viewer” dialog will be

displayed. It will be pre-set to the corresponding load case and report; column with relevant information

and row with selected element will be highlighted on the grid.

1

CHAPTER 4

In This Chapter

Overview .....................................................................................2

The Structural Steel Property Editor ...........................................3

General Properties.......................................................................12

UNITS Specification - UNIT ......................................................13

Axis Orientation Vertical ............................................................14

Section Identification - SECID....................................................16

Setting Defaults - DEFAULT......................................................19

Setting Nodes in Space - NODE, NFILL, NGEN .......................20

Building Elements - ELEM, EFILL, EGEN, EDIM....................24

Resetting Element Strong Axis - ANGLE, ORIENT ..................32

End Connection Information .......................................................35

Loads...........................................................................................46

Utilities........................................................................................52

Material Identification - MATID.................................................53

Data Processing - STAT..............................................................55

Structural Databases....................................................................56

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Overview

The following pages contain descriptions of each of the structural element keywords. These definitions

and examples arranged in usage order. The following list of all the keywords is arranged alphabetically

and gives the page number for each keyword where its input description can be found.

Keyword/Page Number

ANGLE (on page 32)

BEAMS (see "ANGLE" on page 32)

BRACES (on page 40)

COLUMNS

DEFAULT

EDIM

EFILL

EGEN

ELEM

FIX

FREE

GLOAD

LIST

LOAD

MATID

NFILL

NGEN

NODE

ORIENT

PLOT

SECID

STAT

UNIF

UNIT

WIND

VERTICAL

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 3

CAESAR II provides the user with the capability to enter the general properties when beginning a new file

using the Structural Steel Wizard. The following section illustrates a typical new file input session using

this editing technique.

New File

From the CAESAR II Main Menu, select FILE/NEW to begin the process. Type the name of the structural steel

file you want to create. To begin this process, click the Structural Input radio button and click OK to

launch the Structural Steel Wizard.

4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Units File

Select the units file that the structural file will be based on from the pull-down list on this screen. To

continue, click Next.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 5

Vertical Axis

Select either the Y or Z axis as the vertical axis aligned with gravity from the pull-down list on this screen.

To continue, click Next.

6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Material Properties

Enter the material properties for the structural steel members here before continuing. These include

Density, Young's Modulus, Yield Strength, Poisson's Ration, and Thermal Expansion Coefficients. The

latter corresponds to operating temperatures 1 through 9 if used. You may have multiple materials using a

unique Material ID for each. For additional materials you must complete the wizard first, then continue in

the Structural Steel Modeler as instructed later in this chapter. To continue, click Next.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 7

8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Enter the appropriate cross sectional type (note these must be entered exactly as listed at the end of this

chapter). An easier method is to click the Select Section ID button and then expand the appropriate tree

(beams, channels, tees, or angles) as shown below. All of the cross section types supported by CAESAR II

are then available for selection.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 9

If the section type is to be user-defined, check the User Defined box and enter the data in the area to the

right as shown below.

Enter the Cross Sectional Area, Strong and Weak axis moments of inertia, the torsional resistivity

constant, and the height and width of the rectangle for plotting purposes.

Note: In the plot of a User Defined Cross Section, the section will appear as a simple rectangle with

dimensions in BoxH and BoxW.

To continue, click Next.

10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 11

Select either Type 1 (element Definition using the EDIM commands) or Type 2 (Node and Element

Definition using the NODE and ELEM commands). Click Finish to complete the wizard and the main

Structural Steel Modeler window appears populated with data from the wizard.

Once this portion of the model is complete you can make further entries as detailed in the following

section.

12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

General Properties

All directives are picked from either the menu or the toolbar. After the information is filled out in the input

fields on the left side of the window, press the +-sign button to add the command to the model (or drag the

dialog to the appropriate position in the text). The appropriate text will appear on the right side of the

window (the white section). The following graphics show how to choose the commands, the input fields,

and the resultant input file text (always the last line of text on the right). There is no provision to type in

commands directly in the text section.

Add

Click on the + button to add the data in the edit dialog to the end of the model.

Insert

Highlight a given command line in the input list section and click the Insert button to insert the data in the

edit dialog in front of the highlighted command.

Replace

Click the Replace button to replace the currently highlighted command line with the data in the edit

dialog.

Delete

Click the Delete button to remove the highlighted command line from the model.

Note: The data in the Edit dialog may also be dragged to its appropriate position in the model text area.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 13

Units Specification

Used to specify the UNITS file to be used, instead of the UNITS file currently designed in the

configuration file. This command should appear first, before any Material, Section, or Dimensional data is

entered.

14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The axis orientation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind and wave loads), the Static Output

Processor, the Dynamic Input Module, and the Dynamic Output Processor is dictated by the orientation of

the model’s input file.

Orienting a structural model to Z-Axis Vertical. A new structural model will determine its axis orientation

based on the setting in the Configure/Setup module, while an existing structural model will use the same

axis orientation under which it was last saved. The axis orientation may be toggled from Y-Axis to Z-Axis

Vertical by changing the value of the Vertical command, activated by clicking the button on the

toolbar, or through the COMMANDS/MISCELLANEOUS/VERTICAL menu command, as shown in the figure below.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 15

Note: Unlike the piping and equipment files elsewhere in CAESAR II, toggling this setting does not

translate the structural input file, but rather physically rotates the model into the new coordinate system.

When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the included files need not match

that of the piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.

When analyzing a structural model on its own, the axis orientation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e.,

wind, and wave loads), the Static Output Processor, the Dynamic Input Processor is dictated by the

orientation of the structural model’s input.

16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Section Definition

Section ID

Used to assign member cross section properties to Section ID numbers.

SECID secid, NAME = <label>

SECID

A user defined Section ID to be used for all future referencing of this set of cross section properties.

(Usually Section ID’s start from 1 and go up, but the user may assign values in any order that is

convenient.)

Name

Either an AISC shape name or the word “USER.” All AISC names should be keyed exactly as shown in

the AISC handbook with the exception that fractions should be represented as decimals., i.e. the angle:

LX6X3-1/2X1/2 would be entered: L6X3.5X0.5. Leading or trailing zeros may be omitted. Alternatively,

the user may select the appropriate section name from the window provided when the user clicks on the

Select Section ID button. A full list of available Section types are found at the end of this chapter.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 17

User-Defined

For a user-defined shape click on the check box labeled User Defined. There are six additional parameters

that must be entered to fully define the user’s cross section:

Area

Cross section area (length2).

Ixx

Strong axis moment of inertia (length4).

Iyy

Weak axis moment of inertia (length4).

Torsional R

Torsional resistivity constant (length4).

BOXH

Height of a rectangular box for plotting (height is along the weak axis).

18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

BOXW

Width of a rectangular box for plotting (width is along the strong axis).

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 19

Used to set the default values of the Section ID and the Material ID. Whenever an element generation

occurs and the Section and/or the Material ID is omitted, the default values set here are used. The initial

default value for both the Section and the Material ID is 1.

20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

NODE

Node Definition

Used to define the absolute coordinates of a point in global X, Y, Z space.

NODE num X, Y, Z

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 21

NFILL

Used to fill in evenly spaced nodes between two already defined end points. If the increment “BY” is

omitted, the default is 1.

22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

NGEN

Used to duplicate patterns of nodes. At least the first and last node in the base node pattern must already

exist before the NGEN command is issued. Other nodes in the base node pattern not already defined will

be evenly spaced between the first and last node. The DX, DY, and DZ are offsets for duplicate nodes

from the base pattern of nodes.

n1

First node in the base node pattern (must exist before the NGEN command is issued).

TO

Last node in the base node pattern (must exist before the NGEN command is issued).

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 23

BY

Increment to get from the starting node to the ending node in the base pattern. n1, TO and BY define the

nodes in the base pattern. All subsequent nodal patterns generated start from the base pattern. If omitted

the default is 1.

LAST

Last node in the last nodal pattern to be generated. If omitted then a single pattern duplication will occur.

NODEINC

Increment to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first generated pattern, and then

from this pattern to the next generated pattern, etc.

DX, DY, DZ

Coordinates offset to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first generated pattern, and

then from this pattern to the next generated pattern, etc.

Example

In the preceding figure, the nodes from 1100 to 2000 with an increment of 100 are duplicated twice, each

new pattern offset 10 ft. in the z-direction. The new nodes created are from 2100 to 3000 and also from

3100 to 4000. Note that the NFILL command previous to this NGEN command was not necessary.

24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

ELEM

Used to define a single element that exists between two points in global Cartesian space. In addition a

section identifier and a material identifier for the element may also be given. If the section and/or material

id’s are omitted the current default values are used. (See help for the keyword “DEFAULT.”)

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 25

EFILL

Used to generate a consecutive string of elements. None of the elements generated need to exist prior to

the FILL operation.

EFILL n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, SECID, MATID, INCSECID, INCMAT

D

n1

“FROM” node number on the first element generated.

TO

“TO” node number on the first element generated.

26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

INC

Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.

If omitted, INC defaults to 1.

INCTO

Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If

INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.

LAST

“TO” node on the last element to be generated.

SECID

Section ID for the first element generated.

MATID

Material ID for the first element generated.

INCSECID

Increment to get from the Section ID for the first element to the Section ID for the second element.

(Default=0)

INCMATID

Increment to get from the Material ID for the first element to the Material ID for the second element.

(Default=0)

Example

In the preceding figure elements were generated between each pair of nodes between node 1200 and 2000.

The increment between From to From nodes and To to To nodes is the same in this case, being equal to

100. Eight elements were created in this example, together with the one element previously created using

the ELEM command for a total of nine elements. Note that the ELEM command would not have been

necessary here, since all nine elements could have been created using the EFILL command by simply

substituting node 1100 in place of node 1200 in the From Node field.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 27

EGEN

Duplicating Elements

Used to duplicate patterns of elements. EGEN is a very flexible and very powerful generation command

that should be used carefully. The form of EGEN shown below does not presume that any of the elements

in the base pattern exist before the generation. If elements in the base pattern do exist before the

generation they will be redefined during the generation process.

GENINCTO GENLAST SECID, MATID, INSECID, INCMATID,

, ,

n1

“FROM” node on the first element in the base pattern.

TO

“TO” node on the first element in the base pattern.

28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

INC

Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element in the base pattern to the “FROM” node on

the second element in base pattern. If omitted defaults to 1.

INCTO

Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If

INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.

LAST

“TO” node on the last element in the base pattern. The EGEN command is set up to generate multiple

copies from the base pattern of elements.

GENINC

Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element in the base pattern to the “FROM” node on

the first element in the first duplicate pattern.

GENINCTO

Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element in the base pattern to the “TO” node on the first

element in the first duplicate pattern. If omitted defaults to GENINC.

GENLAST

The “TO” node on the last element in the last pattern to be duplicated from the base pattern.

SECID

Section ID to be used for the elements in the base pattern. If omitted the default Section ID is used. See

the “help” for DEFAULT for an explanation of how the default Section ID is set up. On start-up the

default Section ID is 1.

MATID

Material ID to be used for the elements in the base pattern. If omitted the default Material ID is used. See

“help” for DEFAULT for an explanation of how the default material ID is set up. On start-up the default

material ID is 1.

INCSECID

Section ID increment to be used between patterns. i.e. the first pattern of elements generated from the base

pattern of elements will have a Section ID of SECID + INCSECID. If omitted defaults to zero.

INCMATID

Material ID increment to be used between patterns. If omitted defaults to zero.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 29

Example

In the preceding figure the base element pattern from 1100 to 2000 was reproduced two more times, from

2100 to 3000 and from 3100 to 4000. Each element has nodal increments of 100. The increment between

the base element list and the next element list is 1000 and the last node in the last pattern is 4000. Then the

cross members were created using the base pattern from 1100 to 2100 and reproducing it in nodal

increments of 100 until node 4000 was reached. The following figure shows the resultant model.

30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

EDIM

Define elements using the dimensions of the element rather than references to nodes. Any existing

elements encountered will be redefined.

The EDIM element definition is probably more familiar to piping engineers while ELEM, EGEN, and

EFIL are more familiar to structural engineers. INC, INCTO, and LAST may be omitted to define a single

element.

INC

Increment to get from the "FROM" node on the first element to the "FROM" node on the second element.

If omitted, the default is 1.

INCTO

Increment to get from the "TO" node on the first element to the "TO" node on the second element. If

omitted, the default is INC.

LAST

"TO" node on the last element to be defined.

DX, DY, DZ

Dimensions of the member between the "FROM" and the "TO" node. These dimensions apply for each

member in this pattern being generated. (i.e. EDIM generates elements that are exactly the same length

and orientation).

SECID

Section ID for the first element. If not given, then the current default is used. (See Help for keyword

DEFAULT (see "Setting Defaults - DEFAULT" on page 19).)

MATID

Material ID for the first element. If not given, then the current default is used. (See Help for keyword

DEFAULT.)

INSECID

Section ID increment to get from the Section ID of the first element to the Section ID of the second

element.

INCMATID

Material ID increment to get from the Material ID of the first element to the Material ID of the second

element.

TO

"To" node on the last element to be defined.

INC

Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.

If omitted, INC defaults to 1.

INCTO

Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If

INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 31

DX, DY, DZ

Coordinates offset to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first generated pattern, and

then from this pattern to the next generated pattern, etc.

Examples

EDIM 5 to 10 DY = 12-3 SECID=2..Column 12-3 high from 5 to 10

EDIM 5,10 DY=12-3,2....................Same column

EDIM 2 TO 3 LAST=8 DX=13-3.....Defining beams 13-3 long and elements 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, and 7-

8. INC defaults to 1.

Enter the 4 EDIM commands top define the small frame shown to the right.

Remember that every thing after a (:) or (:) on the line is treated as a

comment.

EDIM 5 TO 9 INC=1 LAST=12 DY=12-0 SECID=2 ;2nd floor columns

EDIM 5 TO 6 INC=1 LAST=8 DX=10-0 SECID=3 ;1st floor beams

EDIM 9 TO 10 INC=1 LAST=12 DX=10-0 SECID=3 ;roof beams

32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

ANGLE

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 33

Used to define the default element strong axis orientation.

ANGLE is most often used when defining columns whose strong axes are not parallel to the X axis.

(Usually for columns the strong axis is parallel to either the X or the Z axis.) In the case where the column

strong axis is parallel to the Z axis, first ANGLE is used to redefine the default orientation, i.e.

ANGLE=90. Next the column elements are defined. Then ANGLE is used again to reset the default

orientation back to its original value, i.e. ANGLE=0.0.

The ORIENT and ANGLE keywords similarly define the angle of rotation (in degrees) about the element

center line from the standard orientation to the element strong axis. ORIENT defines this angle for a single

element or for a group of elements, and ANGLE sets the default orientation back to its original value, i.e.

ANGLE=0.0.

The default orientation angle is zero degrees.

Positive angular rotation is found using the “right-hand rule” by extending the thumb along the element in

the direction of the “TO” node. The fingers of the right hand circle in the direction of a positive orientation

angle.

The default element orientation is as follows:

If the member is vertical then the default strong axis is taken to be along the global X axis.

For all non-vertical members the strong axis is taken to be perpendicular to the center line of the

member and in the horizontal plane. (This is exactly what is desired for a typical beam orientation in a

building).

The strong axis is defined for the WF shape as shown:

ANGLE n1

n1

Default strong axis orientation angle to be used for all subsequently defined elements.

ORIENT

Used to define the element strong axis orientation. Note that values for n1 and “TO” may be given as

node numbers or element indices. Element indices are enclosed in parentheses. An example of the index

input is given at the bottom.

34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

n1

“FROM” node on the first element.

TO

“TO” node on the first element.

INC

Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.

If omitted, INC defaults to 1.

INCTO

Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If

INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.

n1

“FROM” node on the first element the wind load is to act on.

LAST

“TO” node on the last element to have its orientation angle defined.

ANGLE

Rotation in degrees from the default position to the actual position of the member strong axis.

Examples

ORIENT 1 TO 2 ANGLE=90 The strong axis for the element from 1 to 2 is 90 degrees away from the

default position.

ORIENT 5 TO 10 INC=5 LAST=30 ANGLE=90 The elements: 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, and 25-30 all

have their strong axis 90 degrees away from the default position. If each of these members is a vertical

column, then their new strong axis of bending is along the Z axis. (This means that the columns with their

new orientation are better suited to take X direction forces.)

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 35

Free End Connections - FREE

Used to define element “FREE” end connections. For example FREE would be used to describe the

element ends in a structure that has “pinned-only” beam-to-column connections. “End connection type”

defines a members fixity to its nodes, not a nodes fixity in space. FREE works in conjunction with

“BEAMS,” ”BRACES,” and “COLUMNS.” These last three keywords are used to set the “FREE” end

connection defaults for certain types of members. For each element defined after the defaults are set an

entry is automatically made into the “FREE” array to keep track of the type of connection and the nodes

that define the element.

36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

n1

“FROM” node on the first element that this FREE spec is to apply to.

TO

“TO” node on the first element that this FREE spec is to apply to.

INC

Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.

If omitted, INC defaults to 1.

INCTO

Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If

INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 37

LAST

“TO” node on the last element this FREE spec is to apply to. LAST, INC, and INCTO can be omitted if

the FREE spec is only to apply to a single element.

<free end parms> - May be any single combination of:

FAXIAL - Axial translational dof

FSHRSTR - Strong axis shear translational dof

FSHRWEAK - Weak axis shear translational dof

FTORS - Torsional dof

FBNDSTR - Strong axis bending dof

FBNDWEAK - Weak axis bending dof

TAXIAL - Axial translational dof

TSHRSTR - Strong axis shear translational dof

TSHRWEAK - Weak axis shear translational dof

TTORS - Torsional dof

TBNDSTR - Strong axis bending dof

TBNDWEAK - Weak axis bending dof

Enter those <free end parms> that define the degrees of freedom at the element end that should be

“FREE.”

In the case where a small WF shape attaches to a large I beam the connection might be designed so that

weak axis bending of the WF shape is not transmitted to the web of the I beam. If the element defining the

WF shape went from nodes 1040 to 1045 then the “FREE” spec for this element might appear:

FREE 1040 TO 1045 FBNDWEAK, TBNDWEAK

The westward side of a building has a row of beams on the ground floor that are attached rigidly to

columns at the other end. The beams are identified by the pattern of nodes: 610-710, 620-720, 630-730,

...,690-790. There are eight beams in all in this group. The 600 end is the end that is pinned. The FREE

spec for this group might appear:

FREE 610 TO 710 INC=10 LAST=790 FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK

38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

BEAMS

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 39

Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Default End Connections for BEAMS

Defines default end connection types for members identified by the orientation of their center line. The

definition of BEAM is any member whose center line lies completely along either the global X or global Z

axis. Once the BEAMS keyword is used to define element end connection freedoms any element

subsequently defined that fits the above definition for a beam will have those same end connection

freedoms. This will continue until the BEAMS keyword is reset or re-specified. The default condition is

for each end of any member to be fixed in all six degrees of freedom to its nodes.

BEAMS has two possible setting modes: FIX and FREE. The FREE mode is to set “FREE” end

connection defaults, and the FIX mode is to reset the end connection types once all beams with that

particular “FREE” end connection have been defined.

BEAMS FREE <free end parms>...use to release end connections.

BEAMS FIX <free end parms>...use to reset released-end connections

The <free end parms> are discussed in greater detail with the “FREE” keyword. The <free end parms>

defining the 12 local degrees of freedom for each element are:

FAXIAL TAXIAL

FSHRSTR TSHRSTR

FSHRWEAK TSHRWEAK

FTORS TTORS

FBNDSTR TBNDSTR

FBNDWEAK TBNDWEAK

Example

Just before defining a group of beams that had both ends pinned, the following “BEAMS” command

would be issued:

BEAMSFREE FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,

Just after defining the pinned end beams, to return the end connection defaults to their regular values the

following “BEAMS” command would be issued:

BEAMSFIX FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,

As shorthand notation, if the word “FIX” is all that appears on the line following “BEAMS,” then all end

connections for the beam will be fixed, i.e.

BEAMS FIX

40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

BRACES

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 41

Used to define default end connection types for members that can be identified by the orientation of their

center line. The definition of BRACE in-so-far as this keyword is concerned, is any member whose center

line does not completely lie along any of the global axes. Once the BRACE keyword is used to define

element end connection freedoms any element subsequently defined that fits the above definition for a

brace will have those same end connection freedoms. This will continue until the BRACE keyword is

reset or re-specified. The default condition is for each end of any member to be fixed in all six degrees of

freedom to its nodes. BRACES may be abbreviated: BR.

BRACES has two possible setting modes: FIX and FREE. The FREE mode is used to set “FREE” end

connection defaults, and the FIX mode is used to reset the end connection types once all braces with that

particular “FREE” end connection have been defined.

BRACES FREE <free end parms> ...use to release end connections

BRACES FIX <free end parms> ...use to reset released end connections

The <free end parms> are discussed in greater detail with the “FREE” keyword. The <free end parms>

defining the 12 local degrees of freedom for each element are:

FAXIAL TAXIAL

FSHRSTR TSHRSTR

FSHRWEAK TSHRWEAK

FTORS TTORS

FBNDSTR TBNDSTR

FBNDWEAK TBNDWEAK

Example

Just before defining a group of braces that had both ends pinned to the adjoining columns, the following

“BRACES” command would be issued:

BRACES FREE FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,

Just after defining the pinned end braces, to return the end connection defaults to their regular values the

following “BRACES” command would be issued.

BRACESFIX FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,

As shorthand notation, if the word “FIX” is all that appears on the line following “BRACES,” then all end

connections for the brace will be fixed, i.e.

BRACES FIX

42 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

COLUMNS

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 43

Connections for Columns

Used to define default end connection types for members that can be identified by the orientation of their

center line. The definition of COLUMN in-so-far as this keyword is concerned is any member whose

center line is completely vertical. Once the COLUMN keyword is used to define element end connection

freedoms any element subsequently defined that fits the above definition for a column will have those

same end connection freedoms. This will continue until the COLUMN keyword is reset or re-specified.

The default condition is for each end of any member to be fixed in all six degrees of freedom to its nodes.

COLUMNS has two possible setting modes: FIX and FREE. The FREE mode is to set “FREE” end

connection defaults, and the FIX mode is to reset the end connection types once all columns with that

particular “FREE” end connection have been defined.

COLUMNS FREE <free end parms> ..use to release end connections

COLUMNS FIX <free end parms> ..use to reset released end connections

The <free end parms> are discussed in greater detail with the “FREE” keyword. The <free end parms>

that define the 12 local element degrees of freedom are:

FAXIAL TAXIAL

FSHRSTR TSHRSTR

FSHRWEAK TSHRWEAK

FTORS TTORS

FBNDSTR TBNDSTR

FBNDWEAK TBNDWEAK

Example

Just before defining a group of corner columns that were pinned at their “TO” ends, the following

COLUMN command would be issued:

COLUMNSFREE TTORS, TBNDSTR TBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,

,

Just after defining the pinned end columns, to return the end connection defaults to their regular values the

following “COLUMNS” command would be issued:

COLUMNSSFREE TTORS, TBNDSTR TBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,

,

As shorthand notation, if the word “FIX” is all that appears on the line following “COLUMNS”, then all

end connections for the column will be fixed, i.e.

COLUMNS FIX

Note: As a general rule an element cannot undergo rigid body motion. Therefore, an element can not

have both TTORS and FTORS released at the same time. Additionally beams typically have moment

releases only at their ends, not at intermediate nodes used to apply loads or connect bracing.

44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Used to define restraint boundary conditions at structural member end points. Stiffnesses may be entered

in the field following the fixity indicator; if the stiffness value is omitted, the fixity will be rigid. “TO” and

“BY” may be omitted to define the fixity for a single node point. (i.e. FIX 10 ALL) Note that values for n1

and “TO” may be given as node numbers or indices. Node indices are enclosed in parenthesis.

FIX n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8, n9,

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 45

Examples

FIX 1

ALL - Fix all degrees of freedom at node #1.

FIX 5 X1000 Y1000 Z1000 Fix X, Y and Z degrees of freedom at node #5, and use 1,000 lb./in. springs

FIX 100 TO 110 ALL Fix rigidly all degrees of freedom for the nodes from 100 to 110. The increment

between 100 and 110 defaults to 1. Eleven nodes have their fixities defined here.

FIX 105 TO 125 BY 5 X1000,1000,1000 Fix X, Y, and Z degrees of freedom for the nodes: 105, 110,

115, 120, and 125, and use 1,000 lb./in. springs.

FIX (1) to (10) ALL Fix all degrees of freedom for the first 10 nodes in the node list.

46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Loads

Point Loads - LOAD

Used to define concentrated forces and/or moments that act at structural member end points. “TO” and

“BY” may be omitted to define loads for a single point. LOAD may be abbreviated: LOA. Note that

values for n1 and “TO” may be given as node numbers or indices. Node indices are enclosed in

parentheses.

LOAD n1, TO, BY, FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY,

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 47

Examples

LOAD 305 FY-1000 Have minus 1,000 lb. Y direction load acting at the structural node #305.

LOAD 10 TO 18 BY=1 FX=707,FZ=707 Have skewed load in the horizontal plane acting at each of the

nodes 10,11,...,17,18. “BY” could have been omitted here, its default is 1.

LOAD (15) to (25) FY=-383 A load of 383 pounds acts in the minus Y direction on the 15’th through the

25’th nodes in the node list.

48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Used to define a constant uniform load (i.e., CAESAR II load case U1) that acts over the full length of the

member. (Uniform loads may have special meanings when used in CAESAR II piping runs.) “INC,”

“INCTO,” and “LAST” may be omitted to define a uniform loading that acts on a single element only.

Note that values for n1 and “TO” may be given as node numbers or element indices. Element indices are

enclosed in parentheses.

O ,

n1

“FROM” node on the first element this uniform load is to act on.

TO

“TO” node on the first element this uniform load is to act on.

INC

Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.

If omitted, INC defaults to 1.

INCTO

Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If

INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.

LAST

“TO” node on the last element this uniform load is to act on.

UX,UY,UZ

Magnitude of the uniform load in the global X, Y and Z directions. Unless used in a piping analysis

employing “g” loads, uniform loads are in units of force per unit length of member. When used in a

piping analysis with “g” loads the uniform loads are in units of gravitational acceleration., i.e. UY=-1

would define a uniform load identical to the member weight load.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 49

Examples

UNIF 1 TO 2 UY=-2.3 On the element from 1 to 2 a uniform load with a magnitude of 2.3 lbs. per inch

acts in the minus Y direction.

UNIF 1,2, UY -2,3 Same

UNIF 100 TO 200 INC=2 INCTO=3

LAST=500 UX=0.03, -1,0.03 Uniform load acting on elements 100-200, 102-203,...,300-500 with a small

horizontal component and a -1 load in the Y. (Looks like have “g” load input for piping problem.)

UNIF (1) to (30) UY=-2.3 The first 30 elements in the element list have a uniform load of -2.3 pounds per

inch acting in the minus Y direction.

Used to inform this processor that all specified uniform loads are to be interpreted as “G” loads instead of

force/length.

Important If structural and piping models are mixed the GLOAD flags must match (i.e., uniform

loads in the piping model must be designed as "G" loads in the special execution parameters).

This command takes no other parameters.

50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Defines the magnitude of the wind shape factor for the structural elements. (The default value is 2.0.)

n1

“FROM” node on the first element the wind load is to act on.

TO

“TO” node on the first element the wind load is to act on.

INC

Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.

If omitted, INC defaults to 1.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 51

INCTO

Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If

INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.

LAST

“TO” node on the last element the wind load is to act on.

SHAPE

Magnitude of the wind shape factor. For structural steel members this value is usually 2.0. Wind loading

on the structure can be turned on and off by resetting this parameter to zero, for elements not exposed to

the wind.

This value carries forward to all subsequently defined elements.

Examples

WIND 1 TO 2 SHAPE=2.0 On the element from 1 to 2 a shape factor with a magnitude of 2.0 is applied.

This value is applied to all following elements.

WIND 1,2,SHAPE 2.0 Same

WIND 100 TO 200 INC=2 INCTO=3

LAST=500 SHAPE=1.8 Wind shape factor of 1.8 on elements 100-200,

102-203,...,300-500.

52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Utilities

LIST

To access the List option, click the List Tab located at the bottom of the Structural Steel Modeler. List

enables users to display node and coordinate data; enter node ranges; and also select input list reports.

Note, selecting all displays a of each report in the order they appear on the modeler window.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 53

Used to enter material properties that correspond to a Material ID number.There must be at least one valid

material spec given per job. One Material ID can be used for a group of elements that have many Section

ID’s. (In fact there is usually only a single Material ID specified for any one job.) Units from the specified

UNITS.FIL are used. Default material properties (i.e. for A-36 structural steel) may be invoked by issuing

the following MATID command: MATID 1.

D

MATID

User defined material ID number. (Usually 1, and sequentially thereafter)

54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

YM

Young’s Modulus of Elasticity

POIS

Poisson’s Ratio (Usually 0.3)

G

Shear Modulus of Elasticity (Usually about one third of YM)

YS

Yield Strength (Currently not used)

DENS

Material Density

ALPHA

Material coefficient of thermal expansion

There can be up to three thermal cases (corresponding to thermal cases T1, T2, and T3) defined for

structural steel members. Thermal effects on structural members are entered using thermal expansion

coefficients in terms of in./in, mm./mm., i.e. unitless. The three thermal coefficients are entered after the

density. One, two, or three thermal coefficients may be entered.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 55

Used to detail to the user the current status of his model building session. The total number of each of the

input items already defined is reported along with the current status of all default settings.

Model Status

56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Structural Databases

The CAESAR II Structural databases contain over 20 different properties for each cross section. For the

finite element solution, only six of these items are employed:

Area

Strong axis moment of inertia

Weak axis moment of inertia

Torsional resistivity constant

Member section height

Member section depth

There are seven different structural databases included in CAESAR II. The databases are those of the AISC

1977, the AISC 1989, the German 1991, the Australian 1990, the South African 1992, Korean 1990, and

UK 1993. The member designations for each database are listed as follows:

W36X194 W36X182 W36X170 W36X160 W36X150 W36X135

W33X241 W33X221 W33X201 W33X152 W33X141 W33X130

W33X118 W30X211 W30X191 W30X173 W30X132 W30X124

W30X116 W30X108 W30X99 W27X178 W27X161 W27X146

W27X114 W27X102 W27X94 W27X84 W24X162 W24X146

W24X131 W24X117 W24X104 W24X94 W24X84 W24X76

W24X68 W24X62 W24X55 W21X147 W21X132 W21X122

W21X111 W21X101 W21X93 W21X83 W21X73 W21X68

W21X62 W21X57 W21X50 W21X44 W18X119 W18X106

W18X97 W18X86 W18X76 W18X71 W18X65 W18X60

W18X55 W18X50 W18X46 W18X40 W18X35 W16X100

W16X89 W16X77 W16X67 W16X57 W16X50 W16X45

W16X40 W16X36 W16X31 W16X26 W14X730 W14X665

W14X605 W14X550 W14X500 W14X455 W14X426 W14X398

W14X370 W14X342 W14X311 W14X283 W14X257 W14X233

W14X211 W14X193 W14X176 W14X159 W14X145 W14X132

W14X120 W14X109 W14X99 W14X90 W14X82 W14X74

W14X68 W14X61 W14X53 W14X48 W14X43 W14X38

W14X34 W14X30 W14X26 W14X22 W12X336 W12X305

W12X279 W12X252 W12X230 W12X210 W12X190 W12X170

W12X152 W12X136 W12X120 W12X106 W12X96 W12X87

W12X79 W12X72 W12X65 W12X58 W12X53 W12X50

W12X45 W12X40 W12X35 W12X30 W12X26 W12X22

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 57

W10X77 W10X68 W10X60 W10X54 W10X49 W10X45

W10X39 W10X33 W10X30 W10X26 W10X22 W10X19

W10X17 W10X15 W10X12 W8X67 W8X58 W8X48

W8X40 W8X35 W8X31 W8X28 W8X24 W8X21

W8X18 W8X15 W8X13 W8X10 W6X25 W6X20

W6X16 W6X15 W6X12 W6X9 W5X19 W5X16

W4X13

M5X18.9 M4X13

S20X86 S20X75 S20X66 S18X70 S18X54.7 S15X50

S15X42.9 S12X50 S12X40.8 S12X35 S12X31.8 S10X35

S10X25.4 S8X23 S8X18.4 S7X20 S7X15.3 S6X17.2

S6X12.5 S5X14.7 S5X10 S4X9.5 S4X7.7 S3X7.5

S3X5.7

C10X30 C10X25 C10X20 C10X15.3 C9X20 C9X15

C9X13.4 C8X18.7 C8X13.7 C8X11.5 C7X14.7 C7X12.2

C7X9.8 C6X13 C6X10.5 C6X8.2 C5X9 C5X6.7

C4X7.25 C4X5.4 C3X6 C3X5 C3X4.1

MC13X40 MC13X35 MC13X31.8 MC12X50 MC12X45

MC12X40 MC12X35 MC12X37 MC12X32.9 MC12X30.9

MC12X10.6 MC10X41.1 MC10X33.6 MC10X28.5 MC10X28.3

MC10X25.3 MC10X24.9 MC10X21.9 MC10X8.4 MC10X6.5

MC9X25.4 MC9X23.9 MC8X22.8 MC8X21.4 MC8X20

MC8X18.7 MC8X8.5 MC7X22.7 MC7X19.1 MC7X17.6

MC6X18 MC6X15.3 MC6X16.3 MC6X15.1 MC6X12

WT18X115 WT18X105 WT18X97 WT18X91

WT18X85 WT18X80 WT18X75 WT18X67.5

WT16.5X120.5 WT16.6X110.5 WT16.5X100.5 WT16.5X76

58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

WT15X95.5 WT15X86.5 WT15X66 WT15X62

WT15X58 WT15X54 WT15X49.5 WT13.5X89

WT13.5X80.5 WT13.5X73 WT13.5X57 WT13.5X51

WT13.5X47 WT13.5X42 WT12X81 WT12X73

WT12X65.5 WT12X58.5 WT12X52 WT12X47

WT12X42 WT12X38 WT12X34 WT12X31

WT10.5X50.5 WT10.5X46.5 WT10.5X41.5 WT10.5X36.5 WT10.5X34

WT10.5X31 WT10.5X28.5 WT10.5X25 WT10.5X22 WT9X59.5

WT9X53 WT9X48.5 WT9X43 WT9X38 WT9X35.5

WT9X32.5 WT9X30 WT9X27.5 WT9X25 WT9X23

WT9X20 WT9X17.5 WT8X50 WT8X44.5 WT8X38.5

WT8X33.5 WT8X28.5 WT8X25 WT8X22.5 WT8X20

WT8X18 WT8X15.5 WT8X13 WT7X365 WT7X332.5

WT7X302.5 WT7X275 WT7X250 WT7X227.5 WT7X213

WT7X199 WT7X185 WT7X171 WT7X155.5 WT7X141.5

WT7X128.5 WT7X116.5 WT7X105.5 WT7X96.5 WT7X88

WT7X79.5 WT7X72.5 WT7X66 WT7X60 WT7X54.5

WT7X49.5 WT7X45 WT7X41 WT7X37 WT7X34

WT7X30.5 WT7X26.5 WT7X24 WT7X21.5 WT7X19

WT7X17 WT7X15 WT7X13 WT7X11 WT6X168

WT6X152.5 WT6X139.5 WT6X126 WT6X115 WT6X105

WT6X95 WT6X85 WT6X76 WT6X68 WT6X60

WT6X53 WT6X48 WT6X43.5 WT6X39.5 WT6X36

WT6X32.5 WT6X29 WT6X26.5 WT6X25 WT6X22.5

WT6X20 WT6X17.5 WT6X15 WT6X13 WT6X11

WT6X9.5 WT6X8 WT6X7 WT5X56 WT5X50

WT5X44 WT5X38.5 WT5X34 WT5X30 WT5X27

WT5X24.5 WT5X22.5 WT5X19.5 WT5X16.5 WT5X15

WT5X13 WT5X11 WT5X9.5 WT5X8.5 WT5X7.5

WT5X6 WT4X33.5 WT4X29 WT4X24 WT4X20

WT4X17.5 WT4X15.5 WT4X14 WT4X12 WT4X10.5

WT4X9 WT4X7.5 WT4X6.5 WT4X5 WT4X12.5

WT4X10 WT4X7.5 WT3X8 WT3X6 WT3X4.5

WT2.5X9.5 WT2.5X8 WT2X6.5

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 59

ST12X60.5 ST12X53 ST12X50 ST12X45

ST12X40 ST10X48 ST10X43 ST10X37.5

ST10X33 ST9X35 ST9X27.35 ST7.5X25

ST7.5X21.45 ST6X25 ST6X20.4 ST6X17.5

ST6X15.9 ST5X17.5 ST5X12.7 ST4X11.5

ST4X9.2 ST3.5X10 ST3.5X7.65 ST3X8.625

ST3X6.25 ST2.5X7.375 ST2.5X5 ST2X4.75

ST2X3.85 ST1.5X3.75 ST1.5X2.85

D8X8X0.7500 D8X8X0.6250 D8X8X0.5000

D6X6X1.0000 D6X6X0.8750 D6X6X0.7500

D6X6X0.6250 D6X6X0.5000 D6X6X0.3750

D5X5X0.8750 D5X5X0.7500 D5X5X0.5000

D5X5X0.3750 D5X5X0.3125 D4X4X0.7500

D4X4X0.6250 D4X4X0.5000 D4X4X0.3750

D4X4X0.3125 D4X4X0.2500 D3.5X3.5X0.3750

D3.5X3.5X0.3125 D3.5X3.5X0.2500 D3X3X0.5000

D3X3X0.3750 D3X3X0.3125 D3X3X0.2500

D3X3X0.1875 D2.5X2.5X0.3750 D2.5X2.5X0.3125

D2.5X2.5X0.2500 D2.5X2.5X0.1875 D2X2X0.3750

D2X2X0.3125 D2X2X0.2500 D2X2X0.1875

D2X2X0.1250 D8X6X1.0000 D8X6X0.7500

D8X6X0.5000 D8X4X1.0000 D8X4X0.7500

D8X4X0.5000 D7X4X0.7500 D7X4X0.5000

D7X4X0.3750 D6X4X0.7500 D6X4X0.6250

D6X4X0.5000 D6X4X0.3750 D6X3.5X0.3750

D6X3.5X0.3125 D5X3.5X0.7500 D5X3.5X0.5000

D5X3.5X0.3750 D5X3.5X0.3125 D5X3X0.5000

D5X3X0.3750 D5X3X0.3125 D5X3X0.2500

D4X3.5X0.5000 D4X3.5X0.3750 D4X3.5X0.3125

D4X3.5X0.2500 D4X3X0.5000 D4X3X0.3750

D4X3X0.3125 D4X3X0.2500 D3.5X3X0.3750

D3.5X3X0.3125 D3.5X3X0.2500 D3.5X2.5X0.3750

D3.5X2.5X0.3125 D3.5X2.5X0.2500 D3X2.5X0.3750

D3X2.5X0.2500 D3X2.5X0.1875 D3X2X0.3750

60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

D2.5X2X0.3750 D2.5X2X0.3750 D2.5X2X0.2500

D2.5X2X0.1875 B8X6X1.0000 B8X6X0.7500

B8X6X1.0000 B8X6X0.7500

B8X4X0.5000 B7X4X0.7500 B7X4X0.5000

B7X4X0.3750 B6X4X0.7500 B6X4X0.6250

B6X4X0.5000 B6X4X0.3750 B6X3.5X0.3750

B6X3.5X0.3125 B5X3.5X0.7500 B5X3.5X0.5000

B5X3.5X0.3750 B5X3.5X0.3125 B5X3X0.5000

B4X3.5X0.5000 B4X3.5X0.3750 B4X3.5X0.3125

B4X3.5X0.2500 B4X3X0.5000 B4X3X0.3750

B4X3X0.3125 B4X3X0.2500 B3.5X3X0.3750

B3.5X3X0.3125 B3.5X3X0.2500 B3.5X2.5X0.3750

B3.5X2.5X0.3125 B3.5X2.5X0.2500 B3X2.5X0.3750

B3X2.5X0.2500 B3X2.5X0.1875 B3X2X0.3750

B3X2X0.3125 B3X2X0.2500 B3X2X0.1875

B2.5X2X0.3750 B2.5X2X0.3125 B2.5X2X0.2500

B2.5X2X0.1875

W44X285 W44X248 W44X224 W44X198 W40X328 W40X298

W40X268 W40X244 W40X221 W40X192 W40X655 W40X593

W40X531 W40X480 W40X436 W40X397 W40X362 W40X324

W40X297 W40X277 W40X249 W40X215 W40X199 W40X183

W40X167 W40X149 W36X848 W36X798 W36X720 W36X650

W36X588 W36X527 W36X485 W36X439 W36X393 W36X359

W36X328 W36X300 W36X280 W36X260 W36X245 W36X230

W36X256 W36X232 W36X210 W36X194 W36X182 W36X170

W36X160 W36X150 W36X135 W33X619 W33X567 W33X515

W33X468 W33X424 W33X387 W33X354 W33X318 W33X291

W33X263 W33X241 W33X221 W33X201 W33X169 W33X152

W33X141 W33X130 W33X118 W30X581 W30X526 W30X477

W30X433 W30X391 W30X357 W30X326 W30X292 W30X261

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 61

W30X124 W30X116 W30X108 W30X99 W30X90 W27X539

W27X494 W27X448 W27X407 W27X368 W27X336 W27X307

W27X281 W27X258 W27X235 W27X217 W27X194 W27X178

W27X161 W27X146 W27X114 W27X102 W27X94 W27X84

W24X492 W24X450 W24X408 W24X370 W24X335 W24X306

W24X279 W24X250 W24X229 W24X207 W24X192 W24X176

W24X162 W24X146 W24X131 W24X117 W24X104 W24X103

W24X94 W24X84 W24X76 W24X68 W24X62 W24X55

W21X402 W21X364 W21X333 W21X300 W21X275 W21X248

W21X223 W21X201 W21X182 W21X166 W21X147 W21X132

W21X122 W21X111 W21X101 W21X93 W21X83 W21X73

W21X68 W21X62 W21X57 W21X50 W21X44 W18X311

W18X283 W18X258 W18X234 W18X211 W18X192 W18X175

W18X158 W18X143 W18X130 W18X119 W18X106 W18X97

W18X86 W18X76 W18X71 W18X65 W18X60 W18X55

W18X50 W18X46 W18X40 W18X35 W16X100 W16X89

W16X36 W16X31 W16X26 W14X730 W14X665 W14X605

W14X550 W14X500 W14X455 W14X426 W14X398 W14X370

W14X342 W14X311 W14X283 W14X257 W14X233 W14X211

W14X193 W14X176 W14X159 W14X145 W14X132 W14X120

W14X109 W14X99 W14X90 W14X82 W14X74 W14X68

W14X61 W14X53 W14X48 W14X43 W14X38 W14X34

W14X30 W14X26 W14X22 W12X336 W12X305 W12X279

W12X252 W12X230 W12X210 W12X190 W12X170 W12X152

W12X136 W12X120 W12X106 W12X96 W12X87 W12X79

W12X72 W12X65 W12X58 W12X53 W12X50 W12X45

W12X40 W12X35 W12X30 W12X26 W12X22 W12X19

W12X16 W12X14 W10X112 W10X100 W10X88 W10X77

W10X68 W10X60 W10X54 W10X49 W10X45 W10X39

W10X33 W10X30 W10X26 W10X22 W10X19 W10X17

W10X15 W10X12 W8X67 W8X58 W8X48 W8X40

HP13X73 HP13X60 HP12X84 HP12X74 HP12X63 HP12X53

HP10X57 HP10X42 HP8X36

62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

S20X86 S20X75 S20X66 S18X70 S18X54.7 S15X50

S15X42.9 S12X50 S12X40.8 S12X35 S12X31.8 S10X35

S10X25.4 S8X23 S8X18.4 S7X20 S7X15.3 S6X17.25

S6X12.5 S5X14.75 S5X10 S4X9.5 S4X7.7 S3X7.5

S3X5.7

C10X30 C10X25 C10X20 C10X15.3 C9X20 C9X15

C9X13.4 C8X18.75 C8X13.75 C8X11.5 C7X14.75 C7X12.25

C7X9.8 C6X13 C6X10.5 C6X8.2 C5X9 C5X6.7

C4X7.25 C4X5.4 C3X6 C3X5 C3X4.1

MC13X35 MC13X31.8 MC12X50 MC12X45 MC12X40 MC12X35

MC12X31 MC12X10.6 MC10X41.1 MC10X33.6 MC10X28.5 MC10X25

MC10X22 MC10X8.4 MC10X6.5 MC9X25.4 MC9X23.9 MC8X22.8

MC8X21.4 MC8X20 MC8X18.7 MC8X8.5 MC7X22.7 MC7X19.1

MC6X18 MC6X15.3 MC6X16.3 MC6X15.1 MC6X12

WT18X105 WT18X97 WT18X91

WT18X85 WT18X80 WT18X75

WT18X67.5 WT16.5X177 WT16.5X159

WT16.5X145.5 WT16.5X131.5 WT16.5X120.5

WT16.5X110.5 WT16.5X100.5 WT16.5X84.5

WT16.5X76 WT16.5X70.5 WT16.5X65

WT16.5X59 WT15X117.5 WT15X105.5

WT15X95.5 WT15X86.5 WT15X74

WT15X66 WT15X62 WT15X58

WT15X54 WT15X49.5 WT13.5X108.5

WT13.5X97 WT13.5X89 WT13.5X80.5

WT13.5X73 WT13.5X64.5 WT13.5X57

WT13.5X51 WT13.5X47 WT13.5X42

WT12X88 WT12X81 WT12X73

WT12X65.5 WT12X58.5 WT12X52

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 63

WT12X38 WT12X34 WT12X31

WT12X27.5 WT10.5X83 WT10.5X73.5

WT10.5X66 WT10.5X61 WT10.5X55.5

WT10.5X50.5 WT10.5X46.5 WT10.5X41.5

WT10.5X36.5 WT10.5X34 WT10.5X31

WT10.5X28.5 WT10.5X25 WT10.5X22

WT9X71.5 WT9X65 WT9X59.5

WT9X53 WT9X48.5 WT9X43

WT9X38 WT9X35.5 WT9X32.5

WT9X30 WT9X27.5 WT9X25

WT9X23 WT9X20 WT9X17.5

WT8X50 WT8X44.5 WT8X38.5

WT8X33.5 WT8X28.5 WT8X25

WT8X22.5 WT8X20 WT8X18

WT8X15.5 WT8X13 WT7X365

WT7X332.5 WT7X302.5 WT7X275

WT7X250 WT7X227.5 WT7X213

WT7X199 WT7X185 WT7X171

WT7X155.

ST10X43 ST10X37.5 ST10X33 ST9X35 ST9X27.35 ST7.5X25

ST7.5X21.45 ST6X25 ST6X20.4 ST6X17.5 ST6X15.9 ST5X17.5

ST5X12.7 ST4X11.5 ST4X9.2 ST3.5X10 ST3.5X7.65 ST3X8.625

ST3X6.25 ST2.5X7.375 ST2.5X5 ST2X4.75 ST2X3.85 ST1.5X3.75

ST1.5X2.85

L8X8X1.1250 L8X8X1.0000 L8X8X0.8750

L8X8X0.7500 L8X8X0.6250 L8X8X0.5625

L8X8X0.5000 L8X6X1.0000 L8X6X0.8750

L8X6X0.7500 L8X6X0.6250 L8X6X0.5625

L8X6X0.5000 L8X6X0.4375 L8X4X1.0000

L8X4X0.7500 L8X4X0.5625 L8X4X0.5000

L7X4X0.7500 L7X4X0.6250 L7X4X0.5000

L7X4X0.3750 L6X6X1.0000 L6X6X0.8750

64 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

L6X6X0.5000 L6X6X0.4375 L6X6X0.3750

L6X6X0.3125 L6X4X0.8750 L6X4X0.7500

L6X4X0.6250 L6X4X0.5625 L6X4X0.5000

L6X4X0.4375 L6X4X0.3750 L6X4X0.3125

L6X3.5X0.5000 L6X3.5X0.3750 L6X3.5X0.3125

L5X5X0.8750 L5X5X0.7500 L5X5X0.6250

L5X5X0.5000 L5X5X0.4375 L5X5X0.3750

L5X5X0.3125 L5X3.5X0.7500 L5X3.5X0.6250

L5X3.5X0.5000 L5X3.5X0.4375 L5X3.5X0.3750

L5X3.5X0.3125 L5X3.5X0.2500 L5X3X0.6250

L5X3X0.5000 L5X3X0.4375 L5X3X0.3750

L5X3X0.3125 L5X3X0.2500 L4X4X0.7500

L4X4X0.6250 L4X4X0.5000 L4X4X0.4375

L4X4X0.3750 L4X4X0.3125 L4X4X0.2500

L4X3.5X0.5000 L4X3.5X0.4375 L4X3.5X0.3750

L4X3.5X0.3125 L4X3.5X0.2500 L4X3X0.5000

L4X3X0.4375 L4X3X0.3750 L4X3X0.3125

L4X3X0.2500 L3.5X3.5X0.5000 L3.5X3.5X0.4375

L3.5X3.5X0.3750 L3.5X3.5X0.3125 L3.5X3.5X0.2500

L3.5X3X0.5000 L3.5X3X0.4375 L3.5X3X0.3750

L3.5X3X0.3125 L3.5X3X0.2500 L3.5X2.5X0.5000

L3.5X2.5X0.4375 L3.5X2.5X0.3750 L3.5X2.5X0.3125

L3.5X2.5X0.2500 L3X3X0.5000 L3X3X0.4375

L3X3X0.3750 L3X3X0.3125 L3X3X0.2500

L3X3X0.1875 L3X2.5X0.5000 L3X2.5X0.4375

L3X2.5X0.3750 L3X2.5X0.3125 L3X2.5X0.2500

L3X2.5X0.1875 L3X2X0.5000 L3X2X0.4375

L3X2X0.3750 L3X2X0.3125 L3X2X0.2500

L3X2X0.1875 L2.5X2.5X0.5000 L2.5X2.5X0.3750

L2.5X2.5X0.3125 L2.5X2.5X0.2500 L2.5X2.5X0.1875

L2.5X2X0.3750 L2.5X2X0.3125 L2.5X2X0.2500

L2.5X2X0.1875 L2X2X0.3750 L2X2X0.3125

L2X2X0.2500 L2X2X0.1875 L2X2X0.1250

D8X8X0.7500 D8X8X0.6250 D8X8X0.5000

D6X6X1.0000 D6X6X0.8750 D6X6X0.7500

D6X6X0.6250 D6X6X0.5000 D6X6X0.3750

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 65

D5X5X0.3750 D5X5X0.3125 D4X4X0.7500

D4X4X0.6250 D4X4X0.5000 D4X4X0.3750

D4X4X0.3125 D4X4X0.2500 D3.5X3.5X0.3750

D3.5X3.5X0.3125 D3.5X3.5X0.2500 D3X3X0.5000

D3X3X0.3750 D3X3X0.3125 D3X3X0.2500

D3X3X0.1875 D2.5X2.5X0.3750 D2.5X2.5X0.3125

D2.5X2.5X0.2500 D2.5X2.5X0.1875 D2X2X0.3750

D2X2X0.3125 D2X2X0.2500 D2X2X0.1875

D2X2X0.1250 D8X6X1.0000 D8X6X0.7500

D8X6X0.5000 D8X4X1.0000 D8X4X0.7500

D8X4X0.5000 D7X4X0.7500 D7X4X0.5000

D7X4X0.3750 D6X4X0.7500 D6X4X0.6250

D6X4X0.5000 D6X4X0.3750 D6X3.5X0.3750

D6X3.5X0.3125 D5X3.5X0.7500 D5X3.5X0.5000

D5X3.5X0.3750 D5X3.5X0.3125 D5X3X0.5000

D5X3X0.3750 D5X3X0.3125 D5X3X0.2500

D4X3.5X0.5000 D4X3.5X0.3750 D4X3.5X0.3125

D4X3.5X0.2500 D4X3X0.5000 D4X3X0.3750

D4X3X0.3125 D4X3X0.2500 D3.5X3X0.3750

D3.5X3X0.3125 D3.5X3X0.2500 D3.5X2.5X0.3750

D3.5X2.5X0.3125 D3.5X2.5X0.2500 D3X2.5X0.3750

D3X2.5X0.2500 D3X2.5X0.1875 D3X2X0.3750

D3X2X0.3125 D3X2X0.2500 D3X2X0.1875

D2.5X2X0.3750 D2.5X2X0.3125 D2.5X2X0.2500

D2.5X2X0.1875

B8X4X1.0000 B8X4X0.7500 B8X4X0.5000

B7X4X0.7500 B7X4X0.5000 B7X4X0.3750

B6X4X0.7500 B6X4X0.6250 B6X4X0.5000

B6X4X0.3750 B6X3.5X0.3750 B6X3.5X0.3125

B5X3.5X0.7500 B5X3.5X0.5000 B5X3.5X0.3750

B5X3.5X0.3125 B5X3X0.5000 B5X3X0.3750

B5X3X0.3125 B5X3X0.2500 B4X3.5X0.5000

B4X3.5X0.3750 B4X3.5X0.3125 B4X3.5X0.2500

B4X3X0.5000 B4X3X0.3750 B4X3X0.3125

B4X3X0.2500 B3.5X3X0.3750 B3.5X3X0.3125

B3.5X3X0.2500 B3.5X2.5X0.3750 B3.5X2.5X0.3125

66 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

B3X2.5X0.1875 B3X2X0.3750 B3X2X0.3125

B3X2X0.2500 B3X2X0.1875 B2.5X2X0.3750

B2.5X2X0.3125 B2.5X2X0.2500 B2.5X2X0.1875

I80 I100 I120 I140 I160 I180

I200 I220 I240 I260 I280 I300

I320 I340 I360 I380 I400 I425

I450 I475 I500 I550 I600

IPE200 IPE220 IPE240 IPE270 IPE300 IPE330

IPE360 IPE400 IPE450 IPE500 IPE550 IPE600

IPEO330 IPEO360 IPEO400 IPEO450 IPEO500 IPEO550

IPEO600

IPBI-220 IPBI-240 IPBI-260 IPBI-280 IPBI-300 IPBI-320

IPBI-340 IPBI-360 IPBI-400 IPBI-450 IPBI-500 IPBI-550

IPBI-600 IPBI-650 IPBI-700 IPBI-800 IPBI-900 IPBI-1000

IPB-220 IPB-240 IPB-260 IPB-280 IPB-300 IPB-320

IPB-340 IPB-360 IPB-400 IPB-450 IPB-500 IPB-550

IPB-600 IPB-650 IPB-700 IPB-800 IPB-900 IPB-1000

U60 U65 U80 U100 U120 U140

U160 U180 U200 U220 U240 U260

U280 U300 U320 U350 U380 U400

T50 T60 T70 T80 T90 T100

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 67

T120 T140

1/2I260 1/2I280 1/2I300 1/2I320 1/2I340 1/2I360

1/2I380 1/2I400 1/2I425 1/2I450 1/2I475 1/2I500

1/2IPE270 1/2IPE300 1/2IPE330 1/2IPE360 1/2IPE400 1/2IPE450

1/2IPE500 1/2IPE550 1/2IPE600

1/2IPEO330 1/2IPEO360 1/2IPEO400 1/2IPEO450 1/2IPEO500 1/2IPEO550

1/2IPEO600

1/2IPB260 1/2IPB280 1/2IPB300 1/2IPB320 1/2IPB340 1/2IPB360

1/2IPB400 1/2IPB450 1/2IPB500 1/2IPB550 1/2IPB600 1/2IPB650

1/2IPB700 1/2IPB800 1/2IPB900 1/2IPB1000

1/2IPBI260 1/2IPBI280 1/2IPBI300 1/2IPBI320 1/2IPBI340 1/2IPBI360

1/2IPBI400 1/2IPBI450 1/2IPBI500 1/2IPBI550 1/2IPBI600 1/2IPBI650

1/2IPBI700 1/2IPBI800 1/2IPBI900 1/2IPBI1000

1/2IPBV260 1/2IPBV280 1/2IPBV300 1/2IPBV305 1/2IPBV320 1/2IPBV340

1/2IPBV360 1/2IPBV400 1/2IPBV450 1/2IPBV500 1/2IPBV550 1/2IPBV600

1/2IPBV650 1/2IPBV700 1/2IPBV800 1/2IPBV900 1/2IPBV1000

L35X4 L35X5 L40X4 L40X5 L45X4 L45X5

L50X5 L50X6 L50X7

UB760X244 UB760X220 UB760X197 UB760X173 UB760X148 UB690X140

UB690X125 UB610X125 UB610X113 UB610X101 UB530X92 UB530X82

68 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

UB360X51 UB360X45 UB310X46 UB310X40 UB250X37 UB250X31

UB200X30 UB200X25 UB180X22 UB180X18 UB150X18 UB150X14

UC310X97 UC250X89 UC250X73 UC200X60 UC200X52 UC200X46

UC150X37 UC150X30 UC150X23 UC100X15

TFB125X65 TFB100X45

PFC150X75

EL200X200X16 EL200X200X13 EL150X150X19

EL150X150X16 EL150X150X12 EL150X150X10

EL125X125X16 EL125X125X12 EL125X125X10

EL125X125X8 EL100X100X12 EL100X100X10

EL100X100X8 EL100X100X6 EL90X90X10

EL90X90X8 EL90X90X6 EL75X75X10

EL75X75X8 EL75X75X6 EL75X75X5

EL65X65X10 EL65X65X8 EL65X65X6

EL65X65X5 EL55X55X6 EL55X55X5

EL50X50X8 EL50X50X6 EL50X50X5

EL50X50X3 EL45X45X6 EL45X45X5

EL45X45X3 EL40X40X6 EL40X40X5

EL40X40X3 EL30X30X6 EL30X30X5

EL30X30X3 EL25X25X6 EL25X25X5

EL25X25X3

UL150X90X12 UL150X90X10 UL150X90X8

UL125X75X12 UL125X75X10 UL125X75X8

UL125X75X6 UL100X75X10 UL100X75X8

UL100X75X6 UL75X50X8 UL75X50X6

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 69

UL65X50X5

70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 71

IPE200 IPE-AA100 IPE-AA120 IPE-AA140 IPE-AA160

IPE-AA180 IPE-AA200 IP152X89X16 IP178X102X19 IP203X133X25

IP203X133X30 IP254X146X31 IP254X146X37 IP254X146X43 IP305X102X25

IP305X102X29 IP305X102X33 IP305X165X41 IP305X165X46 IP305X165X54

IP356X171X45 IP356X171X51 IP356X171X57 IP356X171X67 IP406X140X39

IP406X140X46 IP406X178X54 IP406X178X60 IP406X178X67 IP406X178X75

IP457X191X67 IP457X191X75 IP457X191X82 IP457X191X90 IP457X191X98

IP533X210X82 IP533X210X93 IP533X210X101 IP533X210X109 IP533X210X122

IP610X229X101 IP610X229X113 IP610X229X125 IP610X229X140 IP762X267X147

IP838X292X176 IP914X305X201 IP914X419X343

HP203X203X60 HP203X203X71 HP203X203X86 HP254X254X73 HP254X254X89

HP254X254X107 HP254X254X132 HP254X254X167 HP305X305X97 HP305X305X118

HP305X305X137 HP305X305X158 HP305X305X198 HP305X305X240 HP305X305X283

IT254X152X59 IT305X152X66

CP200X75 CP220X80 CP240X85 CP260X90 CP280X95

CP300X100

CT200X75X25 CT220X80X29 CT240X85X33 CT260X90X38 CT280X95X42

CT300X100X46 CT76X38X7 CT127X64X15 CT152X76X18 CT178X54X15

CT381X102X55

AE35X35X5 AE40X40X3 AE40X40X5 AE40X40X6 AE45X45X3

AE45X45X5 AE45X45X6 AE50X50X3 AE50X50X4 AE50X50X5

AE50X50X6 AE50X50X8 AE60X60X4 AE60X60X5 AE60X60X6

AE60X60X8 AE60X60X10 AE70X70X6 AE70X70X8 AE70X70X10

AE80X80X6 AE80X80X8 AE80X80X10 AE80X80X12 AE90X90X6

AE90X90X8 AE90X90X10 AE90X90X12 AE100X100X8 AE100X100X10

AE100X100X12 AE100X100X15 AE120X120X8 AE120X120X10 AE120X120X12

AE120X120X15 AE150X150X10 AE150X150X12 AE150X150X15 AE150X150X18

AE200X200X16 AE200X200X18 AE200X200X20 AE200X200X24

AU80X60X8 AU90X65X6 AU90X65X8 AU90X65X10 AU100X65X8

AU100X65X10 AU100X75X6 AU100X75X8 AU100X75X10 AU100X75X12

AU125X75X8 AU125X75X10 AU125X75X12 AU150X75X10 AU150X75X12

AU150X75X15 AU150X90X10 AU150X90X12 AU150X90X15

72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

UK 1993 Database

Korean 1990 Database

W594X302 W588X300 W582X300 W612X202 W606X201

W600X200 W596X199 W488X300 W482X300 W506X201

W500X200 W496X199 W440X300 W434X299 W450X200

W446X199 W390X300 W386X299 W404X201 W400X200

W396X199 W350X350 W344X354 W344X348 W340X250

W336X249 W354X176 W350X175 W346X174 W310X310

W310X305 W304X301 W300X305 W300X300 W298X299

W294X302 W298X201 W294X200 W300X150 W298X149

W250X255 W250X250 W248X249 W244X252 W244X175

W250X125 W248X124 W208X202 W200X204 W200X200

W194X150 W200X100 W150X150 W148X100 W150X75

W125X125 W100X100

L175X175X15 L175X175X12 L150X150X19 L150X150X15 L150X150X12

L150X150X10 L130X130X15 L130X130X12 L130X130X10 L130X130X9

L120X120X8 L100X100X13 L100X100X10 L100X100X8 L100X100X7

L90X90X13 L90X90X10 L90X90X9 L90X90X8 L90X90X7

L90X90X6 L80X80X7 L80X80X6 L75X75X12 L75X75X9

L75X75X6 L70X70X6 L65X65X8 L65X65X6 L65X65X5

L60X60X6 L60X60X5 L60X60X4 L50X50X6 L50X50X5

L50X50X4 L45X45X5 L45X45X4 L40X40X5

C125X65 C100X50 C75X40

1

CHAPTER 5

In This Chapter

Dynamic Analysis Input ..............................................................2

Dynamic Analysis Overview .......................................................3

Harmonic Analysis ......................................................................8

Response Spectra / Time History Load Profiles..........................15

Building Spectrum / Time History Load Cases ...........................21

Spectrum Time History ...............................................................32

Lumped Masses...........................................................................37

Dynamic Control Parameters.......................................................40

Advanced Parameters ..................................................................71

Pulsation Loads ...........................................................................75

Relief Valve Thrust Load Analysis .............................................77

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Once the basic model has been constructed a dynamic analysis can be performed. After selecting ANALYSIS/

DYNAMICS from the CAESAR II Main Menu, the Dynamics Input window appears.

The analysis type is selected from the drop list on the upper left portion of the window and the tabbed

items will be modified depending on the type of analysis to be performed. If the model contains spring

hangers to be designed, or single directional supports, gaps, rods, or friction, then a static analysis must be

performed before the dynamic analysis to determine how the nonlinear supports are acting. The following

sections describe the specific input for each of the options available from the Dynamics Input Menu.

See Chapter 8 of the User Guide for a thorough discussion of basic dynamic load cases and data, and for a

description of “how to” interact with the dynamics input processor.

The current units applicable to the dynamics input are pulled from the piping input file (or from the

Configuration file in the event of a structural-only job).

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 3

A piping system may respond far differently to a dynamic load than it would to a static load of the same

magnitude. Static loads are those which are applied slowly enough that the system has time to react and

internally distribute the loads, thus remaining in equilibrium. In equilibrium, all forces and moments are

resolved (i.e., the sum of the forces and moments are zero), and the pipe does not move.

With a dynamic load—a load which changes quickly with time—the piping system may not have time to

internally distribute the loads, so forces and moments are not always resolved—resulting in unbalanced

loads, and therefore pipe movement. Since the sum of forces and moments are not necessarily equal to

zero, the internally induced loads can be different—either higher or lower—than the applied loads.

For this reason, different analysis methods must be used to determine response of a system when subjected

to dynamic loads. CAESAR II provides several methods for analyzing different types of dynamic loadings,

which help optimize the trade-off of accuracy vs. computing requirements—these include harmonic

solution, response spectrum method, and time history analysis.

The force vs. time profiles of the dynamic loads most often encountered during the design of piping are

usually one of three types—random, harmonic, or impulse. Each of these load profiles have a preferred

solution method as well. These profiles, and the load types identified with them, are described below.

Random

With this type of profile, the load changes direction and/or magnitude unpredictably with time, although

there may be predominant characteristics within the load profile. Loads with random force/time profiles

are best solved using the Spectrum method. Major types of loads with random time profiles are

Wind—Wind velocity causes forces due to the decrease of wind momentum as the air strikes the pipe,

creating an “equivalent pressure” on the pipe. Wind loadings, even though they may have

predominant directions and average velocities over a given time, are subject to gusting, i.e., sudden

changes in direction and velocity. As the observed time period lengthens, the observed number of

changes increases in an unpredictable manner as well, eventually encompassing nearly all directions

and a wide range of velocities.

Earthquake—Seismic (earthquake) loadings are caused by the introduction of random motion

(accelerations, velocities, and displacements) of the ground and corresponding inertia loads (the mass

of the system times the acceleration) into a structure through the structure-to-ground anchorage. The

random ground motion is actually the sum of an infinite number of individual harmonic (cyclic)

ground motions. Two earthquakes may be similar in terms of predominant direction (along a fault, for

example), predominant harmonic frequencies (if certain of the underlying cyclic motions tend to

dominate), and maximum ground motion, but their exact behavior at any given time may be quite

different and unpredictable.

Harmonic

With this type of profile, the load changes direction and/or magnitude following a harmonic profile,

ranging from its minimum to its maximum over a fixed time period. For example, the load may be

described by a function of the form:

F(t) = A + B cos( t + Q)

Where:

F(t) = force magnitude as a function of time

A = mean force

B = variation of maximum and minimum force from mean

4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Q = phase angle (radians)

t = time (sec)

Loads with harmonic force/time profiles are best solved using the Harmonic method. Major types of loads

with harmonic time profiles are

Equipment vibration—If rotating equipment attached to a pipe is slightly out of tolerance (drive shaft

out of round, for example), it may impose a small cyclic displacement onto the pipe at the point of

attachment, where the displacement cycle would most likely correspond to the equipment’s operating

cycle. The displacement at the pipe connection may be so small as to not even be noticeable, but

dynamically it could cause significant problems. The loading vs. time can be easily predicted once the

equipment’s operating cycle and variation from tolerance is known.

Acoustic vibration—If fluid flow characteristics are changed within a pipe (for example if flow

conditions change from laminar to turbulent as the fluid goes through an orifice), slight lateral

vibrations may be set up within the pipe. Often these vibrations fit harmonic patterns, with

predominant frequencies somewhat predictable based upon the flow conditions. For example,

Strouhal’s equation predicts that the developed frequency (Hz) of vibration caused by flow through an

orifice will be somewhere between 0.2 V/D and 0.3 V/D, where V is the fluid velocity (ft./sec) and D

is the diameter of the orifice (ft). Wind flow around a pipe sets up lateral displacements as well (a

phenomenon known as vortex shedding), with an exciting frequency in the area of 0.18 V/D, where V

is the wind velocity and D is the outer diameter of the pipe.

Pulsation—During the operation of a reciprocating pump or a compressor, the fluid is compressed by

pistons driven by a rotating shaft. This causes a cyclic change (vs. time) in the fluid pressure at any

specified location in the system. If the fluid pressures at opposing elbow pairs or closures is unequal,

this creates an unbalanced pressure load in the system. Since the pressure balance changes with the

cycle of the compressor, the unbalanced force changes as well. (Note that the frequency of the force

cycle will most likely be some multiple of that of the equipment operating cycle, since multiple

pistons will cause a corresponding number of force variations during each shaft rotation.) The

pressure variations will continue to move along through the fluid, so in a steady state flow condition,

unbalanced forces may be present simultaneously at all elbow pairs in the system. The load

magnitudes may vary, and the load cycles may or may not be in phase with each other, depending

upon the pulse velocity, the distance of each elbow pair from the compressor, and the length of the

piping legs between the elbow pairs.

For example, if the pressure at elbow a is denoted by Pa(t) and the pressure at elbow b is denoted by Pb(t),

then the unbalanced force acting along the pipe between the two elbows is:

F(t) = (Pa(t) - Pb(t)) A

Where:

A = internal area of the pipe

The expression for Pa(t) can be calculated as (assuming that the pressure peak hits the elbow “a” at time t =

0):

Pa(t) = Pavg + 0.5 (dP) cos t

Where:

Pavg = average pressure in the line

dP = alternating component of the pressure

= driving angular frequency of pulse

If the length of the pipe between the elbows is L, then the pressure pulse will reach elbow b ts after it has

passed elbow a:

ts = L / c

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 5

Where:

c = speed of sound in the fluid

Therefore the expression for the pressure at elbow b is:

Pb(t) = Pavg + 0.5(dP) cos ( t - Q)

Where:

Q = phase shift between the pressure peaks at a and b

= ts

Combining these equations, the equation for the unbalanced pressure force acting on an elbow pair can be

written as:

F(t) = 0.5(dP)A * [ cos t - cos (t - L/c) ]

Under steady-state conditions, a similar situation would exist at all elbow pairs throughout the piping

system.

6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Impulse

With this type of profile, the load magnitude ramps up from zero to some value, remains relatively

constant for a time, and then ramps down to zero again. For rapid ramping times, this type of profile

resembles a rectangle. Loads with impulse force/time profiles are best solved using the Time History or

Force Spectrum methods. Major types of loads with impulse time profiles are

Relief valve—When system pressure reaches a dangerous level, relief valves are set to open in order to

vent fluid and reduce the internal pressure. Venting through the valve causes a jet force to act on the

piping system; this force ramps up to its full value, from zero, over the opening time of the valve. The

relief valve remains open (and the jet force remains relatively constant) until sufficient fluid is vented

to relief the over-pressure situation. The valve then closes, ramping down the jet force over the

closing time of the valve.

Fluid hammer—When the flow of fluid through a system is suddenly halted at one point, through

valve closure or a pump trip, the fluid in the remainder of the system cannot be stopped

instantaneously as well. As fluid continues to flow into the area of stoppage (upstream of the valve or

pump), the fluid compresses, causing a high pressure situation at that point. Likewise, on the other

side of the restriction, the fluid moves away from the stoppage point, creating a low pressure

(vacuum) situation at that location. Fluid at the next elbow or closure along the pipeline is still at the

original operating pressure, resulting in an unbalanced pressure force acting on the valve seat or the

elbow.

The fluid continues to flow, compressing (or decompressing) fluid further away from the point of flow

stoppage, thus causing the leading edge of the pressure pulse to move through the line. As the pulse moves

past the first elbow, the pressure is now equalized at each end of the pipe run, leading to a balanced (i.e.,

zero) pressure load on the first pipe leg. However the unbalanced pressure, by passing the elbow, has now

shifted to the second leg. The unbalanced pressure load will continue to rise and fall in sequential legs as

the pressure pulse travels back to the source (or forward to the sink).

The ramp up time of the profile roughly coincides with the elapsed time from full flow to low flow, such

as the closing time of the valve or trip time of the pump. Since the leading edge of the pressure pulse is not

expected to change as the pulse travels through the system, the ramp down time is the same. The duration

of the load from initiation through the beginning of the down ramp is equal to the time required for the

pressure pulse to travel the length of the pipe leg.

Slug flow—Most piping systems are designed to handle single-phase fluids (i.e., those which are

uniformly liquid or gas). Under certain circumstances, however, the fluid may have multiple phases.

For example, slurry systems transport solid materials in liquids, and gases may condense, creating

pockets of liquid in otherwise gaseous media. Systems carrying multi-phase fluids are susceptible to

slug flow.

In general, when fluid changes direction in a piping system, this is done through the application of forces

at elbows. This force is equal to the change in momentum with respect to time, or

Fr = dp / dt = v2 A [2(1 - cos )]1/2

Where:

dp = change in momentum

dt = change in time

= fluid density

v = fluid velocity

A = internal area of pipe

= inclusion angle at elbow

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 7

Normally this force is constant, and is small enough that it can be easily absorbed through tension in the

pipe wall, to be passed on to adjacent elbows which may have equal and opposite loads, zeroing the net

load on the system. Therefore these type of momentum loads are usually ignored by the stress analyst.

However, if the fluid velocity or density changes with time, this momentum load will change with time as

well, leading to a dynamic (changing) load, which may not be cancelled by the load at other elbows.

For example, consider a slug of liquid in a gas system. The steady state momentum load is insignificant,

since the fluid density of a gas is effectively zero. Suddenly the liquid slug hits the elbow, increasing the

momentum load by orders of magnitude. This load lasts only as long as it takes for the slug to traverse the

elbow, and then suddenly drops to near zero again, with the exact profile of the slug load depending upon

the shape of the slug. The time duration of the load depends upon the length of the slug divided by the

velocity of the fluid.

8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Harmonic Analysis

Input Excitation Frequencies

Starting Frequency

First frequency in the user’s defined excitation frequency range. The defined harmonic displacements and

forces will have the form: A*cosine(wt+p), where A is the amplitude of the force or displacement, p is the

phase angle, and is the frequency of the loading. Real and imaginary solutions will be developed for

each frequency in the defined range (from which any phased solution can be calculated). For an entered

frequency range to be valid there must be at least a starting frequency. All frequencies are entered in

Hertz.

Ending Frequency

Last frequency in the user’s defined excitation frequency range. If omitted then it defaults to the Starting

frequency.

Increment

Frequency increment. If omitted then defaults to 1.0 Hz.

The frequencies for harmonic excitation are taken from each frequency range defined by the user.

Individual frequencies for excitation are computed using a “DO LOOP” type of logic as follows:

X = STARTING FREQUENCY

5 CONTINUE

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 9

X = X + INCREMENT

IF( X .LT. ENDING FREQUENCY+0.001) GO TO 5

Using this logic the user can determine exactly which frequencies in a specified frequency range will be

analyzed. The sign of the frequency increment may be modified by CAESAR II to properly step from the

user’s starting frequency to his ending frequency.

Either the starting frequency, the ending frequency, or the frequency increment may be given as a fraction

or a whole part with fraction.

Any number of user comment lines may be included. There can be any number of line entries in the

Excitation frequency data.

EXAMPLES:

Find harmonic solutions for the following group of equipment speeds:

100 rpm (Warm up speed)

400, 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2400, 2800, 3200 rpm. Speeds passed through very slowly while coming

up to operating speed.

3600 rpm. Operating speed.

Rotations per minute convert to cycles per second by dividing by 60. Frequency excitation would be input.

WARM UP SPEED (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 100/60

BRINGING TURBINE ON-LINE (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 400/60 3200/60 400/60

OPERATING SPEED (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 3600/60

A low frequency field vibration exists in the piping system at about 3 Hertz. Define a 3 Hertz excitation:

APPROXIMATE FIELD OBSERVED EXCITATION FREQUENCY (HZ) 3

The response of the piping system when the dynamic load was applied at 3 Hertz was almost zero. This

was true regardless of the magnitude of the dynamic load (i.e. the maximum conceivable varying pressure

load was applied, and there were still no appreciable dynamic displacements when the excitation

frequency was 3 Hertz). Apply the dynamic load over a range of frequencies around 3 Hertz and see if any

dynamic response can be observed.

GROUP OF FREQUENCIES AROUND THE FIELD “GUESSED AT”

3 HERTZ EXCITATION. THE EXCITATION FREQUENCIES

DEFINED BY THE INPUT BELOW ARE:

(2.5, 2.6, 2.7, ..., 3.3, 3.4, 3.5) HZ.

2.5 3.5 0.1

Load Cycles

Number of cycles expected for this loading. If entered, this signals to CAESAR II that the harmonic load

case should be treated as a fatigue stress case with the allowable stress based on this/the number of

anticipated cycles.

10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Harmonic Forces

Harmonic Forces

Either the Harmonic Forces or the Displacements must be entered in addition to the Excitation Frequency

Data. Click the Harmonic Forces button to bring up a window like that shown below. Click the + button

on the toolbar to add a harmonic force.

Force

Amplitude of the harmonic force. The form of the harmonic forcing function is: F(t) = A*cosine( t- ),

where “F(t)” is the force as a function of time. “A” is the maximum amplitude of the dynamic force. “ ”

is the frequency of the excitation (in radians per second), and “p” is the phase angle (in radians). Enter the

force in the units shown. These units are taken from the current set which resides on the file UNITS.FIL.

Direction

Enter the line of action of the force as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosines or direction vectors. The

format for direction cosines is (cx,cy,cz), i.e (0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx, vy,

vz), i.e. (1,0,1).

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 11

Phase

Enter the phase angle in degrees. The harmonic loading can start with its maximum load at time equal to

zero, or the harmonic load can start with its maximum at any time between zero and t=2*pi/w seconds.

The phase angle is the method used to specify this time shift in the dynamic load waveform. The phase

angle can be calculated from the time shift using the equation: p(degrees) = 180tw/pi, where t is given in

seconds and w is given in radians per second. Most frequently the phase angle is entered as either zero or

90. The phase specification is most useful when defining eccentric loads on rotating equipment. Some of

the examples that follow discuss common applications of the phase angle input. The phase angle is a

required input. If the phase angle is zero, then 0.0 must be entered !

Start Node

The node where the force is to act. This entry is required. If entered without a Stop Node and Increment,

then this node must exist in the piping system. If entered with a Stop Node and Increment, then the range

of nodes identified by the loop must include at least one node in the piping system.

Stop Node

Used as a part of a “range of nodes” force loading command. This entry is optional.

Increment

Used as a part of a “range of nodes” force loading command. This entry is optional.

EXAMPLES

It is assumed that a pressure pulse traveling in the line between nodes 95 and 100 causes the line to shake

at about 2 hertz. The magnitude of the pressure loading (See the examples for calculating forces from

pressures) is estimated to be about 460 lb. The pressure wave travels from 95 to 100. The harmonic force

to model this load is shown as follows. Note that the magnitude is divided by 2 because the total variation

in the dynamic load is a function of the cosine, which varies from -1 to 1. To find the true response

magnitudes from a positive only harmonic load pulse, a static solution with 460/2 lb. acting in the plus X

direction would have to be superimposed on the static 460/2 lb. solution to provide the constant shifting of

the load axis (i.e. as defined in the following example, there will exist a negative load at node 95 due to

the negative sign on the cosine). The pressure pulse will always be positive and so a negative load will

never exist. The superposition of the 460/2 static solution makes sure that the dynamic load (and probably

the resulting displacements) are always positive.

460 LB PRESSURE LOAD AT 2 HERTZ 460/2 X 0.0 95

A pump is shaking in the X-Y plane. The pump axis is along the global Z axis. The magnitude of the

dynamic load is computed to be 750 lb. from the manufacturers provided masses and eccentricities. Apply

this rotating equipment loading on the inline pump at node 350. The X and Y loads are 90 degrees out of

phase with one another. When the X load is at its maximum the Y load is zero, and when the Y load is at

its maximum the X load is zero.

ESTIMATED ECCENTRIC LOAD ON INLINE PUMP DOH-V33203001

750 X 0.0 350

750 Y 90.0 350

12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Harmonic Displacements

Displacement

Amplitude of the harmonic displacement. The form of the harmonic displacement function is:

D(t)=(A)*cosine( t- ), where “D(t)” is the displacement as a function of time, A is the maximum

amplitude of the dynamic displacement. “ ” is the frequency of the excitation (in radians per second), and

“ ” is the phase angle (in radians). Enter the displacements in the units shown.

Direction

Enter the line of action of the displacement as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosines or direction vectors.

The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy,cz), i.e (0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx,

vy, vz), i.e. (1,0,1).

Phase

Enter the phase angle in degrees. The harmonic displacements can start with its maximum displacement at

time equal to zero, or the harmonic displacements can start with its maximum displacements at any time

between zero and t + 2 / seconds. The phase angle is the method used to specify this time shift in the

dynamic load waveform. The phase angle can be calculated from the time shift using the equation:

(degrees) = 180t / , where t is given in seconds and is given in radians per second. Most frequently

the phase angle is entered as either zero or 90. The phase specification is most useful when defining

eccentric displacements on rotating equipment. Some of the examples that follow discuss common

applications of the phase angle input. The phase angle is a required input. If the phase angle is zero, then 0.0

must be entered!

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 13

Start Node

Node where the dynamic displacement is defined. If the node is a supported node, then the dynamic

displacement will be assumed to act at the support point. If the node is not supported, then the dynamic

displacement will be assumed to describe the exact motion of the pipe at that point. This differentiation

only becomes important when the node is supported by a flexible restraint. For example, node 55 is

supported in the Y direction by a restraint having a stiffness of 5000 lb./in. A harmonic displacement is

also specified at node 55, in the Y direction. In this case, the harmonic displacement does not describe the

displacement that is attached to 55!

Harmonic Displacements at Compressor Flange

0.008 Y 0.0 330

0.003 Z 0.0 330

If the Start Node is entered without a Stop Node and Increment, then this node must exist in the piping

system. If the Start Node is entered with a Stop Node and Increment, then this range of nodes must include

at least one node in the piping system.

Stop Node

Used as a part of a “range of nodes” force displacement loading. This entry is optional.

Increment

Used as a part of a “range of nodes” force displacement loading. This entry is optional.

EXAMPLES

A large ethylene compressor shakes the node exiting the compressor flange in the Y direction a field

measured 8 mils, and in the Z direction an amount equal to 3 mils. Define these dynamic

displacements. The displacements are assumed to be simultaneous, with no phase shift. This is

because the load causing the displacements is believed to be the compressor plunger moving in the X,

or axial direction. (The displacements are skewed because the piping configuration entering the

compressor is itself skewed.)

Applying estimated eccentric forces to the pump described in the harmonic force example did not

produce the displacements witnessed in the field. Field personnel have measured the dynamic

displacements in the vertical (Y) and transverse (Z) directions at the pump piping connections. The

centerline of the pump, at the intersection of the horizontal suction and vertical discharge is node 15.

The magnitude of the Z displacement was measured to be 12 mil. The magnitude of the Y

displacement was measured to be 3 mils. It is assumed that the vibration is due to the rotation of the

pump shaft, and so the Z and Y loads will be taken to be 90 degrees out of phase.

HARMONIC DISPLACEMENTS MODELING PUMP VIBRATION ON THE INLINE PUMP

DOH-V33203001. MODELLING THE PUMPS

DYNAMIC LOAD WITH FORCES DID NOT RESULT IN THE

DISPLACEMENTS WITNESSED BY FIELD PERSONNEL. NOW TRY

IMPOSING THE DISPLACEMENTS AND SEE WHAT THE RESULTING

FORCES ARE. ALSO CHECK TO SEE IF THE ATTACHED PIPING

MOVES AROUND AS EXPECTED.

Z MAGNITUDE OF THE LOAD - ZERO PHASE SHIFT

0.012 Z 0.0 15

14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

0.003 Y 90.0 15

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 15

Spectrum Definitions

Name

Can be any 24-character identifier. This name is associated with a particular spectrum or load profile. The

complete definition of a shock includes its name, range type, ordinate type, range interpolation method,

ordinate interpolation method, and the shock data point table. Everything but the shock data point table

can be entered here. There are 14 predefined spectra for which no extra definitions are required and they

are:

El Centro

For the El Centro California N-S component taken from Biggs, “Introduction to Structural Dynamics,”

and applies for systems with 5-10 percent critical damping.

REG. GUIDE 1.60

1.60H.5 and 1.60V.5

1.60H2 and 1.60V2

1.60H5 and 1.60V5

1.60H7 and 1.60V7

1.60H1.0 and 1.60V10

16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Each of these spectra define respectively the horizontal and vertical components for 0.5, 2, 5, 7, and 10

percent critically damped systems. Associated with each of these spectra is a value for the Maximum

ground acceleration at the site, the ZPA. (Zero Period Acceleration) This value defaults to 0.5 g and can

be changed on the control parameter spreadsheet.

Uniform Building Code

UBCSOIL1

UBCSOIL2

UBCSOIL3

These spectra represent the normalized (horizontal) response spectra for three soil types provided in

Figure 23-3 of the Uniform Building Code, (1991 Edition).

Note The spectrum name (or load profile) can be preceded by a (#) sign. The (#) sign instructs

CAESAR II to read the spectrum table from a file having the same name as the spectrum with no extension.

Entering the spectrum table in an ASCII file allows several jobs to access the same spectrum table data

without the user having to retype it for each job. If data is to be read directly from within the Dynamic

Output then click the Data Points button and enter the appropriate Range and Ordinate values.

Range Type

This entry defines the table “range”, or horizontal axis, and can be either “Period”, “Frequency”, or

"Time". If the range type is Period then the spectrum table data must be entered in seconds. If the range

type is Frequency then the spectrum table data must be entered in Hertz, (cycles per second). Time may be

used for Time History load profiles only, and must be entered in milliseconds (ms).

Ordinate Type

This entry defines the spectrum table “ordinate”, or vertical axis, and can be either Acceleration, Velocity,

Displacement or Force (multiplier). Any part of the word for the ordinate type can be spelled out, but only

the first letter is required. Note that acceleration units are length per second squared. Users may enter the

spectrum table in g’s by selecting acceleration as the ordinate type and then using a shock scale factor of

386., for length units of inches. For Time History load profiles, the only valid ordinate type is Force

(multiplier).

Range Interpolation

Interpolation between range values may be done logarithmically or linearly (valid input is LOG or LIN).

See the examples shown for additional discussion.

Ordinate Interpolation

Interpolation between ordinate values may be done logarithmically or linearly (valid input is LOG or

LIN). See the examples shown for additional discussion.

One job may have any number of different spectrum types and definitions.

Special FORCE spectrum data files are created by the DLF Spectrum generator. See the documentation

covering this item later in this chapter.

When a new job is started up the 14 predefined spectra are already included in the spectrum definition list.

Any combination of these predefined spectra may be used as is, deleted or used with any other user

defined spectra.

ASCII files that contain spectrum table data can contain comment lines starting with an asterisk just like

regular terminal entered data lines. The user is encouraged to include the basic spectrum data definitions

in the comments for each ASCII spectrum file. See the example that follows.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 17

EXAMPLE

The job requires that the El Centro shock be applied in the X and Z directions using a factor of 1.0, and in

the Y direction using a factor of 0.667.

There is no spectrum definition required for this shock. El Centro is a predefined spectrum. All of its shock

data resides in the CAESAR II shock database.

The job requires the use of the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60 shock loads. At a maximum acceleration

value of 0.25 g’s, analysis is to be performed using 1.0 times the horizontal and vertical components of the

shock as specified in Reg. Guide 1.60.

There is no spectrum definition required for either of these two shock loads. The Reg. Guide 1.60 shock

spectra are predefined. The user must only specify the maximum acceleration (ZPA) of 0.25 g’s on the

control parameter spreadsheet, and must use the reg. guide spectra which corresponds to the anticipated

system damping. Lower damping values mean more conservative results.

The job requires a shock spectrum that is given by the client and developed for the site. A plot of the

spectrum appears as follows. The horizontal axis is period and the vertical axis is acceleration. From the

variation of the numbers along each axis it can be seen that a logarithmic interpolation for each axis

should be used. Because the shock name is NOT preceded by a (#) sign the user will have to enter the points

for this spectrum during this interactive input session.

BENCHNO4 PERIOD ACCELERATION LOG LOG

All jobs on a particular project require the use of the spectrum table shown as follows. Since we only want

to type the spectrum’s data points in one time, the points will be entered into a file named “BENCH1”.

The ASCII file BENCH1 can be created using any standard editor or the CAESAR II text editor. The

listing of the ASCII file for BENCH1 is shown following the plot of the spectrum.

The spectrum definition input for pointing to this file is:

#BENCH1 PERIOD ACCEL LOG LOG

SPECTRUM FOR NUCLEAR BENCHMARK NO.1. THIS SPECTRUM IS

TO BE USED FOR ALL LINES ON PROJECT 1-130023-A03.

FILENAME = “BENCH1”

RANGE TYPE = PERIOD (SECONDS)

ORDINATE TYPE = ACCELERATION (IN./SEC./SEC.)

INTERPOLATION FOR BOTH AXES = LOGARITHMIC.

FILE PREPARED BY M.NASH JANUARY 15, 1987

PERIOD(SEC)ACCELERATION(IN/SEC/SEC)

0.1698E-02 0.1450E+03

0.2800E-01 0.3800E+03

0.5800E-01 0.7750E+03

0.7100E-01 0.7750E+03

0.9100E-01 0.4400E+03

0.1140E+00 0.1188E+04

0.1410E+00 0.1188E+04

0.1720E+00 0.7000E+03

0.2000E+00 0.8710E+03

18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

0.2500E+00 0.8710E+03

0.3230E+00 0.4000E+03

Data points for user-defined spectra may be entered through the menu option Tools /Spectrum Data

Points.

Range

Spectrum table range value. There should be at least one range-ordinate pair for each spectrum.

Ordinate

Spectrum table ordinate value. There should be at least one range ordinate pair for each spectrum.

Values may be entered in exponential format (i.e. 0.3003E+03, or 0.3423E-03, or 0.3003E3,...), or can

have explicit multiplication or division (i.e. 4032.3/386, or 1.0323*12). Sufficient data points should be

entered to fully describe the spectrum or load profile.

There can be any number of line entries in the spectrum data. Data may also be read from a file using the

Read From File button.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 19

The CAESAR II DLF Spectrum Generator takes the time waveform of some excitation and converts it into

a frequency domain dynamic load factor (DLF) curve. The frequency domain dynamic load factor curve is

written to a hard disk file and can be read directly by CAESAR II as a “FORCE” response spectrum curve.

Input for the Pulse Table Generator is shown as follows.

The force spectrum generator creates an ASCII file containing the force spectrum that corresponds to the

input time history waveform.

Maximum Table Frequency

Enter the maximum frequency that should exist in the CAESAR II generated spectrum table. This value

seldom needs to be greater than 100 HZ. If piping frequencies greater than 100 Hz are found in the system

and included in the spectrum analysis, then the spectrum value at 100 Hz would be used. The user can

decide which frequencies are important, and therefore how high the frequency must go, by looking at the

solution participation factors and the animated mode shapes. Typically only the lower frequencies

contribute to the system displacements, forces and stresses.

Number of Points in the Table

This is the number of points CAESAR II will generate for the spectrum table. Usually 15 to 20 points are

sufficient. These points are distributed in a cubic relationship starting from zero hertz.

20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Create Table

When the Create Table button is clicked, a dialog box will appear with the input table as displayed

below. Enter the Time / Force data and click the OK button to create the DLF curve on the hard drive.

Time

Enter the points that describe the time waveform to be modeled. Units for this table are milliseconds.

(1000 milliseconds equals one second.)

Force

Enter the forces that correspond to the points on the force/time curve. Units are as shown. Note that the

absolute magnitude of the force is not important, only the form of the time history loading is important.

The actual maximum value of the dynamic load is taken from the force pattern defined in:

SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SETS.

There can be any number of line entries in the Excitation frequency data.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 21

Enter the name of the shock that was defined during the Time History Definitions phase of the input. This

may be any type of spectra, user defined, predefined, or read from a file. (DO NOT PRECEDE THE

SPECTRUM NAME WITH A # HERE, EVEN IF THE SPECTRUM TABLE WAS READ FROM AN

ASCII DATA FILE!) Any number of shocks can be listed here. Individual contributions can be of any

shock type or definition.

Factor

Constant by which to multiply the shock table. Usually 1.0, or if the spectrum table data points were read

in units of g’s, to convert to in/sec/sec then this factor would be 386. There are several examples that

follow which illustrate various applications of this value.

22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Direction

Defines the direction of application of the shock. To define an earthquake type of loading, CAESAR II must

know what the earthquake shock “looks like,” which comes from the shock spectrum table. CAESAR II

must also know in which direction this shock acts. Typically a shock load case will be comprised of three

shock components. One acts in the X direction, one in the Z, and one in the Y. The combination of each of

these three “shocks” defines the earthquakes dynamic loading of the piping system.

Skewed directions may be entered by giving a direction cosine or direction vector. Skewed shock

contributions are entered when the piping or structural system appears particularly sensitive to a shock

along a skewed line. This most often occurs when a majority of the piping system lies along a 45 degree

line in the horizontal plane. An example shock input for this type of system is shown among the examples

on the following pages.

Any number of shock components can act in the same direction. i.e. there can be two X direction

components. This usually occurs with independent support shock contributions where one X direction

component would apply to one support group and another X direction component would apply to a

different support group. (However, there can be two shock components in the same direction without

having independent support contributions defined. This would just involve defining two shock

contributions in the same direction without start, stop, or increment node entries.)

In the simplest form of force spectrum loading there is only a single shock component in the load case, i.e.

there is only a single line of input on the load case screen. When there are multiple lines of input on the

load case screen, as when the user is analyzing a traveling pressure wave that impacts different elbow-

elbow pairs, there can be many components to the shock load case. The combination of responses from

each of these shock loading components can be established in one of two ways. If the Direction field is

the same for each load component, then the Directional Combination method will be used to combine the

responses from each load component. If the Direction field is different for each load component, then the

spatial combination method will be used to combine the responses from each load component. The

difference between Spatial and Directional combination methods is that Directional combinations are

always made before Modal combinations, while Spatial combinations can be made before or after Modal

combinations, (it is user controlled). The default is to perform the Modal combinations before Spatial

combinations. Either Spatial or Directional combinations can be made using the ABS or SRSS method.

Some of the following force spectrum examples illustrate these differences.

Note: Since Time History combinations are all algebraic (in-phase), this entry is used as nothing more

than a label during this type of analysis.

Force Set #

If the Spectrum/Load Profile Name describes a Force-type spectrum (rather than displacement, velocity,

or acceleration), then the fourth entry in the load case screen is the force set number. This force set

number corresponds to the loads entered in the Force Sets option. Examples shown on the following

pages illustrate this application. Note that if a force set # is entered, the last three fields must be left blank!

Start Node

Start node, stop node, and increment are only used to define the component of an independent support

shock (ISM). This is a shock component that applies only to a group of support points. For example,

different shock spectrum may have been generated for rack level piping and for ground level piping. In

this case the rack supports would be subject to one shock excitation (influenced by the rack’s response to

the earthquake), and the ground level supports would be subject to a different shock excitation (not

influenced by the rack). In this case, one node range would be used to define the rack support shock

contributions and another would be used to define the ground support shock contributions. The range of

nodes defined by the start node, stop node, and increment must include at least one support point.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 23

Stop Node

Part of the “range of nodes.” If omitted, defaults to the start node. See the examples that follow for

clarification.

Increment

Part of the “range of nodes.” If omitted, defaults to 1. See the examples that follows for clarification.

Anchor Movement (Earthquake Only)

This entry is only used for independent support movements. It is used to specify the absolute displacement

of the restraints included in this shock case. This displacement is used to calculate the pseudostatic load

components representing the relative displacement of the individual restraint sets. If omitted, the default is

taken from the lowest frequency entry of the response spectrum: specified displacement,

velocity/frequency, or acceleration/frequency2 (where frequency is angular frequency).

Directives

A number of directives can be set for each individual load case using the Directives button. These

parameters are optional extensions to global options set for all load cases on the control parameter

spreadsheet. Typically the user will not need to specify any of these options.

24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Directional Combination Method. Similar directional components will be combined using either the ABS or

the SRSS summation method. If there are two shock components in the X direction, the components from

each shock’s effect on the system will be summed absolutely. Directional combinations are performed

before all other combinations. (There are three types of combinations: DIRECTIONAL, SPATIAL AND

MODAL). The default DIRECTIONAL combination method is ABS.

Modal Combination Method.

Modal (Group) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 “GROUPING” method.

CAESAR II uses the Revision 1, February 1976 issue of the Regulatory Guide 1.92. See the discussion of

the SPATIAL(ABS) directive for a description of the relationship that exits between modal and spatial

response combinations.

Modal (10%) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 “10%” method.

Modal (DSRSS) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 “Double Square Root of

the Sum of the Squares” method. Damping is assumed to be equal for all modes and is taken from the

control parameter spreadsheet.

Modal (ABS) Modal components (response quantities) will be combined absolutely. (i.e. the absolute

value of each response quantity will be summed.)

Modal (SRSS) Modal components will be combined using the square root of the sum of the squares

method of combination.

Spatial Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Spatial components will be combined using the ABS

summation method. There are typically three spatial components in a single earthquake type shock load

case. The three usual excitation directions are the X, Y, and Z global axes. (Although there can be any

number of spatial components along any global or skewed axes.)

Spatial or Modal Combination First. Modal before Spatial summations are “Independent.” An Independent

shock is one where the X, Y, Z components are random and temporally independent of one another. (i.e.

time histories for each directional component of the shock are not equal.) Spatial before Modal

summations are “Simultaneous.” A simultaneous shock is one where the X, Y, and Z components are

random, but temporarily the same (i.e. time histories for each directional component of the shock are

equal).

Pseudostatic Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Pseudostatic components for each ISM are added into

the response quantities either absolutely or using the SRSS method of combination. Pseudostatic

combinations are performed after all spatial and modal combinations. The user can deactivate the

inclusion of pseudostatic component from the control parameter spreadsheet.

Missing Mass Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Missing mass components for each shock load are

added into the response quantities either absolutely or using the SRSS method of combination. The user

can deactivate the inclusion of missing mass components from the control parameter spreadsheet. Missing

mass components are added in following modal summation.

Stress Type (EXP). Stress type for the load case is set using the stress type drop list. If FATigue is selected,

the expected number of load cycles must be entered. The user can change the default stress type dynamic

loads to any of the allowed stress types in CAESAR II. Available stress types are EXP, SUS, OCC, OPE,

and FAT. The OCC or occasional stress type is the default.

The entry of node groups causes a pseudostatic component of the shock to be created. This

pseudostatic contribution can be added or omitted from the final shock loading effects. Additional

parameters can be entered on the control parameter spreadsheet.

The order of input of the shock contributions is not important, and has no bearing on the results.

There is no limit to the number of shock load cases the user can define. The dynamic output processor

lets the user decide which of the Spectrum/Time History Load Cases he wants to process.

Any number of user comment lines may be included. There can be any number of line entries in the

spectrum data.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 25

EXAMPLES

Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with a vibration of one times the El Centro

earthquake in the X direction, one times the El Centro earthquake in the Z, and 0.667 times the El Centro

earthquake in the Y direction.

ELCENTRO 1 X

ELCENTRO 1 Z

ELCENTRO 0.667 Y

Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with the horizontal and vertical components of the

Reg. Guide 1.60 shock spectra for a 2 percent critically damped system. The maximum ground

acceleration should be 0.22 g’s.

The maximum ground acceleration is set on the control parameter spreadsheet and has no effect on the

shock load case definitions.

1.60H2 1 X

1.60H2 1 Z

1.60V2 1 Y

Define a shock load case that is comprised of the users shocks BENCH1 and BENCH2. BENCH1 should

act in the X and Z directions, and shock BENCH2 should act in the Y direction. The scale factor for all

shocks is 1.0.

BENCH1 1 X

BENCH2 1 Y

BENCH1 1 Z

One of the shock load cases for this particular job should excite the piping system along a line that is 45

degrees off of the global axes in the horizontal plane. It is suspected that this direction of excitation will

yield the worst possible results. Apply the user defined shock BENCH1 in the horizontal direction and

BENCH2 in the vertical direction.

BENCH1 1 (1,0,1)

BENCH1 1 (-1,0,1)

BENCH2 1 Y

Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with a vibration of two times the El Centro

earthquake in the X, Y, and Z directions. There should be two shock load cases in this job. The first should

use an independent summation and the second a simultaneous.

The load cases would be defined as shown. (There are several ways to accomplish the same objective here

using parameters on the control parameter spreadsheet, etc. Only the method using the explicit definition

of the load case combination method will be presented.) Remember that independent summation means

MODAL then SPATIAL, and simultaneous means SPATIAL then MODAL.

LOAD CASE 1 SHOCK CONTRIBUTIONS - CAESAR II’s title

MODAL(GROUP), SPATIAL(SRSS), MODAL COMBINATIONS FIRST

ELCENTRO 2 X

ELCENTRO 2 Y

ELCENTRO 2 Z

26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

SPATIAL(SRSS), MODAL(GROUP), SPATIAL COMBINATIONS FIRST

ELCENTRO 2 X

ELCENTRO 2 Y

ELCENTRO 2 Z

Define a shock case that has the user defined spectrum “1DIR” acting in the Z direction only. Set the

stress type for the case to be operating and use modal summations before spatial summations. Note that

there is no mention of modal or spatial summations in the load data shown as follows (only the stress

type). This is because “modal summation first” is the CAESAR II default and would have to be changed on

the control parameter spreadsheet for it not to still apply.

1DIR 1 Z

STRESSTYPE(OPE)

The support nodes 5, 25, 35, 45, and 56 are pipe shoes sitting on concrete foundations. The support nodes

140, 145, 157, 160, and 180 are second level rack supports, i.e. pipe shoes sitting on structural steel beams

in the second level of the rack. The ground level shock spectrum name is “GROUND04”, and the second

level rack spectrum name is “RACKLEVEL2-04”. Set up the shock load case to define these independent

support excitations. Note that an option exists on the control parameter spreadsheet to neglect the

pseudostatic component of the Independent Support Excitation. Assume that this option is activated. The

default is to include the pseudostatic component in an absolute (ABS) summation method.

GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION

GROUND04 1.0 X 5,56,1

GROUND04 1.0 Y 5,56,1

GROUND04 1.0 Z 5,56,1

RACKLEVEL2-04 1.0 X 140,180,1

RACKLEVEL2-04 1.0 Y 140,180,1

RACKLEVEL2-04 1.0 Z 140,180,1

Set up a shock load case, and define all combinations options explicitly. Use the same shock components

as defined in the above example, except assume that the pseudostatic component is to be added using the

SRSS combination method. Also change the modal summation method is SRSS. (This is the

recommended method.) Note that when the modal summation method is SRSS it doesn't matter whether

modal or spatial combinations are performed first. The order is only a factor when closely spaced modes

are considered as in the grouping, ten percent, and DSRSS methods.

MODAL(SRSS),PSEUDOSTATIC(SRSS),SPATIAL(SRSS)

GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION

GROUND04 1.0 X 5,56,1

GROUND04 1.0 Y 5,56,1

GROUND04 1.0 Z 5,56,1

RACK LEVEL 2 EXCITATION

RACKLEVEL2-04 1.0 X 140,180,1

RACKLEVEL2-04 1.0 Y 140,180,1

RACKLEVEL2-04 1.0 Y 140,180,1

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 27

The last elbow in the relief valve piping is at node 295. The spectrum name: “BLAST” contains the DLF

response spectrum for this relief valve’s firing. SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SET #1 contains

the load information and its point of application. Show the load case input that would provide the most

conservative combination of modal results. (Because there is only a single loading there is no

consideration given to spatial or directional combinations.)

Shock Name, Factor, Direction, Force Set #

ABSOLUTE MODAL SUMMATION, ONLY A SINGLE LOADING

COMPONENT AND SO NO CONSIDERATION GIVEN TO SPATIAL OR

DIRECTIONAL COMBINATIONS.

BLAST, 1, X, 1

MODAL (ABS)

Use the same example above and combine the modes using the grouping method. This will produce the

most realistic solution.

BLAST, 1, X, 1

MODAL (GROUP)

There are two elbow-elbow pairs that are of significance in this job. Waterhammer loads act on the elbow

at 40 in the X direction and on the elbow at 135 in the Y-direction. In the SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY

FORCE SET input, force set #1 is defined as the load at 40 and force set #2 is defined as the load at 135.

Add the response quantities from each load component first, using an ABS summation, and then the

resulting modal response quantities second, using the grouping summation method. Two identical methods

for achieving the same results are shown.

Shock Name, Factor, Direction, Force set #

BECAUSE THE “DIRECTION” INPUT IS THE SAME, I.E. “X”, FOR BOTH,

LOAD CONTRIBUTIONS, THE DIRECTIONAL COMBINATION METHOD

WILL GOVERN HOW THE HAMMER 40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES

ARE COMBINED.

HAMMER40, 1, X, 1

HAMMER135, 1, X, 2

DIRECTIONAL (ABS), MODAL(GROUP)

<or>

BECAUSE THE “DIRECTION” INPUT IS DIFFERENT, I.E. “X” AND “Y,”

THE SPATIAL COMBINATION METHOD WILL GOVERN HOW THE

HAMMER40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES ARE COMBINED. NOTE THAT

ON THE DIRECTIVE LINE THE “SPATIAL” DIRECTIVE COMES BEFORE

THE “MODAL” DIRECTIVE.

HAMMER40, 1, X, 1

HAMMER135, 1, Y, 2

SPATIAL(ABS), MODAL(GROUP)

28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Static/Dynamic Combinations

Load Case

Defines the static or dynamic load case that is to be a part of this combination case. The load case label

must always start with an S or a D for Static and Dynamic, and must be immediately followed by a load

case number. Valid entries are: S1, STATIC1, S3, STATIC3, D1, DYNAMICS1, S#1, D#1, ...etc... The

user can use any length up to 24 characters to define the load case label so long as the name starts in an S

or a D, and ends in a valid load case number. For static load case definitions, the static case must exist and

have already been run (also, the S can’t refer to a spring hanger design case). For dynamic load case

definitions, the dynamic load case number refers to the shock load case. Several examples are given as

follows.

Factor

This entry is required and multiplies the response quantities from the respective static or dynamic run.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 29

<Directive Data>

The Stress Type drop list or the Directive button may be used to set optional extensions to global options

set for all load cases on the control parameter spreadsheet. Typically the user will not need to specify any

of these options. Some of the examples included on the following pages illustrate cases where these

directives provide extra desired flexibility.

STRESSTYPE (EXP)

STRESSTYPE (SUS)

STRESSTYPE (OPE)

STRESSTYPE (OCC)

STRESSTYPE (FAT)

The user can change the default stress type for the combination case to any of the four shown here. The

default stress type is OCC - occasional.

COMBINATION (SRSS)

COMBINATION (ABS)

Defines how the load cases listed are to be combined. The ABS method takes the absolute value of all

displacement, force, and stress data for each load case and adds them together. The SRSS method sums

the square of all displacement, force, and stress data for each load case and then takes the square root of

the result.

Any number of separate static and dynamic cases can exist in the combination load case list provided

each reference to a static or dynamic case is on a separate line.

The order of input of the load case definitions is not important, and has no bearing on the results.

Any number of user comment lines may be included.

Static cases alone can be combined without dynamic cases.

Dynamic cases alone can be combined without static cases.

EXAMPLES:

The static cases run in the job were:

1 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (OPE)

2 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)

3 = L1 - L2 (EXP)

The dynamic cases run in the job were:

1 = Operating Basis Earthquake

2 = 1/2 the Operating Basis Earthquake

The user must combine the Operating Basis Earthquake Stresses with the Sustained static stresses. The

specification for this combination case is:

STATIC2 1.0

DYNAMIC1 1.0

<or>

S2 1

D1 1

The static cases run in the job were:

1 = W + P1 + F1 (For hanger design)

2 = W + P1 + D1 + T1 + F1 (For hanger design)

30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

3 = W + P1 + D1 + T1 + F1 (OPE)

4 = W + P1 + F1 (SUS)

5 = L3 - L4 (EXP)

There was one dynamic load case. The user is required to turn an occasional case that is the sum of the

sustained and the dynamic stresses using the SRSS combination method and the ABS combination

method. Additionally, the user must combine the expansion static case and the dynamic case using the

SRSS combination method. This is a total of three combination load cases. Note that since the job had

hanger design the first two static load cases cannot be used in a combination case. The input for each case

is shown as follows:

COMBINATION CASE 1:

* SRSS COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES

STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS)

STATIC4 1

DYNAMIC1 1

COMBINATION CASE 2:

* ABS COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES

STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(ABS)

STATIC4 1

DYNAMIC1 1

COMBINATION CASE 3:

* SRSS COMBINATION OF EXPANSION AND DYNAMIC CASES

STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS)

STATIC5 1

DYNAMIC1 1

1 = W+T1+P+D1+F1(OPE)

2 = W+P+F1

3 = U1 (OCC) ... Static seismic simulation

4 = L1-L2

5 = ST2+ST3

The user is instructed to perform an SRSS combination of the static seismic case and both the sustained

and operating static cases. The combination case lists for these two cases would appear:

COMBINATION CASE 1:

COMBINATION(SRSS), STRESSTYPE(OCC)

STATIC2 1

STATIC3 1

COMBINATION CASES 2:

COMBINATION(SRSS), STRESSTYPE(OCC)

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 31

STATIC1 1

STATIC3 1

1 = W+P1+F1 (Hanger design restrained weight case)

2 = W+T1+F1+P1+D1 (Hanger design load case #1)

3 = W+T2+F1+P1+D1 (Hanger design load case #2)

4 = WNC+P1+F1 (Hanger design actual cold loads)

5 = W+T1+F1+P1+D1 (OPE)

6 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)

7 = L5-L6 (EXP)

Spectrum/Time History Load Cases 1 through 6 were defined by the client. The static sustained stresses

are to be combined with 1/2 the shock case 1 results, 1/2 the shock case 2 results, and 1.333 times the

shock case 3 results. The combination method is to be SRSS. A second combination case is to combine

1/2 the shock case 4 results, 1/2 the shock case 5 results, and 1.333 times the shock case 6 results. These

two combination load cases would be defined as shown as follows:

COMBINATION CASE 1:

COMBINATION(SRSS)

STATIC6 1

DYNAMIC1 1/2

DYNAMIC2 1/2

DYNAMIC3 1.333

<or>

COMB(SRSS)

S6 1

D1 0.5

D2 0.5

D3 1.333

COMBINATION CASE 2:

COMBINATION (SRSS)

STATIC6 1

DYNAMIC4 0.5

DYNAMIC5 0.5

DYNAMIC6 1.333

32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Force

Maximum value of the dynamic load applied at this point. Units are as shown. Note that the total applied

force will be the product of this value, the selected force value from the spectrum or load profile, and the

factor entered for the load case.

Direction

Direction of the dynamic load. Can be entered as X, Y, or Z or direction cosines or direction vectors.

Direction cosines are entered in the form (cx,cy,cz), i.e. (0.707, 0, 0.707). Direction vectors are entered in

the form: (vx, vy, vz), i.e. (1,0,1).

Node

Node number where the force acts.

Force Set #

Number to uniquely identify this particular force load pattern. See the examples that follow for

clarification. This value defaults to 1.

The general procedure for applying a force spectrum load is as follows:

1 Determine the pulse time history that acts at a single node or over a group of nodes. Only the pulse

waveform must be the same for all nodes in group, the maximum pulse amplitude may vary. For

example, a particular shock load due to ocean current loading acts over the nodes 5,10,15,20,25, and

30 on a production piping system, and the magnitude of the dynamic loading is 50 lb. at 5, 100 lb. at

10, 200 lb. at 15, and so on up to 500 lb. at 30. Also the dynamic load as a function of time at each

point is equal to half of a sine wave with a period of one second. Even though the magnitude of the

dynamic load varies over the nodes from 5 to 30, the pulse waveform does not (The pulse waveform is

the half sine wave, and its shape is the same for each node). Thus the group of nodes from 5 to 30 can

be included in the same force set #, each node having a different dynamic force magnitude.

2 Using the CAESAR II DLF Spectrum Generator build a DLF vs. frequency file for the time-pulse

waveform.

3 Using the Spectrum Definitions option, define the DLF vs. frequency file just created as a Force

spectrum data file with linear interpolation along the frequency axis and linear interpolation along the

ordinate axis. (The DLF Spectrum Generator builds a standard shock table file. Until the type of shock

data in the file is described to CAESAR II, the file can’t be used.) Remember to precede the shock name

with a “#” sign when defining it in the Spectrum Definitions so that CAESAR II knows to read the

shock table from the data file.

4 Determine the maximum force magnitude that acts on each node subject to the pulse load.

5 Using the Force Set Editor specify the maximum amplitude of the dynamic load, its direction, and the

nodes it acts on.

6 Build the Spectrum/Time History Load Cases by entering the Force spectrum name (this is the name

that is preceded by the “#” sign, defined in the Spectrum Definitions editor), the table multiplication

factor (usually 1.0), a direction (this is only a label used for output processing and should be

characteristic of the shock, the actual force spectrum loads can act in multiple directions), and the

Force Set #. (The Force Set # refers to the force pattern defined in the Force Spectrum Editor in step 5

above.) It is step 6 that defines the link between the force spectrum and the force loading pattern.

7 Setup any other parameters needed to run the spectrum analysis for this job. Perform error checking,

and once there are no fatal errors, run the job.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 33

For a Time History analysis, the load profile used in step 2 would be entered directly in step 3, with the

rest of the process remaining the same.

Any number of user comment lines may be included. There can be any number of line entries in the Force

spectrum data.

If there are multiple force spectrum components in a single dynamic load case, the user should be

particularly careful with the combination method selected. In this case, the same rules that cover

earthquake shocks and components apply to force spectrum shocks and components.

EXAMPLES:

The nodes 5, 10, and 15 define a cantilever pipe leg that is part of an offshore production platform. The

dynamic load as a function of time is equal to a half sine wave. The waveform is the same for all three

nodes, but the maximum dynamic load on node 5 is 5030 lb., on node 10 is 10,370 lb., and on node 15 is

30,537 lb. Three force sets are to be built for this problem. One is with the dynamic loads acting in the X

direction. One is with the dynamic loads acting in the Z direction, and the third is with the dynamic loads

acting simultaneously in the X an Z directions. The force spectrum input data for this job is as follows:

* X DIRECTION HALF SINE WAVE/CURRENT LOADING

5030 X 5 1

10370 X 10 1

30537 X 15 1

* Z DIRECTION HALF SINE WAVE/CURRENT LOADING

5030 Z 5 2

10370 Z 10 2

30537 Z 15 2

* X AND Z DIRECTION WAVE/CURRENT LOADING

5030 X 5 3

5030 Z 5 3

10370 X 10 3

10370 Z 10 3

30537 X 15 3

30537 Z 15 3

A relief valve at node 565 is being investigated for several different reactor decompression conditions.

The maximum load for the first condition is 320 kips in the X direction. This is a ramped time waveform.

The valve opens and closes in 5 milliseconds. The duration for the first decompression condition is 50

milliseconds. The maximum load for the second decompression condition is 150 kips in the X direction.

This also is a ramped time waveform. The valve opens and closes in 5 milliseconds and the duration for

the second decompression condition is 4 seconds. The third decompression condition maximum load is 50

kips, and has the same time waveform as the second condition. (It is this decompression state that is

expected to be the most frequent.)

There must be two shock tables defined, one for the 50 ms duration waveform, and one for the 4 second

duration waveform. Three different maximum force patterns are defined:

* REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 1

320000 X 565 1

* REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 2

150000 X 565 2

* REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 3 (MOST FREQUENT)

34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

50000 X 565 3

A startup shock wave passes through a single elbow system. Nodes in the piping model are 5, 10, and 15.

The system is shown as follows:

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 35

As the wave starts off between 5 and 10 there is an initial dynamic axial load on the anchor at 5. When the

shock wave hits the elbow at 10, the axial load in the 5-10 element balances the initial imbalance at node

5, and there becomes an axial imbalance in the 10-15 element. This shock load will be modelled as two

completely separate impacts on the piping system The first is the dynamic anchor load at 5. (If 5 is a

flexible anchor then this load may cause dynamic displacements of the piping system and 5 will just be

subject to the dynamic time history pulse due to the shock.) Assume the anchor at 5 is a flexible vessel

nozzle. The second shock load is the unbalanced dynamic pressure load in the 10-15 element that exists

until the shock reaches the node 15. Friction in the line resisting movement of the shock wave is

considerable. In the time the wave leaves the anchor at 5 until it encounters the bend at 10 there is a 50%

drop in the pulse strength as shown in the following plot.

36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This pressure drop was computed using a transient fluid simulator. Between node 10 and node 15 the

pulse strength drops even further as shown as follows.

* X DIRECTION LOAD ON FLEXIBLE ANCHOR AT 5

-5600 X 5 1

* Z DIRECTION LOAD ON ELBOW AT 10

2800 Z 10 2

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 37

Lumped Masses

Lumped Masses

Mass

Enter the concentrated mass in the units shown, a positive concentrated mass is added to the mass at the

node. A negative concentrated mass is subtracted from the mass at the node and a zero entry deletes all

mass for the node.

Direction

Can be X, Y, Z, or ALL. ALL can be abbreviated “A”. If X, Y, or Z is entered, then the mass is only

added or subtracted for that direction.

Start Node

Node where the mass is to act. This entry is required. If entered without a stop node and increment, then

this node must exist in the piping system. If entered with a stop node and increment then the range of

nodes identified by the loop must include at least one node in the piping system. See the examples that

follow.

Stop Node

Used as part of a “range of nodes” lumped mass command. See the examples that follow. This entry is

optional.

38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Increment

Used as part of a “range of nodes” lumped mass command. See the examples that follow. This entry is

optional.

There can be any number of line entries in the lumped mass data.

The zero mass capability with the “range of nodes” entry is particularly useful when the user has a part of

the system for which he is not interested in the modes. That part of the system would have been modeled

for its stiffness effect only. One example is structural steel models. It is not uncommon for a user to delete

all of the mass for nodes in the structural steel model. (Steel models are often only entered to include their

stiffness effects and so the omission of their dynamic effects is often not significant.)

EXAMPLES:

450 ALL 40

Note: The node range loop starts from node 12, which is not defined and goes through node 25 in steps

of 1. Some nodes don’t exist in this range but this is not an error as long as at least one node in the range

defined by 12 through 25 by 1, exists in the system.

0.0 ALL 12 25 1

375 A 25 50 5

0.0 X 1 600 1

0.0 Y 1 600 1

Snubbers

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 39

Snubbers

Stiffness

Enter the stiffness for the snubber in the units shown. If the snubber is rigid enter a value of 1.0E12. The

stiffness of the snubber must be given and must be positive.

Direction

Enter the line of action of the snubber as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosines or direction vectors. The

format for direction cosines is (cx,cy,cz), and for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz). See the example that

follows for the entry of some typical skewed snubbers.

Node

Enter the node where the snubber acts. This is a required entry. If the snubber acts between the piping

system and a fixed point in space, then leave the CNode field blank. Connecting Nodes work for snubbers

just like they do for restraints.

CNode

If the snubber acts between one point on the piping system and another point on the piping system, then

enter the node that the snubber connects to.

EXAMPLES:

1E12 Z 150

2 Add rigid snubbers at nodes 160, 165, and 170 in the Z direction.

1E12 Z 160

1E12 Z 165

1E12 Z 170

3 Add a rigid snubber between the structural steel node 1005 and the piping node 405 in the Z direction.

1E12 Z 405 1005

4 Add a 5,000 lb./in. snubber in the X and Y directions at the piping node 500. The X snubber should

connect to the structural steel node 1050 and the Y snubber should connect to the overhead line at

node 743.

HORIZONTAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND STEEL 5000 X 500 1050.

VERTICAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND OVER HEAD COOLING WATER

LINE 5000 Y 500 743

40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 41

Control Parameters

The type of analysis chosen by the user in the Dynamic Input Processor determines the active Control

Parameters. CAESAR II will display only this list of active Control Parameters. In addition, the calculation

details can be fine-tuned using many of the other Control Parameters, maximizing accuracy of results for

most dynamic problems. The impact and use of these parameters, as well as their technical bases, are

described in this section.

The list of the control parameters, along with the Analysis Types for which they are active, is shown in the

following table.

Notes:

X-required

1-if system has nonlinear restraints or hanger design

2-if any restraints have friction

3-either "Max. No. of Eigenvalues" or "Frequency Cutoff" required

4-if modal combination method is GROUP or 10%

5-if modal combination method is DSRSS

6-if USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 or Uniform Building Code seismic spectra are used

42 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

8-if pseudo-static components are inducted

9-if missing mass components are included

10-if multiple spectrum loads are applied in the same direction

The first parameter is used to select from the available dynamic analysis types, which are Harmonic

(direct solution), Response Spectrum (any combination of seismic, anchor movement, and force loadings),

Modal Extraction, Range, and Time History (linear modal). These analysis types are described below:

Harmonic Analysis

Generally, the response of a system to a dynamically applied load is expressed through the dynamic

equation of motion:

Where:

M = system mass matrix

C = system damping matrix

K = system stiffness matrix

x(t) = displacement vector, as a function of time

F(t) = applied load vector, as a function of time

Unfortunately, this differential equation cannot be solved explicitly, except in a few specific cases.

Harmonic analysis looks at one of these cases—the set of dynamic problems where the forces or

displacements (i.e., pulsation or vibration) acting on the piping system take sinusoidal forms. Under

harmonic loading, when damping is zero, the dynamic equation of the system can be reduced to

M (t) + K x(t) = F0 cos ( t + Q)

Where:

F0 = harmonic load vector

= angular forcing frequency of harmonic load (radian/sec)

t = time

Q = phase angle (radians)

This differential equation can be solved directly, yielding the nodal displacements at any time (and

therefrom, the system reactions, forces and moments, and stresses).

The equation has a solution of the form

x (t) = A cos ( t + Q)

Where:

A = vector of maximum harmonic displacements of system

Since acceleration is the second derivative of displacement with respect to time,

(t) = -A 2

cos t

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 43

Inserting these equations for displacement and acceleration back into the basic harmonic equation of

motion yields,

-M A 2

cos ( t + Q) + K A cos ( t + Q) = Fo cos ( t + Q)

Dividing both sides of this equation by cos ( t + Q),

-M A 2

+ K A = Fo

Reordering this equation,

(K - M ) A = Fo

2

This is exactly the same form of the equation as is solved for all linear (static) piping problems. The

appealing thing about this is that the solution time for each excitation frequency takes only as long as a

single static solution, and, when there is no phase relationship to the loading, the results give the

maximum dynamic responses directly. Due to the speed of the analysis, and because the solutions are so

directly applicable, it is advisable to make as much use of this capability as possible. Two considerations

must be kept in mind:

When damping is not zero, the harmonic equation can only be solved if the damping matrix can be

defined as the sum of multiples of the mass and stiffness matrix (Rayleigh damping), i.e.:

[C] = a [M] + b [K]

On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping Cc and the constants a and b is

given as

Where:

= Undamped natural frequency of mode (rad/sec)

For practical problems, is extremely small, and so may be ignored. Therefore the definition of reduces

to

= 2 Cc/

CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis; however there are still two

problems. First, for multi-degree-of-freedom systems, there is not really a single b, but there must be only

a single b in order to get a solution of the harmonic equation. The second problem is that the modal

frequencies are not known prior to generation of the damping matrix. Therefore the w used in the

calculation of b is the forcing frequency of the load, instead of the natural frequency of a mode. When the

forcing frequency of the load is in the vicinity of a modal frequency, this gives a good estimation of the

true damping.

If multiple harmonic loads occur simultaneously, and they are not in phase, system response is the

sum of the responses due to the individual loads:

x(t) = S Ai cos ( t + Qi)

Where:

Ai = displacement vector of system under load i

Qi = phase angle of load i

44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

In this case, an absolute maximum solution cannot be found. Rather, solutions for each load, and the sum

of these, must be found at various times in the load cycle. These combinations should then be reviewed in

order to determine which one causes the worst load case. Alternatively, CAESAR II can select the

frequency/phase pairs which maximize the system displacement.

Note: Damped harmonics will always cause a phased response.

The biggest use by far of the harmonic solver is in analyzing low frequency field vibrations resulting from

either fluid pulsation or out-of-round rotating equipment displacements. The approach typically taken

towards solving this type of problem is described briefly below:

1 A potential dynamic problem is first identified in the field—either in terms of large cyclic vibrations

or high stresses (fatigue failure) being present in an existing piping system, raising questions of

whether this represents a dangerous situation. As many symptoms of the problem (quantifiable

displacements, overstress points, etc.) are identified as possible, for future use in refining the dynamic

model.

2 A model of the piping system is built using CAESAR II. This should be done as accurately as possible,

since system, as well as load, characteristics affect the magnitude of the developed response.

Particular attention should be paid when modeling the area where the vibration occurs. This might

include accurately representing valve operators, flange pairs, orifice plates and other in-line

equipment. It may also be a good idea to add additional nodes in the area of the vibration.

3 The engineer next postulates the cause of the load, and from that, an estimate of the frequency,

magnitude, point, and direction of the load. This is somewhat difficult because the dynamic loads can

come from many sources. Dynamic loads may be due to internal pressure pulses, external vibration,

flow shedding at intersections, two phase flow, etc., but in almost all cases, there is some frequency

content of the excitation that corresponds to (and therefore excites) a system mechanical natural

frequency. If the load is caused by equipment, then the forcing frequency is probably some multiple of

the operating frequency; if the load is due to acoustic flow problems, then the forcing frequency can

be estimated through the use of Strouhal’s equations (from fluid dynamics). Using the best

assumptions available, the user should estimate the magnitudes and points of application of the

dynamic load.

4 The loading is then modeled using harmonic forces or displacements (normally depending upon

whether the cause is assumed to be pulsation or vibration) and several harmonic analyses are done,

sweeping the frequencies through a range centered about the target frequency (in order to account for

uncertainty). The results of each of the analyses are examined for signs of large displacements,

indicating harmonic resonance. If the resonance is present, the results of the analysis are compared to

the known symptoms from the field. If they are not similar (or if there is no resonance), this indicates

that the dynamic model is not a good one, so it must be improved, either in terms of a more accurate

system (static) model, a better estimate of the load, or a finer sweep through the frequency range.

Once the model has been refined, this step is repeated until the mathematical model behaves just like

the actual piping system in the field.

5 At this time, there is a good model of the piping system and a good model of the loads (or, more

accurately, a good model of the relationship of the load characteristics to the system characteristics).

The results of this run are evaluated in order to determine whether they indicate a problem. Since

harmonic stresses are cyclic, they should be evaluated against the endurance limit of the piping

material; displacements should be reviewed against interference limits or esthetic guidelines.

6 If the situation is deemed to be a problem, its cause must be identified, where the cause is normally

the excitation of a single mode of vibration. For example, the Dynamic Load Factor for a single

damped mode of vibration, with a harmonic load applied is

Where:

DLF = dynamic loading factor

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 45

where “critical damping” =

f = forcing frequency of applied harmonic load

n = natural frequency of mode of vibration

A modal extraction of the system is done; one (or more) of these modes should have a natural frequency

close to the forcing frequency of the applied load. The guilty mode can be further identified as that one

having a shape very similar to the shape of the total system vibration, since this mode shape has certainly

been dynamically magnified far beyond the other modes (and thus predominates in the final vibrated

shape).

7. Once the guilty mode has been identified, it must be eliminated. This is done most easily by adding a

restraint at a high point (and in the direction thereof) of the mode shape. If this cannot be done, the mode

may also be altered by changing the mass distribution of the system. If no modification of the system is

possible, it may be possible to alter the forcing frequency of the load. If the dynamic load was postulated

to be due to internal acoustics, it is recommended that the pipe not be rerouted at this point, as rerouting

the pipe will change the internal flow conditions (which may resolve or amplify the problem, but in either

case will void CAESAR II’s “good model” of the system). After modifying the system, the harmonic

problem (using the single forcing frequency determined as a “good model”) is then re-run, and the

stresses, displacements, etc. are re-evaluated.

8. If the dynamic problem has been adequately solved, the system is now re-analyzed statically to

determine the effects of any modifications on the static loading cases. (Remember, adding restraint

normally increases expansion stresses, while adding mass increases sustained stresses.)

The user may process output from a harmonic analysis in two ways:

Use of the output processor to review displacement, restraint, force, or stress data either graphically or

in report form.

Animation of the displacement pattern for each of the frequency load cases.

Note: The results of harmonic dynamic loads cannot be combined using the Static/Dynamic

Combination option.

46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Spectrum Analysis

A spectrum analysis represents an attempt to estimate the maximum response developed in a system

during a transient load. The results are a statistical summation of the maximum displacements, forces,

reactions, stresses, etc; the individual responses do not represent an actual physical loading case in that the

maxima may all occur at different times. Spectrum analyses are especially useful when the loading profile

is random, or otherwise not known exactly, such as with seismic loads. CAESAR II provides the ability to

perform two types of spectrum analyses (which may be combined): for seismic and force loadings.

Seismic loadings may be evaluated either uniformly over the entire system, or applied through individual

support groups (with corresponding anchor movements). Force spectra analyses may be used to analyze

impulse loadings, such as those due to relief valve, fluid hammer, or slug flow. These two types are

described in the following paragraphs.

Seismic Spectrum Analysis. Seismic loads cannot be solved through time history analyses, since

earthquakes cause random motion, which may be different for each earthquake, even those occurring at

the same site. To simplify the analytical definition of the earthquake, it is necessary to get the expected

random waveform of acceleration (or velocity or displacement) vs. time into some simple frequency-

content plot. The most predominantly used frequency-content plot is the response spectrum. A response

spectrum for an earthquake load can be developed by placing a series of single degree-of-freedom

oscillators on a mechanical shake table and feeding a “typical” (typical for a specific site) earthquake time

history through it, measuring the maximum response (displacement, velocity, or acceleration) of each

oscillator.

The expectation is that even though all earthquakes are different, similar ones should produce the same

maximum responses, even though the time at which they occur will differ with each individual

occurrence. (Responses will be based on the maximum ground displacement and acceleration, the

dynamic load factors determined by the ratios of the predominant harmonic frequencies of the earthquake

to the natural frequencies of the oscillators, and system damping.) Response spectra for a number of

damping values can be generated by plotting the maximum response for each oscillator. A plot of a set of

typical response spectra is shown in the following figure.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 47

Seismic response spectra resemble harmonic Dynamic Load Factor curves, since seismic loads evidence

strong harmonic tendencies. As damping value increases, the system response approaches the ground

motion. Seismic spectra usually also show strong evidence of flexible, resonant, and rigid areas. Spectra

may have multiple peaks due to filtering by the building and/or piping system; however multiple peaks are

usually enveloped in order to account for uncertainties in the analysis. Seismic response spectra peaks are

typically spread to account for inaccuracies as well.

The idea behind the generation of the response spectra is that a system’s modes of vibration will respond

to the load in the exact same manner as will a single degree-of-freedom oscillator. System response may

be plotted in terms of displacement, velocity, or acceleration, since these terms of the spectra are all

related by the frequency:

d=v/ =a/ 2

Where:

d = displacement from response spectrum at frequency

v = velocity from response spectrum at frequency

= angular frequency at which response spectrum parameters are taken

a = acceleration from response spectrum at frequency

Response Spectrum analysis proceeds according to the following steps:

1 Modes of vibration are extracted from the system using an Eigensolver algorithm. Each mode has a

characteristic frequency and mode shape.

2 The maximum response of each mode under the applied load is determined from the spectrum value

corresponding to the mode’s natural frequency.

3 The total system response is determined by summing the individual modal responses, using methods

that reflect the time independence of the responses and the portion of system mass allocated to each

mode.

There are four major sources of earthquake spectra available to the CAESAR II user:

Predefined El Centro (available in the CAESAR II database—spectrum name = ELCENTRO): This

data is taken from J. Biggs’ Introduction to Structural Dynamics and is based on the north-south

component of the May 18, 1940 El Centro California earthquake. The recorded maximum acceleration

was 0.33 g. The spectrum provided here is intended to apply to elastic systems having 5 to 10 percent

critical damping.

Predefined Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60 (Available in the CAESAR II database): The predefined

spectrum names are:

1.60H.5 1.60V.5 -- Horizontal/vertical,0.5% damping

1.60H2 1.60V2 -- Horizontal/vertical,2.0% damping

1.60H5 1.60V5 -- Horizontal/vertical,5.0% damping

1.60H7 1.60V7 -- Horizontal/vertical,7.0% damping

1.60H10 1.60V10 -- Horizontal/vertical,10.0% damping

These spectra are constructed according to the instructions given in Regulatory Guide 1.60 for seismic

design of nuclear plants. They must also be scaled up or down by the maximum ground acceleration

(ZPA—zero period acceleration), which can be specified in the CAESAR II control parameter spreadsheet.

Predefined Uniform Building Code (Available in the CAESAR II database). The predefined spectrum

names are:

UBCSOIL1 Spectrum for rock and stiff soils

UBCSOIL2 Spectrum for deep cohesionless or stiff clay soils

48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

These spectra represent the normalized response spectra shapes (for three soil types) provided in Figure

23-3 of the Uniform Building Code (1991 Edition). When used, they must be scaled by the ZPA, which is

the product of Z and I (Where Z is the seismic zone coefficient and I is the earthquake importance factor,

from UBC Tables 23-I and 23-L, respectively). The ZPA can be specific using the CAESAR II control

parameter spreadsheet.

User defined spectra: User defined spectra may be entered with period or frequency as the range, and

displacement, velocity, or acceleration as the ordinate. These spectra may be read in from a text file or

entered directly into a spectrum table during dynamic input processing.

Independent Support Motion Applications. Earthquake ground motions are caused by the passing of

acoustic shock waves through the earth’s soil. These waves are usually hundreds of feet long. If supports

having foundations in the soil are grouped together within a several hundred foot radius of each other they

will typically see exactly the same excitation from the earthquake. If all of the supports for a particular

piping system are attached directly to ground type supports, each support will be excited by an essentially

identical time waveform. This type of excitation is known as uniform support excitation. Often pipe is

supported from rack, building, or vessel structures as well as from ground type supports. These

intermediate structures serve to, in some cases, filter and in some cases accentuate the effect of the

earthquake. In this situation, the supports attached to the intermediate structure are not exposed to the

same excitation as those that are attached directly to ground foundations. To accurately model these

systems different shocks must be applied to different parts of the piping system. This type of excitation is

known as independent support motion (ISM) excitation. While the different support groups are exposed to

different shocks, there are also relative movements between support groups that don’t exist for uniform

support excitation. The movement of one support group relative to another is termed pseudostatic

displacement, or seismic anchor movements. For uniform support excitation there are spatial and modal

response components available for combination. For independent support excitation there are spatial and

modal response components available for each different support group, plus pseudostatic components of

the earthquake that must be added into the dynamic response as well.

The major difference when running ISM type earthquake loads comes while building the shock load cases.

Whereas in the uniform excitation case the shock acts implicitly over all of the supports in the system, in

the ISM case different shocks act on different groups of supports. The shock load case input form appears:

Shock Name Factor Dir Start Node Stop Node Incr Anchor Mvmt

Name, Factor, and Direction are all that is entered for uniform support excitations. For ISM type shocks,

the group of nodes over which the shock acts must be specified as well, using the Start Node, Stop Node,

and Increment entries. The Anchor Movement entry is used to explicitly define the seismic displacement

of the restraint set. This displacement is used to calculate the pseudostatic load components. If omitted, the

program defaults to the displacement derived from the response spectrum entry corresponding to the

lowest frequency.

Force Spectrum Analysis. A similar method can be followed for non-random loads, such as an impulse

load for which the force vs. time profile is known. A look at the equation for the earthquake problem

explains why the force spectrum solution is very similar to the earthquake solution:

The term on the right hand side is nothing more than a dynamic force acting on the piping system, i.e. F =

Ma, so the analogous equation to be solved for the force spectrum problem is:

Where:

F = the dynamic load (water hammer or relief valve)

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 49

Instead of the displacement, velocity, or acceleration spectrum used for the seismic problem, a Dynamic

Load Factor spectrum is used for a force spectrum problem. A DLF spectrum gives the ratio of the

maximum dynamic displacement divided by the maximum static displacement. Whereas the earthquake

response spectrum analysis method started with the time history of an earthquake excitation, the force

spectrum analysis method is done in exactly the same way—except that the analysis starts with the force

vs. time profile. Just as for the earthquake, this time history loading can be applied to a shake table of

single degree-of-freedom bodies, with a response spectrum (in this case, DLF vs. natural frequency) being

generated by dividing the maximum oscillator displacements by the static displacements expected under

the same load. An alternate means of generating a response spectrum for an impulse load is to numerically

integrate the dynamic equation of motion for oscillators of various frequencies under the applied load.

This can be done using the Pulse Table/DLF Spectrum Generator available from the CAESAR II Main

Dynamics Menu.

The user may process output from a spectrum analysis in two ways:

Use of the output processor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation factors,

included mass/force, displacements, restraint loads, forces, or stresses in report form. Dynamic results

also show the largest modal contributor, along with the mode and shock load responsible for that

contribution.

Animation of the individual mode shapes extracted for the spectrum analysis.

Modal Extraction. A modal extraction performs only an Eigensolution (an eigensolution is also performed

as the initial step of the spectrum or modal time history analyses). The Eigensolution algorithm uses an

iterative method to solve for natural frequencies and mode shapes of a piping or structural system. Each

mode of the piping system is associated with a shape and a frequency, which together define the system’s

tendency to vibrate; the mode shape defining the shape the system would like to take when it vibrates, and

the natural frequency defining the desired speed of the vibration. The eigensolver returns a set of these for

each mode, with the dimensionless mode shape called an eigenvector, and the frequency returned as the

square of the angular frequency ( 2), known as the eigenvalue. Given the eigenvalue, the modal

frequency can be expressed in angular frequency (radians per second), cyclic frequency (Hz), or period

(seconds per cycle):

eigenvalue = 2 (radians squared per second squared)

angular frequency = (radians per second)

cyclic frequency = / 2 (Hz, or cycles per second)

period = 2 / (seconds per cycle)

The absolute magnitude of a mode shape displacement computed by an eigensolver is unknown, with only

the shape being given (i.e. only the ratios of the displacements at various degrees of freedom are known

for each mode, with these ratios being constant for each mode). One eigenpair can potentially be

calculated for each degree of freedom in the model that contains some nonzero mass (node point) and

some non-rigid stiffness (i.e., is not fully restrained). CAESAR II omits rotational degrees of freedom from

dynamic models in order to simplify the calculation—this is usually acceptable since rotational modes of

vibration usually have very high frequencies, and correspondingly very low mode participation factors.

The user may process output from a modal analysis in two ways:

Use of the output processor to review the natural frequencies and mode shapes in report form.

Animation of the individual mode shapes.

50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Time History

Time history analysis is a more accurate, more computationally intensive analytical method than is

response spectrum analysis, and is best suited to impulse loadings or other transient loadings where the

profile is known. This method of analysis involves the actual solution of the dynamic equation of motion

throughout the duration of the applied load and subsequent system vibration, providing a true simulation

of the system response at all times.

As noted previously, the dynamic equation of motion for a system is

This differential equation cannot be solved explicitly, but may be integrated using numeric techniques by

slicing the duration of the load into many small time steps. Based on an assumption of the behavior of the

system between time slices (i.e., that the change in acceleration between time slices is linear), the system

accelerations, velocities, displacements, and correspondingly, the reactions, internal forces, and stresses

can be calculated at successive time steps.

Since the total response of a system is equivalent to the sum of the responses of its individual modes of

vibration, the above equation can be simplified (assuming the damping matrix C is orthogonal), using the

transformation x = FX, to be expressed in modal coordinates:

Where:

C' = diagonal damping matrix, where entry C'i = i ci

i = angular frequency of mode i

ci = ratio of damping to critical damping for mode i

(t) = velocity vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time

x(t) = displacement vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time

= diagonal stiffness matrix, where entry i = i

2

This transformation represents N (where N is the number of modes of vibration extracted) uncoupled

second order differential equations, which can then be integrated and summed (using the in-phase,

algebraic summation method) to give the total system response. The CAESAR II program uses the Wilson

method (an extension of the Newmark method) to integrate the equations of motion, which provides an

unconditionally stable algorithm, regardless of time step size chosen.

Only one dynamic load may be defined for a time history analysis (this dynamic load case may be used in

as many static/dynamic combination load case as necessary). However, the single load case may consist of

multiple force profiles applied to the system simultaneously, or sequentially. Each force vs. time profile is

entered as a spectrum with an ordinate of FORCE (in current units) and a range of TIME (in milliseconds).

The profiles are defined by entering the time and force coordinates of the corner points defining the

profile. (Note that a time can only be entered once, and that times with zero force outside of the defined

profile need not be entered explicitly.)

For example, the profiles shown in the following figure are entered as:

0.0 0.0 20.0 1000.0

10.0 300.0 60.0 1000.0

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 51

The load profiles must then be linked with force sets (indicating magnitude, direction, and location of the

applied load) in the shock case. The magnitude of the applied load is determined by the product of the

profile force, the force set magnitude, and the scale in the shock case.

Currently only forces, not moments or restraint displacements, may be entered in the time history load

profile. However, moments can be modeled using force couples, and restraint displacements can be

simulated by entering forces equal to the desired displacement times the restraint stiffness in the direction

of the displacement).

The user may process output from a Time History analysis in three ways:

1 Use of the output processor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation factors,

included mass/force, displacements, restraint loads, forces, or stresses in report form. CAESAR II’s

implementation of time history analysis provides two types of results—one results case containing the

maximum individual components (axial stress, X-displacement, MZ reaction, etc.) of the system

response, along with the time at which it occurred, and several (the actual number is determined by

user request) results cases representing the actual system response at specific times. Dynamic results

also show the largest modal contributor, along with the mode and transient load responsible for that

contribution.

2 Animation of the shock displacement for the transient load cases. During animation, the

displacements, forces, moments, stresses, and other data associated with individual elements may be

displayed at every time step and for the dynamic load alone, or for any of the static/dynamic

combinations.

3 Animation of the individual mode shapes included in the time history response.

52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

(Active for: Harmonic, Spectrum, Modal, Range, and Time History)

Currently all of CAESAR II’s dynamic analyses act only on linear systems, so any non-linearities must be

linearized prior to analysis. This means that one-directional restraints will not lift off and reseat, gaps will

not open and close, and friction will not act as a constant effort force. Therefore, for dynamic analyses, all

non-linear effects must be modeled as linear—for example, a one-directional restraint must be modeled as

either seated (active) or lifted off (inactive), and a gap must be either open (inactive) or closed (active).

This process is automated when the static load case is selected here—CAESAR II automatically activates

the non-linear restraints in the system to correspond to their status in the selected load case (the user may

think of this as being the loading condition—for example Operating—of the system at the time at which

the dynamic load occurs). It must be noted that this automated linearization does not always provide an

appropriate dynamic model, and it may be necessary to select other static load cases or even to manually

alter the restraint condition in order to simulate the correct dynamic response.

A static load case must precede the dynamics job whenever one or more of the following situations occur:

There are spring hangers to be designed in the job. The static runs must be made in order to determine

the spring rate to be used in the dynamic model.

There are non-linear restraints, such as one-directional restraints, large-rotation rods, bi-linear

restraints, gaps, etc. in the system. The static analysis must be made in order to determine the active

status of each of the restraints for linearization of the dynamic model.

There are frictional restraints in the job, i.e. any restraints with a nonzero h (mu) value.

The most common arrangement of static loads during typical CAESAR II analyses are shown below:

Example 1—analysis containing no hanger design:

1 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (OPE)

2 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)

3 = L1-L2 (EXP)

In this case, if the operating condition is most likely to exist throughout the duration of the dynamic

transient, the correct entry for this parameter is 1. If the installed condition is more likely to exist during

the transient, the entry for this parameter should be 2. It is extremely unlikely that the expansion case (3)

would be correct here, since it does not represent the system status at any given time, but rather represents

the difference between the first two cases.

Example 2—analysis containing hanger design:

1 = W+P1+F1 (For hanger design)

2 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (For hanger design)

3 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (OPE)

4 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)

5 = L3-L4 (EXP)

In this case, the correct static load cases to use are those in which the selected spring hangers have been

included; if the operating condition is the correct load case, the entry for this parameter should be 3. For

the installed condition, an entry of 4 is correct.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 53

(Active for: Harmonic, Spectrum, Modal, Range, and Time History)

As noted above, all of CAESAR II’s dynamic analyses are currently linear, so non-linear effects must be

linearized. Modeling of friction in dynamic models presents a special case, since friction actually impacts

the dynamic response in two ways—static friction (prior to breakaway) affects the stiffness of the system,

by providing additional restraint, while kinetic friction (subsequent to breakaway) actually affects the

damping component of dynamic response; due to mathematical constraints, damping is ignored for all

analyses except time history and harmonics (for which it is only considered on a system-wide basis).

CAESAR II allows friction to be taken into account through the use of this Friction Stiffness Factor.

CAESAR II approximates the restraining effect of friction on the pipe by including stiffnesses transverse to

the direction of the restraint at which friction was specified. The stiffness of these “frictional” restraints is

computed as:

Kfriction = (F) (h) (Fact)

Where:

Kfriction= stiffness of frictional restraint inserted by CAESAR II

F = the force at the restraint taken from the static solution

h = mu, friction coefficient at restraint, as defined in the static model

Fact = Friction Factor from the control spreadsheet

This factor should be adjusted as necessary in order to make the dynamic model simulate the system’s

actual dynamic response (note that use of this factor does not correspond to any actual dynamic parameter,

but is actually a “tweak” factor to modify system stiffness). Entering a friction factor greater than zero

causes these friction stiffnesses to be inserted into the dynamics job. Increasing this factor correspondingly

increases the effect of the friction. Entering a friction factor equal to zero ignores any frictional effect in

the dynamics job.

54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The first stage of the Spectrum, Modal, and Time History analyses, is the use of the Eigensolver algorithm

to extract the piping system’s natural frequencies and mode shapes. For the Spectrum and Time History

analyses, the response under loading is calculated for each of the modes, with the system response being

the sum of the individual modal responses. Obviously, the more modes that are extracted, the more the

sum of those modal responses resembles the actual system response. The problem is that this algorithm

uses an iterative method for finding successive modes, so extraction of a large number of modes usually

requires much more time than does a static solution of the same piping system. The object is to extract

sufficient modes to get a suitable solution, without straining computational resources.

CAESAR II permits the user to specify—either through a mode number cutoff or a frequency cutoff—the

number of modal responses to be included in the system results. This parameter is used, in combination

with the Frequency Cutoff described below, to limit the maximum number of modes of vibration to be

extracted during the dynamic analysis. If this parameter is entered as 0, the number of modes extracted is

limited only by the frequency cutoff (and potentially, the number of degrees-of-freedom in the system

model).

If the analyst is more interested in providing an accurate representation of the system displacements, it

may only be necessary to request the extraction of a few modes, allowing a rapid calculation time.

However, if an accurate estimate of the forces, stresses, etc. in the system is the objective, calculation time

grows as it becomes necessary to extract far more modes. This is particularly true in the case when solving

a fluid hammer problem in the presence of axial restraints; often modes with natural frequencies of up to

300 Hz can be large contributors to the solution.

The usual procedure for determining how many modes are sufficient is to extract a certain number of

modes and review the results; then to repeat the analysis while extracting 5 to 10 additional modes, and

comparing the new results to the old. If there is a significant change between the results, a new analysis is

made, again extracting 5 to 10 more modes above those that were extracted for the second analysis. This

iterative process continues until the results taper off, becoming asymptotic.

This procedure has two drawbacks, the first one obvious—the time involved in making the multiple

analyses, as well as the time involved in extracting the potentially large number of modes. The second

drawback, occurring with Spectrum analysis, is less obvious—a degree of conservatism is introduced

when combining the contributions of the higher order modes. Possible spectral mode summation methods

include SRSS, ABSOLUTE, and GROUP—all methods that combine modal results as same-sign

(positive) values. In reality, theory states that the rigid modes actually act in phase with each other, and

should therefore be combined algebraically, thus permitting the response of some rigid modes to cancel

the effect of other rigid modes (this is actually what occurs in a time history analysis). Because of this

conservatism, it is actually possible to get results which exceed twice the applied load, despite the fact that

the Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) of an impulse load cannot be greater than 2.0.

An alternative method of ensuring that sufficient modes are considered in the dynamic model is through

the use of the Included Mass Data Report. This report (available from the Dynamic Output Screen) is

compiled for all spectrum and time history shock cases, whether missing mass (see description in the

section Include Missing Mass Components) is to be included or not. It displays the percent of system mass

along each of the three global axes, as well as the percent of total force, which has been captured by the

extracted modes.

The percent of system mass active along each of the three global axes (X-, Y-, and Z-) is calculated by

summing the modal mass (corresponding to the appropriate directional degree-of-freedom) attributed to

the extracted modes and dividing that sum by the sum of the system mass acting in the same direction:

% Active Massx

summed over i = 1 to n, by 6

(X-direction degrees of freedom)

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 55

% Active MassY =

summed over 1 = 2 to n, by 6

(Y-direction degrees of freedom)

% Active Massz =

summed over 1 = 3 to n, by 6

(Z-direction degrees of freedom)

Where:

Me = vector (by degree-of-freedom) of sum (over all extracted modes) of effective modal

masses

M = vector corresponding to main diagonal of system mass matrix

The maximum possible percent of active mass which is theoretically possible is of course 100%, with 90-

95% usually indicating that a sufficient number of modes have been extracted to provide a good dynamic

model.

The percent of active force is calculated by the following factors:

separately summing the components of the effective force acting along each of the three directional

degrees-of-freedom

combining them algebraically

doing the same for the applied load

taking the ratio of the effective load divided by the applied load

For example:

Fex = Fe[i]

Fx = F[i]

summed over i = 1 to n, by 6

(X - direction degrees of freedom)

Fey = Fe[i]

Fy = F[i]

summed over i = 2 to n, by 6

(Y - direction degrees of freedom)

Fez = Fe[i]

Fz = F[i]

summed over i = 3 to n, by 6

(Z - direction degrees of freedom)

% Active Force =

Where:

FeX,FeY,FeZ = effective force (allocated to extracted modes) acting along the global X-, Y-,

and Z-axes, respectively

Fr = vector of effective forces (allocated to extracted modes)

FX,FY,FZ = total system forces acting along the global X-, Y-, and Z-axes,

respectively

56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The maximum possible percent which is theoretically possible for this value is also 100%; however, in

practice it may be higher, indicating an uneven distribution of the load and mass in the system model.

There is nothing inherently wrong with an analysis where the included force exceeds 100%—if the

missing mass correction is included, the modal loadings will be adjusted to conform to the applied loading

automatically. Often the percent of included force can be brought back under 100% by extracting a few

more modes. At other times, the situation can be remedied by improving the dynamic model through a

finer element mesh, or, more importantly, equalizing the mass point spacing in the vicinity of the load.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 57

As noted above, CAESAR II permits the user to specify either a number of modes or a frequency cutoff for

extracting modes to be considered in the dynamic analysis. Modal extraction ceases when the Eigensolver

extracts either the number of modes requested, or extracts a mode with a frequency above that of the

Frequency Cutoff, whichever comes first.

One recommendation for selection of a frequency cutoff point is that the user extract modes up to, but not

far beyond, a recognized “rigid” frequency, and then include the missing mass correction (discussed in the

section Include Missing Mass Components). Choosing a cutoff frequency to the left of the response

spectrum’s resonant peak will provide a non-conservative result, since resonant responses may be missed.

During spectrum analysis, using a cutoff frequency to the right of the peak, but still in the resonant range,

will yield either overly- or underly-conservative results, depending upon the method used to extract the

ZPA from the response spectrum. (In the case of time history analysis, selecting a cutoff frequency to the

right of the peak, but still in the resonant range, will probably yield non-conservative results, since the

missing mass force is applied with a dynamic load factor of 1.0). Extracting a large number of rigid modes

for calculation of the dynamic response may be conservative in the case of Spectrum analysis, since all

spectral modal combination methods (SRSS, GROUP, ABS, etc.) give conservative results versus the

algebraic combination method (always used during time history analysis), which gives a more realistic

representation of the net response of the rigid modes. Based upon the response spectrum shown in the

following figure, an appropriate cutoff point for the modal extraction would be about 33 Hz.

Non-conservative cutoff (Misses amplification of any modes in resonant range)

Conservative cutoff (Multiplies missing mass contribution by excessive DLF—1.6)

Optimal cutoff (Includes all modes in resonant range, uses low DLF—1.05—for missing mass

contribution, minimizes combination of rigid modes)

Conservative Cutoff (Too many rigid modes combined using non-conservative summation methods)

When the analysis type is SPECTRUM, MODES, or TIMEHIST, either this parameter or the previous one

must be entered.

58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This parameter does double duty, depending upon the analysis type. For a Spectrum analysis type with

GROUP modal Combination Method (as defined by USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), this parameter

specifies the frequency spacing defining each modal group—i.e., the percent (of the base frequency)

between the lowest and highest frequency of the group. Regulatory Guide 1.92 specifies the group spacing

criteria as 10% (entered here as 0.1), so it is unlikely that the user would ever wish to change the Closely

Spaced Mode Criteria from the CAESAR II default value of 0.1. The GROUP modal combination method is

described in detail in the section Modal Combination Method found later in this chapter.

For a Time History analysis type, this parameter is used to enter the length of the time slice, in

milliseconds, to be used by the program during its step-by-step integration of the equations of motion for

each of the extracted modes (CAESAR II uses the unconditionally stable Wilson q integration method, so

any size time step will provide a solution, with a smaller step providing greater accuracy—and more strain

on computational resources). The time step should be sufficiently small that it can accurately map the

force vs. time load profile (i.e., the time step should be smaller than typical force ramp times).

Additionally, the time step must be small enough that the contribution of the higher order modes is not

filtered from the response. For this reason, it is recommended that the time step should be selected such

that Time Step (in seconds) times Maximum Modal Frequency (in Hz) be less than 0.1. For example, if the

modal frequency cutoff is set to 50 Hz, the time step should be set to a maximum of 2 milliseconds:

0.002 sec x 50 Hz = 0.1

This parameter is used to specify the duration of the applied dynamic load. For a Time History analysis,

this parameter is used to specify the total length of time (in seconds) over which the dynamic response is

to be simulated. The load duration, divided by the time step size (see the previous section) gives the total

number of integration steps making up the solution (currently CAESAR II limits the number of time steps to

5000, or as permitted by available memory and system size). It is recommended that, if possible, the

duration be at least equal to the maximum duration of the applied load, plus the period (in seconds) of the

first extracted mode. This allows simulation of the system response throughout the imposition of the

external load, plus one full cycle of the resulting free vibration. After this point, the response will die out,

according to the damping value used. For example, if the applied load is expected to last 150 milliseconds,

and the lowest extracted frequency is 3 hz, the load duration should be set to a minimum of 0.150 plus 1/3,

or 0.483 seconds.

For a Spectrum analysis using the Double Sum (DSRSS) modal Combination Method (as defined by

USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), this parameter is used to specify the duration of the earthquake, in

seconds. This duration is used to compute the modal correlation coefficients based on empirical data. The

DSRSS modal combination method is described in detail in the section Modal Combination Method later in

this chapter.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 59

This parameter is used to specify the system damping value, as a ratio of critical damping. Typical values

for piping systems, as recommended in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61 and ASME Code Case N-411,

range from 0.01 to 0.05, based upon pipe size, earthquake severity, and the system’s natural frequencies.

Generally, damping cannot be considered in the mathematical solutions required for spectrum or harmonic

analysis. It is therefore ignored (or solved as specialized cases) in most analyses, and must be instead

considered through adjustment of the applied loads (generation of the response spectrum) and/or system

stiffness.

For a Time History analysis, damping is used explicitly, since this method uses a numeric solution to

integrate the dynamic equations of motion.

For a Spectrum analysis using the Double Sum (DSRSS) modal Combination Method (as defined by

USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), the damping value is used in the computation of the modal correlation

coefficients. (Note that CAESAR II does not permit the specification of damping values for individual

modes.) The DSRSS modal combination method is described in detail in the section Modal Combination

Method later in this chapter.

For a Harmonic analysis, this ratio is converted to Rayleigh Damping, where the damping matrix can be

expressed as multiples of the mass and stiffness matrices:

[C] = a [M] + b [K]

On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping Cc and the constants a and b is

given as:

Where:

= undamped natural frequency of mode (radians/sec)

For many practical problems, a is extremely small, and so may be ignored, reducing the relationships to:

=0 = 2 Cc /

CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis, with the exception that a single

b is calculated for the multi-degree-of-freedom system, and the w used is that of the load forcing

frequency. When the forcing frequency is in the vicinity of a modal frequency, this gives an accurate

estimate of the true damping value.

60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This parameter does double duty, depending upon the analysis type. When used with certain pre-defined

normalized response spectra, it is used as the acceleration factor (in g's) by which the spectrum is scaled.

For example, when a spectrum analysis uses one of the pre-defined spectra names beginning with "1.60"

(i.e., 1.60H.5 or 1.60V7), CAESAR II constructs an earthquake spectrum according to the instructions

given in USAEC (now USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.60. That guide requires that the shape of the response

spectrum be chosen from the curves shown in the following figures, based upon the system damping value

(for example, the .5 or 7 in the spectrum names 1.60H.5 or 1.60V7). If the analysis uses one of the pre-

defined spectra names beginning with "UBC" (i.e., UBCSOIL1), CAESAR II uses the normalized seismic

response spectra for the corresponding soil type from Table 23-3 from the Uniform Building Code (1991

Edition). Both the Reg Guide 1.60 and the UBC curves are normalized to represent a ground acceleration

(ZPA) of lg; the true value is actually site dependent. Therefore, entering ZPA value here appropriately

scales any Regulatory Guide 1.60 or the Uniform Building Code response spectra.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 61

62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 63

When performing Time History analysis, this parameter is used to specify the number of distinct times at

which the results of the load cases (the dynamic load as well as all static/dynamic combinations) should be

generated. In addition, CAESAR II generates one set of results (for each load case) containing the maximum

of each output value (displacement, force, stress, etc.) along with the time at which it occurred. The times

for which results are generated are determined by dividing as evenly as possible the load duration by the

number of output times—for example, if the load duration is 1 second, and 5 output cases are requested,

results will be available at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 milliseconds (in addition to the maximum case).

The total number of results cases generated for an analysis is the product of the number of load cases (one

dynamic case plus the number of static/dynamic combination cases) times the number of results cases per

load (one maxima case plus the requested number of output cases). Currently the total number of results

cases is limited to 99:

(1 + # Static/Dynamic Combinations) x (1 + # Output Cases) <= 99

At least one output case (in addition to the automatically generated maxima case) must be requested; more

than one is not really necessary, since the worst case results are reflected in the Maxima case and

individual results at every time step are available through the ELEMENT command when animating the

Time History results.

When repeating a dynamic analysis, this parameter may be set to “Yes,” causing CAESAR II to skip the

eigensolution (reusing the results of the earlier analysis), and only perform the computations for

displacements, reactions, forces, and stresses. Activating this option is only valid after an initial

eigensolution has been performed and is still available. Additionally, the mass and stiffness parameters of

the model must be unchanged or the previous eigensolution is invalid.

64 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This directive tells CAESAR II whether to combine the Spatial components or the Modal components of the

load case first.

When performing a spectrum analysis, each of the modal responses must be summed. In addition, if

multiple shocks have been applied to the structure in more than one direction, the results from different

directions must be combined—for example, spatially combining the X-direction, Y-direction, and Z-

direction results. The question arises as to whether the spatial summations should precede or follow the

modal summations. A difference in the final results (of Spatial first vs. Modal first) arises whenever

different methods are used for the spatial and modal combinations.

The combination of Spatial components first implies that the shock loads are dependent, while the

combination of Modal components first implies that the shock loads are independent.

Dependent and Independent refer to the time relationship between the X, Y, and Z components of the

earthquake. With a dependent shock case, the X, Y, and Z components of the earthquake have a direct

relationship—a change in the shock along one direction produces a corresponding change in the other

directions. For example, this would be the case when the earthquake acts along a specific direction having

components in more than one axis—such as when a fault runs at a 30° angle between the X- and Z-axes.

In this case, the Z-direction load would be a scaled (by a factor of tan 30°), but otherwise identical version

of the X-direction load. In this case, spatial combinations should be made first.

An Independent shock is one where the X, Y, and Z time histories produce related frequency spectra but

have completely unrelated time histories. It is the Independent type of earthquake that is far more

common, and thus in most cases the modal components should be combined first.

For example, IEEE 344-1975 (IEEE Recommended Practices for Seismic Qualification of Class 1E

Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations) states:

“Earthquakes produce random ground motions which are characterized by simultaneous but statistically

INDEPENDENT horizontal and vertical components.”

This is usually less of an issue for force spectrum combinations, since normally there are no separate

spatial components to combine—i.e., there are not X-, Y-, and Z-shocks acting simultaneously. However,

in the event that there is more than one potential force load (such as when there is a bank of relief valves

that can fire individually or in combination), the spatial combination method may be used to indicate the

independence of the loadings. For example, if two relief valves may or may not fire simultaneously (i.e.,

they are independent), the two shocks should be defined as being in different directions (for example, X-

and Y-), and the combination method selected should be “Modal before Spatial.” If under certain

circumstances, the two valves will definitely open simultaneously (i.e., the loadings are dependent), the

combination method should be “Spatial before Modal”. (Otherwise, the direction defined for a force

spectrum loading has no particular meaning.)

Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) describes the requirements for combining

spatial components when performing seismic response spectra analysis for nuclear power plants.

Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (in-phase) this parameter has no

effect on Time History results.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 65

This parameter is used to define the method for combining the spatial contributions of the shocks in a

single spectrum load case. This option is only used for spectrum runs with more than a single excitation

direction. Since directional forces are usually combined vectorially, this points to a Square Root of the

Sum of the Squares (SRSS) combination method as being most appropriate. An Absolute method is

provided for additional conservatism.

Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (in-phase) this parameter has no

effect on Time History results.

During a spectrum analysis, responses are calculated for each of the individual modes; these individual

responses are then combined to get the total system response. Considering that the response spectrum

yields the maximum response at any time during the course of the applied load, and considering that each

of the modes of vibration will probably have different frequencies, it is probable that the peak responses of

all modes will not occur simultaneously. Therefore an appropriate means of summing the modal responses

must be considered.

Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) defines the requirements for combining

modal responses when performing seismic response spectra analysis for nuclear power plants. The four

options presented there are also available, along with one other, for modal combinations under non-

nuclear seismic and force spectrum analyses.

There are five available modal combination methods:

Grouping Method

Ten Percent Method

Double Sum Method

Absolute

Square Root of the Sum of the Squares

Grouping Method

This method is defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The Grouping Method attempts to eliminate

the drawbacks of the Absolute and SRSS methods (see below) by assuming that modes are completely

correlated with any modes with similar (closely spaced) frequencies, and are completely uncorrelated with

those modes with widely different frequencies. Therefore, the total system response is calculated as

R= (Where lq mq)

Where:

R = total system response of the element

N = number of significant modes considered in the modal response combination

Rk = the peak value of the response of the element due to the kth mode

P = number of groups of closely-spaced modes (where modes are considered to be closely-spaced if

their frequencies are within 10% of that of the base mode in the group), excluding individual

separated modes. No mode can be in more than one group.

i = number of first mode in group q

66 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Rlq = response of mode l in group q

Rmq = response of mode m in group q

Effectively, this method dictates that the responses of any modes which have frequencies within 10% of

each other first be added together absolutely, with the results of each of these groups then combined with

the remaining individual modal results using the SRSS method.

Note: The 10% figure controlling the definition of a group may be changed by using the Closely Spaced

Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) parameter. For more information see the corresponding section

earlier in this chapter.

This method is defined in the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The Ten Percent Method is similar to the

Grouping method in that it assumes that modes are completely correlated with any modes with similar

(closely spaced) frequencies, and are completely uncorrelated with those modes with widely different

frequencies. The differences between this one and the preceding method is that the Grouping Method

assumes that modes are only correlated with those that fall within the group -i.e., are within a 10% band,

while this method assumes that modes are correlated with those that fall within 10% of the subject mode-

effectively creating a 20% band - 105 up and approximately 10% down. The total system response is

calculated as

R=

Where:

Ri, Rj = the peak value of the response of the element due to the ith and jth mode, respectively, where

mode i and j are any frequencies within 10% of the each other,

Where:

(fi, fj) / fi = frequencies of modes i and j, respectively

Note: The 10% figure controlling the definition of closely spaced frequencies may be changed by using the

Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) parameter. (See description in corresponding

section earlier in this chapter).

This method is also defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. This combination method is the most

technically correct for earthquake loads, in that an attempt is made to estimate the actual intermodal

correlation coefficient based upon empirical data. The total system response is calculated as

Where:

Rs = the peak value of the response of the element due to mode s

eks = intermodal correlation coefficient

= [ 1 + {( k'- ') /(ßk'

s k + ßs' )}2 ]-1

s

' =

k k [ 1 - ßk2 ]1/2

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 67

' =

s s [ 1 - ßs2 ]1/2

ßk' = ßk + 2 / ( td k )

ßs' = ßs + 2 / ( td s )

k = frequency of mode k, rad/sec

s = frequency of mode s, rad/sec

ßk = ratio of damping to critical damping of mode k, dimensionless

ßs = ratio of damping to critical damping of mode s, dimensionless

td = duration of earthquake, sec

Note: The load duration (td) and the damping ratio (ß) may be specified by using the Load Duration

(Time History or DSRSS method) (sec.) and Damping (Time History or DSRSS) (ratio of critical) parameters

described in the corresponding sections found earlier in this chapter.

Absolute Method

This method states that the total system response is equal to the sum of the absolute values of the

individual modal responses. (This is effectively the same as using the DSRSS method with all correlation

coefficients equal to 1.0, or the Grouping method, with all modes being closely spaced.) The total system

response is calculated as:

R=

This method gives the most conservative result, since it assumes that the all maximum modal responses

occur at exactly the same time during the course of the applied load. This is usually overly-conservative,

since modes with different natural frequencies will probably experience their maximum DLF at different

times during the load profile.

Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS)

This method states that the total system response is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of

the individual modal responses. (This is effectively the same as using the DSRSS method with all

correlation coefficients equal to 0.0, or the Grouping method, with none of the modes being closely

spaced.) The total system response is calculated as:

R=

This method is based upon the statistical assumption that all modal responses are completely independent,

with the maxima following a relatively uniform distribution throughout the duration of the applied load.

This is usually non-conservative, especially if there are any modes with very close frequencies, since those

modes will probably experience their maximum DLF at approximately the same time during the load

profile.

Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (in-phase) this parameter has no

effect on Time History results.

68 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This option is only used when Independent Support Motion (anchor movement) components are part of a

shock load case. The excitation of a group of supports produces both a dynamic response and a static

response. The static response is due to the movement of one group of supports or anchors relative to

another group of supports/anchors. These static components of the dynamic shock loads are called

“pseudostatic components.” USNRC recommendations, as of August 1985, suggest that the following

procedure be followed for pseudostatic components:

1 For each support group, the maximum absolute response should be calculated for each input direction.

2 Same direction responses should then be combined using the absolute sum method.

3 Combination of the directional responses should be done using the SRSS method.

4 he total response should be formed by combining the dynamic and pseudostatic responses, using the

SRSS method.

Therefore pseudostatic components should be included whenever Independent Support spectral loadings

are used.

During spectrum (either seismic or force spectrum) or time history analyses, the response of a system

under a dynamic load is determined by superposition of modal results. One of the advantages of this type

of modal analysis is that usually only a limited number of modes are excited and need to be included in the

analysis. The drawback to this method is that although displacements may be obtained with good accuracy

using only a few of the lowest frequency modes, the force, reaction, and stress results may require

extraction of far more modes (possibly far into the rigid range) before acceptable accuracy is attained.

CAESAR II provides a feature, called the “Missing Mass Correction,” which helps solve these problems.

This feature offers the ability to include a correction which represents the contribution of the higher order

modes not explicitly extracted for the modal/dynamic response, thus providing greater accuracy without

additional calculation time. When this option is activated (by entering Yes for this parameter), the

program automatically calculates the net (in-phase) contribution of all non-extracted modes and combines

it with the modal contributions—avoiding the long calculation time associated with the extraction of the

high order modes and the possible excessive conservatives of the summation methods. This feature is

described in Chapter 6 of this manual.

This directive specifies the method by which the pseudostatic responses (see description in the earlier

section Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (see "Include Pseudostatic (Anchor

Movement) Components (Y/N)" on page 68)) are to be combined with the dynamic (inertial) responses;

therefore it is applicable only when there is at least one Independent Support Motion excitation component

in a shock load case. Pseudostatic combinations are done after all directional, spatial, and modal

combinations. Absolute combination gives conservative results, but, as noted in the section Include

Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components, the USNRC recommends using the SRSS method for

pseudostatic combinations.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 69

This directive defines the method used to combine the missing mass/force correction components (see

description in an earlier section, Include Missing Mass Components (see "Include Missing Mass

Components (Y/N)" on page 68)) with the modal (dynamic) results. Research suggests that the modal and

rigid portions of the response are statistically independent, so the SRSS combination method (CAESAR II’s

default) is usually most accurate. The Absolute combination method provides a more conservative result,

based upon the assumption that the modal maxima occur simultaneously with the maximum ground

acceleration. Missing mass components are combined following the modal combination.

Note: Even though missing mass components may be included during Time History analyses, all Time

History combinations are done algebraically (in-phase), so this parameter has no effect on Time History

results.

This directive specifies the method used for combining shock components acting in the same direction.

This directive is used most typically with Independent Support Motion load cases, where it defines the

way in which responses from different support groups caused by excitation in the same direction are

combined. Additionally, if there are multiple uniform shock spectra acting in the same direction (although

this is unusual), this directive would govern their combination. In general, directional combinations should

be made using the absolute method. (As noted in the earlier section, Include Pseudostatic (Anchor

Movement) Components (see "Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)" on page 68),

this is the USNRC recommendation for directional combination of pseudostatic responses.) However, in

the case of force spectrum loads, if several loads (for example, several relief valve loads) are all defined

with the same “shock direction”, using an SRSS combination method would be a way of modeling these

as independent loads, while using the Absolute method would model them as dependent loads.

Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (in-phase) this parameter has no

effect on Time History results.

70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

In almost all cases, the eigensolver will detect modal frequencies from the lowest frequency to the highest.

Sometimes, when there is some strong directional dependency in the system, the modes may converge in

the wrong order. This could cause a problem if the eigensolver reaches the cutoff number of modes (i.e.,

20), but has not yet found the 20 modes with the lowest frequency (it may have found modes 1 through 18,

20, and 21, and would have found number 19 next). CAESAR II checks for this anomaly using the Sturm

Sequence calculation. This procedure determines the number of modes that should have been found

between the highest and lowest frequencies found, and compares that against the actual number of modes

extracted. If those numbers are different, the user is given a warning. For example, if 22 natural

frequencies are extracted for a particular system, and if the highest natural frequency is 33.5 Hz, the Sturm

Sequence check makes sure that there are exactly 22 natural frequencies in the model between zero and

33.5+p Hz, where p is a numerical tolerance found from:

The Sturm Sequence check would fail in the case where there are two identical frequencies at the last

frequency extracted. The significance of this failure can only be estimated by the user. For example,

consider a system with the following natural frequencies:

0.6637 1.2355 1.5988 4.5667 4.5667

If the user asks for only the first four natural frequencies, a Sturm Sequence failure would occur because

there are five frequencies, rather than four, which exist in the range between 0.0 and 4.5667 + p (where p

calculates to 0.0041). To correct this problem, the user can do either of the following:

Increase the frequency cutoff by the number of frequencies not found. (This number is reported by the

Sturm Sequence Check.)

Increase the cutoff frequency some small amount, if the frequency cutoff terminated the

eigensolution. This will usually allow the lost modes to fall into the solution frequency range.

Fix the subface size at 10 and rerun the job. Increasing the number of approximation vectors improves the

possibility that at least one of them will contain some component of the missing modes, allowing the

vector to properly converge.

The default here is “Yes,” and should be left alone unless the user has some specific reason for

deactivating the check.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 71

Advanced Parameters

This is the approximate number of significant figures in the computed eigenvalues (w2, where w is the

angular frequency in rad/sec). For example, using the default value of 6, if a computed eigenvalue was

44032.32383, then the first digit to the right of the decimal is probably the last accurately computed figure.

The eigenvectors, or mode shapes, are computed to half as many significant figures as are the eigenvalues.

If the eigenvalues have 6 significant figures of accuracy, then the eigenvectors have 3.

This number should typically never be decreased. Increases to 8 or 10 are not unusual but result in slower

solutions with typically little change in response results.

72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Eigen analyses are done using an NxN subspace for calculating the natural frequencies and mode shapes

for a reduced problem. The first step is to perform a Jacobi denationalization of the subspace. Iterations

are performed until the off-diagonal terms of the matrix are approximately zero. The off-diagonal terms

are considered to be close enough to zero when their ratio to the on-diagonal term in the row is smaller the

Jacobi Sweep Tolerance.

The default is 1.0E-12. Users wishing to change this value should be aware of the computer’s precision

(the IEEE-488 double precision word on the IBM PC has approximately 14 significant figures) and the

approximate size of the on-diagonal coefficients in the stiffness matrix for the problem to be solved

(which may be estimated from simple beam expressions).

During the eigensolver’s decomposition of what may be a shifted stiffness matrix, a singularity check is

performed to make sure that the shift is not too close to an eigenvalue that is to be calculated. If a singular

condition is detected, a new shift, not quite as aggressive as the last one, is computed and a new

decomposition is attempted. If the new composition fails, a fatal error is reported from the eigensolver. In

certain cases, increasing the singularity tolerance is warranted and eliminates this fatal error. Values

should not be entered greater than 1.0 E13. Singularity problems may also exist when very light, small

diameter piping is attached to very heavy, large diameter, or when very, very short lengths of pipe are

adjacent to very, very long lengths of pipe.

During an eigensolution, the NDOFxNDOF problem constructed by the user is reduced to an NxN

problem during each subspace iteration, where N is the subspace size. If a zero is entered in this field,

CAESAR II selects what is expected to be an optimal subspace size (so this value usually need not be

changed); if a non-zero value is entered here, it will override CAESAR II’s calculation and will be used as

the subspace size.

CAESAR II’s default is to use the square root of the bandwidth (with a minimum of 4) as the subspace size,

resulting in sizes of 4 to 8 for typical piping configurations. Increasing the subspace size slows the

eigensolution, but increases the numerical stability. Values in the range between 12 and 15 should

probably be used when unusual geometries or dynamic properties are encountered, or when a job is large

(has 100 elements or more, and/or requires that 25 or more frequencies be extracted).

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 73

A zero in this field lets CAESAR II select what it thinks will be the most optimal shifting strategy for the

eigen problem to be solved. One way to speed the eigensolution is to improve the convergence

characteristics. The convergence rate for the lowest eigenpair in the subspace is inversely proportional to

1/ 2, where 1 is the lowest eigenvalue in the current subspace and 2 is the next lowest eigenvalue

in the current subspace. A slow convergence rate is represented by an eigenvalue ratio of approximately

one, and a fast convergence rate is represented by an eigenvalue ratio of zero. The shift is employed to get

the convergence rate as close to zero as possible. The cost of each shift is one decomposition of the system

set of equations. The typical shift value is equal to the last computed eigenvalue plus 90 percent of the

difference between this value and the lowest estimated eigenvalue still nonconverged in the subspace. As

w1 is shifted closer to zero, the ratio w1/w2 will become increasingly smaller thus increasing the

convergence rate. In certain instances where eigenvalues are very closely spaced, shifting can result in

eigenvalues being lost (the Sturm Sequence Check will detect this condition). A large value entered for

this parameter will effectively disable shifting, so no eigenvalues will be missed; however, the solution

will take longer to run. When the system to be analyzed is very large, shifting the set of equations can be

very time consuming—in these cases, the user is advised to set this parameter to somewhere between 4

and 8.

A zero in this field lets CAESAR II compute what it thinks is an optimal number of subspace iterations per

shift. This parameter, along with the next one (% of iterations per shift before orthogonalization) can work

together to control solution shifting. These two parameters are used to limit the number of Gram-Schmidt

orthogonalizations that are performed. Trying to limit this number is very dangerous for small subspace

problems, but less dangerous when the subspace size is large (around 10-20 percent of the total number of

eigenpairs required).

The Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is by default performed once during each subspace iteration. This

orthogonalization makes sure that the eigenvector subspace does not converge to an already found

eigenpair. When a large number of eigenpairs are to be computed this repeated computation can

appreciably slow down the extraction of the highest eigenpairs. Proper setting of these parameters can

cause the eigensolution to perform the orthogonalization every second, third, fourth, etc. iteration, thus

speeding the solution. Unfortunately, once orthogonalized, the subspace may still converge to earlier

eigenpairs during subsequent “non-orthogonalized” subspace iteration passes. Users setting these

parameters are urged to use caution. The Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (see "Force

Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N)" on page 74) parameter (see corresponding section later in

this chapter) should probably also be set if the frequency of orthogonalization is slowed.

74 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

CAESAR II computes a number of iterations per shift that are to be performed, which the user can alter if

desired. A maximum of N eigenpairs can conceivably converge per subspace pass, where N is the

subspace size (although this is highly unlikely). By default a Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is

performed for each subspace pass. This directive allows the user to alter this default. For example, if there

are 12 iterations per shift, and the percentage of iterations per shift is 50 percent (an entry of 0.50), the

Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization would be performed every 6 iterations. Users employing this option

should also set the Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (see "Force Orthogonalization After

Convergence (Y/N)" on page 74) (the next section) directive to “Yes”. The % of Iterations per Shift Before

Orthogonalization parameter is most often used in conjunction with the No. of Iterations per Shift (see "No.

of Iterations Per Shift (0-Pgm computed)" on page 73) (the previous section) parameter because then the

user knows exactly how many iterations will go by without an orthogonalization.

This parameter is only needed for eigensolutions for which the % of Iterations per Shift Before

Orthogonalization (see "Percent of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization" on page 74) (the

previous section) has been set to a non-zero value. When set to “Yes” in this case, whenever a subspace

pass that sees at least one eigenpair convergence completes, a Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is

performed whether the specified percentage of iterations has been completed or not.

This parameter is used primarily as a benchmarking and debugging aid. When entered as “Yes”, the out-

of-core eigensolver is automatically invoked regardless of the problem size. Using this solver can take

considerably more time than the in-core solver, but should in all cases produce exactly the same results.

Note that if the problem is too big to fit into the in-core solver (the capacity of which is based upon the

amount of available extended memory), the out-of-core solver will be invoked automatically—this

parameter does not need to be changed to have this automatic switch occur when necessary.

This is the maximum number of eigenpairs that can be extracted for the problem. The default value of 100

is arbitrary. If the user needs to extract more than 100 eigenpairs, then some number greater than the

number to be extracted must be entered.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 75

Pulsation Loads

Unexpectedly, and sometimes after support changes or process modifications, an operating line will begin

experiencing large amplitude, low frequency vibration. The first step in the solution is the construction of

the dynamic model. Particular attention should be paid when modeling the piping system in the area of the

field vibration. This might include accurately representing valve operators, in-line flange pairs, orifice

plates and measuring equipment. It is also a good idea to add extra nodes in the area where vibration is

experienced. The extra nodes would be put at bend “near” nodes and at span midpoints.

The next step is the eigenvalue/eigenvector extraction. If the system is large, then degrees of freedom far

removed from the area of local vibration should be eliminated. (6-10) natural frequencies should be

extracted. Natural frequencies and mode shapes define the systems “tendency to vibrate.” The mode

shapes extracted should show how the system in the area of the local vibration problem is tending to

displace. In most cases acoustic resonances are coupled with mechanical resonances to produce the large

amplitude vibrations experienced in the field.

Very typically one of the first mode shapes will show exactly the shape displayed by the pipe vibrating in

the field. If the mode shapes extracted do not show movement in the area of the local vibration, then not

enough degrees of freedom were removed from other areas. If the lowest mode shape in the area of the

local vibration problem is above (15) Hz. then there is a good possibility that either the vibration is

mechanically induced or the fluid pulsation peak pressures are very high. Either of these cases may

represent critical situations which should be evaluated by an expert.

When the mode shape is identified which corresponds to the observed field vibration, the pulsation load

model can be developed. Pulsation loads will exist at closed ends, at bends, and at changes in diameter.

Harmonically varying forces are put at these points in an attempt to get the mathematical model to vibrate

like the real piping system.

The driving frequency for the applied harmonic load should be equal to the frequency that pressure pulses

are introduced into the line.

The magnitude of the harmonic load can be estimated within a range of tolerances. The actual design

value is selected from this range such that resulting displacements of the model are close to those observed

in the field.

Output from the harmonic analysis can be processed in the static output processor and maximum restraint

loads due to the dynamic forces calculated.

It is critical when redesigning supports for dynamic loads that static thermal criteria are not violated by

any new support configuration designed.

Important Static thermal criteria and dynamic displacement criteria must be satisfied

simultaneously.

The ultimate objective of the harmonic analysis will be to find the elbow pair whose unbalanced load

results in the observed field vibration.

Unbalanced loads exist between adjacent elbows because the pressure peak in the traveling wave hits each

elbow at a slightly different time.

If the pressure at elbow “a” is denoted by Pa(t) and the pressure at elbow “b” is denoted by Pb(t), then the

unbalanced force which acts along the pipe connecting the two elbows is:

F = A * Pa(t) - A * Pb(t)EQ. (1)

where A is the inside area of the pipe. The expression for Pa(t) can be found assuming the pressure peak

hits the elbow “a” at time t = 0:

Pa(t) = Pavg + 0.5 (dP) cos t.EQ. (2)

76 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

where:

(Pavg) - average pressure in the line,

(dP) - alternating component of the pressure, (Pmax-Pmin)

( ) - driving frequency.

If the straight pipe between the elbows “a” and “b” is (L) inches long, then the pressure peak that has just

passed elbow “a” will get to elbow “b” (ts) seconds later, where

(ts) = (L) / c,

(c) being the speed of sound in the fluid. (Remember, pressure pulses travel at the speed of sound, not the

speed of the fluid ! ! !) The expression for the pressure at “b” can now be written:

Pb(t) = Pavg + 0.5(dP) cos ( t + Q). EQ.(3)

Q is the phase shift between the pressure peaks at “a” and “b”,

Q = w * (ts). (Where Q is in radians, and w is in radians/second)

Combining equations 1, 2, and 3 the unbalanced pressure force can be written:

F(t) = 0.5(dP)A * [ cos t - cos ( t-Q) ]

This function has a maximum:

Fmax = 0.5(dP)A sin Q/cos (Q/2)

and a period of 1/w, and will be approximated with:

f(t) = 0.5(dP)A (sin Q/cos (Q/2)) cos wt

The formulation of the harmonic loads can be summarized as follows:

1 Decide which elbow-elbow pair is most likely to have an unbalanced force which could cause the

displacements observed in the field.

2 Find upper and lower estimates for the following variables:

dP—Alternating pressure in the line (Pmax - Pmin)

—Driving frequency.

c—Speed of sound in the fluid.

L—Length between the two elbows.

A—Area of the pipe.

3. Find the time it takes the pressure wave to get from one elbow to the other.

ts = L / (c-)

(c-) is the lower estimate for the speed of sound in the fluid.

4. Find the largest estimated magnitude of the unbalanced pressure force:

Fmax = (0.5) (dP+)A * sin [( +) (ts)] / cos [( t) (ts)/2]

(dP+) is the upper estimate for the alternating pressure.

( +) is the upper estimate for the driving frequency.

5. Run a single harmonic analysis with a force of F = Fmax [cos ( t)] acting along the axis of the pipe

between the two elbows. If the pattern of the displacement approximately that seen in the field, and if the

magnitude of the calculated displacement is greater than or equal to the magnitude of the displacement in

the field, then the harmonic load to be used for the design of the new restraints has been found.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 77

There can be two types of destructive dynamic forces associated with relief devices:

Thrust at the valve/atmosphere interface

Acoustic shock due to the sudden change in fluid momentum and the associated traveling pressure

wave(s).

The analyst must evaluate the effective contribution of both types of loads. Dynamic forces associated

with relieving devices can cause considerable mechanical damage to equipment and supports. The

discussion below concerns only the thrust at the valve/atmosphere interface. The acoustic traveling

pressure wave can be dealt with similar to the water hammer problem, addressed elsewhere.

The first step in performing a relief load analysis is to compute the magnitudes of the relieving thrust

forces. For open-type vent systems CAESAR II has a RELIEF LOAD SYNTHESIZER that will make these

computations automatically for the user. There are two procedures incorporated into the synthesizer, one is

for gases greater than 15 psig, and the other is for liquids. Both are discussed as follows.

CAESAR II assumes that a successful vent stack/relief system design maintains the following gas

properties:

78 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The input for the gas relief load synthesis is shown as follows:

Line Temperature

Enter the stagnation condition temperature of the gas to be relieved. (Usually just the gas temperature

upstream of the relief valve.)

Line Pressure

Enter the stagnation pressure of the gas to be relieved. (Usually just the gas pressure upstream of the relief

valve.) Note that stagnation properties can vary considerably from line properties if the gas flow velocity

in the line is high.

ID of Relief Valve Orifice

Enter the flow passage inside diameter for the smallest diameter in the relief valve throat. (This

information is usually provided by the relief valve manufacturer).

ID of Relief Valve Piping

Enter the inside diameter of the piping attached directly to the exhaust of the relief valve.

ID of Vent Stack Piping

If CAESAR II is to size the vent stack then leave this ID blank. If the vent stack piping is the same size as

the relief valve piping, i.e. it is one-in-the-same, then this field may be left blank. Otherwise enter the

inside diameter of the vent stack piping.

Length of the Vent Stack

Enter the length of the vent stack. This is a required entry. Add double the lengths of fittings and elbows

(or compute the appropriate equivalent lengths for non-pipe fittings and add the lengths).

Some typical values for these constants are given below:

Superheated Steam 1.300 Nitrogen 55.16

Saturated Steam 1.100 Carbon Dioxide 35.11

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 79

Carbon Dioxide 1.288 Ammonia 90.73

Acetylene 1.232 n-Butane 26.59

Ammonia 1.304 Ethane 51.39

n-Butane 1.093 Ethylene 55.09

Ethane 1.187 Methane 96.33

Ethylene 1.240 Propane 35.05

Methane 1.226

Propane 1.127

Enter a Y or a N. See the following figures to determine if the connection of the vent stack to the vent

piping is via an umbrella fitting.

80 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Enter a Y if CAESAR II should size the vent stack. The sizing algorithm searches through a table of

available inside pipe diameters starting at the smallest diameter until a vent stack ID is found that satisfies

the thermodynamic criteria shown in the figure above. The computed ID is automatically inserted into the

input.

Example input and output from the relief load synthesizer is shown and discussed as follows:

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 81

This is CAESAR II’s computed gas mass flow rate based on choked conditions at the relief orifice. If

greater mass flow rates are expected, then the error in either the approach used by CAESAR II or in the

expected mass flow rate should be investigated.

Thrust at Valve Pipe/Vent Pipe Interface

If there is an umbrella fitting between the vent stack and the relief valve piping then this is the thrust load

that acts back on the relief valve piping. (See the following figure.) If the vent stack is hard piped to the

relief valve piping then this intermediate thrust will be balanced by tensile loads in the pipe and can be

ignored.

Thrust load acts directly on valve opening. Only the valve pipe/vent stack interface

thrust acts in this configuration.

When there is an elbow in the vent stack piping, this is the thrust load that acts on the elbow just before

the pipe opening into the atmosphere. (See the following figures for clarification.)

This is the estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line

pressure when the relief valve fist opens. This negative pressure wave will move back through the relief

system piping similar to the pressure wave in the downstream piping of a water hammer type system. The

magnitude of this wave is estimated as (Po-Pa)*Ap, where Po is the stagnation pressure at the source, Pa is

atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header piping.

82 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This is the estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line

pressure when the relief valve slams shut. This positive pressure wave will move back through the relief

system piping similar to the pressure wave in the supply side piping of a water hammer type system. The

magnitude of this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the gas density, c is the speed of sound in the

gas and dv is the change in the velocity of the gas.

Thermodynamic Entropy Limit

Subsonic Vent Exit Limit

These values should always be greater than 1. If either of these computed limits fall below 1.0 then the

thermodynamic assumptions made regarding the gas properties are incorrect and the computed thrust

values should be disregarded.

Valve Orifice Gas Conditions

Vent Pipe Exit Gas Conditions

Subsonic Velocity Gas Conditions

These are the thermodynamic properties of the gas at three critical points in the relief system. These three

points are shown in the figure on the opposite page. The entire formulation for the thrust gas properties is

based on an ideal gas equation of state. If the pressures and temperatures displayed above for the gas being

vented are outside of the range where the ideal gas laws apply then some alternate source should be sought

for the computation of the system’s thrust loads.

In addition, all three of these points should be sufficiently clear of the gas saturation line. When the exit

gas conditions become saturated, the magnitude of the thrust load can be reduced significantly. In this case

the manufacturer should be consulted. In several instances at COADE, saturated exhaust thrust loads were

50 to 75% less than the CAESAR II computed values.

CAESAR II assumes that the liquid vent system has one of the two following configurations:

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 83

The input for the liquid relief load synthesis is shown as follows:

Enter “RV” if the relieving device is a relief valve and “RD” if the relieving device is a rupture disk. If the

user has his own relief exit coefficient it can be entered here in place of the letters RV or RD. An entry of

zero represents No appreciable head loss due to the relief opening configuration. The exit coefficient for a

relief valve is 0.25 and for a rupture disk is 0.5.

Supply Overpressure

Enter the stagnation, or zero velocity pressure in the fluid upstream of the relief valve.

ID Relief Orifice or Rupture Disk Opening

Enter the manufacturers inside diameter of the contracted opening in the particular relieving device. (For

special purpose calculations this ID may be equal to the ID of the Relief exit piping.)

ID Relief Exit Piping

Enter the inside diameter of the piping connected to the downstream side of the relief valve.

ID Manifold Piping

If the relief exit piping runs into a manifold then enter the inside diameter of the manifold. Leave this field

blank or zero if there isn't a manifold.

ID Supply Header

Enter the inside diameter of the supply header.

Fluid Density

Enter the specific gravity of the fluid being relieved.

Length of Relief Exit Piping

Enter the equivalent length of the relief exit piping. Add twice the piping length for fittings and elbows, or

the calculated fitting equivalent length.

84 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Enter the equivalent length of the manifold piping, if any. If there isn't a manifold system then leave this

field blank or zero. Add twice the piping length for fitting and elbows. If the manifold is not filled by the

relieving fluid then leave the manifold length zero.

Fluid Bulk Modulus

Enter the bulk modulus of the fluid. If omitted a valve of 250,000 psi will be used as the default. Some

typical values for use are given as follows. These are the values for an isothermal compression as taken

from “Marks Standard Handbook for Engineers,” p. 3-35, 8th edition.

Enter the wall thickness of the supply header.

Note: When running the relief load synthesis for liquids, the error message: NUMERICAL ERROR OR

NO FLOW CONDITION DETECTED, means a physically impossible configuration was described.

Flashing of volatile relief liquids is not considered. If the relieving liquid flashes in the exhaust piping as

its pressure drops to atmospheric then some other means should be used to compute the resulting gas

properties and thrust Loads.

Computed Mass Flow rate

The computed exhaust mass flow rate in U.S. Gallons per minute. CAESAR II makes the necessary pressure

drop calculations between the stagnation pressure upstream of the relief device and atmospheric

conditions at the exit of the manifold.

Thrust at the End of the Exit Piping

The computed thrust load at the last cross section in the exit piping. If there is no manifold then this is the

external thrust load that acts on the piping system. If there is a manifold then this thrust is opposed by

tension in the pipe wall at the junction of the exit piping and manifold. See the figures that follow for

clarification.

Thrust at the End of the Manifold Piping

The computed thrust load at the last cross section in the manifold piping. If there is no manifold system

then this thrust will be equal to the thrust at the end of the exit piping. See the figures that follow for

clarification.

Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Opening

This is the estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line

pressure when the relief valve fist opens. This negative pressure wave will move back through the relief

system piping similar to the pressure wave in the downstream piping of a water hammer type system. The

magnitude of this wave is estimated as (Po-Pa)*Ap, where Po is the stagnation pressure at the source, Pa is

atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header piping.

Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Closing

This is the estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line

pressure when the relief valve slams shut. This positive pressure wave will move back through the relief

system piping similar to the pressure wave in the supply side piping of a water hammer type system. The

magnitude of this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the gas density, c is the speed of sound in the

gas and dv is the change in the velocity of the gas.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 85

Exit Pipe End Flow Conditions

Manifold Pipe End Flow Conditions

These are the computed fluid properties at the three critical cross-sections in the relief piping. If pressures

or velocities here do not seem reasonable then some characteristic of the relief model is probably in error.

Note: If the “L” dimensions are significant in any of the previous figures (several feet) then unbalanced

thrust loads will act between the elbow-elbow pairs that is very similar to a water hammer load. Water

hammer pulses travel at the speed of sound in the fluid, while the fluid/atmosphere interface “pulses”

travel at the velocity of the flowing fluid. For this reason, these unbalanced loads can cause significant

piping displacements in much shorter pipe runs. The magnitude of these loads is equivalent to the

computed thrust and the duration may be found from the computed fluid velocity and distance between

each elbow-elbow pair.

1

CHAPTER 6

Technical Discussions

In This Chapter

Rigid Element Application ..........................................................2

Cold Spring .................................................................................4

Expansion Joints..........................................................................6

Hanger Sizing Algorithm.............................................................8

Class 1 Branch Flexibilities.........................................................11

Modeling Friction Effects ...........................................................14

Nonlinear Code Compliance .......................................................15

Sustained Stresses and Nonlinear Restraints ...............................16

Static Seismic Loads ...................................................................20

Wind Loads .................................................................................22

Hydrodynamic (Wave and Current) Loading ..............................25

References ...................................................................................37

Evaluating Vessel Stresses ..........................................................38

Inclusion of Missing Mass Correction.........................................43

Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II............................................47

Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping.............................................61

Code Compliance Considerations ...............................................82

Local Coordinates .......................................................................113

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

CAESAR II forms rigid elements by multiplying the wall thickness of the element by 10. The inside

diameter, and the weight of the element, remain unchanged.

The “rigid” element in CAESAR II is rigid relative to the pipe around it. If a 6-in. line ties into a 72-in. heat

exchanger, then the rigid elements modeling the heat exchanger should have a diameter closer to 72 than

6.

The user that is sensitive to the “rigidness” of the rigid element can increase or decrease the diameter or

wall thickness of the rigid to simulate any order of magnitude stiffness.

The weight of the rigid element is entered by the user. If no value is input then the weight of the rigid is

taken to be zero. The entered weight is the weight of the rigid excluding insulation or fluid. If the weight

of the rigid element is entered as zero or blank, then no additional weight due either to insulation or fluid

will be added.

CAESAR II automatically adds fluid loads for rigid elements if a non-zero fluid density is entered on the

pipe spreadsheet. The fluid weight in a rigid element is assumed to be equal to the fluid weight in an

equivalent straight pipe of similar length and inside diameter.

CAESAR II also automatically adds insulation loads if the line containing the rigid element is insulated. The

insulation weight for the rigid is assumed to be equal to 1.75 times the insulation for an equivalent length

of straight pipe of equal outside diameter.

The cumulative rigid element weight calculation is as follows:

Weight = 0.0 Wu = 0.0

Weight = Wu + Wf + 1.75Wi Wu > 0.0

where:

Wu = User entered rigid weight

Wf = Calculated fluid weight for equivalent straight pipe

Wi = Calculated insulation weight for equivalent straight pipe

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 3

The user’s entered weight for the rigid element is not reflected in the Thermal Expansion/Pipe Weight

Report optionally printed during error checking.

Stresses are not calculated on Rigid elements since they are often used to simulate components that have

variable cross-sections along the length of the element, i.e. a valve, and is normally not of concern for this

type of analysis anyway. Forces and Moments are not normally printed on nodes between two rigid

elements, but can be by selecting the appropriate check box found in Kaux-Special Execution Parameters

from the Piping Input Spreadsheet.

Zero-weight rigids ("dummy" rigids) are often used to model components whose weight is not important

to the analysis, but where thermal growth may be a consideration. Dummy rigids are often used to model

restraints. Tie rods in an expansion joint, rod hangers, and trunnions are examples of restraints modeled as

dummy rigids. Dummy rigids may also be used to provide connectivity between the center line of an

element and its outside edge. The most common example of this is the addition of a dummy rigid that runs

from the node at the center line of the vessel to the edge where a nozzle is to be connected. Sometimes

equipment is modeled through a series of rigid elements. This is particularly true when multiple nozzles

are attached and the equipment is restrained such that the interactions between the various nozzles must

be taken into account due to the thermal growth of the attached piping system. The use of dummy rigids is

explained in the CAESAR II Applications Guide in various sections as appropriate to a particular modeling

technique.

4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Cold Spring

Cold spring is the process of offsetting (or pre-loading) the piping system with displacement loads

(usually accomplished by cutting short or long the pipe runs between two anchors) for the purpose of

reducing the absolute expansion load on the system. Cold spring is used to do the following:

hasten the thermal shakedown of the system in fewer operating cycles

reduce the magnitude of loads on equipment and restraints, since often, only a single application of a

large load is sufficient to damage these elements

Cold reactions on equipment nozzles due to cold spring should not exceed nozzle allowables.

The expansion stress range should not include the effect of the cold spring.

The cold spring should be much greater than fabrication tolerances.

Note: No credit can be taken for cold spring in the stress calculations, since the expansion stress

provisions of the piping codes require the evaluation of the stress range, which is unaffected by cold

spring (except perhaps in the presence of non-linear boundary conditions, as discussed below). The cold

spring merely adjusts the stress mean, but not the range.

Many engineers avoid cold spring due to the difficulty of maintaining accurate records throughout the

operating life of the unit. Future analysts attempting to make field repairs or modifications may not

necessarily know about (and therefore include in the analysis) the cold spring specification.

Due to the difficulty of properly installing a cold sprung system, most piping codes recommend that only

2/3 of the specified cold spring be used for the equipment load calculations.

The cold spring amount is calculated as:

Ci = 1/2Li dT

Where:

Ci = length of cold spring in direction i (where i is X, Y, or Z), (inches)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 5

= mean thermal expansion coefficient of material between ambient and operating temperature,

(in/in/°F)

dT = change in temperature, (°F)

Note that the 1/2 in the equation for the cold spring amount is used such that the mean stress is zero. In

some cases it is desirable to have the operating load on the equipment as close to zero as possible. In this

latter case the 1/2 should be omitted. The maximum stress magnitude will not change from a system

without cold spring, but will now exist in the cold case rather than the hot.

To model a cold spring in CAESAR II specify the elements as being made of cut short or cut long

materials. Cut short describes a cold sprung section of pipe fabricated short by the amount of the cold

spring, requiring an initial tensile load to close the final joint. Cut long describes a cold sprung section of

pipe fabricated long by the amount of cold spring, requiring an initial compressive load to close the final

joint. The software models cut shorts and cut longs by applying end forces to the elements sufficient to

reduce their length to zero (from the defined length) or increase their length to the defined length (from

zero) respectively. (It should be remembered to make the lengths of these cold spring elements only 2/3 of

their actual lengths to implement the code recommendations.) This is effectively what occurs during

application of cold spring. The end forces applied to the elements are then included in the basic loading

case F (for force), whereby they can be included in various load combinations.

Special material numbers 18 and 19 are used to signal CAESAR II that the element currently in the

spreadsheet actually represents a length of pipe that is to be cut short or long during fabrication.

Material # 18 - Cut Short

Material # 19 - Cut Long

The user should be sure to reset the material property on the element following the cold spring element.

The following load cases are recommended when analyzing a cold spring system:

Load Case 1 (OPE) W+T1+P1+CS includes all of the design cold spring

RUN # 1

Load Case 2 (OPE) W+P1+CS includes all of the design cold spring but not the temperature.

Load Case 3 (SUS) W+P1 standard sustained case for Code Stress check

Load Case4 (EXP) L1-L2 expansion case for code stress check.

Cold spring is allowed to reduce the magnitude of equipment loads because, often, only a single

application of a large load is sufficient to cause damage to rotating machinery.

Cold spring does not change the “range” of stresses that the piping system is subject to, and so, no

allowance is given for stress reduction. (The maximum value of the stress is lowered, but the range is

unchanged.)

Both the sustained loads and the operating loads should be within the manufacturer’s allowables for the

particular piece of equipment. If the designer isn't careful, the installation of the cold spring in the ambient

state can overload a piece of rotating equipment as the unit starts up.

6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Expansion Joints

To define an expansion joint, activate the Expansion Joint check box (see "Expansion Joints" on page

17) on the pipe element spreadsheet.

Expansion joint elements may have a zero or nonzero length. The expansion joint will have a zero length

if the Delta fields in the spreadsheet are left blank or zero. The expansion joint will have a nonzero length

if at least one of the element’s spreadsheet Delta fields is non-blank and non-zero. When an expansion

joint has a finite length CAESAR II evenly distributes the expansion joint stiffnesses over the entire length

of the element. This will usually result in a more accurate stiffness model in what is typically a very

sensitive area of the piping system.

Four stiffnesses define the expansion joint

Axial Stiffness

Transverse Stiffness

Bending Stiffness

Torsional Stiffness

These stiffnesses are defined as shown in the following figure:

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 7

The transverse and the bending stiffnesses are directly related when a finite length joint is defined. In this

case the bending stiffness should be left blank and the transverse stiffness entered. CAESAR II will

compute the proper bending stiffness from the relationship between the bending and transverse stiffnesses.

Bending stiffnesses from manufacturers catalogs should generally only be entered for zero length

expansion joints modeling hinges or gimbals. Before a manufacturers bending stiffness is used for a finite

length bellows it should be multiplied by 4.0 (note that in this case the transverse stiffness would be left

blank).

Torsional stiffnesses are often not given by expansion joint manufacturers. In this case the user is

recommended to insert a large torsional stiffness value and ensure that the resulting load on the bellows is

not excessive. When the piping system is tight, and the diameter large, the magnitude of this “large”

torsional stiffness can significantly effect the magnitude of the torsion carried by the bellows, i.e.

stiffnesses of 100,000 in.lb./deg. and 1E12 in.lb./deg. can produce considerably different torsional load

results. The tendency would be to go with the larger stiffness, i.e. being conservative, except that the

torsional stiffness value is probably closer to the 100,000 in.lb./deg. In the instance where the “largeness”

of the torsional stiffness value is important, the manufacturer should be pressed for his “best-guess” at the

stiffness, or the following equation should be used to get an estimate, which the user can then

conservatively increase to get reasonable torsional loads on the bellows and surrounding equipment.

The equation for estimating bellows torsional stiffness is

Where

= 3.14159

Re = Expansion joint effective radius

t = Bellows thickness

E = Elastic Modulus

= Poisson’s Ratio

L = Flexible bellows length

When the expansion joint has a zero length, none of the expansion joint stiffnesses are related. The user

must be sure that a value is entered into all four of the Stiffness fields.

CAESAR II will calculate pressure thrust on the expansion joint if the bellows effective id is given in the

expansion joint auxiliary screen. The mathematical model for pressure thrust applies a force equal to the

pressure times the effective area of the bellows at either end of the expansion joint. The force will tend to

open the bellows if the pressure is positive, and close the bellows if the pressure is negative. Users should

note that this model does not exactly distribute the pressure loads correctly in the vicinity of the expansion

joint. In most cases the misapplied load does not effect the solution. There are two components of the

pressure thrust to be applied in practice, rather than the one component applied in the model. The first

component is equal to the pressure times the inside area of the pipe and acts at the first change in direction

of the pipe on either side of the expansion joint. This load will tend to put the pipe wall between the

change in direction and the expansion joint in tension. The second component is equal to the pressure

times the difference between the bellows effective area and inside pipe area. This load acts at the end of

the expansion joint and tends to open the bellows up, putting the pipe between the expansion joint and the

change in direction in compression. In the mathematical model the full component of the pressure thrust

force is placed on the ends of the bellows instead of having a portion shifted out on either side of the

expansion joint. A large number of expansion joint examples can be found in Chapter 5 of the Applications

Guide.

8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The basic function of the hanger design algorithm is to calculate the hot load and travel for user-specified

hanger locations.

Once the hot load and travel are known, spring tables are entered and the theoretical cold load is

calculated for each spring in the table.

The smallest single spring that satisfies all design requirements is selected as the designed spring.

The spring design requirements are

1 Both hot and the cold loads must be within the spring allowed working range.

2 If the user specified an allowed load variation then the absolute value of the product of the travel and

the spring rate divided by the hot load must be less than the specified variation.

3 If the user specified some minimum available clearance then the spring selected must fit in this space.

If a single spring cannot be found that satisfies the design requirements, CAESAR II will try to find two

identical springs that do satisfy the requirements.

If satisfactory springs cannot be found, CAESAR II recommends a constant effort support for the location.

There are several variations of this approach that arise due to the different design options available in

CAESAR II, but for the most part the general algorithm remains unchanged.

Hanger hot loads are calculated in the “restrained weight” case.

In any job, if a hanger is to be designed, the first analysis case that must be run is the “restrained weight”

case. This case usually includes weight, pressure and concentrated loads.

For the “restrained weight” run, rigid “Y” restraints are placed at each hanger location, and any anchors to

be freed are properly released.

Loads on the “Y” restraints at hangers, calculated from the “restrained weight” case, are the hanger hot

design loads.

Operating Case

Immediately after the “restrained weight” case, an operating analysis is performed. The “Y” restraints are

removed from the hanger locations and the hot loads just calculated are inserted. Any anchors that were

freed for the “restrained weight” analysis are fixed.

The operating case vertical displacement at each hanger location defines that hanger’s “travel.” If there

were single directional restraints or gaps in the system that changed status in the operating case then the

possibility exists that loads on hangers will be redistributed. When a nonlinear status change is detected

CAESAR II reruns the “restrained weight” case with the restraints left as they were at the end of the

operating case. New restraint loads are calculated and another operating case is run to get the updated

“travel.”

The operating case must always be the second load case in the set of defined analysis cases.

The user has the ability to define the “restrained weight” or operating load cases for hanger design any

way he sees fit. For simplicity, CAESAR II recommends the load cases it thinks should be run whenever it

detects the first attempt to analyze a particular system. The user can accept or reject CAESAR II’s

recommendations. The user that sets up his own hanger design load cases should be sure he understands

exactly what is done in the “restrained weight” and operating passes of the hanger design algorithm.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 9

If the user requested the calculation of the actual hanger installed loads, the third analysis level

combination case must define the weight configuration that will exist in the field when the spring is

installed. Typically this case includes weight without fluid contents and concentrated loads.

The theoretical cold, or installed, load is the load on the spring when the pipe has exactly zero

displacement. The actual installed load may differ from the theoretical installed load by (K)(d), where (K)

is the spring stiffness and (d) is the displacement of the pipe in the installed condition. In essence, the

actual installed load is calculated by taking the piping system and “freezing” all displacements at zero.

With the pipe in this condition, the hangers are installed and the theoretical cold load is applied. The pipe

is then “defrosted” and allowed to adjust its weight position due to the hanger, restraint, and anchor

stiffnesses and the installed hanger loads. Once the system settles out, the total load on each of the hangers

is read and recorded as the “actual” hanger installed load.

The load cases that must exist for hanger design, as described above, are

Restrained Weight

Operating

Installed Weight ...if the user requested actual hanger installed loads.

After the hanger algorithm has run the load cases it needs to size the hangers. The newly selected springs

are inserted into the piping system and included in the analysis of all remaining load cases.

The spring rate becomes part of the global stiffness matrix, and is therefore added into all subsequent load

cases. Hanger installed loads are concentrated forces and are only included in subsequent load cases that

contain the first concentrated force set, (i.e., +H).

The user may specify any number of his own load cases after the required spring load cases are set up.

Spring hanger design does not affect CAESAR II’s ability to check code compliance. In fact, in CAESAR II’s

recommended load cases, the normal code compliance cases always follow the set of load cases required

for hanger design.

Multiple operating case spring hanger design implies that hanger loads and “travels” from more than one

operating case are included in the spring hanger selection algorithm.

Each spring in a multiple operating case hanger design has a multiple load case design option. This design

option tells CAESAR II how the multiple loads and travels for a single hanger are to be combined to get a

single design load and travel. The set-up of the analysis cases is slightly different for multiple operating

case hanger design, and as might be expected, the difference is that now there is more than one operating

case. The actual number of operating cases is specified by the user on the Hanger Design Control dialog

and can be up to 9.

Load cases that must be set up for a multiple load case hanger design that considers two hanger design

operating cases are:

Restrained Weight (this doesn't change)

Operating case #1

Operating case #9

Installed Weight ...if the user requested that actual installed loads are to be calculated.

10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The specification of the support load for a constant effort hanger completely defines the hanger location.

If the user enters this value it will be included in all hanger design runs and all analysis cases following the

hanger cases that include concentrated loads in their formulation. This value is the load on each support at

this location.

The operating cases for hanger travel are normally analyzed with no stiffness included at the hanger

locations (hence these cases are traditionally referred to as "free thermal" cases). However, when the

piping system is very flexible, or the selected springs are very stiff, the actual resulting spring loads in the

hot condition can vary significantly from the theoretically calculated results. In that case, CAESAR II offers

the option to include (via an iterative process) the stiffness of the selected springs in the operating cases

for hanger travel. This can be activated by setting the Hanger Stiffness Load Case option to "As

Designed" for that operating case. (Activating the Configure/Setup option "Include Travel cases to

default to "As Designed".) The user is warned that selection of this option may lead to convergence

problems. If this option is used, it is very important that the hanger load in the cold case (In the physical

system) be adjusted to match the reported hanger Cold Load.

Spring Hanger Hot Loads for as designed springs are always included in all Operating Hanger Travel

cases. Cold loads can be included in subsequent load cases through the use of the H load component. (Note

that applying thermal and displacement effects to the system should make the Cold Load move to the Hot

Load in the operating case.)

Users should note that whenever a hanger location is found to “hold the pipe down,” a beep and a warning

message is flashed to the user. These locations in output are flagged as zero load constant effort supports.

These supports are usually found to be at poor hanger design locations.

Hanger design load cases, unless specifically designed with a "KEEP" status by the user, show up in the

output report as being “NOT ACTIVE.” Results from these analysis are reflected in the spring hanger

table only.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 11

This analytical option was added to CAESAR II for the following reasons:

Automatic local flexibilities at intersections help the user bound the true solution. Because the

computer time to do an analysis is getting less expensive, more frequently an analyst is running

several solutions of the same model using slightly different input techniques to determine the effect of

the modeling difference on the results. (This gives the analyst a degree of confidence in the numbers

he is getting.) For example, structural steel supporting structures may be modeled to see the effect of

their stiffnesses, nozzle flexibilities may be added at vessel connections to see how these features

redistribute load throughout the model, friction is added to watch its effect on displacements and

equipment loads, and with CAESAR II users may include Class 1 intersection flexibilities. The

characteristic that makes this option convenient to use is that the use can turn the Class 1 flexibilities

“on” and “off” via a single parameter in the setup file. There is no other modification to the input

required.

In WRC 329, there are a number of suggestions made to improve the stress calculations at

intersections. These suggestions are fairly substantial, and are given in order of importance. The most

important item, as felt by Rodabaugh in improving the stress calculations at intersections is given, in

part, as follows:

“In piping system analyses, it may be assumed that the flexibility is represented by a rigid joint at the

branch-to-run centerlines juncture. However, the Code user should be aware that this assumption can be

inaccurate and should consider the use of a more appropriate flexibility representation.”

User of the Class 1 branch flexibility feature may be summarized as follows:The user adds the option:

CLASS_1_BRANCH_FLEX to the setup file. This option is a flag, and merely has to appear in the

setup file to activate the option.

Where reduced branch geometry requirements are satisfied, CAESAR II constructs a rigid offset from

the centerline of the header pipe to its surface, and then adds the local flexibility of the header pipe,

between the end of the offset, at the header, and the start of the branch. Stresses computed for the

branch, are for the point at its connection with the header.

Where reduced branch geometry requirements are not satisfied, CAESAR II constructs a rigid offset

from the centerline of the header pipe to its surface. The branch piping starts at the end of this rigid

offset. There is NO local flexibility due to the header added. (It is deemed to be insignificant.)

Stresses computed for the branch, are for the point at its connection with the header.

The reduced branch geometry requirements checked by CAESAR II are

d/D <= 0.5 and D/T <= 100.0

Where:

d = Diameter of branch

D = Diameter of header

T = Wall thickness of header

12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

When the Class 1 branch flexibilities are used, intersection models in the analysis will become stiffer

when the reduced geometry requirements do not apply, and will become more flexible when the reduced

geometry requirements do apply. Stiffer intersections typically carry more load, and thus have higher

stresses (lowering the stress in other parts of the system that have been “unloaded”). More flexible

intersections typically carry less load, and thus have lower stresses, (causing higher stresses in other parts

of the system that have “picked up” the extra load).

The branch flexibility rules used in CAESAR II are taken from ASME III, Subsection NB, (Class 1), 1992

Edition, Issued December 31, 1992, from Code Sections NB-3686.4 and NB-3686.5.

When the reduced branch rules apply, the following equations are used for the local stiffnesses:

TRANSLATIONAL:

AXIAL = RIGID

CIRCUMFERENTIAL = RIGID

LONGITUDINAL = RIGID

ROTATIONAL:

AXIAL = RIGID

CIRCUMFERENTIAL = (kz)d/EI

LONGITUDINAL = (kx)d/EI

Where:

RIGID = 1.0E12 lb./in. or 1.0E12 in.lb./deg.

d = Branch diameter

E = Young’s Modulus

I = Cross Section Moment of Inertia

D = Header diameter

T = Header thickness

Tb = Branch fitting thickness

kx = 0.1(D/T)1.5[(T/t)(d/D)]0.5(Tb/T)

kz = 0.2(D/T)[(T/t)(d/D)]0.5(Tb/T)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 13

Users are referred to WRC 329 Section 4.9 “Flexibility Factors.” A brief quote from this section follows:

“The significance of “k” depends upon the specifics of the piping system. Qualitatively, if “k” is small

compared to the length of the piping system, including the effect of elbows and their k-factors, then the

inclusion of “k” for branch connections will have only minor effects on the calculated moments.

Conversely, if “k” is large compared to the piping system length, then the inclusion of “k” for branch

connections will have major effects. The largest effect will be to greatly reduce the magnitude of the

calculated moments acting on the branch connection. To illustrate the potential significance of “k’s” for

branch connections, we use the equation [above] to calculate “k” for a branch connection with D=30 in.,

d=12.75 in. T=t=0.375 in.:

k = 0.1(80)1.5(0.425)0.5 * (1.0) = 46.6

This compares to the more typical rigid-joint interpretation that k=1, rather than k=46.6 !”

Further discussion in section 4.9 illustrates additional problems that can arise by overestimating the

stiffness at branch connections. Problems arise by believing “mistakenly” that the stress at the intersection

is too high. Further reference should be made to this section in WRC 329.

The branch automatic flexibility generation can be used where the user has only defined the branch

element in the model, i.e. has left the header piping out of the analysis. In this case there will be no

“offset” equal to one-half of the header diameter applied to the branch end. A “partial intersection” is one

where either the header pipe is not modelled, is modelled with a single element, or is part of a geometric

intersection where the header pipes are not colinear. In the case where there is no header pipe going to the

intersection there will be no modification to the model for the class 1 branch flexibilities. When at least a

single header pipe is recognized, the local flexibility directions are defined by the branch alone and in

accordance with the CAESAR II defaults for circumferential and longitudinal directions for the branch and

header. Users are recommended to build full intersection models at all times (not only when employing

the class 1 branch flexibility.) In most cases building full intersection models will eliminate problems

caused by the assumptions necessary when a partial intersection is described.

In the equations in NB-3686.5 for tn, the thickness of the branch pipe is used in all cases.

When branches are skewed with respect to the header pipe, and where the two header pipes are colinear,

the local Class 1 flexibilities are still taken to be the longitudinal and circumferential directions that are

tangent to the header surface at its intersection with the branch.

Class 1 branch flexibilities can be formed at both ends of a single pipe element.

Note: The offsets necessary to form the class 1 intersections are automatically generated by CAESAR II.

There is no extra input required by the user to have CAESAR II build these intersections.

(If there are already user-defined offsets at an intersection end, the computed offset to get from the header

centerline to its surface along the centerline of the branch will be added to the already entered user offset.)

Automatic offsets will be generated providing that the distance from the header centerline to the header

surface along the branch centerline is less than or equal to 98% of the total pipe straight length.

When a bend curved element is part of an intersection model, the offset and flexibility calculations will

not be performed.

14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

There are two approaches to solving the friction problem; insert a force at the node which must be over

come for motion to occur, or insert a stiffness which applies an increasing force up to the value of Mu *

Normal force. CAESAR II uses the restraint stiffness method. (An excellent paper on this subject is

“Inclusion of a Support Friction Into a Computerized Solution of a Self-Compensating Pipeline” by J.

Sobieszczanski, published in the Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, August

1972. A summary of the major points of this paper can be found below.)

Ideally, if there is motion at the node in question, the friction force is equal to (Mu * Normal force).

However, since we have a non-rigid stiffness at that location to resist the initial motion, the node can

experience displacements. The force at the node will be the product of the displacement and the stiffness.

If this resultant force is less than the maximum friction force (Mu * Normal force), the node is assumed to be

“not sliding,” even though we see displacements in the output report.

The maximum value of the force at the node is the friction force, Mu * Normal force. Once this value is

reached, the reaction at the node stops increasing. This constant force value is then applied to the global

load vector during the next iteration to determine the nodal displacements.

Basically here is what happens in a “friction” problem.

1 The default friction stiffness is 1,000,000 lb./in. This value should be decreased to improve

convergence.

2 Until the horizontal force at the node equals Mu * Normal force, the restraint load is the displacement

times the friction stiffness.

3 Once the maximum value of the friction force is reached, the friction force will stop increasing, since

a constant effort force is inserted.

By increasing the friction stiffness in the setup file, the displacements at the node will decrease to some

degree. This may cause a re-distribution of the loads throughout the system. However, this could have

adverse affects on the solution convergence.

If problems arise during the solution of a job with friction at supports, reducing the friction stiffness will

usually improve convergence. Several runs should be made with varying values of the friction stiffness to

insure the system behavior is consistent.

Summary of J. Sobieszczanski’s ASME Paper

For dry friction, the friction force magnitude is a step function of displacement. This discontinuity

determines the problem as intrinsically nonlinear and eliminates the possibility of using the

superposition principle.

The friction loading on the pipe can be represented by an ordinary differential equation of the fourth

order with a variable coefficient that is a nonlinear function of both dependent and independent

variables. No solution in closed form is known for an equation of this type. Solution has to be sought

by means of numerical integration to be carried out specifically for a particular pipeline configuration.

Dry friction can be idealized by a fictitious elastic foundation, discretized to a set of elastic (spring)

supports.

A well-known property of an elastic system with dry friction constraints is that it may attain several

static equilibrium positions within limits determined by the friction forces.

THE WHOLE PROBLEM THEN HAS CLEARLY NOT A DETERMINISTIC, BUT A

STOCHASTIC CHARACTER.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 15

Nonlinear piping code compliance can be directly satisfied by

1 Performing an operating and sustained analysis of the system including in each case the effect of

nonlinear restraints.

2 Subtracting the sustained case displacements from the operating case displacements to find the

“displacement range.”

3 Calculating the expansion stresses from the displacement range solved for in #2 above.

Approximate approaches usually involve some combination of the above. The approximate combination

used depends typically on the inherent limitations of the base program. In several commonly used

programs, the approach taken is

1 Formulate and solve for operating case displacements including an iteration to deal with the effect of

nonlinear restraints in the system.

2 Run the thermal-only analysis of the system to calculate expansion stresses with restraints in the same

condition as they were at the end of #1.

3 Run the weight+pressure only analysis of the system to calculate sustained stresses, again with

restraints in the same condition as they were at the end of #1.

This alternate approach is identical to the first method only when the sustained analysis final stiffness

matrix is the same as the operating analysis final stiffness matrix. The resulting error in the displacement

range can be found from

{[Fo] - [Fs]}fs.

Where:

[Fo] is the operating analysis final flexibility matrix. (i.e. the inverse of the stiffness matrix.)

[Fs] is the sustained analysis final flexibility matrix.

fs is the sustained analysis load vector.

CAESAR II uses the exact method described above for calculating the expansion stress range. In addition

CAESAR II scans the user’s input and recommends loading cases and combinations for performing the

operating, sustained and expansion stress calculations. This recommendation can prove very useful when

performing spring hanger analysis of a multiple operating case system.

16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The proper computation of sustained stresses has been an issue since the late 1970s, when computerized

pipe stress analysis programs first attempted to address the problem of non-linear restraints. The existing

piping codes offered little guidance on the subject, since their criteria were developed during the era when

all analyses were considered to behave in a strictly linear fashion. The problem arises because the codes

require that a piping system be analyzed separately for sustained loadings — the engineer must determine

which stresses are caused by which loadings. Sustained loads are force loadings which are assumed not to

change, while expansion loadings are displacement loadings which vary with the system operating

conditions. Determination of the sustained loads is the simple part — most everybody agrees that those

forces consist of weight, pressure, and spring preloads — these forces remain relatively constant as the

piping system goes through its thermal growth. However, confusion occurs when the status of nonlinear

restraints change (pipes lift off of supports, gaps close, etc.) as the pipe goes from its hot to cold state — in

this case, which boundary conditions should be used when evaluating the applied forces? Or in other

words, what portion of the stress in the operating case is caused by weight loads, and what portion is

caused by expansion effects? (Note that there is no corresponding confusion on the question of calculating

expansion stresses, since the codes are explicit in their instructions that the expansion stress range is the

difference between the operating and cold stress distributions, both of which are known.)

The obvious answer to this question, to the developers of some pipe stress programs, was that the

sustained stress calculation should be done using the operating, or hot boundary condition. This

compounded the problem, in that the laws of superposition no longer held — in other words, the results of

sustained (W+P) and thermal (T) cases, when added together, did not equal the results of the operating

(W+P+T) case! One pioneering program, DYNAFLEX, attempted to resolve this by introducing the

concept of the “thermal component of weight” — an oxymoron, in our opinion. Other programs, notably

those which came from the mainframe/linear analysis world, had to approximate the behavior of these

non-linear restraints. Their approach to the problem is to run an operating case, obtain the restraint status,

and modify the model according to these results. All subsequent load cases analyzed use this restraint

configuration. The fact that the laws of static superposition didn't hold was hopefully not noticed by the

user. CAESAR II, on the other hand, represents new technology, developed expressly for operation on the

PC, and therefore incorporates directly the effects of non-linear restraints. This is done by considering

each load case independently — the restraint configuration is determined for each load case by the

program as it runs, based upon the actual loads which are considered to be present.

Some users have asserted that there are actually two sustained load cases. In fact, there has been a B31.3

code interpretation that indicates that the sustained stress may also be checked with the operating restraint

configuration. Calculating the sustained stresses using the operating restraint status raises several other

issues; what modulus of elasticity should be used, and which sustained stresses should be used for

occasional cases.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 17

It is COADE’s assertion that there is only one sustained case (otherwise it is not “sustained”) — there can

be, however, multiple sustained stress distributions. The two most apparent are those associated with the

cold (installed) and hot (operating) configurations, however, there are also numerous in-between, as the

piping system load steps from cold to hot. Whether the “true” sustained load case occurs during the

installed or operating case is a matter of the frame of reference. If an engineer first sees a system in its

cold condition, and watches it expand to its operating condition, it appears that the first case (since weight

and pressure — primary loads — are present) is the sustained case, and the changes he viewed are thermal

effects (due to heat up) — secondary loads due to displacements. If a second engineer first sees the same

system in the operating case and watches it cool down to the cold case, he may believe that the first case

he saw (the operating case) is the sustained case, and changes experienced from hot to cold are the thermal

expansion effects (the thermal stress ranges are the same in both cases). Consider the further implications

of cryogenic systems — where changes from installed to operating are the same as those experienced by

hot systems when going from operating to installed. Once elastic shakedown has occurred, the question

becomes clouded even further, due to the presence of thermally induced pre-stresses in the pipe during

both the cold and hot conditions. We feel either the operating or installed case (or some other one in-

between) could justifiably be selected for analysis as the sustained case, as long as the program is

consistent.

We have selected the installed case (less the effect of cold spring) as our reference sustained case, since

thermal effects can be completely omitted from the solution (as intended by the code), and this best

represents the support configuration when the sustained loads are initially applied. If the pipe lifts off of a

support when going from installed to operating, we view this as a thermal effect — consistent with the

piping codes’ view of thermal effects as the variation of stress distribution as the piping system goes from

cold to hot (this view is explicitly corroborated by one code — the French petrochemical code, which

states that weight stress distributions due to thermal growth of the pipe should be considered as expansion

stresses). For example, we feel that a change in a rigid support load from 2,000 lbs to zero should be

treated no differently than would be a variable spring load changing from 6,000 lbs to 4,000 lbs (or

another rigid support load going 2,000 lbs to 1 lb). In the former case, if the pipe became “overstressed”, it

would yield, and sag back to the support, relieving the stress. This process is identical to the way that all

other expansion stresses are relieved in a piping system.

We are confident that our interpretation is correct. However, we understand that our users may not always

agree with us — that is why CAESAR II provides the greatest ability to custom tailor the analysis to one’s

individual specifications. If desired, a “hot sustained” case can be analyzed by adding two load cases to

those normally recommended by CAESAR II. This would be done by assuming that the pipe expands first,

and then the sustained loads are applied (this is of course an idealized concept, but the stresses can only be

segregated by segregating the applied loads, so the sustained loads can only be applied either before, or

after, the expansion loads). Following are the default load cases, as well as those required for a “hot

sustained.”

Default New

W+P1+T1(OPE) W+P1+T1(OPE)

W+P1(SUS) W+P1(SUS)

L1-L2(EXP) T1 (EXP)

L1-L2(EXP)

L1-L3(SUS)

18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

In the new load case list, the second case still represents the cold sustained, while the fourth case

represents the expansion case (note that L1-L2, or W+P1+T1-W-P1, equals T1, with non-linear effects

taken into account). The third case represents the thermal growth of the “weightless,” non-pressurized

pipe, against the non-linear restraints.

The fifth case (L1-L3, or W+P1+T1-T1, equals W+P1) represents the application of weight and pressure

to that expanded case, or the “hot sustained” case. Note that when the piping system is analyzed as above,

the actual effects of the non-linear restraints are considered (they are not arbitrarily removed from the

model), and the laws of superposition still hold.

An alternative school of thought believes that a "hot sustained" is only valid if (1) the sustained, primary

loads are applied, (2) all springs are showing their Hot Load settings, and (3) any supports that lift off (or

otherwise become non-active) have been removed from the model. An analysis such as this is achievable

by setting the "Keep/Discard" status of the Restrained Weight case (the first hanger design load case) to

"Keep", thus permitting the results of that case to be viewable as for any other load case. The Restrained

Weight case automatically removes restraints that become non-active during the designated operating

case, and apply the Hot Load at each of the hanger locations.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 19

Several piping codes require that the stresses from occasional loads (such as wind or earthquake) be added

to the sustained stresses (due to weight, pressure, and other constant loads) before comparing them to their

allowables. This combination is easily created in CAESAR II:

CASE # 1 W+P+F1 (SUS) :Sustained stresses

2 WIND (OCC) :Wind load set

3 U1 (OCC) :Uniform (g) load set for earthquake

4 L1+L2 (OCC) :Code stresses for wind *

5 L1+L3 (OCC) :Code stresses for earthquake*

* Scalar Summation Method required

If nonlinear effects are modeled in the system these combinations may not be so straight forward. Friction,

one-direction restraints and double-acting restraints with gaps are the nonlinear items which present this

complication. Wind loading on a long vertical run of pipe with a guide will serve as an example. Assume

there is a one inch gap between the pipe and guide. Under normal operation, the pipe moves 3/4 inch

towards the stop leaving a gap of 1-3/4 inch on either side of the pipe and a 1/4 inch gap on the other side.

If wind loads are analyzed alone, the pipe is allowed to move 1 inch from its center point in the guide to

the guide stop. Since occasional loads are usually analyzed with the system in operation, the pipe may be

limited to a 1/4 inch motion as the gap is closed in one direction, and 1-3/4 inch if the gap is closed in the

opposite direction. With nonlinear effects modeled in the system, the occasional deflections (and stresses)

are influenced by the operating position of the piping.

The following list of CAESAR II load cases take this point into consideration. Note that the load cases

shown below are only for wind acting in one direction, i.e., +X. Depending on the system, the most critical

loads could occur in any direction, i.e., +/-X, +/-Z or skewed in an XZ direction.

The intention of the following load case construction is to find the occasional load’s effect on the piping

system in the operating condition. The stress due to the moment change from the operating to the

operating plus wind case is added to the stress from the sustained case.

The isolated wind effect on the piping system in the operating condition in is computed in Case 5. Case 6

adds the stresses from Case 5 to the sustained stresses from Case 2.

CASE # 1 W+T+P (OPE) :Operation analysis

2 W+P (SUS) :Sustained stresses

3 W+T+P+WIND (OPE) :Operating analysis with wind

4 L1-L2 (EXP) :Expansion stresses (Algebraic summation)

5 L3-L1 (OCC) :Wind’s net deflection (Algebraic summation)

6 L2+L5 (OCC) : Code stresses for wind (Scalar summation)

20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Static earthquake loads are applied in a manner very similar to static wind loads. The static loading

magnitude is considered to be in direct proportion to the element’s weight. Earthquake load magnitudes

are given in terms of the gravitational acceleration constant, i.e. g’s. If an earthquake is modeled as having

a 0.5-g load in the X direction, then half of the systems weight is turned into a uniform load and applied in

the X direction.

Earthquake static load cases are set up exactly as they are for wind occasional loads, i.e. the same load

case, nonlinearity, and directional sensitivity logic. In some cases the client specifies the magnitude of the

earthquake loading in g’s and the direction(s). In others, the analysis is left to the sole discretion of the

analyst. It is not unusual to see only X or X-Y components of an earthquake. It is not uncommon to see Y

only components, or X, Y, and Z simultaneous components.

Dynamic earthquakes are discussed later in this chapter, in the dynamic analysis and output chapters, and

in the screen reference chapter.

The ASCE #7 method for determining earthquake coefficients is described below. Once calculated, the g-

factors should be entered as uniform loads on the piping spreadsheet.

Note: The Uniform Load in G's (on page 97) check box must also be enabled in the spreadsheet

special execution parameters.

The total lateral force at the base of a structure is to be computed from:

V = ZIKCSW

Where:

V - total lateral force or shear at the base

Z—numerical coefficient from table 22

K—numerical coefficient from table 23

C—numerical coefficient from Sect. 9.4

S—soil factor from table 25

W—total dead load

The g-factor can be found by dividing Eq. 6 through by W.

g’s = V/W = ZIKCS

The product CS does not need to exceed the value 0.14. Use this value as a conservative maximum.

The following table provides the seismic zone coefficient (Z).

Seismic Zone

Coefficient, Z

4 1

3 3/4

2 3/8

1 3/16

0 1/8

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 21

From the following table, the importance factor can be found: (However use a value for I = 1.0. The

categories in this table are identical for those used in the wind load calculation.)

The following table shows K varying from 0.67 to 2.0. Use K=2.0 for “Structures other than buildings.”

So the equation for the “g” load:

g = ZIKCS

reduces to:

g = Z (1.0) (2.0) (0.14)

and for the various value of Z:

4 (1)(1)(2)(0.14) 0.28

3 (3/4)(1)(2)(0.14) 0.21

2 (3/8)(1)(2)(0.14) 0.105

1 (3/16)(1)(2)(0.14) 0.0525

0 (1/8)(1)(2)(0.14) 0.035

ASCE #7 - 1990 is the 1990 revision to ANSI A58.1 1982. There are no revisions to this code which

affect CAESAR II.

ASCE #7 - 1993 has completely changed the approach for "static" seismic analysis. These changes

are not addressed by this discussion.

22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Wind Loads

Wind loads are generated by multiplying the pipe exposed area, including insulation, and considering

angle to the wind, by the equivalent wind pressure and the pipe shape factor. There are typically three

different ways to get at the equivalent wind pressure:

ASCE #7 (1995)

Pressure vs. elevation table entry

Velocity vs. elevation table entry

The total wind force on the element is calculated from

F = PeqSA

Where:

F is the total wind force on the element

Peq is the equivalent wind pressure (dynamic pressure)

S is the pipe element wind shape factor

A is the pipe element exposed area as shown in the figure as follows:

Peq is calculated for each end of the element and the average taken. The average applies uniformly

over the whole length of the element. Note, the wind force is applied in the three global directions as a

function of the element direction cosines.

If the user enters a velocity vs. elevation table then the velocity is converted to a dynamic pressure using

the following equation:

P = 1/2 V2 where V is the wind velocity and is the air density.

The WIND SHAPE FACTOR is entered on the pipe spreadsheet and, for cylindrical elements, the value

from Table 12 is between 0.5 and 0.7. A value of 0.65 is typical. The wind shape factor as entered is

“distributive.” This means that the shape factor applies for all following elements until zeroed or changed.

Important The user does not have to enter the shape factor on each pipe spreadsheet. Zero (or turn

"Off") the wind shape factor if the piping system runs inside of building or similarly protective structure.

Wind load data is entered on the Wind Loads (on page 51) tab of the Static Load Case Builder. Up to four

different wind loads can be entered per analysis. These typically might be set up to model wind loads in

the +X, -Y, and -Z directions.

The ASCE #7 ( 1995) Method for computing equivalent pressure requires several computerized table look

ups and interpolation. The user enters the following parameters:

1 Basic wind speed (mph) - The minimum allowed basic wind speed is 85 mph. This does not include

averages for abnormally high wind loading events such as hurricanes or tornadoes.

ASCE #7 refers to fig. 6-1 for basic wind speeds in the continental United States. The following

description is a crude representation of Figure 1:

Other West Coast Areas 85 mph (124.6 ft/sec)

Great Plains 90 mph (132.0 ft/sec)

Non-Coastal Eastern United States 90 mph (132.0 ft/sec)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 23

Florida Carolinas 130 mph (190.6 ft/sec)

Miami 145 mph (212.6 ft/sec)

New England Coastal Areas 120 mph (176.0 ft/sec)

Large oily center

Urban, suburban, and wooded areas

Open terrain

Flat coastal areas

Everything except the following options (used most often)

Primary occupancy more than 100 people

Essential facilities, i.e. hospitals

Failure represents low hazard

Height of hill or escarpment

Crest distance

Height above ground level

Distance from crest to site

Hill type

The following procedure from the appendix is used to calculate the effective wind pressure:

1 Get the Importance Factor from Table 6-2 (p.17)

2 Get (Alpha), Zg, from Table C 6-2.

3 Calculate Kz from Eq. C2 (p.152)

4 Calculate Kzt from Eq. 6-2 (p.34)

5 Calculate qz from Eq. 6-1, (p.17)

6 Calculate Gz from sec 6.6

7 Calculate the effective wind pressure from

PRESSURE = Gz * qz * Shape Factor

Note: Winds of 20 to 40 mph can cause vortex shedding and excitation in the 30 Hz and higher range

that can cause fatigue failure in smaller line sizes particularly susceptible to fatigue type failures. To

analyze vortex shedding, use harmonic analysis methods.

24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Elevation

The accurate elevation of each individual piping element may, or may not be important depending on the

total height, diameter and rigidity of the piping system and attachments. By default, CAESAR II starts the

first node on the first element at an elevation of 0.0. If this is not close enough to the true elevation then

the user should set the true coordinates of the piping system through the command EDIT - GLOBAL. This

presents a dialog requesting coordinates for the first node of any disconnected section. The coordinates for

up to 100 node points can be specified and saved as part of the input data from the model.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 25

Ocean waves are generated by wind and propagate out of the generating area. The generation of ocean

waves is dependent on the wind speed, the duration of the wind, the water depth, and the distance over

which the wind blows is referred to as the fetch length. There a variety of two dimensional wave theories

proposed by various researchers, but the three most widely used are the Airy (linear) wave theory, Stokes

5 th Order wave theory, and Dean's Stream Function wave theory. The later two theories are non-linear

wave theories and provide a better description of the near surface effects of the wave.

(The term two dimensional refers to the uni-directional wave. One dimension is the direction the wave

travels, and the other dimension is vertical through the water column. Two dimensional waves are not

found in the marine environment, but are somewhat easy to define and determine properties for, in a

deterministic sense. In actuality, waves undergo spreading, in the third dimension. This can be easily

understood by visualizing a stone dropped in a pond. As the wave spread, the diameter of the circle

increases. In addition to wave spreading, a real sea state includes waves of various periods, heights, and

lengths. In order to address these actual conditions, a deterministic approach can not be used. Instead, a

sea spectrum is utilized, which may also include a spreading function. As there are various wave theories,

there are various sea spectra definitions. The definition and implementation of sea spectra are usually

employed in dynamic analysis. Sea Spectra and dynamic analysis will not be discussed in this article.)

The linear or Airy wave theory assumes the free surface is symmetric about the mean water level.

Furthermore, the water particle motion is a closed circular orbit, the diameter of which decays with depth.

(The term circular should be taken loosely here, the orbit varies from circular to elliptical based on

whether the wave is in shallow or deep water.) Additionally, for shallow water waves, the wave height to

depth ratio (H/D) is limited to 0.78 to avoid breaking. (None of the wave theories address breaking

waves!) The figure below shows a typical wave and associated hydrodynamic parameters.

L - The wave length, the horizontal distance between successive crests or troughs.

H- The wave height, the vertical distance between the crest and trough.

D - The water depth, the vertical distance form the bottom to the still water level.

- The surface elevation measured from the still water level.

26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The Airy wave theory provides a good first approximation to the water particle behavior. The nonlinear

theories provide a better description of particle motion, over a wider range depths and wave heights. The

Stokes 5th wave theory is based on a power series. This wave theory does not apply the symmetric free

surface restriction. Additionally, the particle paths are no longer closed orbits, which means there is a

gradual drift of the fluid particles, i.e. a mass transport.

Stokes 5th order wave theory however, does not adequately address steeper waves over a complete range

of depths. Dean’s Stream Function wave theory attempts to address this deficiency. This wave theory

employs an iterative numerical technique to solve the stream function equation. The stream function

describes not only the geometry of a two dimensional flow, but also the components of the velocity vector

at any point, and the flow rate between any two streamlines.

The most suitable wave theory is dependent on the wave height, the wave period, and the water depth.

Based on these parameters, the applicable wave theory can be determined from the figure below (from

API-RP2A, American Petroleum Institute - Recommended Practice 2A).

The limiting wave steepness for most deep water waves is usually determined by the Miche Limit:

H / L = 0.142 tanh( kd )

where:

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 27

L is the wave length

k is the wave number (2 )/L

d is the water depth

CAESAR II allows individual pipe elements to experience loading due to hydrodynamic effects. These fluid

effects can impose a substantial load on the piping elements in a manner similar to, but more complex than

wind loading.

The various wave theories incorporated into CAESAR II as well as the various types of current profiles are

discussed below. The wave theories and the current profile are used to compute the water particle

velocities and accelerations at the node points. Once these parameters are available, the force on the

element can be computed using Morrison’s equation:

F = 1/2 * * Cd * D * U * |U| + /4 * * Cm * D2 * A

where

- is the fluid density

Cd - is the drag coefficient

D - is the pipe diameter

U - is the particle velocity

Cm - is the inertial coefficient

A - is the particle acceleration

The particle velocities and accelerations are vector quantities which include the effects of any applied

waves or currents. In addition to the force imposed by Morrison’s equation, piping elements are also

subjected to a lift force and a buoyancy force. The lift force is defined as the force acting normal to the

plane formed by the velocity vector and the element’s axis. The lift force is defined as:

Fl = 1/2 * * Cl * D * U2

where

- is the fluid density

Cl - is the lift coefficient

D - is the pipe diameter

U - is the particle velocity

The buoyancy force acts upward, and is equal to the weight of the fluid volume displaced by the element.

Once the force on a particular element is available, it is placed in the system load vector just as any other

load is. A standard solution is performed on the system of equations which describe the piping system.

(The piping system can be described by the standard finite element equation:

[K] {x} = {f}

where

[K] - is the global stiffness matrix for the entire system

{x} - is the displacement / rotation vector to solve for

{f} - is global load vector

28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The element loads generated by the hydrodynamic effects are placed in their proper locations in {f},

similar to weight, pressure, and temperature. Once [K] and {f} are finalized, a standard finite element

solution is performed on this system of equations. The resulting displacement vector {x} is then used to

compute element forces, and these forces are then used to compute the element stresses.)

Except for the buoyancy force, all other hydrodynamic forces acting on the element are a function of the

particle velocities and accelerations.

Airy wave theory is also known as “linear” wave theory, due to the assumption that the wave profile is

symmetric about the mean water level. Standard Airy wave theory allows for the computation of the

water particle velocities and accelerations between the mean surface elevation and the bottom. The

Modified Airy wave theory allows for the consideration of the actual free surface elevation in the

computation of the particle data. CAESAR II includes both the standard and modified forms of the Airy

wave theory.

To apply the Airy wave theory, several descriptive parameters about the wave must be given. These values

are then used to solve for the wave length, which is a characteristic parameter of each unique wave.

CAESAR II uses Newton-Raphston iteration to determine the wave length by solving the dispersion

relation, shown below:

L = (gT2 / 2 ) * tanh(2 D / L)

where

g - is the acceleration of gravity

T - is the wave period

D - is the mean water depth

L - is the wave length to be solved for

Once the wave length (L) is known, the other wave particulars of interest may be easily determined. The

parameters determined and used by CAESAR II are: the horizontal and vertical particle velocities ( UX and

UY ), the horizontal and vertical particle acceleration ( AX and AY ), and the surface elevation above (or

below) the mean water level ( ETA ). The equations for these parameters can be found in any standard text

(such as those listed at the end of this section) which discusses ocean wave theories, and therefore will not

be repeated here.

The Stokes wave is a 5th order gravity wave, and hence non-linear in nature. The solution technique

employed by CAESAR II is described in a paper published by Skjelbreia and Hendrickson of the National

Engineering Science Company of Pasadena California in 1960. The standard formulation as well as a

modified formulation (to the free surface) are available in CAESAR II Stokes 5th Order Wave Theory.

The solution follows a procedure very similar to that used in the Airy wave, characteristic parameters of

the wave are determined by using Newton-Raphston iteration, followed by the determination of the water

particle values of interest.

The Newton-Raphston iteration procedure solves two non-linear equations for the constants beta and

lambda. Once these values are available, the other twenty constants can be computed. After all of the

constants are known, CAESAR II can compute: the horizontal and vertical particle velocities ( UX and UY

), the horizontal and vertical particle acceleration ( AX and AY ), and the surface elevation above the

mean water level (ETA).

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 29

In addition to the forces imposed by ocean waves, piping elements may also be subjected to forces

imposed by ocean currents. There are three different ocean current models in CAESAR II; linear, piece-

wise, and a power law profile.

The linear current profile assumes that the current velocity through the water column varies linearly from

the specified surface velocity (at the surface) to zero (at the bottom). The piece-wise linear profile

employs linear interpolation between specific “depth/velocity” points specified by the user. The power law

profile decays the surface velocity to the 1/7 power.

While waves produce unsteady flow, where the particle velocities and accelerations at a point constantly

change, current produces a steady, non-varying flow.

The input parameters necessary to define the fluid loading are described in detail in the next section. The

basic parameters describe the wave height and period, and the current velocity. The most difficult to

obtain, and also the most important parameters, are the drag, inertia, and lift coefficients, Cd, Cm, and Cl.

Based on the recommendations of API RP2A and DNV (Det Norske Veritas), values for Cd range from 0.6

to 1.2, values for Cm range from 1.5 to 2.0. Values for Cl show a wide range of scatter, but the

approximate mean value is 0.7.

The inertia coefficient Cm is equal to one plus the added mass coefficient Ca. This added mass value

accounts for the mass of the fluid assumed to be entrained with the piping element.

In actuality, these coefficients are a function of the fluid particle velocity, which varies over the water

column. In general practice, two dimensionless parameters are computed which are used to obtain the Cd,

Cm, and Cl values from published charts. The first dimensionless parameter is the Keulegan-Carpenter

Number, K. K is defined as:

K = Um * T / D

Where:

Um - is the maximum fluid particle velocity

T - is the wave period

D - is the characteristic diameter of the element.

The second dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds number, Re. Re is defined as

Re = Um * D /

where:

Um - is the maximum fluid particle velocity

D - is the characteristic diameter of the element.

- is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid (1.26e-5 ft2/sec for sea water).

30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Once K and Re are available, charts are used to obtain Cd, Cm, and Cl. (See Mechanics of Wave Forces on

Offshore Structures by T. Sarpkaya, Figures 3.21, 3.22, and 3.25 for example charts, which are shown in

the figures below.)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 31

In order to determine these coefficients, the fluid particle velocity (at the location of interest) must be

determined. The appropriate wave theory is solved, and these particle velocities are readily obtained.

Of the wave theories discussed, the modified Airy and Stokes 5th theories include a modification of the

depth-decay function. The standard theories use a depth-decay function equal to cosh(kz) / sinh(kd),

where:

k - is the wave number, 2 /L

L -is the wave length

d - is the water depth

z - is the elevation in the water column where the data is to be determined

The modified theories include an additional term in the numerator of this depth-decay function. The

modified depth-decay function is equal to cosh( d) / sinh(kd), where:

- is equal to z / (d + )

32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The term d represents the effective height of the point at which the particle velocity and acceleration are

to be computed. The use of this term keeps the effective height below the still water level. This means that

the velocity and acceleration computed are convergent for actual heights above the still water level.

As previously stated, the drag, inertia, and lift coefficients are a function of the fluid velocity and the

diameter of the element in question. Note that the fluid particle velocities vary with both depth and

position in the wave train (as determined by the applied wave theory). Therefore, these coefficients are in

fact not constants. However, from a practical engineering point of view, varying these coefficients as a

function of location in the Fluid field is usually not implemented. This practice can be justified when one

considers the inaccuracies involved in specifying the instantaneous wave height and period. According to

Sarpkaya, these values are insufficient to accurately predict wave forces, a consideration of the previous

fluid particle history is necessary. In light of these uncertainties, constant values for Cd, Cm, and Cl are

recommended by API and many other references.

The effects of marine growth must also be considered. Marine growth has the following effects on the

system loading: the increased pipe diameters increase the hydrodynamic loading; the increased roughness

causes an increase in Cd, and therefore the hydrodynamic loading; the increase in mass and added mass

cause reduced natural frequencies and increase the dynamic amplification factor; it causes an increase in

the structural weight; and possibly causes hydrodynamic instabilities, such as vortex shedding.

Finally, Morrison’s force equation is based the “small body” assumption. The term “small” refers to the

“diameter to wave length” ratio. If this ratio exceeds 0.2, the inertial force is no longer in phase with the

acceleration of the fluid particles and diffraction effects must be considered. In such cases, the fluid

loading as typically implemented by CAESAR II is no longer applicable.

Additional discussions on hydrodynamic loads and wave theories can be found in the references at the end

of this article.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 33

The hydrodynamic load analysis requires the specification of several measurable parameters which

quantify the physical aspects of the environmental phenomenon in question.

Note: Users can enter four different wave loads here. Use the Editing Load Case buttons to move up or

down between the Wave Load Input Spreadsheets.

The necessary hydrodynamic parameters are discussed in the following paragraphs and a CAESAR II

hydrodynamic loading dialog is shown in the figure below.

Current Data

Profile Type—This entry defines the interpolation method used by CAESAR II to determine the current

velocity as a function of depth. Available options for this entry are: a power law profile, a piece-wise

linear profile, and a linear profile.

The power law profile determines the current velocity at depth D according to the equation:

Vd = Vs * [di / D]p

where

Vd is the velocity at depth di

Vs is the specified velocity at the surface

D is the water depth

p is the power, set to 1/7

34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The piece-wise linear profile performs a linear interpolation of a velocity verse depth table (provided by

the user) to obtain the current velocity at depth di. When this type profile is specified, a table of depths and

velocities must be provided. The table should start at the surface (a depth of zero) and progress in the

direction of increasing depth, to the sea bed.

The linear profile also performs a linear interpolation to obtain the current velocity at depth di. However,

this method assumes the current velocity varies linearly from the specified surface velocity to zero at the

sea bed.

Current Speed — This entry defines the current speed at the surface. The units for this entry are

(length/time) as defined by the active units file at the time of input. This value should always be a positive

entry.

Current Direction Cosines — These entries define the direction of fluid transport due to the current. These

fields are unitless, and follow the standard software global axis convention.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 35

Wave Data

Wave Theory Indicator — This entry specifies which wave theory is to be used to compute the water

particle velocities and accelerations. The wave theories presently available are:

Standard Airy Wave — This is also known as linear wave theory. Discussion of this theory can be found in

the previously mentioned references.

Modified Airy Wave — This is a modification of the standard Airy theory which includes the free surface

effects due to the wave. The modification consists of determining a depth scaling factor equal to the depth

divided by the depth plus the surface elevation. Note that this scale factor varies as a function of the

location in the wave train.

Standard Stokes 5th Wave — This is a 5th order wave theory, also discussed in the previously mentioned

references.

Modified Stokes 5th Wave — This is a modification of the standard Stokes 5th theory. The modification is

the same as applied to the Airy theory.

Stream Function Wave — This is Dean’s Stream Function theory, also discussed in the previously

mentioned references.

Modified Stream Function Wave — This is Dean’s Stream Function theory, modified to directly consider

current in the wave solution.

Stream Function Order — When the Stream Function theory is activated, the solution order must be

defined. Typical values for the stream function order range from 3 to 13 (see API-RP2A figure).

Water Depth — This entry defines the vertical distance (in units of length) from the still water level (the

surface) to the sea bed.

Wave Height — This entry defines the height of the incident wave. The height is the vertical distance (in

units of length) from the wave crest to the wave trough.

Wave Period — This entry defines the time span (in seconds) for two successive wave crests to pass a

fixed point.

Wave Kinematic Factor — Because the two dimensional wave theories do not account for spreading, a

reduction factor is often used for the horizontal particle velocity and acceleration. Wave kinematic

measurements support values in the range of 0.85 to 0.95. Refer to the applicable offshore codes before

using this item.

Wave Direction Cosines — These entries define the direction of wave travel. These fields are unitless, and

follow the standard software global axis convention.

Wave Phase Angle — This entry defines the position of the wave relative to the starting node of the piping

system. The phase angle is a measure (in degrees) of position in the wave train, where 0 is the wave crest,

180 is the wave trough, and 360 is the following crest. Since the wave propagates over the piping

structure, each point in the structure experiences all possible wave phase angles. One analysis technique

specifies the wave phase at the system origin, and then the phase at each node point in the model is deter-

mined. From these exact phase locations, the water particle data is computed from the wave theory.

Alternatively, a conservative engineering approach is to use the same phase angle (usually zero) for all

points in the model. This technique produces higher loads, however, the extra conservatism is warranted

when given the unknowns in specifying environmental data.

36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Seawater Data

Free Surface Elevation — This entry defines the height of the free surface, from the global system origin. If

the system origin is at the free surface, this entry should be specified as zero. If the system origin is at the

sea bottom, this entry is equal to the water depth. By default, the first node in a CAESAR II model is at an

elevation of zero. This elevation can be changed using the [Alt-G] key sequence.

Kinematic Viscosity — This entry is used to define the kinematic viscosity of water. This value is used to

determine the Reynolds number, which is subsequently used to determine they hydrodynamic coefficients

Cd, Cm, and Cl. Typical values of kinematic viscosity for sea water are listed in the table below.

60 1.26e-5 15.556 1.17058e-6

50 1.46e-5 10.000 1.35639e-6

40 1.55 e-5

4.444 1.44000e-6

30 2.00e-5 -1.111 1.85807e-6

Fluid Weight Density - This entry defines the weight density of the fluid. For sea water, this value is

approximately .037037 pounds per cubic inch (.001025 kg/cm3, 1.0256SG).

Element Exposure — In implementing hydrodynamic loading in a software program, one must be able to

indicate that elements are either exposed to the fluid or not exposed to the fluid. In CAESAR II, this is

accomplished by a set of “radio buttons,” which indicate that the particular element is exposed to

hydrodynamic loads, wind loads, or not exposed. This specification carries forward for all subsequent

elements, until changed.

Hydrodynamic Coefficients — Piping elements which are to be subjected to hydrodynamic loading must

have a drag (Cd), an inertia (Cm), and a lift (Cl) coefficient defined. The specification of these items is

optional. A user may specify these values as constants to be applied to all subsequent exposed elements,

regardless of depth or phase position in the wave. Alternatively, these values may be left blank, which will

cause CAESAR II to interpolate their values from the charts previously discussed.

Marine Growth — This entry defines the amount of marine growth on the piping elements. The value of

this entry is used to increase the diameter of the piping elements. The units for this field are the current

diameter units. The diameter used in the computation of the hydrodynamic forces is equal to the pipe

diameter plus twice the marine growth entry.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 37

References

1 Mechanics of Wave Forces On Offshore Structures, Turgut Sarpkaya and Michael Isaacson, Van

Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1982, ISBN 0-442-25402-4.

2 Handbook of Ocean and Underwater Engineering, Myers, Holm, and McAllister, McGraw-Hill Book

Co., 1969, ISBN 07-044245 -2.

3 Fifth Order Gravity Wave Theory, Lars Skjelbreia and James Hendrickson, National Engineering

Science Co., Pasadena, California, 1960.

4 Planning and Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms, McClelland and Reifel, Van Nostrand Reinhold

Co., 1986, ISBN 0-442-25223-4.

5 Intercomparison of Near-Bottom Kinematics by Several Wave Theories and Field and Laboratory

Data, R. G. Dean and M. Perlin, Coastal Engineering, #9 (1986), p399-437.

6 A Finite Amplitude Wave on a Linear Shear Current, R. A. Dalrymple, Journal of Geophysical

Research, Vol 79, No 30, 1974.

7 Application of Stream Function Wave Theory to Offshore Design Problems, R. G. Dean, OTC #1613,

1972.

8 Stream Function Representation of Nonlinear Ocean Waves, R. G. Dean, Journal of Geophysical

Research, Vol 70, No 18, 1965.

9 American Petroleum Institute - Recommended Practice 2A (API-RP2A), American Petroleum

Institute, July 1993.

10 Improved Algorithm for Stream Function Wave Theory, Min-Chih Huang, Journal of Waterway, Port,

Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, January 1989.

11 Stream Function Wave Theory with Profile Constraints, Min-Chih Huang, Journal of Waterway, Port,

Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, January/February 1993.

38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The ASME Section VIII, Division 2 code provides for a fairly elaborate procedure to analyze the local

stresses in vessels and nozzles. Only the elastic analysis approach will be discussed in this manual. The

user should always refer to the applicable code if any of the limits described in this section are

approached, or if any unusual material, weld, or stress situation exists, or there are non-linear concerns

such as the material's operation in the creep range.

The first step in the procedure is to determine if the elastic approach is satisfactory. Section AD-160

contains the exact method and basically states that if all of the following conditions are met, then fatigue

analysis need not be done:

1 The expected design number of full-range pressure cycles does not exceed the number of allowed

cycles corresponding to an Sa value of 3Sm (4Sm for non-integral attachments) on the material fatigue

curve. The Sm is the allowable stress intensity for the material at the operating temperature.

2 The expected design range of pressure cycles other than startup or shutdown must be less than 1/3 (1/4

for non-integral attachments) the design pressure times (Sa/Sm), where Sa is the value obtained on the

material fatigue curve for the specified number of significant pressure fluctuations.

3 The vessel does not experience localized high stress due to heating.

4 The full range of stress intensities due to mechanical loads (including piping reactions) does not

exceed Sa from the fatigue curve for the expected number of load fluctuations.

Once the user has decided that an elastic analysis will be satisfactory, either a simplified or a

comprehensive approach may be taken to the vessel stress evaluation. Both methods will be described in

detail below, after a discussion of the Section VIII Div. 2 Requirements.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 39

Ideally, in order to address the local allowable stress problem, the user should have the endurance curve

for the material of construction and complete design pressure / temperature loading information. If any of

the elastic limits are approached, or if there is anything out of the ordinary about the nozzle/vessel

connection design, the code should be carefully consulted before performing the local stress analysis. The

material Sm table and the endurance curve for carbon steels are given in this section for illustration. Only

values taken directly from the code should be used in design.

There are essentially three criteria that must be satisfied before the stresses in the vessel wall due to nozzle

loads can be considered within the allowables. These three criteria can be summarized as:

Pm < kSmh

Pm + Pl + Pb< 1.5kSmh

Pm + Pl + Pb + Q < 3Smavg

Where Pm, Pl, Pb, and Q are the general primary membrane stress, the local primary membrane stress, the

local primary bending stress, and the total secondary stresses (membrane plus bending), respectively; and

K, Smh, and Smavg are the occasional stress factor, the hot material allowable stress intensity, and the average

material stress intensity (Smh + Smc) / 2.

Due to the stress classification defined by Section VIII, Division 2 in the vicinity of nozzles, as given in

the Table 4-120.1, the bending stress terms caused by any external load moments or internal pressure in

the vessel wall near a nozzle or other opening, should be classified as Q, or the secondary stresses,

regardless of whether they were caused by sustained or expansion loads. This causes Pb to disappear, and

leads to a much more detailed classification:

Pm—General primary membrane stress (primarily due to internal pressure)

Pl—Local primary membrane stress, which may include

--Membrane stress due to internal pressure

--Local membrane stress due to applied sustained forces and moments

Q—Secondary stresses, which may include

--Bending stress due to internal pressure

--Bending stress due to applied sustained forces and moments

--Membrane stress due to applied expansion forces

--Bending stress due to applied expansion forces and moments

--Membrane stress due to applied expansion moments

40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Each of the stress terms defined in the above classifications contain three parts: two stress components in

normal directions and one shear stress component. To combine these stresses, the following rules apply:

Compute the normal and shear components for each of the three stress types, i.e. Pm, Pl, and Q;

Compute the stress intensity due to the Pm and compare it against kSmh;

Add the individual normal and shear stress components due to Pmand Pl; compute the resultant stress

intensity and compare its value against 1.5kSmh;

Add the individual normal and shear stress components due to Pm, Pl, and Q, compute the resultant

stress intensity, and compare its value to against 3Smavg.

If there is an occasional load as well as a sustained load, these types may be repeated using a k value

of 1.2.

These criteria can be readily found from Figure 4-130.1 of Appendix 4 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2

and the surrounding text. Note that the primary bending stress term, Pb, is not applicable to the shell stress

evaluation, and therefore disappears from the Section VIII, Division 2 requirements. Under the same

analogy, the peak stress limit may also be written as:

Pl + Pb + Q + F < S a

The preceding equation need not be satisfied, provided the elastic limit criteria of AD-160 is met based on

the statement explicitly given in Section 5-100, which is cited below:

“If the specified operation of the vessel meets all of the conditions of AD-160, no analysis for cyclic

operation is required and it may be assumed that the peak stress limit discussed in 4-135 has been

satisfied by compliance with the applicable requirements for materials, design, fabrication, testing and

inspection of this division.”

The procedure for checking stresses in vessel shells using WRC 107 can be summarized as follows:

1 Check geometric limitation to see whether WRC 107 is applicable;

2 If yes, check to see whether or not the elastic approach as outlined in Section VIII, Division 2, AD-

160 is satisfactory;

3 Compute the sustained, expansion and occasional loads in the vessel shell due to the applied nozzle

loads. Consider the local restraint configuration in order to determine whether or not the axial pressure

thrust load (P * Ain) should be added to the sustained (and occasional loads). If desired by the user,

this thrust load will be automatically calculated and added to the applied loads.

4 Calculate pressure stresses, Pm, on the vessel shell wall in both longitudinal and circumferential (hoop)

directions for both sustained and occasional cases. Notice that two different pressure terms are

required in carrying out the pressure stress calculations. P is the design pressure of the system

(sustained), while Pvar is the DIFFERENCE between the peak pressure and the design pressure of the

system, which will be used to qualify the vessel membrane stress under the occasional load case.

Note: The Pm stresses will be calculated automatically if a pressure value is enter by the user.

1 Run WRC 107 to calculate the Pl, and Q stresses as defined earlier. Note that the local stresses due to

sustained, expansion and occasional loads can now be compute simultaneously.

2 Various stress components can be obtained from combining the stress intensities computed from

applying the sustained, expansion and occasional loads, if applicable. These stress intensities can then

be used to carry out the stress summations and the results are used to determine acceptability of the

local stresses in the vessel shell. Notice now CAESAR II can provide the WRC 107 stress summation

module in line with the stress calculation routines

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 41

Under the above procedure, the equations used in CAESAR II to qualify the various stress components can

be summarized as follows:

Pm(SUS) < Smh

Pm(SUS + OCC) < 1.2Smh

Pm(SUS) + Pl(SUS) < 1.5Smh

Pm(SUS + OCC) + Pl(SUS + OCC) < 1.5(1.2)Smh

Pm(SUS + OCC) + Pl(SUS + OCC) + Q(SUS + EXP + OCC) < 1.5(Smc + Smh)

The most difficult problem associated with the comprehensive ASME Sect. VIII, Div. 2 nozzle/vessel

analysis involves the pressure calculation. Hoop and longitudinal hand pressure calculations can not be

considered dependable, and axial pressure loading on the junction is often calculated incorrectly or

omitted. A smaller, yet significant problem with the comprehensive calculation is the time it takes to

organize and manipulate the stress data.

For these reasons, an alternate simplified approach was developed. To eliminate the concern for pressure,

both the pressure term in the loading on the left side of the inequality and the pressure term in the

allowable on the right side of the inequality are cancelled.

The first check is Pm (due to pressure) must be less than or equal to 1.0 Smh. Assuming that the area

reinforcement around the nozzle will satisfy the pressure requirements, let this first check equal the

maximum value.

The second check is Pm + Pl + Pb must be less than or equal to 1.5 Smh. Subtracting the stresses due to

pressure (assumed equal to Smh) reduces this check to: Pl + Pb (due to external sustained forces without

pressure) < 0.5 Smh.

Unfortunately, the third check on the Pm + Pl + Q terms are at the root of an application controversy. There

are primarily three schools of thought:

Pm+Pl+Q is an operating loading condition, and as such, includes the loads due to pressure and weight.

Pm+Pl+Q is the range of loads, i.e. the expansion loading condition, and as such, excludes the effects

of sustained, or primary loads. Primary sustained loads, such as weight and pressure, should be

excluded.

Pm+Pl+Q is the range of loads and should exclude the primary load weight, but should include the

varying pressure load at least in those thermal load cases where the system goes from a startup

(ambient temperature and pressure condition to operating condition).

For the simplification, it is assumed that the Pm component due to pressure should be included in both the

left and right side of the Pm+Pl+Pb+Q < 3Sm inequality, thus assuming that the area reinforcement

requirements are exactly satisfied, i.e.

Again, letting Pm = Sm and subtracting this pressure term from the “expansion” allowable (Pm + Pl + Q <

3Sm) provides a simplified allowable limit.

The expansion (or operating, or both) loads from the CAESAR II restraint report should satisfy the

computed stress requirement:

Pl + Pb + Q (operating or expansion excluding pressure) < 2Sm.

In summary

Ensure proper nozzle reinforcement for pressure and assume pressure stresses are at their maximum.

Compare primary stresses (without pressure) to 1/2 Smh.

Compare stresses due to the sum of primary and secondary loads to 2Sm(avg); where Sm(avg) is the average

of the hot and cold allowable stress intensities (Smh & Smc).

42 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

1 Perform a CAESAR II analysis of the piping loads on the vessel/nozzle junction. Use WRC 297

flexibilities to compute loads more accurately, but less conservatively (or do two analysis, one with

flexibilities and one without). From this analysis the user should have sustained, operating, and

expansion loads on the vessel/nozzle junction.

2 Find Smh and Smc from the Sect. VIII allowable stress tables. Smh is the vessel material hot allowable,

and Smc is the vessel material cold allowable.

3 Run WRC 107 with the sustained loads on the vessel/nozzle junction from CAESAR II, and make sure

that the computed stress intensities are less than 0.5 Smh. This conservatively considers bending

stresses from internal pressure and sustained moments to have a primary classification; if it fails, the

stresses must be reviewed in more detail.

4 Run WRC 107 with the operating loads on the vessel/nozzle junction from CAESAR II, and make sure

that the computed stress intensities are less than Smh + Smc.

5 Run WRC 107 with the expansion loads on the vessel/nozzle junction from CAESAR II, and make sure

that the computed stress intensities are less than Smh + Smc.

Should any of the checks described fail, then the more comprehensive analysis (described earlier) of the

junction should be performed.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 43

The response of a system under a dynamic load is often determined by superposition of modal results,

with CAESAR II specifically providing the spectral analysis method for use. One of the advantages of

modal analysis is that usually only a limited number of modes are excited and need be included in the

analysis. The drawback to this method is that although displacements may be obtained with good accuracy

using only a few of the lowest frequency modes, the force, reaction, and stress results may require

extraction of far more modes (possibly far into the rigid range) before acceptable accuracy is attained.

CAESAR II’s Missing Mass option offers the ability to include a correction which represents the quasi-

static contribution of the higher order modes not explicitly extracted for the modal/dynamic response, thus

providing greater accuracy with reduced calculation time.

The dynamic response of a linear multi-degree-of-freedom system is described by the following equation:

Ma(t) + Cv(t) + Kx(t) = F(t)

Where:

M = n x n mass matrix of system

C = n x n damping matrix of system

K = n x n stiffness matrix of system

a(t) = n x 1, time-dependent acceleration vector

v(t) = n x 1, time-dependent velocity vector

x(t) = n x 1, time-dependent displacement vector

F(t) = n x 1, time-dependent applied force vector

Assuming harmonic motion and neglecting damping, the free vibration eigenvalue problem for this system

is

K -M 2

=0

Where:

= n x n mode shape matrix

2

= n x n matrix where each diagonal entry is the frequency squared of the corresponding mode

The modal matrix may be normalized such that T

M = I (where I is the n x n identity matrix) and T

K = 2.

The modal matrix may be partitioned into two submatrices:

=[ e r ]

Where:

e = mode shapes extracted for dynamic analysis (i.e., lowest frequency modes)

r = residual (non-extracted) mode shapes (corresponding to rigid response, or the “missing mass”

contribution)

The extracted mode shapes are orthogonal to the residual mode shapes, or:

e

T

x r =0

The displacement components can be expressed as linear combinations of the mode shapes:

x= Y= e Ye + r Yr = xe + xr

44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Where:

x = total system displacements

xe = system displacements due to extracted modes

xr = system displacements due to residual modes

Y = generalized modal coordinates

Ye = partition of Y matrix corresponding to extracted modes

Yr = partition of Y matrix corresponding to residual modes

The dynamic load vector can be expressed in similar terms:

F=K Y=K e Ye + K r Yr = Fe + Fr

Where:

F = total system load vector

Fe = load vector due to extracted modes

Fr = load vector due to residual modes

Y = generalized modal coordinates

Ye = partition of Y matrix corresponding to extracted modes

Yr = partition of Y matrix corresponding to residual modes

Normally, modal superposition analyses completely neglect the rigid response — the displacements X r

caused by the load Fr. This response, of the non-extracted modes, can be obtained from the system

displacement under a static loading Fr. Based upon the relationships stated above, Fr can be estimated as

follows:

F=K e Ye + K r Yr

Multiplying both sides by e

T

(and considering that e

T

r = 0):

e

T

F= e

T

K e Ye + e

T

K r Yr = e

T

K e Ye

Substituting e

2

for e

T

K e and solving for Ye:

e

T

F= e

2

Ye

Ye = e

T

e

-2

F

The residual force can now be stated as

Fr = F - K e Ye = F - e

T

K e e

-2

F

As seen earlier

T

M 2

=I 2

= T

K

Substituting e

T

M e e

2

for e

T

K e:

Fr = F - e

T

M e e

2

e

-2

F=F- e

T

M e F

Therefore, CAESAR II calculates the residual response (and includes it as the missing mass contribution)

according to the following procedure:

1 The missing mass load is calculated for each individual shock load as

Fr = F - e

T

M e F

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 45

Note: The load vector F represents the product of the force set vector and the rigid DLF for force

spectrum loading; the product of the mass matrix, ZPA, and directional vector for non-ISM seismic loads;

and the product of the mass matrix, ZPA, and displacement matrix (under unit ISM support displacement)

for seismic anchor movement loads. Note that the missing mass load will vary, depending upon the

number of modes extracted by the user and the cutoff frequency selected (or more specifically, the DLF or

acceleration corresponding to the cutoff frequency).

"Rigid,” for the purposes of determining the rigid DLF, or the ZPA, may be designated by the

user, through a setup parameter, to be either the DLF/acceleration associated with the frequency of the last

extracted mode, or the true spectral DLF/ ZPA—that corresponding to the largest entered frequency of the

input spectrum.

2 The missing mass load is applied to the structure as a static load. The static structural response is then

combined (according to the user-specified combination method) with the dynamically amplified

modal responses as if it were a modal response. Actually this static response is the algebraic sum of

the responses of all non-extracted modes— representing in-phase response, as would be expected

from rigid modes.

3 The Missing Mass Data report is compiled for all shock cases, whether missing mass is to be included

or not. The percent of mass active is calculated according to:

% Active Mass = 1 - ( Fr[i] / F [i])

summed over i = 1 to n

The maximum possible percent that is theoretically possible for this value is of course 100%, however

numerical inaccuracies may occasionally cause the value to be slightly higher. If the missing mass

correction factor is included, the percent of mass included in the correction is shown in the report as well.

Since CAESAR II’s procedure assumes that the missing mass correction represents the contribution of rigid

modes, and that the ZPA is based upon the spectral ordinate value at the frequency of the last extracted

mode, it is recommended that the user extract modes up to, but not far beyond, a recognized “rigid”

frequency. Choosing a cutoff frequency to the left of the spectrum’s resonant peak will provide a non-

conservative result, since resonant responses may be missed. Using a cutoff frequency to the right of the

peak, but still in the resonant range, will yield conservative results, since the ZPA/rigid DLF will be

overestimated. Extracting a large number of rigid modes for calculation of the dynamic response may be

conservative, since all available modal combination methods (SRSS, GROUP, ABS, etc.) give

conservative results versus the algebraic combination method which gives a more realistic representation

of the net response of the rigid modes. Based upon the response spectrum shown below, an appropriate

cutoff point for the modal extraction would be about 33 Hz.

46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

CAESAR II provides two options for combining the missing mass correction with the modal (dynamic)

results—SRSS and Absolute. The Absolute combination method of course provides the more conservative

result, and is based upon the assumption that the dynamic amplification is going to occur simultaneously

with the maximum ground acceleration or force load. Literature (References 1, 2) states that the modal and

the rigid portions of the response to typical dynamic loads are actually statistically independent, so that an

SRSS combination method is a more accurate representation of reality. For this reason, CAESAR II’s

default missing mass combination method is SRSS.

References

1 A. K. Gupta, Response Spectrum Method in Seismic Analysis and Design of Structures, CRC Press,

1990

2 K. M. Vashi, “Computation of Seismic Response from Higher Frequency Modes,” ASME 80-

C2/PVP-50, 1980

3 O. E. Hansteen and K. Bell, “On the Accuracy of Mode Superposition Analysis in Structural

Dynamics,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Volume 7, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.,

1979

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 47

For most piping codes supported by CAESAR II, performance of fatigue analysis is an extension to, rather

than an explicit part of, the code requirements (however, it is an explicit part of the IGE/TD/12 Pipework

Stress Analysis for Gas Industry Plant code).

Fatigue Basics

Piping and vessels have been known to suffer from sudden failure following years of successful service.

Research done during the 1940s and 1950s (primarily advanced by A. R. C. Markl’s “Piping Flexibility

Analysis,” published in 1955) provided an explanation for this phenomenon, as well as design criteria

aimed at avoiding failures of this type. The explanation was that materials were failing due to fatigue, a

process leading to the propagation of cracks, and subsequent fracture, following repeated cyclic loading.

Steels and other metals are made up of organized patterns of molecules, known as crystal structures.

However, these patterns are not maintained throughout the steel producing an ideal homogeneous

material, but are found in microscopic isolated island-like areas called grains. Inside each grain the pattern

of molecules is preserved. From one grain boundary to the next the molecular pattern is the same, but the

orientation differs. As a result, grain boundaries are high energy borders. Plastic deformation begins

within a grain that is both subject to a high stress and oriented such that the stress causes a slippage

between adjacent layers in the same pattern. The incremental slippages (called dislocations) cause local

cold-working. On the first application of the stress, dislocations will move through many of the grains that

are in the local area of high stress. As the stress is repeated, more dislocations will move through their

respective grains. Dislocation movement is impeded by the grain boundaries, so after multiple stress

applications, the dislocations tend to accumulate at grain boundaries, eventually becoming so dense that

the grains “lock up,” causing a loss of ductility and thus preventing further dislocation movement.

Subsequent applications of the stress cause the grain to tear, forming cracks. Repeated stress applications

cause the cracks to grow. Unless abated, the cracks propagate with additional stress applications until

sufficient cross sectional strength is lost to cause catastrophic failure of the material.

The fatigue capacity of a material can be estimated through the application of cyclic tensile/compressive

displacement loads with a uniaxial test machine. A plot of the cyclic stress capacity of a material is called

a fatigue (or endurance) curve. These curves are generated through multiple cyclic tests at different stress

levels. The number of cycles to failure usually increases as the applied cyclic stress decreases, often until a

threshold stress (known as the endurance limit) is reached below which no fatigue failure occurs,

regardless of the number of applied cycles. An endurance curve for carbon and low alloy steels, taken

from the ASME Section VIII Division 2 Pressure Vessel Code is shown in the following figure.

48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Cyclic loads on piping (primarily thermal expansion or vibration loadings) are found to cause fatigue

failure in piping systems. The fatigue design criteria required by the piping codes today are basically

identical to those proposed by Markl in the 1950s. The codes typically limit the expansion stress range in

piping to a formula which generally fits the fatigue curve of the material.

The IGE/TD/12 code does, on the other hand, present specific requirements for true fatigue evaluation of

systems subject to a cyclic loading threshold. Furthermore, ASME Section III, Subsection NB and ASME

Section VIII Division 2 provide guidelines by which fatigue evaluation rules may be applied to piping

(and other pressure retaining equipment). These procedures have been adapted, where possible, to

CAESAR II’s methodology.

Fatigue analyses can be done through the following steps:

1 Assigning fatigue curve data to the piping material: This is done on the Allowable auxiliary screen.

Fatigue data may be entered directly, or read in from a text file (a number of commonly used curves

have been provided). Users may define their own fatigue curves as defined in Appendix A below.

2 Defining the fatigue load cases: This may be done in either the static or dynamic load case builders.

For this purpose, a new stress type, FAT, has been defined. For every fatigue case, the number of

anticipated cycles must also be defined.

3 Calculation of the fatigue stresses: This is done automatically by CAESAR II – the fatigue stresses,

unless explicitly defined by the applicable code are calculated the same as CAESAR II calculates stress

intensity, in order to conform to the requirements of ASME Section VIII, Division 2 Appendix 5. (The

IGE/TD/12 is currently the only piping code supported by CAESAR II which does have explicit

instructions for calculating fatigue stresses.) The equations used in the calculation of fatigue stresses

are documented at the end of this section.

4 Determination of the allowable fatigue stresses: Allowables are interpolated logarithmically from the

fatigue curve based upon the number of cycles designated for the load case. For static load cases, the

calculated stress is assumed to be a peak-to-peak cyclic value (i.e., thermal expansion, settlement,

pressure, etc.), so the allowable stress is extracted directly from the fatigue curve. For harmonic and

dynamic load cases, the calculated stress is assumed to be a zero-to-peak cyclic value (i.e., vibration,

earthquake, etc.), so the extracted allowable is divided by 2 prior to use in the comparison.

5 Determination of the allowable number of cycles: The flip side of calculating the allowable fatigue

stress for the designated number of cycles is the calculation of the allowable number of cycles for the

calculated stress level. This is done by logarithmically interpolating the “Cycles” axis of the fatigue

curve based upon the calculated stress value. Since static stresses are assumed to be peak-to-peak

cyclic values, the allowable number of cycles is interpolated directly from the fatigue curve. Since

harmonic and dynamic stresses are assumed to be zero-to-peak cyclic values, the allowable number of

cycles is interpolated using twice the calculated stress value.

6 Reporting the results: CAESAR II provides two reports for viewing the results of load cases of stress

type FAT. The first of these is the standard stress report, which displays the calculated fatigue stress

and fatigue allowable at each node. Stress reports may be generated individually for each load case,

and show whether any of the individual load cases in isolation would fail the system.

However, in those circumstances where there is more than one cyclic load case potentially contributing to

fatigue failure, the Cumulative Usage report is appropriate. In order to generate this report, the user selects

all of the FAT load cases which contribute to the overall system degradation. The Cumulative Usage

report lists for each node point the usage ratio (actual cycles divided by allowable cycles), and then sums

these up for total Cumulative Usage. A total greater than 1.0 indicates a potential fatigue failure.

Consider a sample job that potentially has several different cyclic load variations:

1 Operating cycle from ambient (70°F) to 500°F (12,000 cycles anticipated)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 49

2 Shut down external temperature variation from ambient (70°F) to -20°F (200 cycles anticipated)

3 Pressurization to 1800 psig (12,000 cycles anticipated)

4 Pressure fluctuations of plus/minus 30 psi from the 1800 psig (200,000 cycles anticipated)

In order to do a proper fatigue analysis, these should be grouped in sets of load pairs which represent the

worst-case combination of stress ranges between extreme states. These load variations can be laid out in

graphical form. The figure below shows a sketch of the various operating ranges this system experiences.

Each horizontal line represents an operating range. At the each end of each horizontal line, the

temperatures and pressures defining the range are noted. At the center of each horizontal line, the number

of cycles for each range is defined.

Using this sketch of the operating ranges, the four fatigue load cases can be determined. The procedure is

as follows.

Case 1: Cover the absolute extreme, from –20°F and 0 psi to 500°F and 1830 psi. This occurs 200 times.

As a result of this case, the cycles for the ranges defined must be reduced by 200. The first range (-20,0 to

70,0) is reduced to zero, and has no contribution to additional load cases. The second range (70,0 to

500,1800) is reduced to 11,800 cycles. The third and fourth ranges are similarly reduced to 199,800

cycles.

These same steps can be used to arrive at cases 2 through 4, reducing the number of “considered” cycles at

each step. This procedure is summarized in the table below.

Segment -20, 0 to 70, 0 70, 0 to 500, 1800 500, 1700 to 500, 1800 500, 1800 to 500, 1830

Case

After 1 0 11,800 200, 000 199,800

After 2 0 0 200, 000 188,000

After 3 0 0 12,000 0

After 4 0 0 0 0

50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This table is then used to set the load cases as cycles between the following load values:

Between -20°F, 0 psig and 500°F, 1830 psig (200 cycles)

Between 70°F, 0 psig and 500°F, 1830 psig (11,800 cycles)

Between 500°F, 1770 psig and 500°F, 1830 psig (188,000 cycles)

Between 500°F, 1770 psig and 500°F, 1800 psig (12,000 cycles)

These temperatures and pressures are entered as operating conditions accordingly:

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 51

It is next necessary to enter the fatigue curve data for the material. This is done by clicking the Fatigue

Curves… button, revealing the Material Fatigue Curve dialog box. This can be used to enter two sets of

fatigue curves for the material – one for butt weld fittings and one for fillet weld fittings (note: this

distinction is currently implemented only for the IGE/ TD/12 code –fatigue analyses under all other codes

are evaluated only against the butt weld curve). Up to eight Cycle vs. Stress data points may be entered to

define the curve; interpositions are made logarithmically. Data points should be entered top down, from

fewest number of cycles to greatest number of cycles.

Fatigue curves may be alternatively acquired from a text file, by clicking on the Read from file… button.

This displays a list of all \CAESAR\SYSTEM\*.FAT files.

52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Shipped with the program are the following fatigue curve files (the user may easily construct additional

fatigue curve files, as described in Appendix A below):

5-110-1A.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5-110.1, UTS < 80 ksi

5-110-1B.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5-110.1, UTS = 115-130 ksi

5-110-2A.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5-110.2, Curve A

5-110-2B.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5-110.2, Curve B

5-110-2C.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5-110.2, Curve C

TD12AL.FAT IGE/TD/12 Figure 1 SR-N Curve (Aluminum)

TD12ST.FAT IGE/TD/12 Figure 1 SR-N Curve (Carbon/Austenitic Steel)

In this case, for A106B low carbon steel, operating at 500°F, 5-110-1A.FAT is the appropriate selection.

This fills in the fatigue curve data:

At this point, the job can be error checked, and the load cases can be set up.

The static load case builder offers a new stress type, FAT (fatigue). Selecting this stress type does the

following:

1 invites the user to define the number of cycles for the load case (dragging the FAT stress type into the

load case or pressing the Load Cycles button opens the Load Cycles field),

2 causes the stress range to be calculated as per the fatigue stress method of the governing code

(currently this is stress intensity for all codes except IGE/TD/12),

3 causes the calculated stress range to be compared to the full value extracted from the fatigue curve,

and

4 indicates that the load case may be included in the Cumulative Usage report.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 53

The last four load cases represent the load set pairs defined earlier.

Example with Fatigue Load Cases Defined in the Load Case Editor

Once the job has been run, note that the presence of a FAT stress type adds the Cumulative Usage report to

the list of available reports.

54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The fatigue stress range may be checked against the fatigue curve allowable for each load case by simply

selecting it along with the Stresses report. Review of each load case shows that all stress levels pass.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 55

However, this is not a true evaluation of the situation, because it is not a case of “either-or.” The piping

system is subjected to all of these load cases throughout its expected design life, not just one of them.

Therefore, we must review the Cumulative Usage report, which shows the total effect of all fatigue load

cases (or any combination selected by the user) on the design life of the system. This report lists for each

load case the expected number of cycles, the allowable number of cycles (based upon the calculated

stress), and the Usage Ratio (actual cycles divided by allowable cycles). The Usage Ratios are then

summed for all selected load cases; if this sum exceeds 1.0, the system has exceeded its fatigue

capabilities. In this case, it is apparent that the sum of all of the cyclic loadings at node 115 can be

expected to fail this system:

56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Fatigue analysis capability is also available for harmonic and dynamic analyses as well. Harmonic load

cases are entered as they always have been; they may be designated as being stress type FAT simply by

entering the number of expected load cycles on the harmonic input screen:

This produces the same types of reports as are available for the static analysis; they can be processed as

discussed earlier.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 57

The only difference between the harmonic and static fatigue analyses is that for harmonic jobs, the

calculated stresses are assumed to be zero-to-peak calculations, so they are compared to only half of the

stress value extracted from the fatigue curve. Likewise, when creating the Cumulative Usage report, the

number of allowable cycles is based upon twice the calculated stress.

For other dynamic applications (response spectrum and time history), the stress type may be identified as

fatigue by selecting the stress type from the drop list for the Load Case or Static/Dynamic Combination,

and by entering the number of expected cycles in the provided field.

Note that as with the harmonic analyses, the calculated stresses are assumed to be zero-to-peak

calculations, so they are compared to only half of the stress value extracted from the fatigue curve.

Likewise, when creating the Cumulative Usage report, the number of allowable cycles is based upon twice

the calculated stress.

58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The .FAT file is a simple text file, containing the data points necessary to describe the fatigue curve for

the material, for both butt welded and fillet welded fittings. A sample FAT file is shown below.

* ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 2 FATIGUE CURVE

* FIGURE 5-110.1

* DESIGN FATIGUE CURVES FOR CARBON, LOW ALLOY, * SERIES 4XX,

* HIGH ALLOY AND HIGH TENSILE STEELS FOR

* TEMPERATURES NOT

* EXCEEDING 700 F

* FOR UTS <= 80 KSI

* 0.5000000 - STRESS MULTIPLIER (PSI); ALSO

* CONVERTS AMPLITUDE TO FULL RANGE

* BUTT WELD

10 580000.0

100 205000.0

1000 83000.0

10000 38000.0

100000 20000.0

1000000 12500.0

0 0.0

0 0.0

*FILLET WELD (NONE SPECIFIED, USE SAME AS BUTT * WELD)

10 580000.0

100 205000.0

1000 83000.0

10000 38000.0

100000 20000.0

1000000 12500.0

0 0.0

0 0.0

This text file can be created using any available text editor. Any line beginning with an asterisk is treated

as a comment line. It is highly recommended that comment lines be used so that the data can be related

back to a specific material curve.

The first actual data line in the file is a stress multiplier. This value is used to adjust the data values from

“zero to peak” to “peak to peak” and to convert the stress levels to psi (the entered values will be divided

by this number). Following this line is the data table for “butt weld” fittings. This table consists of eight

lines, of two columns. The first column is the Cycle column, the second column is the Stress column. For

each value in the cycle column, the corresponding stress value from the material fatigue curve should be

listed in the stress column.

Following the Butt Weld table is the Fillet Weld table. Optional comment lines are used to separate the

two tables – these comments aid in the readability of the data file. This will help when creating and

verifying your own tables, use comments liberally. The Fillet Weld table also contains eight lines of two

columns.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 59

In both tables, the number of cycles increases as you work down the table. If there is not enough data to

utilize all eight lines, unused lines should be populated with zeroes.

For the IGE/TD/12 piping code, the computation of fatigue stresses are detailed in Section 5.4.4 of that

code. This section of the code states: "The principal stress in any plane can be calculated for any set of

conditions from the following formula:"

Where,

Sh = Hoop stress

Sa = Axial stress

Sq = Shear stress

"This should be used for establishing the range of stress, due regard being paid to the direction and sign."

For all other piping codes in CAESAR II, the fatigue stress is computed as the stress intensity, as follows:

SI = Maximum of:

S1OT - S3OT

S1OB - S3OB

Max(S1IT,RPS) - Min(S3IT,RPS)

Max(S1IB,RPS) - Min(S3IB,RPS)

Where:

S1OT=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top

= (SLOT+HPSO)/2.0+(((SLOT-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2)1/2

S3OT=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Top

=(SLOT+HPSO)/2.0-(((SLOT-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2

S1IT=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Top

=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0+(((SLIT-HPSI)/2.0)2+TSI2) 1/2

S3IT=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Top

=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0-(((SLIT-HPSI)/2.0)2+TSI2) 1/2

S1OB=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top

=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0+ (((SLOB-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2

S3OB=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Bottom

=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0- (((SLOB-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2

S1IB=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom

=(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0+ (((SLIB-HPSI)/2.0)2+TSI2) 1/2

S3IB=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom

60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

RPS=Radial Pressure Stress, Inside

HPSI=Hoop Pressure Stress (Inside, from Lame's Equation)

HPSO=Hoop Pressure Stress (Outside, from Lame's Equation)

SLOT=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Top

SLIT=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Top

SLOB=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Bottom

SLIB=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Bottom

TSI=Torsional Stress, Inside

TSO=Torsional Stress, Outside

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 61

Underlying Theory

The behavior of steel and other homogeneous materials has been long understood, permitting their

widespread use as construction materials. The development of the piping and pressure vessel codes

(Reference 1) in the early part of this century led to the confidence in their use in piping applications; the

work of Markl et. al. in the 1940’s and 1950’s was responsible for the formalization of today’s pipe stress

methods, leading to an ensuing diversification of piping codes on an industry by industry basis. The

advent of the digital computer, and with it the appearance of the first pipe stress analysis software

(Reference 2), further increased the confidence with which steel pipe could be used in critical applications.

The 1980’s saw the wide spread proliferation of the micro computer, with associated pipe stress analysis

software, which in conjunction with training, technical support, and available literature, has brought stress

analysis capability to almost all engineers. In short, an accumulated experience of close to 100 years, in

conjunction with ever improving technology has led to the utmost confidence on the part of today’s

engineers when specifying, designing, and analyzing steel, or other metallic, pipe.

For fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) and other composite piping materials, the situation is not the same.

Fiberglass reinforced plastic was developed only as recently as the 1950’s, and did not come into wide

spread use until a decade later (Reference 3). There is not a large base of stress analysis experience,

although not from a lack of commitment on the part of FRP vendors. Most vendors conduct extensive

stress testing on their components, including hydrostatic and cyclic pressure, uniaxial tensile and

compressive, bending, and combined loading tests. The problem is due to the traditional difficulty

associated with, and lack of understanding of, stress analysis of heterogeneous materials. First, the

behavior and failure modes of these materials are highly complex and not fully understood, leading to

inexact analytical methods, and a general lack of agreement on the best course of action to follow. This

lack of agreement has slowed the simplification and standardization of the analytical methods into

universally recognized codes (BS 7159 Code (Design and Construction of Glass Reinforced Plastics Piping

Systems for Individual Plants or Sites) and UKOOA Specification and Recommended Practice for the Use of

GRP Piping Offshore being notable exceptions). Secondly, the heterogeneous, orthotropic behavior of FRP

and other composite materials has hindered the use of the pipe stress analysis algorithms developed for

homogeneous, isotropic materials associated with crystalline structures. A lack of generally accepted

analytical procedures has contributed to a general reluctance to use FRP piping for critical applications.

Stress analysis of FRP components must be viewed on many levels. These levels, or scales, have been

called “Micro-Mini-Macro” levels, with analysis proceeding along the levels according to the “MMM”

principle (Reference 4).

Micro-Level Analysis

Stress analysis on the “Micro” level refers to the detailed evaluation of the individual materials and

boundary mechanisms comprising the composite material. In general, FRP pipe is manufactured from

laminates, which are constructed from elongated fibers of a commercial grade of glass (called E-glass),

which are coated with a coupling agent or sizing prior to being embedded in a thermosetting plastic

material, typically epoxy or polyester resin.

This means, on the micro scale, that an analytical model must be created which simulates the interface

between these elements. Since the number and orientation of fibers is unknown at any given location in

the FRP sample, the simplest representation of the micro-model is that of a single fiber, extending the

length of the sample, embedded in a square profile of matrix.

Evaluation of this model requires use of the material parameters of

1 the glass fiber

2 the coupling agent or sizing layer (normally of such microscopic proportion that it may be ignored)

62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

It must be considered that these material parameters may vary for an individual material based upon

tensile, compressive, or shear applications of the imposed stresses, and typical values vary significantly

between the fiber and matrix (Reference 5):

Young's Modulus Ultimate Strength Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

Glass Fiber 7.25 x 103 1.5 x 103 5.0 x 10-6

3 1

Plastic Matrix 2.75 x 10 7.0 x 10 7.0 x 10-3

failure of the fiber

failure of the coupling agent layer

failure of the matrix

failure of the fiber-coupling agent bond

failure of the coupling agent-matrix bond

Because of uncertainties about the degree to which the fiber has been coated with the coupling agent and

about the nature of some of these failure modes, this evaluation is typically reduced to

failure of the fiber

failure of the matrix

failure of the fiber-matrix interface

Stresses in the individual components can be evaluated through finite element analysis of the strain

continuity and equilibrium equations, based upon the assumption that there is a good bond between the

fiber and matrix, resulting in compatible strains between the two. For normal stresses applied parallel to

the glass fiber:

f = m = af / Ef = am / Em

af = am Ef / Em

Where:

f = strain in the fiber

= strain in the matrix

af = normal stress parallel to fiber, in the fiber

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 63

am = axial normal stress parallel to fiber, in the matrix

E = modulus of elasticity of the matrix

Due to the large ratio of the modulus of elasticity of the fiber to that of the matrix, it is apparent that nearly

all of the axial normal stress in the fiber-matrix composite is carried by the fiber. Exact values are

(Reference 6):

af = L / [ + (1- )Em/Ef]

am = L / [ Em/Ef + (1- )]

Where:

L = nominal longitudinal stress across composite

= glass content by volume

The continuity equations for the glass-matrix composite seem less complex for normal stresses

perpendicular to the fibers, since the weak point of the material seems to be limited by the glass-free

cross-section shown in the following figure.

For this reason, it would appear that the strength of the composite would be equal to that of the matrix for

stresses in this direction; in fact, its strength is less than that of the matrix due to stress intensification in

the matrix caused by the irregular stress distribution in the vicinity of the stiffer glass. (Since the

elongation over distance D1 must be equal to that over the longer distance D2, the strain, and thus the stress

at location D1 must exceed that at D2 by the ratio D2/D1.) Maximum intensified transverse normal stresses

in the composite are:

Where:

b = intensified normal stress transfer to the fiber, in the composite

^ = nominal transverse normal stress across composite

V = Poisson’s ratio of the matrix

Note: Because of the Poisson effect, this stress produces an additional s'’am equal to the following:

am = Vm

Shear stress can be allocated to the individual components again through the use of continuity equations; it

would appear that the stiffer glass would resist the bulk of the shear stresses; however, unless the fibers

are infinitely long, all shears must eventually pass through the matrix in order to get from fiber to fiber.

Shear stress between fiber and matrix can be estimated as

Where:

ab = intensified shear stress in composite

64 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Gm = shear modulus of elasticity in matrix

Gf = shear modulus of elasticity in fiber

Determination of the stresses in the fiber-matrix interface is more complex. The bonding agent has an

inappreciable thickness, and thus has an indeterminate stiffness for consideration in the continuity

equations. Also, the interface behaves significantly differently in shear, tension, and compression,

showing virtually no effects from the latter. The state of the stress in the interface is best solved by

omitting its contribution from the continuity equations, and simply considering that it carries all stresses

which must be transferred from fiber to matrix.

Once the stresses have been apportioned, they must be evaluated against appropriate failure criteria. The

behavior of homogeneous, isotropic materials such as glass and plastic resin, under a state of multiple

stress is better understood. A failure criterion for isotropic material reduces the combined normal and

shear stresses (sa, sb, sc, tab, tac, tbc) to a single stress, an “equivalent stress,” which can be compared to the

tensile stress present at failure in a material under uniaxial loading, i.e. the ultimate tensile stress, Sult.

Different theories, and different equivalent stress functions f(sa, sb, sc, tab, tac, tbc) have been proposed, with

possibly the most widely accepted being the Huber-von Mises-Hencky criterion, which states that failure

will occur when the equivalent stress reaches a critical value – the ultimate strength of the material:

eq = {1/2 [( a - )2 + (

b a - )2 + (

c b - )2] + 6(

c ab

2

+ ac

2

+ bc

2

)} Sult

This theory does not fully cover all failure modes of the fiber, in that it omits reference to direction of

stress (i.e., tensile vs. Compressive). The fibers, being relatively long and thin, predominantly demonstrate

buckling as their failure mode when loaded in compression.

The equivalent stress failure criterion has been corroborated (with slightly non-conservative results) by

testing. Little is known about the failure mode of the adhesive interface, although empirical evidence

points to a failure criterion which is more of a linear relationship between the normal and the square of the

shear stresses. Failure testing of a composite material loaded only in transverse normal and shear stresses

are shown in the following figure; the kink in the curve shows the transition from the matrix to the

interface as the failure point.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 65

Mini-Level Analysis

Although feasible in concept, micro level analysis is not feasible in practice. This is due to the uncertainty

of the arrangement of the glass in the composite—the thousands of fibers which may be randomly

distributed, semi-randomly oriented (although primarily in a parallel pattern), and of randomly varying

lengths. This condition indicates that a sample can truly be evaluated only on a statistical basis, thus

rendering detailed finite element analysis inappropriate.

For mini-level analysis, a laminate layer is considered to act as a continuous (hence the common reference

to this method as the “continuum” method) material, with material properties and failure modes estimated

by integrating them over the assumed cross-sectional distribution, i.e., averaging. The assumption

regarding the distribution of the fibers can have a marked effect on the determination of the material

parameters; two of the most commonly postulated distributions are the square and the hexagonal, with the

latter generally considered to be a better representation of randomly distributed fibers.

The stress-strain relationships, for those sections evaluated as continua, can be written as:

aa = aa /EL - (V L/EL) bb - (V L/EL) cc

bb cc

cc

ab = ab / 2 GL

bc = bc / 2 GT

ac = ac / 2 GL

Where:

ij = strain along direction i on face j

ij , ab = stress (normal, shear) along direction i on face j

EL = modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in longitudinal direction

VL = Poisson’s ratio of laminate layer in longitudinal direction

ET = modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in transverse direction

VT = Poisson’s ratio of laminate layer in transverse direction

GL = shear modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in longitudinal direction

66 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

These relationships require that four moduli of elasticity (EL, ET, GL, and GT) and two Poisson’s ratios (VL

and VT) to be evaluated for the continuum. Extensive research (References 4 - 10) has been done to

estimate these parameters. There is general consensus that the longitudinal terms can be explicitly

calculated; for cases where the fibers are significantly stiffer than the matrix, they are:

EL = EF + EM(1 - )

GL = GM + / [ 1 / (GF - GM) + (1 - ) / (2GM)]

VL = VF + VM(1 - )

Parameters in the transverse direction cannot be calculated; only their upper and lower bounds can.

Correlation with empirical results have yielded approximations (Reference 5 and 6):

GT = GM (1 + 0.6 ) / [(1 - )1.25 + (GM/GF)]

VT = VL (EL / ET)

Use of these parameters permits the development of the homogeneous material models which facilitate the

calculation of longitudinal and transverse stresses acting on a laminate layer. The resulting stresses may be

allocated to the individual fibers and matrix using relationships developed during the micro analysis.

Macro-Level Analysis

Where Mini-level analysis provides the means of evaluation of individual laminate layers, Macro-level

analysis provides the means of evaluating components made up of multiple laminate layers. It is based

upon the assumption that not only the composite behaves as a continuum, but that the series of laminate

layers acts as a homogeneous material with properties estimated based on the properties of the layer and

the winding angle, and that finally, failure criteria are functions of the level of equivalent stress.

Laminate properties may be estimated by summing the layer properties (adjusted for winding angle) over

all layers. For example

Equation 1: Macro-Level

Where:

ELAM|| = Longitudinal modulus of elasticity of laminate

Analysis (2) tLAM = thickness of laminate

E^k = Longitudinal modulus of elasticity of laminate layer k

Cik = transformation matrix orienting axes of layer k to longitudinal laminate axis

Cjk = transformation matrix orienting axes of layer k to transverse laminate axis

tk = thickness of laminate layer k

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 67

Once composite properties are determined, the component stiffness parameters may be determined as

though it were made of homogeneous material – i.e., based on component cross-sectional and composite

material properties.

Normal and shear stresses can be determined from 1) forces and moments acting on the cross-sections,

and 2) the cross-sectional properties themselves. These relationships can be written as

aa = Faa / Aaa ± Mba / Sba ± Mca / Sca

bb = Fbb / Abb ± Mab / Sab ± Mcb / Scb

cc = Fcc / Acc ± Mac / Sac ± Mbc / Sbc

ab = Fab / Aab ± Mbb / Rab

ac = Fac / Aac ± Mcc / Rac

ba = Fba / Aba ± Maa / Rba

bc = Fbc / Abc ± Mcc / Rbc

ca = Fca / Aca ± Maa / Rca

cb = Fcb / Acb ± Mbb / Rcb

Where:

ij = normal stress along axis i on face j

Fij = force acting along axis i on face j

Aij = area resisting force along axis i on face j

Mij = moment acting about axis i on face j

Sij = section modulus about axis i on face j

ij = shear stress along axis i on face j

Rij = torsional resistivity about axis i on face j

Using the relationships developed under macro, mini, and micro analysis, these stresses can be resolved

back into local stresses within the laminate layer, and from there, back into stresses within the fiber and

the matrix. From these, the failure criteria of those microscopic components, and hence, the component as

a whole, may be checked.

Implementation of Macro-Level Analysis for Piping Systems

The macro-level of analysis described above is the basis for the preeminent FRP piping codes in use

today, including the BS 7159 Code (Design and Construction of Glass Reinforced Plastics Piping Systems

for Individual Plants or Sites) and the UKOOA Specification and Recommended Practice for the Use of

GRP Piping Offshore.

BS 7159 uses methods and formulas familiar to the world of steel piping stress analysis in order to

calculate stresses on the cross-section, with the assumption that FRP components have material parameters

based on continuum evaluation or test. All coincident loads, such as thermal, weight, pressure, and axial

extension due to pressure need be evaluated simultaneously. Failure is based on the equivalent stress

calculation method; since one normal stress (radial stress) is traditionally considered to be negligible in

typical piping configurations, this calculation reduces to the greater of (except when axial stresses are

compressive):

2 2

S eq = Sx + 4t

(when axial stress is greater than hoop)

68 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

2 2

S eq = Sh + 4t

(when hoop stress is greater than axial)

A slight difficulty arises when evaluating the calculated stress against an allowable, due to the orthotropic

nature of the FRP piping – normally the laminate is designed in such a way to make the pipe much

stronger in the hoop, than in the longitudinal, direction, providing more than one allowable stress. This is

resolved by defining the allowable in terms of a design strain ed, rather than stress, in effect adjusting the

stress allowable in proportion to the strength in each direction – i.e., the allowable stresses for the two

equivalent stresses above would be (ed ELAMX) and (ed ELAMH) respectively. In lieu of test data, system design

strain is selected from Tables 4.3 and 4.4 of the Code, based on expected chemical and temperature

conditions.

Actual stress equations as enumerated by the BS 7159 Code are shown below:

1 Combined stress: straights and bends:

C =( f

2

+4 S )

2 0.5

d ELAM

or

C =( X

2

+4 S )

2 0.5

d ELAM

Where:

C = combined stress

f = circumferential stress

= fP + fB

S =torsional stress

= MS(Di + 2td) / 4I

X = longitudinal stress

= XP + XB

= mP(Di + td) / 2 td

fB = circumferential bending stress

= [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIFfi)2 + Mo SIFfo)2] 0.5 (for bends, = 0 for straights)

MS = torsional moment on cross-section

D = internal pipe diameter

td = design thickness of reference laminate

I = moment of inertia of pipe

m = pressure stress multiplier of component

P = internal pressure

Mi = in-plane bending moment on cross-section

SIFfi = circumferential stress intensification factor for in-plane moment

M = out-plane bending moment on cross-section

SIFf = circumferential stress intensification factor for out-plane moment

XP = longitudinal pressure stress

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 69

= P(Di + td) / 4 td

XB = longitudinal bending stress

= [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIFxi)2 + Mo SIFxo)2]0.5

SIF = longitudinal stress intensification factor for in-plane moment

SIF = longitudinal stress intensification factor for out-plane moment

2 Combined stress: branch connections:

CB = (( fP + bB)2 + 4 SB ) £ ed ELAM

2 0.5

Where:

CB = branch combined stress

fP = circumferential pressure stress

= mP(Di + tM) / 2 tM

bB = non-directional bending stress

= [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIFBi)2 + Mo SIFBo)2]0.5

SB = branch torsional stress

= MS(Di + 2td) / 4I

tM = thickness of the reference laminate at the main run

SIFBi = branch stress intensification factor for in-plane moment

SIFB = branch stress intensification factor for out-plane moment

3 When longitudinal stress is negative (net compressive):

f - Vfx x f ELAMf

Where:

Vfx = Poisson’s ratio giving strain in longitudinal direction caused by stress in circumferential

direction

f = design strain in circumferential direction

ELAMf = modulus of elasticity in circumferential direction

70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The BS 7159 Code also dictates the means of calculating flexibility and stress intensification (k- and i-)

factors for bend and tee components, for use during the flexibility analysis.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 71

The BS 7159 Code imposes a number of limitations on its use, the most notable being the limitation of a

system to a design pressure of 10 bar, the restriction to the use of designated design laminates, and the

limited applicability of the k- and i- factor calculations to pipe bends (i.e, mean wall thickness around the

intrados must be 1.75 times the nominal thickness or less).

72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

This code appears to be more sophisticated, yet easy to use, than any available alternative, so it is

recommended here that its calculation techniques be applied even to FRP systems outside its explicit

scope, with the following recommendations:

Pressure stiffening of bends should be based on actual design pressure, rather than allowable design

strain.

Design strain should be based on manufacturer’s test and experience data wherever possible (with

consideration for expected operating conditions).

Fitting k- and i- factors should be based on manufacturer’s test or analytic data if available.

The UKOOA Specification is similar in many respects to the BS 7159 Code, except that it simplifies the

calculational requirements in exchange for imposing more limitations and more conservatism on the

piping operating conditions.

Rather than explicitly calculating a combined stress, the specification defines an idealized envelope of

combinations of axial and hoop stresses which cause the equivalent stress to reach failure. This curve

represents the plot of:

( x/ x-all )2 + ( hoop / hoop-all )2 - [ x hoop /( x-all hoop-all )] 1.0

Where:

x-all = allowable stress, axial

hoop-all = allowable stress, hoop

The Specification conservatively limits the user to that part of the curve falling under the line between x-all

(also known as sa(0:1)) and the intersection point on the curve where hoop is twice sx-(a natural condition for

a pipe loaded only with pressure), as shown in the following figure.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 73

An implicit modification to this requirement is the fact that pressure stresses are given a factor of safety

(typically equal to 2/3) while other loads are not. This gives an explicit requirement of

Pdes f1 f2 f3 LTHP

Where:

Pdes = allowable design pressure

f1 = factor of safety for 97.5% lower confidence limit, usually 0.85

f2 = system factor of safety, usually 0.67

f3 = ratio of residual allowable, after mechanical loads

= 1 - (2 a ) / (r f1 LTHS)

b

a

b

= axial bending stress due to mechanical loads

r= aa(0:1) / a(2:1)

a(0:1)

b

= long term axial tensile strength in absence of pressure load

a(2:1) = long term axial tensile strength in under only pressure loading

LTHS = long term hydrostatic strength (hoop stress allowable)

LTHP = long term hydrostatic pressure allowable

Note: This has been implemented in the CAESAR II pipe stress analysis software as:

Code Stress Code Allowable

a

b

(f2 /r) + PDm / (4t) (f1 f2 LTHS) / 2.0

Where:

P = design pressure

D = pipe mean diameter

t = pipe wall thickness

and i-factors for bends are to be taken from the BS 7159 Code, while no such factors are to be used for

tees.

The UKOOA Specification is limited in that shear stresses are ignored in the evaluation process; no

consideration is given to conditions where axial stresses are compressive; and most required calculations

are not explicitly detailed.

74 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Practical Applications

CAESAR II has had the ability to model orthotropic materials such as FRP almost since its inception. It also

can specifically handle the requirements of the BS 7159 Code and the UKOOA Specification.

FRP material parameters corresponding to those of many vendors’ lines are provided with CAESAR II and

may be pre-selected by the user to be the default values whenever FRP piping is used. Other options, as to

whether the BS 7159 pressure stiffening requirements should be carried out using design strain or actual

strain can be set in CAESAR II’s configuration module as well.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 75

76 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Selecting material 20 — Plastic (FRP) – activates CAESAR II’s orthotropic material model and brings in

the appropriate material parameters from the pre-selected materials. The orthotropic material model is

indicated by the changing of two fields from their previous isotropic values: “Elastic Modulus (C)” —>

“Elastic Modulus/axial” and “Poisson's Ratio” —> “Ea/Eh*Vh/a”. These changes are necessary due to the

fact that orthotropic models require more material parameters than do isotropic. For example, there is no

longer a single modulus of elasticity for the material, but now two — axial and hoop. There is no longer a

single Poisson’s ratio, but again two — Vh/a (Poisson’s ratio relating strain in the axial direction due to

stress-induced strain in the hoop direction) and Va/h (Poisson’s ratio relating strain in the hoop direction due

to stress-induced strain in the axial direction). Also, unlike isotropic materials, the shear modulus does not

follow the relationship G = 1 / E (1-V), so that value must be explicitly input as well.

In order to minimize input, a few of these parameters can be combined, due to their use in the program.

Generally, the only time that the modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction, or the Poisson’s ratios are

used during flexibility analysis is when calculating piping elongation due to pressure (note that the

modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction is used when determining certain stress allowables for the BS

7159 code):

dx = ( x / Ea - Vh/a * hoop / Eh ) L

Where:

dx = extension of piping element due to pressure

x = longitudinal pressure stress in the piping element

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 77

Vh/a = Poisson’s ratio relating strain in the axial direction due to stress-induced strain

in the hoop direction

hoop = hoop pressure stress in the piping element

Eh = modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction

L= length of piping element

dx = ( x - hoop * (Ea / Eh * Vh/a)) * L / Ea

78 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

The shear modulus of the material is required in ordered to develop the stiffness matrix; in CAESAR II,

this value, expressed as a ratio of the axial modulus of elasticity, is brought in from the pre-selected

material, or can be changed on a problem-wise basis using the special execution parameter screen

accessed by the Kaux “menu” from the piping spreadsheet (see figure). This screen also shows the

coefficient of thermal expansion (extracted from the vendor file or entered by the user) for the material, as

well as the default laminate type, as defined by the BS 7159 Code:

Type 1 – All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with an internal and an external surface tissue

reinforced layer.

Type 2 – Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with an internal and an

external surface tissue reinforced layer.

Type 3 – Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construction with an internal and an

external surface tissue reinforced layer.

The latter is used during the calculation of flexibility and stress intensification factors for piping bends.

Bend and tee information may be entered easily through use of auxiliary spreadsheets. Bend radius and

laminate type may be changed on a bend by bend basis, as shown in the corresponding figure. BS 7159

fabricated and moulded tee types are specified by defining CAESAR II tee types 1 and 3 respectively at

intersection points. CAESAR II automatically calculates the appropriate flexibility and stress intensification

factors for these fittings as per code requirements.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 79

Required code data may be entered on the ALLOWABLES auxiliary spreadsheet; with the program

providing fields for CODE (both number 27 – BS 7159 and 28 – UKOOA are available). After selection

of BS 7159, CAESAR II provides fields for entry of the following code parameters:

SH1,2,3 = longitudinal design stress = d ELAMX

Kn1,2,3 = cyclic reduction factor (as per BS 7159 paragraph 4.3.4)

Eh/Ea = ratio of hoop modulus of elasticity to axial modulus of elasticity

K = temperature differential multiplier (as per BS 7159 paragraph 7.2.1)

80 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

After selection of UKOOA, CAESAR II provides fields for entry of the following code parameters:

SH1,2,3 = hoop design stress = f1 * LTHS

R1,2,3 = ratio r ( a(0:1) / a(2:1) )

f1 = system factor of safety (defaults to 0.67 if omitted)

K = temperature differential multiplier (same as BS 7159)

These parameters need only be entered a single time, unless they change at some point in the system.

Performing the analysis is even simpler than the system modeling. CAESAR II evaluates the operating

parameters and automatically builds the appropriate load cases; in this case three are built:

Operating (includes pipe and fluid weight, temperature, equipment displacements, pressure, etc.). This

case is used to determine maximum code stress/strain, operational equipment nozzle and restraint

loads, hot displacements, etc.

Cold (same as above, except excluding temperature and equipment movements). This case is used to

determine cold equipment nozzle and restraint loads.

Expansion (cyclic stress range between the cold and hot case). This case may be used to evaluate

fatigue criteria as per paragraph 4.3.4 of the BS 7159 Code.

After analyzing the response of the system under these loads, CAESAR II presents the user with a menu of

possible output reports. Reports may be designated by selecting a combination of load case and results

type (displacements, restraint loads, element forces and moments, and stresses). From the stress report, the

user can determine at a glance whether the system passed or failed the stress criteria.

For UKOOA code, the piping is considered to be within allowables when the operating stress falls within

the idealized stress envelope (indicated by the straight line in the following figure).

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 81

Conclusion

A reliable, powerful, yet easy to use, pipe stress analysis program with world wide acceptance is now

available for evaluation of FRP piping systems as per the requirements of the most sophisticated FRP

piping codes. This means that access to the same analytical methods and tools long enjoyed by engineers

using steel pipe is available to any potential user of FRP piping – ensuring that design.

References

1 Cross, Wilbur, An Authorized History of the ASME Boiler an Pressure Vessel Code, ASME, 1990

2 Olson, J. and Cramer, R., “Pipe Flexibility Analysis Using IBM 705 Computer Program MEC 21,

Mare Island Report 277-59,” 1959

3 Fiberglass Pipe Handbook, Composites Institute of the Society of the Plastics Industry, 1989

4 Hashin, Z., “Analysis of Composite Materials – a Survey,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, Sept. 1983

5 Greaves, G., “Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Pipe Design,” Ciba-Geigy Pipe Systems

6 Puck, A. and Schneider, W., “On Failure Mechanisms and Failure Criteria of Filament-Wound Glass-

Fibre/Resin Composites,” Plastics and Polymers, Feb. 1969

7 Hashin, Z., “The Elastic Moduli of Heterogeneous Materials,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, March

1962

8 Hashin, Z. and Rosen, B. Walter, “The Elastic Moduli of Fibre Reinforced Materials,” Journal of

Applied Mechanics, June 1964

9 Whitney, J. M. and Riley, M. B., “Elastic Properties of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials,” AIAA

Journal, Sept. 1966

10 Walpole, L. J., “Elastic Behavior of Composite Materials: Theoretical Foundations,” Advances in

Applied Mechanics, Volume 21, Academic Press, 1989

11 BS 7159: 1989 – British Standard Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Glass Reinforced

Plastics (GRP) Piping Systems for Individual Plants or Sites

12 UK Offshore Operators Association Specification and Recommended Practice for the Use of GRP

Piping Offshore — 1994

82 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

General Notes for All Codes

This section comprises general notes that cover code compliance. The first several pages contain

information that applies to all of the codes. The last pages contain code-specific discussions. The user is

urged to review the general notes once, highlighting those that apply to his specific type of problem. He is

also recommended to review the notes for the particular piping code to be used.

Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual gives details about the various parameters that can be used in

the CAESAR II setup file. Many of these parameters are discussed from an “application point-of-view” in

the text that follows. Users not familiar with the setup file should see Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference

Manual.

An SIF of 2.3 is used for threaded joints for all codes. An SIF of 1.2 is used for double welded slip-on

flanges for all codes. An SIF of 1.6 is used for lap joint flanges with B16.9 stub ends for all codes.

The only piping codes that cannot take advantage of the WRC 329 options, or the option to use the ASME

NC and ND rules for reduced intersections, are BS806 and the Swedish Power Method 1. These codes

have no provision for using the effective section modulus, and any extrapolation of the ASME methods

into these codes at this time is considered unwarranted.

The Weld ID on the SIF & TEE Auxiliary field is used in the calculation of the Bonney Forge Sweepolet

and Bonney Forge Insert Weldolet. If the user can be sure that the welds for these fittings will be finished

or dressed, then the specification of the Weld ID will result in lower stress intensification factors.

Bend SIF overrides by the user effect the entire cross section of the bend, and as such cannot be specified

for only a single point on the bend curvature. The user’s defined SIF should be specified for the bend

“TO” node. CAESAR II will then apply this SIF, (in place of the code’s SIF) over the entire bend curvature,

i.e. from weldline to weldline.

The default fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) bend and intersection SIF is 2.3. This value is used for all

bends and for all intersections unless otherwise modified by the user. Flexibility factors for FRP bends are

1.0. Users modifying these values are cautioned that SIFs generated from steel fatigue tests may not be

applicable as a basis for SIFs for FRP fittings.

At this time stress intensification factors cannot be less than 1.0. Because original SIF work used girth butt

welds as a basis, some manufacturers are generating SIFs for their fittings that are less than 1.0 implying

that the fitting is stronger than a girth butt weld. CAESAR II does not permit the use of these reduced SIFs

at this time.

The REDUCED_INTERSECTION calculations discussed at length in the following text apply whenever

d/D < 0.975. Where (d) is the outside diameter of the branch, and (D) is the outside diameter of the header.

WRC 329/330 for the codes: B31.3, B31.4, B31.11, and B31.1 (1967) does the following:

1 Include torsional stresses in all stress calculations, (i.e. Sustained and Occasional)

2 Use a torsional SIF of (r/R) io.

3 Compute i(ib) from: 0.6(R/T)**2/3 [1+0.5(r/R)**3](r/rp)

when (r/R) < 0.9., use 0.9(R/T)**2/3 (r/rp), and i(ob)(t/T)>1.0

when (r/R) = 1.0, and use interpolation when 1.0 > (r/R) > 0.9

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 83

6 If a radius at the junction is provided greater than the larger of t/2 or T/2, then the calculated SIFs may

be divided by 2.0, but with ib>1.5 and ir>1.5.

WRC 329/330 for the codes: B31.1, B31.8, ASME III NC & ND, Navy 505, Z183, Z184, and Swedish

Method 2, do the following:

1 For ib, use 1.5(R/T)**2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (r/rp), and ib(t/T)>1.5

when (r/R) < 0.9.

use 0.9(R/T)**2/3 (r/rp), and ib(t/T)>1.0

when (r/R) = 1.0, and

use interpolation when 1.0 > (r/R) > 0.9

2 For ir, use 0.8 (R/T)**2/3 (r/R), and ir > 2.1

3 If a radius at the junction is provided greater than the larger of t/2 or T/2, then the calculated SIFs may

be divided by 2.0, but with ib>1.5 and ir>1.5.

Bonney Forge Sweepolets tend to be a little more conservative because they are used for fittings in the

Nuclear industry. The Bonney Forge Sweepolet equations can generate SIFs less than one because they

are stronger than the girth butt weld used as the unity basis for the code fitting SIFs. CAESAR II does not

permit SIFs of less than 1.0. If a Bonney Forge Sweepolet SIF is generated that is less than 1.0, 1.0 will be

used.

Even though CAESAR II allows the specification of two element intersections, the user cannot specify two

SIFs at a single node and get an increased SIF. For example a socketweld SIF and an intersection SIF

cannot be specified at the same point.

For two element joints the largest diameter and the smallest T is used when discrepancies exist between

the two adjoining pipes. When the two element fitting is a socket weld then the largest T is used. These

selections are made to generate the largest SIFs and thus the most conservative stress calculations for

under specified fittings.

Note: The mismatch given for girth butt welds is the average mismatch and not the maximum mismatch.

Users must make sure that any maximum mismatch requirements are satisfied themselves.

If a fillet leg is given in conjunction with a socket weld SIF definition, then both socket weld types result

in the same SIF.

The B31.3 sustained case SIF factor in the setup file affects all of the following codes: B31.4, B31.8,

B31.11, Navy 505, Z662, and B31.1 (1967). The default for the B31.3_SUS_CASE_SIF_FACTOR=1.0.

The calculation for the corroded effective section modulus is made from (pi)(r2)te where (r) is the average

cross sectional radius of the non-corroded pipe and (te) is the corroded thickness. The thickness (te) is

selected based on the noncorroded thicknesses of the branch and header, i.e. the lesser of Th and iTb. The

resulting value has the corrosion subtracted from it before the effective section modulus calculation is

made.

The Maximum Shear Stress is always calculated with the corroded wall thickness, regardless of the setting

of the ALL_STRESS_CASES_CORRODED flag in the setup file.

If different piping codes are used in one job. The code reported at the top of the output stress report will be

the code that was last encountered during model input. SIFs, allowables and code equations are all

computed in accordance with the code that is varying with the input.

The following piping codes do not, by default, include torsion in the sustained or occasional stress

calculations:

B31.3

B31.4

84 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

B31.8

B31.11

Navy 505

Z662

B31.1 (1967)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 85

Torsion is not added because these codes instruct the user to add the “longitudinal stresses” due to weight,

pressure and other sustained loadings. Torsional shear stresses are not longitudinal stresses. The user can

request that torsion be added into the sustained and occasional stress equations by putting the parameter:

ADD_TORSION_IN_SL_STRESS=YES in the setup file. The torsion stress is still however not

intensified, as it is in the power piping codes. This lack of intensification is considered an oversight, and is

corrected in WRC 329. The user can implement this fix in his running of any of the above codes by

putting the parameter: USE_WRC330 in the setup file.

Note that the radius given in CAESAR II is always the equivalent “closely spaced miter” radius. The radius

calculation given for widely spaced miters in the piping codes is only to be used when the user breaks the

widely spaced miter bend down into individual single cut miters as recommended.

B31.1 and the ASME Section III piping codes provide stress intensification factors for reduced branch

ends. None of the other piping codes provide these SIFs. The REDUCED INTERSECTION=<option>

parameter in the setup file allows the user of other piping codes to access these improved SIFs for reduced

fittings. Users taking advantage of this option should review the notes associated with the B31.1 and the

ASME Section III codes that follow to make sure that any other parameters or input associated with the

reduced intersection calculations are set as necessary.

When the user requests pressure stiffening for those codes that do not normally provide it, the pressure

stiffening is applied for all bends and for both miter types.

The defaults for the occasional load factor from the setup file used in the evaluation of the allowable

stress, is given in the text that follows for each of the piping codes.

B31.1: The occasional load factor is 1.15.

B31.3: The occasional load factor is 1.33.

B31.4: This is 0.8Sy as defined in the most recent edition of B31.4. OCC does not effect a B31.4

analysis in CAESAR II.

B31.5: The occasional load factor is 1.33.

B31.8: An occasional case is not specifically defined. If the user enters an OCC load case the

allowable will default to 1.0 times the sustained allowable stress, i.e. OCC=1.0

B31.11: This is 0.88Sy as defined in the most recent edition of B31.11 OCC does not effect a B31.11

analysis in CAESAR II.

ASME Section III NC and ND: The default value of OCC is 1.2 so, the occasional stress allowable is

1.8 (1.2 X 1.5) Sh but not greater than 1.5 Sy. If OCC is set to 1.5 or 2.0, the allowable is set to the

minimum of 2.25 Sh/1.8 Sy (Level C) or 3.0 Sh/2.0Sy (Level D). Note in the latter two cases, Sm

should be entered for Sh.

Navy 505: Occasional cases are not addressed but will default to the method used in B31.1, and an

OCC value of 1.15 will be used as the default.

Z662: Occasional cases not defined, but if entered by the user the allowable for the case will default

to 1.0 times the sustained allowable.

BS806: The occasional load case is not defined. If entered the allowable stress for the OCC load case

will be K Sh, (the occasional load factor times the sustained allowable). The default for “k” is 1.0.

Swedish Method 1: OCC is not used. The load cases are not differentiated. The same allowable

Sigma(ber)/1.5 is used for all load cases.

Swedish Method 2: An OCC default of 1.2 as recommended in the Swedish Piping Code is used.

B31.1(1967): OCC default is 1.15.

Stoomwezen: OCC default is 1.2.

RCC-M C&D: OCC default is 1.2.

CODETI: OCC default is 1.15.

86 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

FBDR: OCC default is 1.15

BS 7159: The occasional load case is not defined.

UKOOA: The occasional load case is not defined.

IGE/TD/12: Occasional stress increases are addressed is Table 4 of the code. The occasional factor in

the setup file has no bearing on this code.

The occasional load factor can be changed from the program defaults via the setup file. The value should

be entered in percent. To get an occasional load factor of 1.5, the user would enter 50.0

Intersections are not “FULL” intersections in CAESAR II whenever the branch outside diameter is less than

0.975 times the header outside diameter.

When there are multiple piping codes in the same piping job, and a piping code change occurs at an

intersection, if the intersection is completely defined with three pipes framing into the intersection then the

piping code used to generate the SIF equations will be that one associated with the first header pipe

framing into the intersection. If the intersection is only partially defined, then the piping code will be

selected from the first pipe framing into the intersection point.

The material, thermal expansion, and modulus of elasticity data are for the B31 piping codes. Users may

enter their own material and thermal expansion properties if desired.

There is a small difference between USE_WRC330 and REDUCED_INTERSECTION =WRC330. The

first applies for all full and reduced intersections that are not welding tees or reinforced tees. The latter

applies only for reduced fittings that are not welding tees or reinforced fabricated tees. A fitting is reduced

when d/D is less than 0.975.

The Bonney Forge SIF Data came from the technical flyer:

“Bonney Forge Stress Intensification Factors” Bulletin 789/SI-1, Copyright 1976.

The ASME piping codes primarily combine moments for thermal expansion stresses. When there is any

tendency for large axial forces to exist in the pipe these code equations are not adequate. An example of

this is for a buried, or partially buried pipe. Here the axial stresses can be very high. B31.4 directs the user

to compute a longitudinal stress for completely restrained pipe. CAESAR II allows the user to specify just

how much of the pipe is buried. This longitudinal stress is then added to the stress calculations for thermal

and will contribute to a failure prediction that might have otherwise been ignored. Similar effects can be

achieved in CAESAR II by using the axial soil restraint and telling the setup file to include F/A components

in the stress calculations. Users should be aware that for any type of problem, if large axial loads are

developed because of the design, the piping code may not be adequately considering it.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 87

Code-Specific Notes

B31.1

Pressure stiffening is implemented by default. Users may deactivate pressure stiffening for B31.1 runs by

entering the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the setup file.

Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely

spaced miter.

B31.1 does not by default add F/A into the stress calculation. F/A and the pressure stresses are added to

the bending stress (whether the tensile or compressive component of bending), to produce the largest

longitudinal stress component. This is true for all codes insofar as the addition of axial and pressure terms

are concerned. The user can cause CAESAR II to include the axial force terms into the code stress by

inserting the parameter ADD_F/ A_IN_STRESS=YES to the setup file. The F/A forces discussed here are

structural forces developed in the piping independent of pressure PD/4t forces.

In 1980 B31.1 added a reduced branch stress intensification factor equation to Appendix D. This equation

came directly from ASME Section III. B31.1 continued however to use the effective section modulus

calculation for the branch. The ASME Section III rules clearly stated that the branch section modulus,

NOT the effective section modulus should be used with the new SIF. B31.1’s using of the effective

section modulus produced unnecessarily high calculated stresses. This error was corrected in the 1989

version of B31.1. Prior to Version 3.0 CAESAR II users had two options:

Use the pre-1980 version of the B31.1 SIF rules.

Use the very conservative, post-1980 B31.1 SIF rules.

In version 3.0 (and later) these options also exist, except that the section modulus problem is corrected.

For users that wish to run version 3.0 (and later) just like they ran version 2.2, i.e. without the section

modulus correction, they can do so by putting the parameter: B31.1_REDUCED_Z_FIX=NO in the setup

file.

The reduced intersection branch SIFs were not intended for reinforced or welding tees. Conservative

results are produced, but the original researchers did not intend for the SIFs to be used for these fittings.

The CAESAR II user can disable the reduced branch fitting calculations for reinforced or welded tees by

putting the parameter NO_REDUCED_SIF_FOR_RFT_AND_WLT in the setup file. This will produce

less conservative results, but can, in some cases be justified.

B31.1 102.3.2 (c) tells the user to divide the allowable stresses coming from the stress tables in Appendix

A by the applicable weld joint factors listed in Para. 102.4.3.

Stress allowables for B31.1 are calculated from:

Expansion Allowable = f [ (1.25/Eff)(Sc+Sh) - Sl ]

Where:

f = Cyclic reduction factor

Eff = Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency

Sc = Cold Allowable Stress

Sh = Hot Allowable Stress

Sl = Sustained Stress

Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default = 1.15)

88 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept the same in the B31.1 stress

calculation.

The B31.1 criteria “B” length for closely spaced miters is not checked by CAESAR II.

For reducers B31.1 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5

+ .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)

Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and

thickness of the small end.

Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.

Where:

Alpha = atan( length / (D1-D2)/2 )

Note: Alpha cannot exceed 60° and the larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 can not exceed 100.

B31.3

Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely

spaced miter.

Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept separate and unique.

Since the B31.3 piping code gives the equation for the expansion stress explicitly, and since that equation

does not include the longitudinal stress due to axial loads in the pipe, CAESAR II does not include the F/A

component of the stress in the expansion stress equation. (The code also says that the user may wish to add

in the F/A component where it may be significant.) Users can change this by placing the parameter:

ADD_F/ A_IN_STRESS=YES to the setup file. The F/A longitudinal stress component is by default

added to the code stress component for all other stress categories.

The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl’s original basis for SIFs.

No differentiation is made between socket welds with and without “undercut.” Codes that do differentiate

use 1.3 for socket welds with no undercut, and 2.1 for all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all B31.3 socket

welds (unless a fillet weld leg length is specified).

Stress allowables for B31.3 are calculated from:

Sustained Allowable = Sh/Eff

Occasional Allowable = Sh/Eff * (Occ)

Where:

f = Cyclic reduction factor Eff

= Weld Joint Efficiency (Only for pre-1980 B31.3)

Sc = Cold Allowable Stress

Sh = Hot Allowable Stress

Sl = Sustained Stress

Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default = 1.33)

For B31.3 the flag ALL_STRESS_CASES_CORRODED=NO flag in the setup file returns the corroded

stress calculations to the way they were performed in the 2.2 version of CAESAR II. The corrosion is

removed from the sustained and occasional stress calculations.

See Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual for the setup file parameter

B31.3_SUS_CASE_SIF_FACTOR=<nnn>. This value can have a considerable impact on the sustained

case stress calculations.

Pressure effects on miters are allowed in the B31.3 piping code.

For reducers B31.3 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is 1.0.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 89

B31.4

Pressure stiffening is automatically included as directed per the code. Users may turn pressure stiffening

off by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the setup file.

Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely

spaced miter.

The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl’s original basis for SIFs.

Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept separate and unique.

The Allowables for B31.4 are calculated from:

Expansion Allowable = (0.72)(Sy)

Sustained Allowable = (0.75)(0.72)(Sy)

Occasional Allowable = (0.8)(Sy)

Operating Allowable = (0.9)(Sy) if the axial stress is compressive,

no code check done if the axial stress is tensile

Where:

Sy = Specified Minimum Yield Stress

B31.4 does not use EFF, (found in the Allowable Stress Auxiliary field). The minimum yield stress is all

that is required to compute flexibility stress allowables.

B31.4 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections.

B31.4 does not include a provision for the liberal allowable. This particular option is not used for B31.4

stress allowable calculations. The occasional load factor (used in the other piping codes for determining

the allowable stress for occasional load sets) is not used in B31.4, as the allowable stress is expressly

given as 0.8 times the minimum yield stress.

CAESAR II assumes that 419.6.4(b) establishes a requirement for the allowable operating stress at 90% of

Sy; when the net axial stress is compressive (i.e., when longitudinal pressure stresses can be ignored in

underground pipes). The last sentence in the paragraph establishes that: “Beam bending stresses shall be

included in the longitudinal stress for those portions of the restrained line which are supported above

ground.” CAESAR II users have two options for including this axial stress in their analyses:

1 Include axial friction restraints and include the ADD_F/A parameter into the setup file. Set the “fac”

value to 0.001 to indicate that the line is buried, so longitudinal pressure stresses are not present, so

the hoop stress component must be considered.

2 Use the “fac” value to have CAESAR II compute the “axially-restrained” stress and include it during

stress calculations. If a nonzero “fac” value is entered, the pressure plus axial loads in the pipe are

multiplied by (1-Fac). This gives a more realistic estimation of the axial stress in the pipe when the

user has included both of the effects above.

90 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual

Users should note that paragraph 419.6.4(b) requires 1) the reduction of the axial expansion stress by the

product of Poisson’s ratio and the pressure hoop stress, and 2) the addiction of the hoop stress to the axial

stress. The latter represents the calculation of stress intensity when the axial stress is compressive,

implying that there is no longitudinal pressure stress in buried pipe (the pressure loads are transmitted

directly to the soil). CAESAR II handles this case in the Operating Load Case, where the hoop stress is

added in and the allowable stress is set to 0.9 Sy whenever the axial stress is compressive. If “fac” is set to

0.001, the piping element is considered to be buried, so the longitudinal pressure stress is replaced by the

product of Poisson’s ratio and the hoop stress, in keeping with the spirit of paragraph 419.6.4(b). “fac” is

automatically set to 0.001 when B31.4 pipe is sent through CAESAR II's buried pipe modeler. The stress

due to axial force will also be included for these elements.

The “fac” variable should probably not be set to 1.0 with B31.4 and thermal expansion cases where the

user is going from one thermal state to another state, i.e. where the case is of the form: DS1-DS2, and both

DS1 and DS2 contain temperatures. In this case the thermal expansion used in the restrained pipe

calculation comes from the last thermal specified in the load case definition. In the example above the

thermal expansion associated with the DS2 load case.

The base hoop stress on OD flag in the setup file is used by B31.4 when the hoop stress is calculated for

the restrain