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BOOSTING MOBILE BACKHAUL WHILE DELIVERING MULTIPLE-PLAY SERVICES

USING

FIBRE THROUGH THE AIR

Bluwan delivers a paradigm shift by providing carrier-grade multi-gigabit wireless solutions with fibre-like speeds and capacity. like Enabling the industry’s lowest total cost of ownership for bridging the digital divide, Bluwan’s Fibre Through The Air (FTTA) solutions are ideally suited for last mile ac access, as well as highly efficient backhauling of wireless access networks (e.g., WiMAX, LTE, (e.g., HSPA+).

Our solutions are the culmination of several years of R&D performed in collaboration with the Thales Group in the defence and aerospace verticals.

Bluwan has deployed several pilots in France and in Europe, and has been awarded sizeable subsidies in government sponsored competitive programs to develop very compact radios and antennas for the Q Band spectrum.

Bluwan is a privately held company with a capit of 2.313 260€. capital

Chief Officer) Authors: François Magne (Chief R&D Officer), Shayan Sanyal (Chief Marketing Officer © 2010 Bluwan UK – All Rights Reserved

.............................. 14 Coverage Performance .............................com .......................................................... 3 Overview of the FTTA Architecture ....... nagement ................................................. ........................................5 4 Why Q Band ? .............................4 Services for subscribers ........ ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................3.................. 7 Wave form and Multiplex ..... ..................................... London W1J 6BR...................... ........................................ ........................................................Contents 1 2 3 Market Challenges ..........................................................................3 3.................3.. 14 Overall Capacity and Number of Subscribers per Net Head ....... .................................................................................................................................................. ................... 5 6 Comparison with Other Solutions ................... .........................3 4.......................................... 13 4............................................................... 6 Architectural Principles ..... ............................................. . 16 1 Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House.................................................................4 3...... Backhaul Capacity ............... 2 Fibre Through The Air: Target Applications and Value Added to Service Providers ................. Berkeley Square........................................................................................................................... 7 Radio architecture and coverage ................................3..... 13 .........................................................................3 3............ 5 3......... 10 Network Management and Monitoring................ 15 Conclusion: FTTA Advantages ..........................................................3..3.......................1 3.................................. ............................................................. ........... 14 ........................................... .............................. 8 Networking ................ 11 Network Security............................2 4... 12 Performances .................................................2 3........... ................................................................................. .................................1 4.... United Kingdom www.............................................bluwan......................................................... ...... ......................................................................................................................2 3...

consumers are clamouring for DVD quality multimedia applications such as HDTV. HDTV. iPhones. Kindles. Over and above their internet access. Global Mobile Data Forecast. Android smart phones. Berkeley Square. 2009 2009-14 Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House.1 Market Challenges Consumer demand for high speed broadband is increasing exponentially for both wireless and fixed-line communications: • The phenomenal proliferation of smart devices requiring 3G+ capacity (e.. Smart Grids and other Machine to . Machine technologies) is drying up what is left of the increasingly scarce bandwidth provided by communications service providers on a global scale. less powerful base stations in an attempt to control this expansion with minimal radiation impact The resulting increa in impact. with stellar quality of service. • For fixed communications. ranging from more than 10Mbps for consumers up to 100 Mbps for businesses. United Kingdom www. A service provider that is able to deliver this attractive bundle of services with minimal attractive deployment costs will attract more customers. MNO’s are also required to deploy smaller form factor.com 2 .bluwan. customers expect very high broadband speeds communications. Figure 1 – Source: Visual Networking Index (VNI). London W1J 6BR. cement their loyalty. increase simultaneous connections as well as the inevitable consumer thirst for multimedia applications has given way to major backhaul saturation challenges.b . and hence increase . • Mobile network operators (MNOs) are thus driven to install an ever increasing l number of base stations in order to expand network capacity.g. overall revenues.

This network is easily extendable using relay nodes. and acquire more customers in an effort to increase total ARPU while remaining in control of margins. CAPEX s Fast time to market for backhaul and last mile access. high directivity 1 Source: Internet World Statistics. This trend has led to a tipping point where there is a critical need to provide solutions that can simultaneously solve the wireless backhaul issue. 2007 3 Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House. divide.Another burning topic that has now become a key priority for governments. rural/urban and rural areas on par with those found in highly urban urbanized areas. coverage area. The high by degree of frequency reusability provided by low power transmitters. Key features for such a solution are as follows: • • • Very low CAPE investments when compared to fibre optics deployments. service providers will be able to supply ADSL2+ equivalent access to suburban. and bridge the digital divide with bridge minimal cost of ownership.5 .5 GHz Q band spectrum provides a very high capacity which is unachievable by any other lower band. Use of the 40. Highly scalable capacity enabling service providers to easily increase their range of services. regional authorities and their citizens relates to the bridging of the digital divide In Europe alone. This increased competition will naturally result in lower prices for an improved array of services delivered to the end consumer.5% of their citizens connected to high speed sia. rapid time to market and scalable capacity Such solutions capacity. without the need to lay down fibre nor the fibre. must be able to easily integrate with existing level 1 fibre infrastructure. London W1J 6BR. Berkeley Square. 2 Fibre Through The Air: Target Applications and Value Added to Service Providers Fibre Through The Air (FTTA) is a point to multipoint gigabit wireless network using point extremely high frequencies (EHF) within the Q band licensed spectrum. households e In Asia. itself as a viable alternative that can help service providers optimize their network build f investments. 1 Service providers that are able to provide converged fixed and mobile services in the form of a multiple play offer will be in a strategic position to lead in an increasingly competitive landscape. countries like India have less than 0.bluwan. United Kingdom www.com . broadband .43. more than 50% of household have to live with download capacities of 512Kbps or less. need to rely on the incumbent carrier A solution such as FTTA can therefore present carrier. In essence.

backhaul and access markets. multiple play services for fixed. easy to deploy (due to the use of Point Point-toMultipoint versus Point Point-to-Point).b . For individual households.bluwan. c.antennas and high efficiency wave forms enable nearly unlimited network capacity. and others. cumbersome and expensive. b. and more cost effective in terms of Point). United Kingdom www. FTTA links multiple base stations to provide a vastly superior download capacity when compared to legacy microwave technology. wireless or convergent service providers. c. Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House. WiMAX and is future B. Berkeley Square. FTTA is more compact. 1. FTTA can be deployed directly to Multiple Dwelling Units (MDUs) and individual households. There are two fundamental applications that are targeted by FTTA: • Providing on the one hand. future-proof for LTE deployments. FTTA integrates with 3G Node-B. London W1J 6BR. axial power line infrastructure (using Ethernet over power). Backhaul of Hot spots. such as integration to copper lines. backhaul WiMAX access networks. integration methods. especially where fibre deployments are too . FTTA access is implemented using small form factor outdoor units plemented and a Bluwan manufactured home residential gateway. The method of integration typically depends on carrier preferences and legacy infrastructure. nearly Due to these properties. WiMAX and Mobile Base Transmission Mobile Stations (BTS): a. the distribution typically happens through the standard coaxial television cable. FTTA is well suited for solving the challenges currently faced by the wireless. a robust backhaul solution for wireless hot spots. In the case of MDU integration. 2. b. FTTA enables low cost deployments of multiple play services at performances superior to ADSL2+. and base transmission stations (BTS. mobile and converged operators: a.com 4 . FTTA supports numerous integ . allowing operators to easily cater for high end multimedia consumer operators applications such as mobile video streaming. or Node Node-B’s): • Enabling on the other hand. OPEX when compared to traditional microwave technology. Multi-play Multi play service enablement for fixed. co-axial infrastructure.

Point to Multipoint (PmP). which allows competition. maps • FTTA cost per subscriber is up to ten times lower than the cost of laying Fibre To The Home (FTTH). multi-gigabit wireless wide multiarea network (WAN).2) this is the 3. United Kingdom www. The solution is architected as a distribution tree connecting a service provider’s fibre located at a Point of Presence (PoP) to relay nodes.1. • Bluwan’s “pay as you grow” business model minimizes a service provider’s initial CAPEX and OPEX budget expenditure. FTTA can easily scale to pro provide high bandwidth applications such as High Definition or Mobile TV with more than enough capacity to deliver a high quality customer experience. Service providers are thus protected from any lobbying stemming from anti-radiation agencies. radiation for greater independence and increased 3 Overview of the FTTA Architecture 3. 5 Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House. London W1J 6BR. each area is supported by ultra wide band radios configured in PmP. enabling a faster ROI which g can help accelerate future network build activities. • Finally.2): only radio system in the industry that provides maximum radiation protection as measured by the Veritas Group during benchmarks performed in Paris in 2009.Deploying FTTA solutions offers numerous advantages to fixed and convergent service providers: • Due to ultra ultra-wide band channels. ultimately reaching: • • • client terminals (such as a customer’s home residential gateway) customer’s grouped terminals (such as those found on top of MDU’s) mobile base stations (for backhau backhaul) From the PoP. FTTA at a glance The FTTA solution is a hierarchical. Berkeley Square.bluwan. FTTA offers guaranteed innocuousness (see chapter 3. • FTTA allows service providers that previously were not able to provide multiple play services to their customers can now provide these services and significantly increase average revenue per user (ARPU) as well as secure revenue customer loyalty. • FTTA architecture allows a high degree of flexibility to adapt to a service provider’s desired coverage map and their associated capacity.com . • Multiple play services are no longer dependent on network de-bundling agreements.

b .2 Why Q Band ? In 1999.5 – 43. The monitoring information is then relayed to the service provider’s Network Operations Centre for closed loop supervision of the performance and availability of the network. Bluwan has developed a diverse set of Coverage: ed Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House.5 .com 6 .5bit/Hz Capacity: using cross polarization. Shortly thereafter. the FTTA solution can be built progressively to increase capacity and coverage as consumer and carrier needs evolve. the available capacity is more than sufficient re-use. Fully modular. 3. London W1J 6BR. to the services and capacity required for each class of users.These areas have a bandwidth ranging from 250 MHz – 1 GHz allocated within the Q Band (40. In essence. The FTTA solution leverages standard interfaces that are transparently integrated to a everages service provider’s existing network and services.43. This multiplex can contain up to 12 links per 500 MHz allocated sub-band. the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administration (CEPT) released its recommendations for the usage of Q band spectrum (40. Berkeley Square. United Kingdom www. and determined by the service provider acquired GHz) . a roof or on an already crowded tower when compared to a traditional 70cm dish.5 GHz spectrum. provider’s license. th Q band has several advantages: • Large Capacity: the entire spectrum has 15Gbps potential capacity at 2.bluwan. The solution uses standard Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to monitor the network using secured VPN connections. These wide band radios can transport a multiplex of waveforms that are adapted . the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) followed with a definition of the standards required to use this spectrum. adding an FTTA solution to a service provider’s network architecture will improve capacity and throughput without requiring a change to any existing services being provided to customers. • Optimal Coverage Leveraging Q band. • Ease of Installation Bluwan provides small form factor outdoor units (20cm in Installation: diameter) due to the wave lengths used in combination with Bluwan’s innovative surface-mounted MMIC technology This makes FTTA solutions easy to install on mounted technology. A diverse set of antennas provided by Bluwan are leveraged to deploy a network that is tailored to the topology of the area. to meet the needs of the target applications discussed in the previous section.5 GHz). Typical link capacity is 80 Mbps which can be either dedicated for backhaul applications or shared in the case of multiple play access applications. Thus. Propagation and antennas with low side lobes enable a high rate of frequency re use.

United Kingdom www. Given that the cost of Q-Band infrastructure is relatively low. l Multiplex of links transported by radios.3. distances between nodes on buildings and towers. 2.com . regulations (currently 60 volts / meter per recommendations set by the European Union and the World Health Organization). FTTA can dynamically adjust its throughput to ensure band robust connectivity at 99. by backhaul are configured to provide several access cells with the required coverage. Berkeley Square. This measure is far below health and safety buildings. Organization of protocol layers to ensure IP connectivity and ov overall network management. London W1J 6BR. Benchmarks performed by Veritas on Bluwan’s Q Band network in Paris demonstrate that field strengths are under 0. Furthermore. several independent sectors can be configured to cover a sub sub-area in order to provide backhaul lin (noted in red in figure 2).small antennas that allow a service provider to tailor network coverage to match topological requirements. Band service providers can easily add relay nodes to overcome any potential line of sight issues that arise. • Innocuousness: Innocuousness Q band combined with Bluwan technology provides maximum h radiation protection. by creating sectors and cells that optimizes coverage to customers. It is well known that rain can affect millimetric wave wireless systems such as those provided in the Q-band spectrum. 7 Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House.1 Radio architecture and coverage As noted previously. Line of sight deterioration is not a major issue in a Q-Band FTTA deployment: the budgeted links take into account rain.3 Architectural Principles The FTTA solution is based on a 3-tier network architecture: 1. From the Net Head. with 0 emissions within building .bluwan. the FTTA network architecture is a distribution tree.99% when precipitations exceed 30mm/hour. management 3. any line of sight issue can also be easily mitigated by re reusing the same frequency to overcome any shaded areas. Physical radio deployment and coverage.1 volts / meter.5km range which makes line of sight issues easily manageable when designing the network. Point of Presence terminals fed b the links ). 3. 3. s and are optimized for a 2.

standards and roadmap requirements: Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House.9 7.5 21 23 26 35 Range Km 2.9 4. Each radio cluster will ultimately have its own configuration based on desired coverage requirements requirements: Net Head 30 dbm Aperture Bearing Omni 120 90 60 45 30 15 3 Gain dbi 7 17 18 19. Berkeley Square. London W1J 6BR.Figure 2 – Radio clusters deployment The table below illustrates the associated gain. range.Cell coverage capabilities 3.com 8 . United Kingdom www.3 3.2 Wave form and Multiplex The wave forms used to deploy the range of services on the FTTA network are driven by performance.3.5 3 3.bluwan.7 Surface covered Km2 20 9 9 7 6 5 3 2 Figure 3 .b . and surface coverage provided by different types of Bluwan antennas.2 4.6 3.

Robust modulation implies a low sensitivity towards signal to noise fluctuation allowing the fluctuations network to maintain synchronization under any condition. c. DVB S2 has QPSK and 8PSK robust modulation. To guarantee the highest level of quality as well as ensure th the that solution is future future-proof. The Q band spectrum allocation can be flexibly configured to meet a service provider’s customer requirements.bluwan. and more effectively manage r rain attenuation.1.Satellite Second Generation (DVB (DVBS2) broadcasts to achieve the required performance and robustness of the modulation. Need for robust and efficient wide band modulation. the allocation is in the form of a 500 MHz sub- 9 Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House. FTTA uses Digital Video Broadcast. United Kingdom www.com . These IP modems allow bridging to the backhaul in order to provide an efficient return path for subscribers. Use of widely available. Automatic Control Mode (ACM) makes it possible to dynamically adapt the speed of transmission during adverse weather. 3. a. standardized Ethernet modems for backhaul. Widely supported by suppliers ely suppliers. Berkeley Square. In essence. 2. In this particular case. as described in following the diagram (figure 4 4): Figure 4 – Sample spectrum usage and multiplex The diagram above shows a sample spectrum allocation for a service provider within the Q band spectrum. b. London W1J 6BR. Furthermore. IEEE or DVB certified. all FTTA wave forms are fully standardized. b. Future uture-proofed for standards evolution. as well DVB-S2 as efficient coding mechanisms to ensure the highest levels of reliability. the wave forms need to be: a.

com 10 . channels are independent increasing routing efficiency for the variety of services independent. Here. This 500 MHz sub-band can be used by the service provider to optimally band configure a range of services. ss • Management: bi-directional wireless Ethernet links are also used for authentication and control.band allocation. These have been adapted such that upload and download spectrum.. • Traffic: is entirely routed and optimised using DVB S2 for download channels and wireless Ethernet for upload channels as well as backhaul. 3. United Kingdom www. traffic.g. authentication. • Routing: benefits from load balancing and policy based management functions to guarantee a quality of service (QoS) to customers according to their Service Level Agreements or to meet minimum service requirements (e.b . we show several combinations of wave forms dedicated to: everal • • • • • Standard Definition Television HD Television IP download for internet acce access Wireless Ethernet backhaul reless IP Return Path The FTTA solution ensures a complete configurability of these wave forms to meet customer needs. management and security at the IP level (layers 3 & 4) following guidelines provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force t (IETF): • IP: the routing architecture and internet protocols have been optimised by Bluwan so as to leverage the high capacity and quality transmissions made available by Q Band spectrum.3 Networking FTTA provides IP connectivity. Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House. Berkeley Square. ariety required. government regulated Voice over IP). e The generic protocol stacks for traffic and management all along the network chain are represented in the diagram represented in Figure 5 for both the user and management planes across all layers of the network network.bluwan. London W1J 6BR.3.

com . London W1J 6BR. A wide array of commands are available to the network supervisor to t he remotely configure..Figure 5 – Layers and protocol stacks for traffic and management planes 3. All of the equipment in the FTTA infrastructure is available in the NMS inventory system through automatic discovery. or maintenance windows). United Kingdom www. during installation.g. the NMS extends management capabilities to individual customer premises equipment (CPE).3.bluwan. and is presented with the appropriate hierarchy within the user interface for quick access and ease of management. The Network Management System (NMS) configuration functions are available through a multi-window user interface and enable the configuration of all network equipment window through SNMP. test and update the CPE when required (e. Berkeley Square. Furthermore. 11 Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House.4 Network Management and Monitoring Bluwan’s Network Management System has 2 primary functions: configuration and monitoring.

Authentication a. customer supervisor’s service centres or a service provider’s technical team.com 12 . Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House. This is complemented by a stateful firewall installed within the residential gateway deployed on a virtual DMZ.5 Network Security Network Security is provided through strong authentication mechanisms and extensive use of firewalls: 1. Berkeley Square. it is critical to provide secure and remote network monitoring capabilities from any location: a NOC. Performed using Extended Authentication Protocol (EAP) between a Net Head database and a token USB key on the subscriber residential gateway ay 2. b.3. London W1J 6BR. 3. Bluwan provides such capabilities through its highly secure Blunet administrative sub sub-net system. Firewalls a.b . a network supervisor’s workstation. United Kingdom www.bluwan.Figure 6 below shows a screenshot of Bluwan’s NMS software: Figure 6 – Blunet Monitoring an Control User Interface and Due to the fact that FTTA networks are end to end networks supporting integration from Net Heads to terminals. Protects databases and network services in the Net Head’s De-Militarized Zone (DMZ).

where the required total capacity is less demanding and where the cost of pulling fibre is prohibitive.16d SME 802. 4.5 bits/Hz (when using DVBS DVBS-2). Berkeley Square.16d 10 0. the : solution becomes extremely advantageous when deployed to suburban.4 Performances The Q-Band frequency spectrum has clear technological and economical advantages Band over the lower 6-38 GHz spectrum. Millimetric-wave wireless systems utilize a wave dramatically larger allocated spectrum divided into significantly larger channels to deliver multi-gigabit data rates. London W1J 6BR.16d Households 3G+/LTE SoHo 802. As a case in point.5 GHz) is typically licensed in sub gigabit 43.5-43.5 subbands ranging from 250 MHz to 1 GHz.1 Services for subscribers As far as services delivered to end customers are concerned.bluwan. The entire spectrum (40. owing The following sections describe FTTA performances for subscribers in different market segments. delivered performance for backhaul. including multimedia capabilities such as standard and high definition television. peri peri-urban or rural/urban zones. which are distributed in parallel channel channels: Applications Return Path Internet IP download (Mbps) IP upload (Mbps) Multimedia SD TV channels HD TV channels 100 20 100 20 100 20 80 2 MDU 802. capacity then increases to 10 Gbits.Services to subscribers 2 Shared capacity. assuming 160 Kbps provisioning.2 – 1 20 2 40 5 10 Figure 7 . To this high degree of scalability.25 Gbits capacity with an efficiency of 2. the FTTA solution provides mers ADSL2+ equivalent performances to the premises. sub-band. A Net Head containing 4 sectors in crossed polarisation can thus make use of 5 Gbps. a 500 MHz sub sub-band provides 1. service providers can also benefit from a major cost saving: although FFTA is significantly less expensive than fibre in urbanized zones. United Kingdom www. If a service provider obtains a 1 GHz sub band. and overall coverage performance metrics. scaled to 500 households for IP access 13 Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House.com .

London W1J 6BR. and surface coverage provided by different types of Bluwan antennas. Thus. there are 4 cells for each net head sector.4.b . the FTTA solution can deliver 36km2 of actual coverage. Figure 3 (on page 7) summarizes the associated gain. a single Net Head can feed almost 20 000 simultaneous users. the actual coverage of a Net Head sector is 12km2. United Kingdom www.75 gigabits of capacity. Assuming 1Gbps allocated for multimedia and a provisioning threshold of 160Kbps for the sole purposes of supporting high speed internet access (given that multimedia capabilities are provided directly through an independent channel). which exceeds the coverage requirements of most r rural-urban cities.2 Backhaul Capacity Applications Internet IP download (Mbps) IP upload (Mbps) Multimedia SD TV channels HD TV channels 100 20 80 1 Backhaul to ADSL Nodes For 3-Play WiMAX Backhaul 3G+/LTE Backhaul 60 10 40-70 5-10 10 Figure 8 .4 Coverage Performance A standard Net Head sector covers 9km2.5 inhabitants per household in Europe. providing a theoretical coverage span of 36km2. This is equivalent to almost serving a population of 200. Each radio cluster will have its own configuration needs based on desired coverage requirements.000 inhabitants assuming a 25% broadband penetration rate inhabitants (200 000/2. A sector can be extended using relay nodes ead that each contain cells of 9km2.bluwan. range. 4. Berkeley Square.5*x25%) *Assuming approximately 2.3 Overall Capacity and Number of Subscribers per Net Head A Net Head with 3 sectors in a sub band of 500MHz will be able to provide approximately 3. Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House.com 14 . Applying factors for zone masking and cell overlap. When a Net Head is he configured with 3 sectors.Backhaul capacity per type of access 4.

5 Comparison with Other Solutions Figure 9 . London W1J 6BR. United Kingdom www.com . Berkeley Square.FTTA vs Other Technologies : Critical Success Factors Comparison 15 Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House.bluwan.

with 30Km2 being a typical coverage area 8-12 bases stations in a 4km radius Relays on existing high access points Modularity of radios and modems ensure future proof capacity and coverage Access to MDUs or individual households No dependency on incumbent de de-bundling agreements 4 .b . London W1J 6BR. Berkeley Square.com 16 . and as more and more Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House. This concern will continue to grow as service providers plan their transition to 3.bluwan. with 10 Gbps capacity Up to 100Km2. WiMAX and LTE.5G and 4G technologies. United Kingdom www.10 times cheaper than fibre optics <100€ per subscriber (assuming 30% market assuming penetration) Low CAPEX. and data services profit margins continue to shrink.1v/m in streets ROI Model STANDARDS COMPLIANCE INNOCUOUSNESS As subscriber demand for bandwidth increases exponentially.6 Conclusion: FTTA Advantages The advantages of the FTTA solution are summarized in the table below: FUNCTIONAL AREA PERFORMANCE Capacity Multiple Play Access ADVANTAGES Multi-Gigabit Gigabit >100 TV/HDTV programs Internet 10-20 Mbps 20 Sizing Coverage Backhaul EASE OF DEPLOYMENT Adaptive Coverage Progressive deployment Access to subscribers Incumbent operator independence COST / EFFICIENCY Low cost infrastructure Pay as you grow business model 10 000 subscribers . Optimized OPEX (light PoPs) Bluwan designed business model based on two service providers containing all forecasted cost/revenues for a pre pre-configured deployment Fully compliant with ETSI Standards No radiation in houses and less than 0. the cost and complexity of increasing mobile backhaul capacity and the quest to bridge the digital divide has pushed service providers to seek alternatives to traditional fibre roll outs. such as HSPA+ (MIMO).

which can be easily configured to provide per-second ADSL2+ equivalent services to all consumers (households and small businesses). and traditional. The advent of machine to machine integration will geometrically increase demand for data capacity as more and more devices connect to a service provider’s network.consumers demand access to modern multimedia services from their home. Bluwan’s Fibre Through The Air solution leverages Q-Band spectrum (40. 17 Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House. or mobile emand devices. with considerably lower costs in equipment and rollout expenses. cost per meter ratio. United Kingdom www. low frequency microwave links suffer from spectrum congestion and limite limited channel size.5 GHz) Band delivering gigabit-per second data rates. Today.com . Traditional methods of providing access and backhaul suffer from inherent limitations: copper has limited capacity. Berkeley Square.5 – 43. as service providers need to provide more and more bandwidth. new fibre links are often prohibitively expensive. there is a need for alternative solutions that can extend high end broadband services across areas not served by fibr at a much lower fibre. and are under pressure to bridge the digital divide.bluwan. London W1J 6BR.

Bluwan UK Berkeley Square House.b .com 18 . London W1J 6BR. Berkeley Square.bluwan. United Kingdom www.