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Origin of Orissa Names -by Arun Kumar Upadhyay, M.Sc.

, AIFC B-9, CB-9, Cantonment Road, Cuttack-753001 (Orissa) Phone-+91-671-2304172/2304433, (M) +919437034172 Email arunupadhyay30@yahoo.in www.scibd.com/Arunupadhyay Publisher-Kitab Mahal, College Square, Cuttack-753001 Phone-(0671)2613333, fax-2613301, ISBN 81-86472-60-6 First Edition in 2000, Priced Rs. 45.00 EIntroduction to Revised E-Book Edition, 2010

Jagadīś īśa Khaṇḍ ṇḍā (1920-2009) In Memory of Śri Jagadīśa Chandra Khaṇḍāyī (1920-2009 who was Karmayogī like Janaka. He
inspired this book and his son Śri Chandrakānta Khaṇḍāyī (Bunu Bābū) published it. Bā In 1999, 28-30 October, there was a super cyclone in Orissa, particularly in capital Bhubaneswar and adjacent Cuttack. After at least 10, 000 deaths, we were cut off from any signs of civilization. In that period, I happened to visit famous Kitab mahal book shop of Cuttack where some professors of adjacent Ravenshaw college (now autonomous university) and some retired officers were discussing origin of Orissa Names. On some point, I asked as to what was written in this regards in Bhāgavata

purāṇa. In addition to the original Sanskrit Bhāgavata, Oriya Bhāgavata by Jagannātha Dāsa is most
popular book in Orissa and is basic foundation of Oriya culture. But, so much hatred had arisen about

purāṇas that I met with scorn for asking about folklores which was for illiterate village people only. I
expressed surprise that in fashion of British educated historians, they do not even know that the only source of ancient chronology is purāṇas only which was manipulated by Pargiter and William Jones in 1790’s. Archeology is only part verification of less than 1% matter. That too has not been done in a single case. There is no inscription whose records are not quoted in reverse or in completely irrelevant manner. I had to explain some purāṇic details about Cuttack, Bhubaneswar and Orissa in general which was again laughed at. But the Late Jagadish Babu of Kitab mahal was and his wife-both were ardent students of Sanskrit and Indian philosophy. He told that these persons can not write about origin of Orissa names despite Rs. 10 lakh grant from UGC and asked me to write it. I was hesitant as it needed research, and I had no access to any library or outside world. But he insisted that no study will be ever complete and I should write whatever I already knew. His words were prophetic. There had been an attempt about origins of names of Dhenkanal district. I corrected about 100 page material, but nobody has come to take it back for 10 years now. I wrote the matter hurriedly in just 4 days in absence of water and light. After, normalcy was restored, typesetting took about a month. There was no facility here for giving diacritical marks then, so it was typed in normal English. There are many reasons for this E-book edition. Firstly, many corrections are needed in this hurriedly written book. Though, it is against general trend of destruction of Indian history by British, there is a lot of demand in India particularly among Oriya persons settled in foreign countries. Many titles were left out as pointed out by some readers, which I have tried to accommodate, though I do not have certain knowledge of past. Many things other than Orissa need to be explained-Chronology from 8576 BC had been given. It has been extended from 62000 BC. Purāṇic geography of world is

revised to include polar regions and some more details. Tribal titles are related to names of minerals extracted by them when Asuras had come for cooperation with Devas in samudra-manthana (i.e. mining). One of their branches had gone to Greece from west end of India, so their names are still Greek names of minerals. Then there is a separate chapter about special Vedic words of each region of India, particularly of Orissa, which has not changed since at least 18000 years. Some proper names peculiar to Orissa are added with probable reasons. Finally, errors have been corrected and diacritical marks given at suitable places. Index Chapters 1.Introduction and Historical Frame Pages 2-38

(1) Purpose-2, (2) Why Orissa names-2, (3) Some misconceptions about history-3. (5) Reasons of error in history-5, (6) Historic cycles-10, (7) Parts of yuga-12, (8) List of Vyāsas-17, (9) Detailed chronology-19, (10) Periods of history-31 2. Geography of purāṇas 39-52 (1) Location of Meru-39, (2) Purāṇas as source-40 (3) Purāṇa cosmology-40, (4) Oceans-41, (5) Continents in Purāṇas -42, (6) Adjacent lands-43, (7) Parts of Bhārata varṣa-43, (8) Continents-45, (9) Lokas and Talas-48, (10) Janapadas of India-49, (11) Conclusion-52 3. Remnants of Past in Orissa 53-59 (1) Devayuga-53, (2) Names of Matsya era-54, (3) Varāha-54, (4) Kūrma-54, (5) Narasimha-55, (6) Vāmana-55, (7) Paraśurāma-56, (8) Rāma-57, (9) Kṛṣṇa-57, (11) Buddha-58, (12) Effects of Jaina rule-59 (13) Gorakhanātha-59 4. Old parts of Orissa 59-66 1. Bhārata and Jagannātha-59, (2) Kosala-62, (3) Kalinga-63, (4) Śabara-64, (5) Tāmraliptaka-64, (6) Muṇḍa, Malla-65, (7) Utkala-65, (8) Tośala-65, (9) Auṇḍra-66, (10) Purāṇic rivers of Orissa-66. 5. Suffixes of Place Names 6. Titles in Orissa 7. Some Place names of Orissa 8. Special Sanskrit words in Orissa AppendixChapterChapter-1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL FRAME PURPOSE1. PURPOSE-There is saying - What is in a name ? Any name for a place or person is good enough. Bad name does not mean that the person is bad. Rather, parents deliberately give a bad name to their children in a belief that person with bad name will survive longer. However, every name has perposeful and well-meaning origin, specially in India. One of the 'angas' (subsidiary parts) of veda is 67 70 89 95 99-100

Nirukta which is only about origin and meaning of each word. Even in other countries, where there is
hesitation to analyse meanings in Sanskrit pattern due to fear that Sanskrit may be revealed as origin, some names in history have become famous due to qualities like - Richard the Lion hearted (Rāmachandra Sinha in Indian context), Ivan the terrible (like Bhīma), In India, we find several names of the same person like 12 names of Arjuna in Mahābhārata, and most suitable name sticks in history.

Thus, analysis of names is parallel to its role and importance in history. For example, meaning of names of Mahābhārata characters indicates their functions in history —

Pāṇḍu (= Yellow colour, jaundice)- He had to relinquish throne due to jaundice. Dhṛtarāṣṭra (= held nation) - In absence of king Pāṇḍu, he was care-taker king. Bhṣma (= terrible) - He had made a terrible oath. His earlier name was Devavrata because he was
born with divine grace or his actions were like devas. Bhīma - Terrible in war.

Yudhiṣṭhira =Steady in war. In every, text, starting from vedas and Purāṇas, origins of names and
functions have been explained. Thus, there is necessity to revive this tradition for rewriting history. NAMES-There are two natural and personal reasons for selecting Orissa for this 2. WHY ORISSA NAMES study. Though I was not born in Orissa, it is the only state which I have seen most throughly. Then, there is seen a visible urge in people of Orissa to trace their origins. There are two historical reasons also. Orissa is the only state in India which still retains its oldest names and has been least corrupted by foreign invaders in past thousands years. Secondly, it being a coastal state, Orissa had trade links with Rome and China and cultural links with Indonesia. Thus, those links had great influence in names of Orissa and vice versa. This is natural. What is unnatural is search of modern reaserch scholars to trace Austric origin of Orissa. Thus, names of Orissa, if properly analysed, will lead to understanding of great part of world history and to restructure many false notions about understanding of history. 3. SOME MISCONCEPTIONS OF HISTORY Continuity-In comparision, Indian concept of history can be called Aditi and western concept is (a) Continuity 'Diti'. Western civilization called 'Daitya' or 'Asura' has hightlighted only the current periods and wiped out the entire past. Every king from remote past to present ones in Daitya culture claims that only he is epitome of virtue and to prove that he destroyes every past achievement. In Asura tradition, oldest literature is Zenda -Avestā (Chhanda = flow of verse, Avestā = counter philosophy to vedas). Its prime figure was Ahura-Majda (Mahā-Asura, i.e. great opponent of sura i.e. Deva or Āditya of India). Egyption and Sumerian literature tells that fore-runner of their kings were 'Asura' (Era of Nabonasser = Lavaṇāsura mentioned by Ptolemy in Almagest). Thereafter, Greek kings appeared in an isolated island. But, at first opportunity, their king Alexander destroyed Persian and Egyptian civilization and tried to capture India. According to his historians, his forefather Dionysus or Bacchus of Bible had destroyed India 6451 years 3 months before him (Arian, Pliny quoted by Bhagavaddatta in

Bhāratavarṣa kā Bṛhad Itihāsa - part 1 - page 163). Thus, not only the countries were destoryed, but
the whole history upto present age has been destroyed. According to 'Asura' text Avesta itself, Ahura-

Majda founded his first civilisations in 'Pātāla' (Peru = para-meru, opposite to Sumeru in Himālaya) ,
then after self-destruction and mismangement, went to Egypt, spread in West Asia. That was sworn enemy of Deva or sura, but 'Iran' or Persia is called origin of Deva (now called Ārya - though it was

Ārya-nā = not Ārya). Instead of Egyptian origin, now only Greek origin is discussed. Then, a Jew
reformer 'Jesus Christ' tired to uplift his people. Successor to Greek was Roman empire which prosecuted Christ and continues persecution of his community of Jews. But Rome has claimed itself centre of Christianity. While Christ himself had acknowledged earlier jew prophets, Christianity under Roman and subsequent empires destroyed all previous civilizations and traces from Europe, America;

Austrilia etc. European race has wiped out the total original population of north and south America, Australia and has sold and above 10% of African population as slaves. Avestā (First book Vendidād, chapter 1) states that Ārya-nā vaisa (where Āryas do not live) was the best land, but Ahura-majda had made each country favourite of their inhabitants, so that they do not attack Ārya-nā vaisa in Pātāla.

Śrīmad Bhāgavata (5-24-8) also tells that vila-svarga (Pātāla) of Daityas was more comfortable than svarga of Devas. But Devas never attacked Pātāla. In Durgā saptaśatī, or after Bali-Vāmana war, Daiytas were only asked to return to Pātāla when they failed in their attack. In present era also,
empire of Pātāla (U.S.A) has never been attacked, but it countinues to attack Europe in 2nd world war, Korea (1952), Vietnam, Iraq and Yugoslavia. Thus, geographical and historical realities even now remain the same which can be known only from continuity of history. 12 wars between Deva and

Asura is mentioned in Avestā and in most purāṇas (for example Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki, Mahābhārata
etc). Every incident has an origin, hence without continuity, history and present cannot be understood. evolution-Evolution and decline both are seen in recent past. But 'Diti' or breaking (b) Theory of evolution concept of daityas considers only present era as advanced. History can be understood only when we want to learn the truth, not when there is all out attempt to decry all rivals and all past civilizations. It is not scope of present study to search for past moments of heights of civilisation. It suffices to say that knowledge of Indian Astronomy or medicine surpasses present knowledge in many respects. Astronomy is not only foreign to layman and historians only, Indian Astronomy is even beyond 99% of professors of physics and Mathematics. Its quantitative and qualitative concepts of cosmology are unparalleled till today. It may be remarked that according to modern geological theory there is a glacial cycle of about 21,000 years during which civilization states afresh. This is mathematically connected to Ayana-rotation of 21,600 years of Sūrya siddhānta (Rotation of difference of precession of earth axis and apex of earth orbit). However, western concept of history, specially of India, is still limited by the Biblical interpratation that creation was in 4004 B.C. creation(c) Separate Zones of creation-Wherever any sample is seen, modern historians jump to say that it was only site of civilization in that period. If a skull is found in north east China, then Peking man is forefather of homo-sepiens. Earlier, it was Congo man of Africa or Ramapithicus or Australopithicus. A scientific or balanced analysis cannot have such sudden or wide fluctuations. Similarly, top historians of India think that Indian history is based on Mohenjodaro and Harappa excavations of 1923 in Sindh (Pakistan), though its script has not been deiphered so far. There is no attempt by foreign inspired historians to interpret history according to findings but they want to twist the meaning of script or symbols according to their pet and mistaken theories due to which they can never read it, But claim is that history is based on those unread; misunderstood parts. Civilization was always present in all habitable areas of the word. There may be difference in overall level of knowledge and technology in different periods. In same period, there was not much difference between different regions. History of wars in different legends shows that victory was not necessarily due to superiority of knowledge or power. Mostly it was due to deceit, treachery and cruelty, like win of Islamic empire over many parts of Asia, destruction of Persia and Egypt by Alexander of Greece in 326 B.C. or complete wiping out of superior American civilization by barbaric Europeans in 16th century. Thus, it

is very clear that, in any time, there were many centres of high technology and overall living condition and knowledge was almost same in the whole world. knowledge(d) Segmented view of knowledge-In any human society, all relevant fields of human knowledge exist together. But in India, where most ancient literatures have been preserved, European scholars have caused their death by interpratation. They believe that eternal Veda was created at a particular time after Biblical creation in 4004 B.C. In that period, people read only vedas and did not have any concern about food, cloth, house, community or govt structures, trade etc. Then they read only

Brāhmaṇas, Āraṇyakas, Upaniṣads in stages, though they are all part of the same inter-related
complex. Then, among other literature, extreme care is taken to show that Rāmāyaṇa was after

Mahābhārata, though Mahābhārata clearly shows Rāma was about 13-1400 years before that period. Vedānga jyotiṣa, Sūrya siddhānta and Jaina jyotiṣa all started in about 8,000 B.C. simultaneously.
They are neither contradictory nor different stages of development. They serve three purposes of astronomy and calendar- Vedānga jyotiṣa matches approximate civil year of 360 round numbers of days with real tropical or seasonal years and lunar months through Pāñcharātra (5 extra days) or extra months at end of some semesters. Sūrya siddhānta calculates sidereal position of planets and through that eclipses, sidereal years, observations with instruments are done. Jaina jyotiṣa explains astronomy and geography through plane projections. This is needed for geographical maps. Along with vedic text, jaina and purāṇa classics and other related texts were always present. They are not contradictory, it is shown by the fact that purāṇic description of astronomy is entirely based on jain texts. Purāṇas tell different epoches of history by 10 or 24 avatāras of Viṣṇu. Parallel to that, there are 24 Tīrthankaras of Jaina. Veda is eternal knowledge, but practical working of society requires knowledge of economics, architecture, trade, transport, medicine, astronomy separately for which parallel jaina system is needed. For that purpose, Jaina texts were revived by kings, whereas vedic texts were by sages. These are complementary needs, not contradictory religions. Carl Sagan in 'Broca's Brain', page 106 has quoted"A leading historian of ancient science and mathematics, Otto Neugebauer (1957), remarks that, both in Mesopotamia and in Egypt, two separate and mutually exclusive calendars were computational convenience, and a frequently updated agricultural calendar- messier to deal with, but much closer to the seasonal and astronomical realities. Many ancient cultures solved the two calendar problem by simply adding a five day holiday at the end of each year ......" It is surprising that even the same thinkers cannot imagine about the same complementary system of astronomy in India. One reason is that, there has always been attempts to discard Indian literature, rather than to understand it. dates(e) Stress on fake linguistic theories and rejection of clear dates-Indian purāṇa have given important dates of history through astronomical references which do not depend on any particular calendar and are undestructible. Intermediate dates are given by geneology of kings. Ancient records of Egypt and Sumeria have followed the same geneology method as quoted by Ptolemy in Almagest and Greek Herodotus in his history. Available Indian literature is much more than the combined literature of rest of the world. But without reading it, Fatwā was issued by Oxford historians copied by Nehru etc. that Indians don't write history. As far as linguistics is concerned, the theorists don't know the derivation

and logical meaning of words even in modern languages, but explain linguistics of ancient languages and decifer time from it. Measurement of time can be only by one method— that is astronomy. But rejecting calendar and accepting linguistics cannot give any result. It is difficult to say whether it is illiteracy or a deliberate attempt to destroy history. In this context, linguistic study of names of Orissa will show that civilisation was Sanskrit based and is consonant with historical records. But it will not give dates. 4. REASONS OF ERRORS IN HISTORY (a) subjects-Calander and geography are two minimum requirements for writing Ignorance of basic subjects history.In a zeal to destroy Indian history and culture, Oxford scholars have ingored these two subjects. In Indian education system also, these continue. For more blind following of those false ideas, all references of basic data have been ommitted from university text books. Two examplesSheet anchor of Indian history for past 200 years is claimed to be Megasthenese description. He had come to India after Alexander's looting and destruction venture in 326 BC. Older text books by Dr R.S Tripathi used to discuss Megasthenes, but now only the wrong conclusions remain. Original reference is omitted due to fear that falsehood will be detected. Megasthenes book is not available but his extracts quoted by other historians has been compiled as Indica. It states that in 323 B.C at the time of Sandrokottas, Megasthenes came to Palibothri on banks of Yamunā. Yamunā river then passed through Mathurā, thereafter it joined Gangā. According to approximate conversion of stadia length used by Megasthenes, Palibothri is 2500 kms east from Naish in Afganistan, Gangā Yamunā confluence (at Allahabad) is 700 kms east from Palibothri, further 650 kms east Gangā joins the see. It is obvious that Megasthenes and other travellers have correct idea of routes and distances but modern historians have not tried to learn school atlas. Palibothri can be only near Delhi, but it is identified as Patna in Bihar due to assumed similarity of names with Pāṭaliputra. Actually, it means 'Paribhadra’ (boundary wall- or walled city) which got its Sanskrit and Persian name Dehali (meaning gate way- of boundary wall) later on. Europeans ommitted details of pillage and loot by Alexander to project him great. Due to that, we hace lost the idea of situation in that era. Since Persian empire had regrouped after destruction, Alexandar had to return by sea route. Around present day Karachi, ships were available to transport the whole army (2-5 lakhs) with equipments in a single trip. Such a feat is difficult even for modern naval powers, much less by Indian fleet. Only by such data, we can assess about naval capabilities of maritime states like Orissa. Another linguistic exercise was to match

Sandrokottas with Chandragupta Maurya who was about 1300 years before Alexander according to
chronology of Bhāgavata, Viṣṇu and other purāṇas. Thus, the detailed treatise of Kauṭilya on

Arthaśāstra can not mention great Alexander. In assumed period of Kauṭilya in Maurya era, there was
no king in Kalinga in local records. Similarly, Al-biruni had come with another looter Mahamud Gazanavi in 11th century beginning. Even his knowledge of Astronomy, medicine and geography is far superior to all Oxford historians combined. Rather, it is an understatement-his knowledge of astronomy is better than professors of physics or math who are unknowingly teaching the same subjects. He has mentioned 'śakas' of

Yudhiṣṭhira, Śūdraka, Vikarama and Śālivāhana. All these important names have been carefully
ommitted from Indian history; as if an era can start with-mutual consent of falsehood without a govt

authority. Now śaka is not understood as cumulative count of years, but related with invasion of Śaka tribe, but in 78 A.D there was no king, Indian or Śaka to start this era, as per Oxford version. So it was linked with Kashmir king Kaniṣka of 1294-1234 BC. Conceptually, counting is like collection of straws or śakas, hence each tally is marked as a vertical line. In practice, straw bundles are not maintained to count thousands of years as is assumed in Mexican or Sumerian histories. Thus, Varāhamihira was with Kālidasa and Vikramāditya whose era started 135 years before Śālivāhana śaka. He could not have given his year of birth in future śaka era which has been assumed by current historians. They have no idea as to how, why and when these calenders started which Al-biruni has grasped. subjects(b) Knowledge of other related subjects-If we have to know history of India, we have to read the Indian literature. Literature and philosophy reflect the condition of their times. All forms of Indian literature have been excluded from syllabus of philosophy, literature or Indian history. Thus, a professor of philosophy has no idea of any branch of Indian philosophy. They read only the distorted Oxford commentaries or their copies by blind Indian followers like Sri Radhakrishnan. In India, philosopy is not a temporary speculation by an individual reflecting his circumstances of life, it is systematically divided into six branches. More over, Indian philosophy syllabus declares all the six formulations and their authors as fictitious. On western pattern, only vedānta branch has been explained on individual lines of Śankarāchārya, Rāmānuja, Madhva etc. To please western masters, only non-dual philosophy of Śankara is highlighted, as he is considered to be against idol worship. Even illiterate worshippers in villages are aware that most of the gods are worshipped through verses composed by Śankara. What is benefit of education, if professors keep aloof from this elementary knowledge. This has to be dicarded because it contradicts their interpolation of non-dualism in light of Bible and western thought. In Nyāya branch also, Gautama is considered fictitious and Bauddha philosophy is described superior as it was framed in western thought and more popular outside India. Indian purāṇas clearly tell that Buddha spread his doctrine to confuse Asuras. He has used same words like Śīla, Sadāchāra which have been used by Asura king Prahlāda in Mahābhārata. However,

Bauddha philosophers like modern Indian philosophers or historians were tragically ignorant of
mathematics and sciences (except Nāgārjuna who was student of Gauḍapāda, grand guru of

Śankara). Any book on Indian astronomy explains their poor knowledge, due to which it collapsed.
Similarity of ignorant preachers may be reason of its current popularity. knowledge(c) Specialisation Vrs basic general knowledge-It is true that all subjects can not be studied. But a minimum knowledge of related subjects is necessary for any subject. At present, matriculation is minimum qualification for any govt job. But highest educated in history or other arts subjects are almost completely ignorant of school syllabus of maths and sciences. It is not due to any recent increase of school syllabus. Throughout British period, education was such that historians were unable to understand basic geography and calenders. (d) writing-As explained earlier, the attitude of British historians of India was Attitudes of history writing never to write true history but to destroy Indian culture. Oxford university became centre for propaganda material for creating social/ cultural confusion in Russia and India - two main targets of British Empire. For destabilizing Russia, Marxist literature was printed. For destroying Indian Culture, Indian classics were wrongly translated and distorted. It is suspising that for both types of literature,

there had been no market in Britain in last over hundred years. No publisher would be ready to print such works. But these were subsidised by East India Company (interested in looting only) or Church (for destruction of Vedic culture) and works of Frederik Engels and Marx were distributed by the British. Later on, Russia and China also distributed communist literature and money for propaganda. For anti-Russian communist literature (then Russia was under Czar) or for anti-Indian propaganda, German scholars had been drafted. Life and Letters of Max Muller -Long man Green & Co, 1904 clearly indicates life long dedication of Max Muller for destruction of Indian culture. John Muir gave £ 200 prize for the best refutation of Hindu religious system. For that purpose, Bodelian chair was set up, Prof. H.H. Wilson, Rudolf Roth, Albert Weber, Monier Williams wrote many books. All have clearly indicated their purpose that Vedic system is to be uprooted and Christian culture is to be spread for permanent British Empire. British Indian education system was for two purposes envisazed by Macaulay - One was to create clerks. Thus, only sign of educated person remains that he speaks/writes English. Other is to deny knowledge of technical subjects. Under ignorance joined with servility, scholars accepted whatever history was fed to them without seeing that no reference was ever given to the source of such history. In independant India, ignorance is covered under various 'isms' like communisms, secularism, socialism, communalism etc. British forgery-(1) All quotes from Megasthenes are totally false and opposite (e) Some examples of British forgery to his writings. Location of Palibothri is indicated above. He has described army of Āndhra kings as he had come after them in rule of their servants (Āndhra-Bhṛtya) called Guptas. But he was tagged with

Maurya Chandragupta of 1534 BC. He has written as all Greek writers have that India is only country
where all people are indigenous. As India was self sufficient in food, it did not colonize any country since 15,000 years (the years omitted, replaced by ‘never’). Then, the first attack was 154 generations before Chandragupta-1 in 6777 BC. At least from that time, Indian history was continuous. But Vedic culture was started with Aryan migration to India in 1500 BC about which no Greek had ever heard in 700-500 BC. (2) Pargiter changed the word 1500 to 1050 years as gap from Parīkśita to Nandaयावत् परीि तो ज म यावत् न दािभषेचनम् । तावत् वष सह ं च ेयं प शतो रम् ॥ (िव णु पुराण, ४/२४/१०४) I.e. 1500 years passed from birth of Parīkśita to coronation of Nanda. Here प शतो रम् (+500) was changed to प ाशतो रम् (+50). (3) George Buhler fond out the verse of Rājatarangiṇī about start of Laukika era from death of

Yudhiṣṭhira in Kali year 25, then omitted it in printed version and claimed it to be his research by
changing the verse. Two verses were inserted to shift date of Mahābhārata by 690 years. कलैगतैसायक ने (२५) वषः युिधि रा ाि िदवं याताः । I.e Yudhiṣṭhira etc. went to heavens when 25 years passed in Kali. This was chsnged to कलैगतैसायक ने वषः स िषवयाि िदवं याताः । This means that in Kali year 25 Saptarṣis went to heavens. This is meaningless as Saptarṣis are always in sky. That was only to facilitate manipulation. (4) Col James Todd broke all inscriptions of Rajsthan kings as none fitted his theory of their Hūṇa or

Śaka origin. One of his destruction of Rāṇa Kumbhā’s plate of Kumbhalgarh was detected by G.N.

Sharma from Kumbhā’s introduction to his commentary on Gīta-govinda (Indian History Congress, 1951, quoted by Kota Venkatachalam in ‘Age of Mahābhārata War’). That indicated that his ancestor

Bappā Rāval was originally a Brāhmaṇa but took up arms to defend the country on orders of Gorakhanātha. But that period is to be shown as of in history. Same students, however, read in
literature paper that it was period of Gorarakhanātha who started literature of local languages. (5) George Hulze, Epigrapher of Madras (now Chennai) in 1909, read in Rājatarangiṇī that 43rd Kashmir king Gonanda (1440-1400 BC) became Bauddha due to which Bauddhas of central Asia destroyed his kingdom. This story was fitted to Maurya Ashoka (1472-1436 BC) and both shifted to 269 BC to fit his grandfather with Maegasthenes. (6) Sewel, S.B. Dixit, Kielhorn studied all the Indian eras. But all insisted that Śālivāhana śaka of 78 AD was only śaka and was linked with Kashmir king Kanishka of 1294-1234 BC. Thus, dates of all astronomers born much before that were interpreted in that era only. (7) Abul Fazal had given date of start of Din-elahi in all earlier eras starting with Yudhiṣṭhira (17-123139 BC), Śrīharṣa (456 BC), Vikrama (57 BC) and Śālivāhana (78 AD). To destroy history, all these were declared fictitious after studying their calenders in detail. (8) William Jones changed date of Āryabhaṭīya from 360 Kali to 3600 Kali which was obeyed by

Sudhakara Dwivedi to become Principal of Queen’s Sanskrit college, Varanasi in his translation. But it
was never explained why he chose the base year of start of kali in stead of at least 12 eras starting upto 3600 Kali. (9) In stead of era of 456 BC, dates of Nepal kings Anśuvarman (103-33 BC), his grandson

Brahmagupta, Varāhamihira etc was calculated either in Śālivāhana śaka of 78 AD or era of Harshavardhana (605-646 AD) who had never started any era.
(10) There is no reference of Kalinga war or Buddhism in Hāthīgumphā inscription at Dhauli visited by 200 persons daily on way to Puri. But Vincent Smith planted stories of 10.5 lakh deaths (more than present strength of Indian army or population of old Kalinga) and conversion of Ashoka to Buddhism to renounce violence. Thus, hindus were declared violent killing 10 lakh persons to hide 10 lakh murders in Orissa time of William Jones for revenue collection in 1790 and 35 lakh deaths in 1865 in Orissa by Ravenshaw who was made originator of Oriya culture. Actually, Buddhism is only sect in India which permits hermits to take meat and on protest against this, Devadatta was expelled from Sangha by Buddha. Bauddha text Divyāvadāna, chapter Aśokāvadāna tells that Ashoka had ordered killing of 12000 Jaina monks to celebrate victory over Kalinga. (11) Pandit Sundar Lal had written Indian version of Indian History. That was seized by British Govt and a case was started in 1920. The case continued till hi death in 1982 as no error could be found in that by Govt scholars (Rajnish Bible, vol. 3). Indian Historical Research Institute was set up not for free research but to accept British forgeries without any thought. (12) Ibn Batuta’s diary in Arabic was translated by a professor of Delhi and he sought grant from this research institute for its publication. Its Director Irfan Habib claimed that only a muslim like him can translate from Arabic and took a grant of Rs. 15 lakh in his name. When, proof reader commented that it has mentioned in chapter 4 that Kutub Minar was built 1500 years before Kutub-ud-Din Aibak, the entire manuscript was burnt. But the grant was not returned (AG Audit, 2001, published in Indian

Express). Even Sir Saiyad Ahmed had written a book in 1911 that it was a Hindu structure built before Megasthenes who has called it pillar of Hercules. The synopsis of Ibn batuta was published by National Book Trust in English and Hindi. In revised edition of that too, Kutub Minar date was omitted. 5. Time Scales - Śatapatha Brāhmaņa (12/3/2/5) defines svedāyana equal to 15-8 parts of a day, i.e. about 11,20,000 parts of a second, and (10/4/4/2) links the number of lomagartta (= 15 svedāyana) in a year (1012) with number of stars in galaxy. Its image is human brain having same number of cells. Smallest time has been defined in Bhāgavata purāņa (chapter 3/16) as the time taken by light ray in crossing smallest length. Starting from man of about 1.35 meter (average of length, breadth) size, smaller worlds are smaller in ratio of 10-5 up to 7 levels (Dhyānavindu upanişad, 4). Thus, the smallest world is of 1.35 x 10-35 meters. This is called Planck’s length. Light will take 10-43 seconds to cross it, which is called Planck’s time in modern physics. Jaina texts also define similar micro units. To the largest end, astronomical yuga is of 12,000 divya years, where a divya year is of 360 solar years (Sūrya siddhānta, chapter 1). This is the period in which planets up to Saturn at 1000 sun diameters make integral number of revolution. That gives rise to cycles of reversal of magnetic poles and motion of geographical poles (also viewed as continental shift).1000 such yugas make 1 kalpa or day of

Brahmā in space. This period of 4.32 billion years is the period up to which planetary motion is
expected to remain. In this period, earth will cover distance in its orbit equal to circumference of galaxy (Sūrya siddhānta, chapter 12). Night of Brahmā is of same period. 30 day-nights make 1 month and 12 months (+5 = 365 days) make 1 year. 100 years of life of Brahmā is equal to 1 nimeşa (twinkling of eye. For man, it is taken as 4/45 seconds) of Vişņu.100 years life of Vişņu is 1 day of

Śiva, and his 100 years are 1 nimeşa of Śakti. These time scales are similar to estimates of half life
of proton-decay which is still a wild guess. In the present Kalpa of 4.32 billion years, 6 manvantaras of 71 yugas and 7 sandhyā, each of 1

satya-yuga of 1728,000 years have passed. In the 7th manvantara, 27 yugas have passed. In 28th yuga, Satya, tretā, dvāpara were completed on 17/18-2-3102 BC Ujjain midnight. Then, kali of
4,32,000 years has started. This comes to 1,97,31,44,000 years of the total day of Brahmā of 432 crore years. After deducting 47400 x 360 years spent in creation, it is 1,95,58,80,000 years till start of

kali. Sri Vasudeo Poddar in his book-Viśva ki Kāla Yātrā- has assumed that two-day nights of Brahmā
of 864 crore years each have passed and it is the time in 3rd day. Thus, the total time passed is about 1926 crore years. This tallies with the modern estimates of 10 to 25 billion years life of cosmos. Third day of Brahmā has been indicated in-Bhavişya pu, pratisarga (1/1/3), Yajurveda (12/75), Ŗgveda (10/97/1), Brahmāņďa (1/2/6/5-9, 16, 51, 52, 61, 70, 76) and (2/3/1/8). Āryabhaţa has taken 1 kalpa of 14 manvantaras of 72 yugas each, i.e. 1 kalpa =1008 yugas. He takes 4 equal part-yugas each of 10,80,000 years. Here also, kali started on 17-2-3102 BC. However, historic yuga is also of 12,000 divya years, but here divya year means 1 solar year. This is clear from Vāyu purāņa (57/17, 99/419) where saptarşi vatsara is stated to be 3030 mānuşa (human) years or of 2700 divya years at another place. Manuşya (man) has mana (mind) which is an image of moon as per Puruşa-sūkta (7). So Mānuşa year is 12 rotation of moon around earth = 12 x 27 = 324 days. Divya also means bright, and it is due to sun. Thus solar year can be called divya year of 365.25 days. Assuming these figures, 3030 mānuşa years = 2717 solar years. 17 (or 18) extra

years have been indicated as sansarpa kāla (Chandrāvadāna Kāla-Tantra, by Chandrakanta Bali, page 76). Similarly, Dhruva-year (in Brahmāņďa purāņa 1/1/2/29/18) called Krauñcha year (in Vāyu

purāņa 57/18) is of 9,090 mānuşa years or 8100 solar years. Thus, we take 24,000 years of historic yuga with first half of 12,000 years avasarpiņī starting with satya, tretā, dvāpara, kali. Second half utsarpiņī is in reverse order of yugas. In this also, 3rd day is running with kali of avasarpiņī starting on
17/18-2-3102 BC Ujjain midnight. The 3rd day of Brahmā started with Vaivasvata Manu from whom Satya yuga started. His father

Vivasvān had started this system in Sūrya siddhānta (Vivasvān and Sūrya - both mean sun). Thus,
period of Vivasvān is 4800 + 3600 + 2400 = 10,800 years before 3102 BC i.e. in 13,902 BC. His calendar started with Chaitra month bright half when sun enters Meşa sign (now at time of spring equinox). Mahābhārata, vana parva chapter 230 tells that Kārttikeya had started year from Dhanişţhā (β Delphini) star after pole had shifted from Abhijit (Vega) star in about 15,800 BC. Since year started with rains (varşā), it was called varşa. That tradition of starting year with rains when sun started southward motion was continued from earlier tradition of Asuras who were supreme before Kārttikeya. Till today, Sūrya siddhānta calls it Asura day. This yuga system did not exist in period of Brahmā, so

satya yuga did not start with him, he was in earlier (ādya) tretā (Vāyu purāņa 9/46, 31/3, 33/5).
6. Historic cycles - For history, Matsya purāņa (129/76, 77), tells that after Svāyambhuva Manu there were 43 yugas till Vaivasvata Manu. Bhavişya purāņa, pratisarga parva (1/4/26) tells this period as 16,000 years. Thus, each yuga here is only of 360 years-called a divya year in astronomy. Divya-day (translated as Baɖā-dina) starts with northward motion of sun, which was originally meant to be start of Julian calendar year in 46 BC, but people started after 7 days to coincide with start of Pauşa dark half of Vikrama year 10. The start of north motion was termed Kŗşņa māsa (Chris-mas) as night is longest on that day in north hemisphere. These texts also mention 28 yugas or 10,000 (360 x 28 = 10,080) or more correctly 10,800 years after Vaivasvata Manu-till Kali start when Purāņas were finalized by Veda-Vyāsa (Kŗşņa Dvaipāyana). Combining both, Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/9/36, 37) tells that 26,000 years or 71 yugas (called manvantara, historic one) have passed from Svāyambhuva

Manu till kali start.
In historic cycle also, 24,000 years period has been called Brahmābda in Bhavişya purāņa,

pratisarga parva, (91/1/3) and Ayanābda yuga in Vāyu purāņa (31/29). Thus, there are two
complementary cycles(1) 26,000 years of 71 yugas of 360 years each (more correctly of 365 years = day no. in solar year). (2) 24,000 years in 2 halves-avasarpiņī of 12000 years starting with satya, tretā, dvāpara, kali-of 4,3,2,1 parts, followed by utsarpiņī is in reverse order of yugas. 26,000 years is the period of precession of earth’s axis, called ayana-chakra in Indian astronomy. From position of equinox point or of solstices, we can verify the yuga mathematically. Civil yuga is the real cycle of glacial periods which is a combination of rotation of major axis of earth’s orbit in about 1,00,000 years and precession of equinoxes in 26,000 years in reverse direction. When earth is at apogee (highest point of earth’s orbit) or is farthest from sun, it gets least heat. Combined with that, if the north-pole is inclined away from sun, glaciation sets in. When north-pole is towards sun at

apogee, then there will be glacial flood. Thus, glacial cycle will be joint effect of the two cycles, as propounded by Milankovich of Czechoslovakia in 1923. That comes to 21,600 year cycle1 1 1 + = 26,000 1,00,000 21,600 However, the real cycle is of 24,000 years as the speed of precession varies and there is nutation also. Rotation of major axis also has some long term components of 4,12,000 years and above. It can be seen that nodes of glacial cycle have always occurred in tretā - floods in avasarpiņī and ice age in

utsarpiņī. In taking 24,000 year cycle, we are merging 312000 year cycle part of major axis rotation
with precession1 1 1 + = 26,000 3,12,000 24,000

Yuga Cycle Brahmā Day Of Brahmā Part Avasarpiņī
Dark age Day 1 BC year Start of Yuga 61,902

Saptarş Glacial cycle Notes/Saptarşi period

Satya

Ice age 69,200 (in Tretā of previous utsarpiņī) Glacial flood 58,100 BC-Maņijā era, time of some sūktas as calculated on basis of nutation in veda-kāla-nirņaya by

57,102 Tretā 53,502 Dvāpara 51,102 Kali 49,902 Kali

Dinanatha Shastri Chulet, Indore, 1925.

Ut sarpiņī

48,702 Dvāpara 46,302 Tretā 42,702 Satya 37,902 Satya Ice age 45,500

Avasarpiņī
Day 2

33,102 Tretā 27,102, Kali 25,902 Kali 24,702 Dvāpara

Glacial flood 31,100 29,102 27,376-Dhruva-0 43 x360 = 16,000 years Ice age 20,000 19,276-Dhruva-1

29,502 Dvāpara Ādya Tretā-Brahmā-Varāha Kalpa

Ādya (initial) yuga
(Svāyambhuva Manu)

Utsarpiņī

22,302 Tretā 18,702 Satya 13,902 Satya

13,102-Vaivasvata Manu 11,176-Dhruva-2
Glacial flood 9,200 3,102 Kali 8476-End of Ikśvāku-Saptarşi-1 5,776-Saptarşi-2 3,076-Laukika-Saptarşi-3 28 x 360 = 10,000

Avasarpiņī
Day 3 (current) (Vaivasvata Manu)

9,102 Tretā 5,502 Dvāpara 3,102 KaIi 1,902 Kali 702 Dvāpara 1,699 AD Tretā 5,299 AD Satya

Mahāvīra 1905, Siddhārtha Buddha 1887 Śūdraka-755, Śākambharī śaka-612
1700-Industrial revolution 2000-End of Tretā junction-Information technology

Ut sarpiņī

The yuga cycle also tallies with civilization as stated in Mahābhārata, śānti parva (232/31-34).

Dvāpara is time of changes and revival, but yajña (science of production) reaches to top in tretā only.
By taking cycle of 24,000 years instead of 26,000, there has to be correction in cycle of 24,000 years, called

Bīja-sanskāra

by

Brahmagupta

in

his

Brāhma-sphuţa-siddhānta

(1902

edition),

madhyamadhikāra, 61. Bhāskarāchārya-2 has in his Siddhānta-śiromaņi, bhū-paridhi, 7-8 has stated
in his comments that he does not know the logic, it was since āgama (purāņa tradition). Combining,

dhruva-saptarşi and glacial cycles, the yuga cycle from 61,902 BC will be as seen in chart.
7. Parts of Yuga-(1) Parivarta yuga-Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/6/6-8) tells that the current kalpa or day of Brahmā is called Varāha-kalpa. Parts of yuga are counted only for this kalpa. In list of 28 Vyāsas, each part of a yuga has been called parivarta. 1 parivarta = 360 years (Paridhi = circumference divided into 3600, parivartana = change). 1 Tretā = 3600 years = 10 Parivarta Yuga. Start of Tretā was in 22,302 and in 9,102 BC. These had 10 +10 = 20 parivarta or parts. Even after second Tretā ended in 5,502 BC, this counting continued till age of Rāma (birth on 11-2-4433 BC as per horoscope in Vālmīki Rāmāyaņa) as era of advancement continued. Vāyu purāņa, chapters (70, 86, 98) mentions these parts-

Asura king Bali-3rd Tretā –This count should start from 22,302 BC, but this yuga-system itself started
after Vaivasvata Manu, hence it should more properly be counted 3600 years before 13,902 BC, i.e. from 17,502 BC. Second Tretā will be completed in 16,802 BC and the third will continue till 16,442 BC. In this period of Bali, Vāmana had achieved supremacy of 3 lokas for Indra. But Asuras thought that they could have defeated Devas in war and continued attacks. Finally, Kārttikeya defeated them convincingly. In his period, pole star had shifted from Abhijit to Dhanişţhā and in consultation with

Brahmā, he started year with entry of sun in Dhanişţhā (Mahābhārata udyoga parva, 230/8-10). That
should be in 16,000 BC. Bali period is 1 saptarşi = 2700 years after completion of Dhruva cycle in 19,276 BC, i.e. after 16,576 BC when Asura empire based in Krauñcha Dvīpa (north America) was most powerful. Year started with south motion of sun, or varşā (rains), so year itself was called varşa.

Dattātreya -10thTretā,-It appears to be in 9102 BC-second Tretā started after end of glacial floods. Māndhātā - 15th Tretā-started in 9102-4 x 360 =7,662 BC and continued till 7,302 BC. 18 generation
after him was Bāhu, who had been defeated by Yavanas with help of Haihaya, Tālajangha, Śaka,

Pārada, Kāmboja, and Pahlavas (Brahmāņɖa purāņa, 2/3/63/119-120). Megasthenes, Arian, Solin
and other Greek authors have given the date of this first Yavana attack by Dionysus (Bacchus) as 6451 years 3 months before Alexander, i.e. in April, 6,777 BC.

Paraśurāma-19th Tretā - It started in 5502 + 2 x 360 = 7222 BC. After his death, Kalamba (Kollam) samvat started in 6,177 BC which still continues in Kerala. As incarnation of Vişņu, he has been
called Hercules (as sun or Vişņu, he holds the earth). He was 15 generations after Dionysus as per Greek writers. He destroyed kings (kingdoms) 21 times, which has been called republic era for 120 years by the Greeks. This should start 120 years before the death of Paraśurāma in 6297 BC, when he must have been aged 30-35 years. Thus, he lived up to at least 155 years of age, so he is famous as long lived.

Rāma-24th Tretā- This actually started 3 parivartas after end of Tretā, i.e. 5502-3 x 360 = 4422 BC,
i.e. when was 11 years of age. Thus his life was mostly in 24th Tretā. (2) Saptarşi era Saptarş era-As per, Rājatarangiņī,1/50-52), Laukikābda started with death of Yudhişţhira in kali year 25, i.e. in 3076 BC when Saptarşis left Maghā after 100 years stay in that star. 3 Saptarşi cycles i.e. 8100 years are cycle of Dhruva starting after death of King Dhruva, grandson of Svāyambhuva

Manu as per Bhāgavata purāņa. It was called Krauñcha year, when Asura kings up to Bali were
supreme in that continent. (3) Glacial cycles have been given as per modern estimates. (4) Brahmā-There were 7 human Brahmā as per Mahābhārata, śānti parva (chapters 348, 349)) Brahmā 1. Mukhya –From mukha (mouth) of Nārāyaņa) or main Brahmā-He taught Vaikhānasa. 2. From eyes-He was taught by Soma and himself taught Bālakhilyas. 3. From Vāņī – He has been called Apantaratamā, son of Vāņī in Mahābhārata, śānti parva (349/39). He taught Trisuparņa Ŗşi. As per purāņas, he lived on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī). The suparņa, is stated to have entered sea-tending coastal land has been called Reļhi (Ŗgveda 10/114/4), so farmers in Andhra are still called Reddi. Brāhmī script of 64 letters still continues as Telugu and Kannada having vowels of 1, 2, 3 meters. 4. In ādi kŗta yuga (37902-33102 BC)- Brahmā was from ears. He taught Vedas with Āraņyaka,

Rahasya, and Sangraha to Svārochişa Manu, Śankhapada, dikpāla Suvarņābha.
5. In ādi kŗta yuga -From nose of Nārāyaņa-He taught Vīraņa, Raibhya Muni, and Kukśi (Dik-pāla = Ruler of a region). 6. Aņɖaja Brahmā-taught Barhişad Muni, Jyeşţha Sāmavratī, king Avikampana. 7. Padmanābha Brahmā taught Dakśa, Vivasvāna, Ikśvāu-This could not have been a single man from Vivasvān in 14000 BC to Ikśvāku in 8576 BC. This appears to be institution of Brahmā who was first consulted by Kārttikeya for new calendar. His tradition appears to have continued till 9,500 BC at time of Ŗşabhdevajī after glacial floods. He might have been in east Himālayas. Catchment of

Brahmaputra river is called Brahma-viţapa in Trivişţapa (Tibet), or at Maṇipura which means navel (of Nārāyaņa) giving birth to Brahmā, adjacent country. One of the Brahmā in ādi kŗta yuga was in Puşkara (Bukhara of old Persia, now in Uzbekistan), which has been stated 120 west of Ujjain (Vişņu purāņa, 2/8/26) and at 350 north latitude (maximum day length of 16 hours in Vedānga jyotişa).- See Ŗgveda (6/16/13), Brahma purāņa (8/87), Gopatha Brāhmaņa (1/16). Till today, the convention of
scripts centered around place of Brahmā is continuing-north east part of China, Japan write down wards, east part (India) writes to right and west Asia in left direction. That institution appears to have continued till Svāyambhuva Manu who was king at Ayodhyā. (5) Kaśyapa, and Manus-In astronomy, 7th Manu period is running and 7 more are yet to come. Kaś These are periods of geological changes which has been also described in purāņas and Vedas. But in historic era, all 14 Manus have passed. There were 7 main Manus and their 7 cousins, called Sāvarņi in same periodsSl. No. Main Manu

Sāvarņ Sāvarņi Manu Meru Sāvarņi Dakśa Sāvarņi Brahma Sāvarņi (Kaśyapa) Dharma Sāvarņi Rudra Sāvarņi Rauchya Bhautya

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Svāyambhuva Svārochişa Uttama Tāmasa Raivata Chākśuşa Vaivasvata

Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/36/65) tells that 4 Manus- Svārochişa, Uttama, Tāmas, Raivata were
descendants of Priyavrata, elder son of Svāyambhuva Manu. Mother of Svārochişa was Ākūti who was daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu and was married to Ruchi Prajāpati, father of Rauchya Manu. The other 3 were sons of Priyavrata. Brahmāņɖa purāņa (3/4/1/23-24) tells that the other 5 Sāvarņi

Manus were sons of Priyā (Kriyā), daughter of Dakśa Prajāpati. Harivamśa purāņa (2/15) tells that Chākśuşa Manu was son of Ripu, grandson of King Dhruva.
Almost same exists in Vāyu purāņa (4/100, 58/30). Prior to Vaivasvata Manu, list of kings is scanty. That gives 52 kings from Svāyambhuva to Chākśuşa and then 12 kings up to Vaivasvata Manu.

Kaśyapa influence is for 5 generations from Chākśuşa Manu to Pŗthu, between them came Vŗ, Anga, Vena. Svāyambhuva…………………………….. Chākśuşa……………………………. Vaivasvata
40 generations 52 generations (incomplete list) = 15,120 years. 1 generation = 15,120 ÷ 52 = 290 years. Period of Kaśyapa and Chākśuşa = 29102(Svāyambhuva) i- 40 x 290 = 17,500 BC. 12 generations

Pŗthu period = 17,500 – 5 x 290 = 16,050 BC.
Thus, Kaśyapa period is from 17,500 to 16,050 BC. It may be noted that Institute of Brahmā from

Svāyambhuva Manu continued till glacial ice period in 20,000 BC. Then, it was revived by Kaśyapa.
After that, period of each Vyāsa till Ŗşabhadeva can be taken as 2 parivarta = 720 years. Period of 6thVaivasvata-Yama is taken as 4 parivarta = 1440 years as there was deluge in his period. After

Ŗşabhadeva, period of all Vyāsa is taken as 1 parivarta = 360 years. Mahā etc(6) Mahāvīra, Buddha etc-Jain scriptures are unanimous that Mahāvīra was at the end of avasarpiņī ,
thus he has to be before 1902 BC. The horoscope given in astrology book tallies with the date 11-31905 BC which was Chaitra śukla 13th. . Date of Siddhārtha Buddha is known more accurately-Birth 31-3-1886 BC, Vaiśākha śukla 15th, i.e. pūrņimā till 5-24 ghaţī. Departure for Kapilavastu-29-5-1859 BC, Sunday, āşāɖha śukla 15. Achieving Buddha stage-3-4-1851 BC, Vaiśākha pūrņimā till 11 ghaţī before sunrise. Death of his fatherŚuddhodana 25-6-1848, śrāvaņa pūrņimā, Saturday. Nirvāņa (death) of Buddha-27-3-1807, Tuesday, Vaiśākha pūrņimā, slightly before sunrise.

Rāma birth at Ayodhyā at 81024’ east, 26048’ north, on 11-2-4433 BC at local time 10-47-48 h/m/s. lagna-9000’1”, sun-900’0’’, moon-9000’1”, mars-29800’0”, mercury-2100’0”, Jupiter- 9000’1”, venus35700’0”, Saturn-20000’0”, Rāhu-12004’26”, balance in period of Jupiter-4 years.

Kŗşņa birth at Mathurā 27025’ north, 77041’ east, on 17-7-3228 BC at midnight. Sun-139048’, moon47042’, mars-9106’, mercury-152048’, Jupiter-148054’, venus-102054’, Saturn-224042’, rāhu 106024’,

lagna-500. Śankarāchārya at Kālaţī 10040’ north, 760 east, on 4-4-509 BC, Tuesday, 2252 hrs LMT, vaiśākha śukla 5 till 1132 hrs, punarvasu star from 4-4-509 BC -0139 hrs till 5-4-509, 0406 hrs. Lagna-261024’,
sun-25038’, moon-90068’, mars-305019’, mercury-44034’, Jupiter-247045’, venus-67053’, Saturn343022’, rāhu-31047’.

Śūdraka drakaŚūdraka He was born as Indrāņīgupta in Brāhmaņa family and was king of Mālavā (Ujjain). He united
4 main royal families in a yajña at Abu (Arbuda parvata) performed by Vişņu incarnation Buddha born as son of Ajina in Kīkaţa (Magadha). Śūdraka-śaka was started in 756 BC on that occasion indicated in Jyotişa-darpaņa of Yallaya. For uniting 4 kings, he was called Śūdraka as honour and his era was called Kŗta (satya) yuga. These 4 families-Pratihāra, Paramāra (Pramara), Chālukya, Chāhamāna (Chauhāna)-took lead in protecting the country against attack by Asuras (Assyria), so they were called of Agni-kula. Agni normally means fire, but Śatapatha Brāhmaņa (2/2/4/2) defines it as agni (agrī) =agraņī =leader. Pratihāra, and Paramāra stopped Asuras and Chālukya continued to block, but decisive victory was by king Chāhamāna who completely routed Asura capital Nineve in 612 BC. This has been indicated in Bible as final destruction of Asura empire by king of Medes east of Indus river (= Madhya-deśa between Gangā and Himālaya). Chāhamāna were devotees of Śākambharī whose blessing for destroying Asuras in Kali era is indicated in Durgā-saptaśatī (11/49). Era was started on that occasion has been indicated by Varāhamihira in Bŗhat-samhitā (13/3). After Chāhamāna, there was temporary incursion by Śakas of central Asia who were trounced by Śrī-

Harşa of Mālavā, in 456 BC and set up a pillar (Vişņu-dhvaja = Kutub-minar), called pillar of Hercules
by Megasthenes. It has also been indicated by Ibn-Batuta, traveler from Morocco in 13th century. This

samvat has been mentioned by Al-Biruni and Abul-Fazal. The 300 year period of Mālava-gaņa has
been stated by Greek writers like Megasthenes as 300 years of democracy. (6) Other Buddhas-There were 28 Buddhas listed in Bauddha text-Stūpa (Thūpa) vamśa. Vişņu incarnation Buddha was born as son of Ajina in Kīkaţa (Magadha) slightly before Śūdrala-śaka i.e. in about 800 BC. He was not among 28 Buddhas. Mañjuśrī Buddha was born in China-he might be among 7 Brahmā, and was called Fan. Kaśyapa Buddha was in 17,500 BC. Pūraņa Kaśyapa was in

Kasap (Rohtas district in west Bihar) in time of Siddhārtha Buddha. Amitābha Buddha was in China at
time of Rāma whose teaching to Rāvaņa is called Lankāvatāra sūtra. In Yoga-Vāsişţha, Nirvāņa

khaņɖa, chapters 14-17, he has been called Kākabhuśuņɖi, who was north east from Meru, i.e. in
China. Vasişţha had gone to him for learning. His views have been criticised in Vālmīki Rāmāyaņa,

Ayodhyā kāņɖa, chapters 108-109. In verse (109/34) he has been called Budha, Buddha, Tathāgata, Śakyatama (Śākya). Sumedhā Buddha taught Paraśurāma after Dhanuşa yajña at Mithilā when Rāma was married. He
lived at Mahendragiri where a place named Baudha still exists which is a district. His teaching to

Paraśurāma is called Tripurā-Rahasya. He is the same ŗşi who taught Durgā Māhātmya to king Suratha. His explanation of śakti as 10 Mahāvidyā is called 10 Prajñā-pāramitā in Baddha texts. Śākya sinmha Buddha had gone to Nepal just before Mahābhārata in time of king Jitedasti. Fahien
has described times and places of 3 Buddhas just before Siddhārtha Budda. Krakucchanda,

Kanakamuni and Kaśyapa. Stūpa of Kanakamuni had been doubled by king Ashok in 14th year of his
rule. After Siddhārtha, there were 3 Lokadhātu Buddhas, out of which 2 were in Kashmir-at time of

Ashoka, 48 th king of Gonanda vamśa (1400 BC), and in time of 53 rd king Kanişka (1505 BC). Maitreya Buddha was in Dhānya-Kataka which is Cuttack in Orissa, a region of dhānya (paddy) with
places as Chauliaganja, Dhānamandal, Salepur, etc. As per Fahien, he was about 300 years after death of Siddhārtha Budda (1807 BC) i.e in1500 BC. Dīpankara Buddha was after Sumedhā. Orissa

king Indrabhūti was his disciple. His son Padmasambhava started Lama tradition in Tibet. Siddhārtha has named 3 more Buddhas whose teachings did not survive inabsence of written text-Vipaśyī, Śikhi,

Viśvabhū. Thūpa (stūpa) vamśa lists 28 Buddhas-where Gautama Buddha is separate from Siddhārtha Buddha. Gautama Buddha might have expired in about 483 BC described in later records
of China or Srilanka. 8. List of Vyāsa-On these logics and calculations, Sri Kunvar Lal Jain “Vyāsa-śişya” in his books Vyā (Purāņon men Vamśānukramika Kāla-krama, and Purāņon men Aitihāsika Parivarta Yuga-Itihas

Vidya Prakashan, Delhi, 1990) has indicated period of 28 Vyāsas given in many purāņas (Vāyu, Brahmāņɖa, Kūrma etc). This is quoted by 18 Vol. Indian History by Sripad Kulkarni from BHISHMA,
Thane, Mumbai-in vol. 4). 1.Svāyambhuva Manu (Brahmā)-(29,102-17,500 BC)-Svārochişa, Tāmasa, Raivata also in the period. Svā 2. Kaśyapa (Brahma-Sāvarņi Manu)-(17,500-16,050 BC)-Chākśuşa, and other Sāvarņi Manus. In this Kaś period Pŗthu (17,050 BC) was most important king who did extensive mining all over the world-so earth was called Pŗthvī. This led to co-operation between Deva and Asuras for samudra-manthana which was world-wide joint exploration of minerals. Vena was father of Pŗthu and possibly a jaina

Tīrthankara as he has been blamed as Jaina in many Purāņas. There are many sūktas by him. Śukra
planet was named venus after him. 3 Ūśanā Kāvya or Śukrāchārya (16,050-15,330 BC)-Son of Bhŗgu. Atharva-veda was by BhŗguŪśan anā

Angirā. He was Guru (Preceptor) of Asura, Daitya, Dānava. Treatises on Rājanīti (politics +
economics), Dhanurveda, Āyurveda, Purāņas were written. Kārttikeya starts new calendar in 15,800 BC with year from entry of sun in Dhanişţhā star. 4. Bŗhaspati - (15,330-14,610 BC)-Complete form of Vedas. He explained grammar for each word separately which is still used in China- where there is separate sign for each word. 5. Vivasvāna (Savitā)- (14,610-13,900 BC)-New calendar and yuga-system as per Sūrya-siddhānta. Vivasvā Year started from Āśvina month with entry of sun in meşa sign and crossing of equator in north motion of sun. Avasarpiņī yuga started with Satya yuga. Then Tretā, Dvāpara came and ended after (4800 +3600 +2400 = 10,800 years) in 3102 BC. 6. Vaivasvata-Yama (13,900-12,460 BC)-He was Ahur-Mazda (Asura-Mahādeva) of Zend-Avesta. VaivasvataThere was deluge in his period. He had explained the secrets of death to Nachiketā (Kaţhopanişad), so he is called Śrāddha-Deva also. He is called younger brother of Vaivasvata-Manu, but in action only. There is large difference between their periods. His place was called Yama-loka, place of dead with capital at Sanyamanī Purī. These are now called Yaman, Amman, Sana, Dead sea etc. 7. Indra-Śatakratu (12,460-11,740 BC)-Śata =100, Kratu = yajña = science of producing desired Indraobjects in cycles. Most needed object is food, whose production is most important yajña done in annual cycle. Other human activities also match the natural cycle of revolution of earth-like financial or educational session. Ideal for man is to do yajña for 100 years life-time. There were many Indras in 3600 years supremacy of Devas, but 14 among them were important who ruled for 100 years eachand were called Śatakratu . In space, Indra is the radiation which is present even in vacuum i.e.

Śunāsīrah. On earth, Indra means king. That too is called Śunāsīrah because his influence is
everywhere or he is owner of un-claimed property (with no owner). Most of the sūktas of Vedas were

written at time of 7th Indra-Vaikunţha. Indra was Lokapāla (ruler) of east direction (from center of India). With assistance of Marut (Lokapāla of north-west) who was expert in science of sound-he made Deva-nāgarī script with 49 letters for 49 maruts in space of galaxy. It has 33 letters for 33 devas which are prāņa of 33 dhāmas of solar system. Being a Chiti (City, arrangement) or nagara of devas in symbols, it is called Deva-nāgarī which is still used from Indra (east) to north-west (Marut).

Samvatsara is yajña (Śatapatha brāhmaņa 11/1/1/1), Samvatsara is Indra Śunāsīrah (Taittirīya brāhmaņa 1/7/1/1)
8.Vasişţha (11,740-11,020 BC)-He was son of Mitra (Sun-Iran)) and Varuņa (Ahur-Mazda in Arab) Vasişţ şţh both-may be link between two regions. 8th maņɖala of Ŗk-veda is by him.

Apāntaratamā 9.Apāntaratamā or Sārasvata (11,020-10,300 BC)-Son of Sarasvatī-Alambuşā in gotra (family) of Dadhyaņ-Atharvańa. He lived on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī) where Brāhmī script is still current as Telugu and Kannaɖa.
10.Tridhāmā Tridhā taught purāņa. 11.Ŗşabha-deva ji (9,580-8,860 BC)-After deluge he brought back supremacy of Bhārata as its abhaor Mārkaņɖeya (10,300-9,580 BC)-Dattātreya taught Yoga-tantra and Mārkaņɖeya

Chakravartī king (paramount power in world, with famous all-powerful weapon chakra of Vişņu). He
was the first jaina-Tīrthankara of the current avasarpiņī. His son also was Chakravartī and as this country fed the world, the king was called Bharata and the country as Bhārata. Earlier, it was named

Ajanābha-varşa. In his period, Maya-Asura of Mexico revised Sūrya-siddhānta of Vivasvān which
developed errors due to slowing down of axial rotation of earth in deluge. Due to worldwide authority of Ŗşabha-deva ji, it was accepted for the whole world. Ŗşabha-deva ji restored the civilization started by Svāyambhuva Manu, so he is called his descendant. As ruler of world, he was incarnation of Vişņu and as teacher (Ŗşabha =source of knowledge), he was 9th Śiva (Kūrma-purāņa). In Veda-sūktas of his name and in Jaina texts, he has been called initiator of Asi-masi-kŗşi (= sword, ink, agriculture).

Ŗşabha also means Bullock, which does agriculture and carries load, so he is depicted as Śiva on
bull-carrying burden of country and feeding it. 12. Atri (8,860-8,500 BC)-Bhauma-Atri (of India, Bhūmi or Bhūloka among 3 lokas of Indra) was

āchārya (propounder) of āyurveda. He also made shorter method of solar eclipse. Sānkhya-Atri went
to north-west direction where his Roman script has 25 (or 26 with extra-x) letters is still used, for 25 elements of Sānkhya. 13.Dharma or Nara-Nārāyaņa (8,500-8,140 BC) - He taught Vedas in Badarikāśrama. Guru tradition of Śankarāchārya starts with this Nārāyaņa. This is period of Kāņva-Medhātithi ŗşi and king Duşyanta and his son Bharata. 14. Suchkśaņa or Suchkśu (8,140-7,780 BC)-Period of Kings Marutta, Avikśita, Karandhama and ŗşis Suchkś

Gautama, Vāmadeva.
15. Tryāruņa (7,780-7,420 BC)-Period of king Māndhātā in line of Ikśvāku, and king Angāra of Tryāruņ

Gāndhāra.
16.Dhanañjaya (7,420-7,060 BC) Ŗşi Bharadvāja was contemporary-Dāśa-rāja war in about 7,200 17.Kŗtañjaya (7,060-6,700 BC) 18.Ŗtañjaya (6,700-6,340 BC) tañ BC. Attack by Gayāsura or Asita-Dhanvā on India in 6,777 BCDionysus, or Bacchus) as per Megasthenes.

19. Bharadvāja (6,340-5,980 BC)-Purohita (advisor) of emperor Chāyamāna (of Persia) and Divodāsa Bharadvā (of Kāśī)-both. 20.Gautama (5,980-5,620 BC)-He resided on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī)-wrote sūtras of Nyāya-

darśana. Period of Jamadagni, Hariśchandra. Paraśurāma, Kārttavīrya Arjuna.
21. Vāchaspati or Niryantara (5,620-5,260 BC)-Yavanas were expelled by king Sagara, supremacy on oceans. His grandson Bhagīratha brought down Gangā (some glaciers of Himālaya merged with it. 22. Sukalyāņa or Somaśuşņa (5,260-4,900 BC)-Ŗşis Pulastya and Viśravā. Institute of Paraśurāma Sukalyāņ āņa ends with tretā. 23. Tŗņavindu (4,900-4,540 BC)-Emperor, daughter married to Pulastya, father of Rāvaņa, Kubera. ŗņavindu

lmī 24.Vālmīki (4,540-4,180 BC)-Period of Rāma, son of Daśaratha (4433-4262 BC). Also of Rāvaņa, Hanumān.
25. Śakti-Vāsişţha (4,180-3,820 BC)-Method of Veda-pāţha (recitation). akti- sişţ şţha 26. Jātūkarņya (3,820-3,460 BC)-Student of Parāśara, but period is before him. Kaņāda wrote karņ

Vaiśeşika-sūtras.
27. Parāśara (3,460-3,100 BC)-Teacher of Vişņu-purāņa. Divided Purāņa-samhitā in 100 crore verses Parāś āśara into 18 purāņas of 4 lakh verses. 2 streams of astronomy-of Āryabhaţa (Svāyambhuva or Pitāmaha) and Parāśara (Sūrya-siddhānta or Maitreya mentioned in Vişņu-purāņa). 28. Veda-Vyāsa (from 3,100 BC till today)-Son of Satyavatī (later on married to king Śantanu) and Veda-Vyā

Parāśara-Kŗşņa-Dvaipāyana. Wrote Bhāgavata purāņa, Brahma-sūtra, commentary on Yoga-sūtra of Patañjali. Divided Vedas into many branches to preserve the knowledge. There was no further Vyāsa
, so it is still called 28th kali. Chronology9. Detailed Chronology (1) Sūrya-vanśa started with rule of Ikśvāku on 1-11-8576 BC. He has been called son of Vaivasvata rya-vanś

Manu (13902 BC) but could have been descendant, or he re-established his system of calendar and
polity. In Kish-chronicle of Iraq, his son or descendant Vikukśi has been called Ukusi in 8,320 BC. Obviously, some kings for lesser periods have been left out from the list. Only list of main kings is available now(1) Vaivasvata Manu (13902 BC), (2) Ikśvāku (1-11-8576 BC), (3) Vikukśi (Ukusi in 8320 BC),

Purañjaya or Kakutstha (also called Āɖībaka =hump of bull)-He defeated Sujambha, second son of Prahlāda in sixth Deva-asura war. (5) Anenā, (6) Pŗthu-not the earlier king of Kaśyapa period, (7) Viśvagaśva, (8) Ārdra, (9) Yuvanāśva-1, (10) Śrāvasta (set up Śrāvastī town), (11) Bŗhadaśva,
attacked by Dhundu Asura. (12) Kuvalayāśva did the job, so he was called Dhundhumāra. Firdausi (Persian poet) has called him Keraspa in his Shāhanāmā. (13) Dŗɖhāśva, (14) Pramoda, (15)

Haryaśva-1, (16) Nikumbha, (17) Samhatāśva, (18) Kŗśāśva, (19) Prasenajita, (20) Yuvanāśva-2, (21) Māndhātā (about 7500 BC-15 th tretā)-About his kingdom saying was famous that sun always sets
and rises in his kingdom (Vāyu purāņa 88/68, Vişņu purāņa 4/2/65, Mahābhārata, Droņa parva 62/11). This was copied by the British in praise of British empire. His subordinate kings were-Angāra (Gāndhāra), Marutta, Asita (Asita-Dhanvā in Śatapatha brāhmaņa 13/4/3/12 was an Asura king-not Dionysus but his predecessor), Gaya, Anga-Bŗhadratha, Janamejaya, Sudhanvā, Nŗga. ruled different states, and main line continued at Ayodhyā. His 3 sons

3 sons of Māndhātā 22. Purukutsa 23. Trasadasyu 24. Sambhūta

Ambarīşa Yuvanāśva-3 Hārīta (Brāhmaņa)

Muchukunda

Purukutsa was contemporary of king Sudāsa of famous Dāśarāja-war, described in Ŗgveda. (25) Anaraņya was son of Sambhūta-He fought with Rāvaņa who was earlier than the famous Rāvaņa of Rāmāyaņa. (26) Trasadaśva, (27) Haryaśva-2, (28) Vasumāna, (29) Tridhanvā, (30) Tryāruņa, (31) Satyavrata or Triśanku-He was being set by yajña of Viśvāmitra to Svarga, but was stopped midway
by Indra. (32) Hariśchandra-He donated entire kingdom to Viśvāmitra and worked as chāņɖāla at

Kāśī. (33) Rohitāśva, (34) Harita, (35) Chañchu, (36) Vijaya, (37) Ruruka, (38) Vŗka, (39) Bāhu-He
was defeated and killed in combined attack of Yavana, Kāmboja, etc in 6,777 BC. (40) Sagara-He took back the whole empire and spread influence over seas due to which they were called sāgara. He punished Persians by making their beard goat-shaped and expelled Yavanas from Arab when the settled in Greece which was called Ionia (Herodotus). His 60,000 sons were burnt by sage Kapila, who might have been author of Sānkhya-sūtras. In Gītā, he has been named as foremost Siddha and Sūrya-siddhānta, chapter 12 tells Siddhapura at 1800 east of Ujjain, so many persons take his place at California (assumed to be Kapilāraņya).. (41) Asamañjasa was expelled. (42) Anśumāna-grandson of Sagara became king. (43) Dilīpa, (44)

Bhagīratha succeeded in bringing Gangā from Himālaya which was called Bhāgīrathī. (45) Śruta, (46) Nābhāga-was a relation, not son. (47) Ambarīşa-2, (48) Sindhu, (49) Ayutāyu, (50) Ŗtuparņa, (51) Sarvakāma, (52) Sudāsa, (53) Kalmāşa-pāda (His feet became black due to curse of Śakti, son of Vasişţha), (54) Aśmaka, (55) Urukāma, (56) Mūlaka-He was at time of Paraśurāma and was hidden
among women for saving him, so he was named Nārī-kavacha. (57) Śataratha, (58) Iɖaviɖa, (59)

Kŗśakarma, (60) Sarvakāma, (61) Anarāya (or Anaraņya), (62) Nighna, (63) Anamitra or Raghu-1,
(64) Dulīɖuha, (65) Viśvamahat, (66) Dilīpa. (67) Raghu-2-He is the hero of Raghuvamśa, epic of Kālidāsa. On his name, the clan was called

Raghuvamśa. Whole of ancient India was under him. (68) Aja, (69) Daśaratha, (70) Rāma was his
most famous son (4433-4372 BC) who killed Rāvaņa and set up world empire. His rule is still considered standard for propriety. (71) Kuśa, (72) Atithi, (73) Nişadha, (74) Nala (different from famous Nala of Nişadha), (75)

Nabha,(76) Puņɖarīka, (77) Kśemadhanvā, (78) Devānīka, (79) Ahinagu, (80) Ruru, (81) Pariyātra,
(82) Śala, (83) Dala, (84) Bala, (85) Uktha, (86) Sahasrāśva, (87) Chandrāvaloka, (88) Tārāpīɖa, (89)

Chandragiri, (90) Bhānuchandra, or, Bhānumitra, (91) Śrutāyu, (92) Ulūka, (93) Unnābha, (94) Vajranābha, (95) Śankhana, (96) Vyuşitāśva, (98) Hiraņya-nābha-He learnt yoga from Yājñavalkya
and spread it. (99) Kauśalya, (100) Brahmişţha, (101) Putra, (102) Puņya, (103) Arthasiddhi, (104)

Sudarśana, (105) Agnivarņa, (106) Śīghraga, (107) Maru, (108) Prasuśruta, (109) Sandhi, (110) Pramarşaņa, (111) Mahasvān, (112) Sahasvān, (113) Viśvabhava, (114) Viśvasva, (115) Prasenajita,
(116) Takśaka, (117) Bŗhadbala-He was killed in Mahābhārata war (3139 BC) by Abhimanyu, son of

Arjuna.

After Mahābhārata-(1) Bŗhatkśaņa, (2) Uruyakśa, (3) Vatsavyūha, (4) Prativyoma, (5) Divākara, (6)

Sahadeva, (7) Bŗhadśva, (8) Bhānuratha, (9) Pratitasva, (10) Supratīka, (11) Marudeva, (12) Sunakśatra, (13) Kinnara, (14) Antarikśa, (15) Suparņa, (16) Amitrajita, (17) Bŗhadbhāja, (18) Dharmī,
(19) Kŗtañjaya, (20) Raņañjaya, (21) Sañjaya, (22) Śākya, (23) Śuddhodana, (24) Siddhārtha -

Gautama Buddha (1887-1806 BC), (25) Rāhula, (26) Prasenajita, (27) Kśudraka, (28) Kundaka, (29) Suratha, (30) Sumitra-ended in 1634 BC. Chandra-Vamś (2)Chandra-Vamśa-(1) Soma (=Chandra) was son of Atri, (3) Budha was son of Soma, (Tāņɖyamahā-brāhmaņa 24/18/6, Mahābhārata, udyoga parva 147/3). (3) Budha was married to Iļā, daughter
of Vaivasvata-Manu. Son of Iļā was Aila Pururavā, first emperor in this line. His basic name was Puru. As son of Iļā, he was Aila. He started institution of yajña (3 agnis for that). He was like vŗşabha (bull) of yajña and was making rava (vibration). So, he was called ravā. This means that he was capable of production, hence ravā is still used as word for respect around Kashi. 3. Pururavā 4. Āyu 5. Nahuşa

Dhīmān
6. Yayāti

Amāvasu Kśatravŗddha Sanyāti Rambha
+others

Vişāyu Raji Anenā

Yati

5. Nahuşa had held the post of Indra also for some period when Indra had to leave after Brahma-

hatyā by killing of Vŗtra. Later on, had to become serpent (a tribe of men where he ruled) by curse of a ŗşi. His daughter Ruchi was married to Apanvān, grand-son of Bhŗgu. Bhŗgu +Wives daughter of Hiraņyakaśipu Divyā, Śukra, called Uśanā, or Kāvya. Tvaşţā, Triśrā Śaņɖa, Marka. Viśvarūpa (Viśvakarmā) Dadhīchi Paulomī Chyavana married to Sukanyā Apanvān + Ruchi Ŗchīka + Satyavatī Jamadagni Paraśurāma Noah of Bible or Nuh of Koran = Manu (h), Rayu (Bible) = Āyu, Nahur (Bible) = Nahuşa
First son of Nahuşa was Yati who became sanyāsī (renunciate), so second son Yayāti became the king. His first wife Devayānī was daughter of Śukrāchārya (Kāvya in Kaaba, Arab) who had 2 sons-

Yadu, Turvasu. Second wife Śarmişţhā was daughter of Asura (Dānava) king Vŗşa-parvā (vŗşa=
Taurus, parvata = mountain-in Turkey). She had 3 sons-Druhyu, Anu, Puru. Due to fraudulent second marriage, Śukrāchārya cursed Yayāti to become old. Then the youngest son Puru only agreed to take his old state, so he was given main kingdom, and in his name the clan was called Puru-vamśa. Yadu got north east part-in that line Kŗşņa (3228-3102 BC) was born. Druhyu got west part, Anu north (Ānava = yavana) and Turvasu in south-east. One branch of Yadu clan is stated to have gone under Ezypt rule where they were called Yid=Yahud (Jew)-escaped to Israel. (7) Puru, (8) Janamejaya-he did 3 Aśvamedha-yajña. (9) Prāchīnavān or Aviddha, (10) Pravīra, (11) Manasyu or Namasyu-He rules from Sindhu river to east ocean and Vindhya mountain to Himālaya. (12) Abhayada or Subhrū, (13) Subvanta or Dhundhu, (14) Yavuyāna or Bahugva, (15) Samyāti, (16) Ahamyati, (17) Raudrāśva,

(18) Rucheyu-One of his 10 sisters was married to Atri whose son was Svasti. He had 3 sons-Soma (different from the first of Chandra line), Datta (Dattātreya), and Durvāsā. His daughter Apālā also was seer of mantra of Ŗgveda. (19) Matināra, (20) Apratīrtha-His son ŗşi Kāņva Medhātithi was seer of many mantras. Her sister

Gaurī’s son was Māndhātā-famous world emperor of Sūrya-vamśa. (21) Tamsu or Sumati, (22) Īlina,
or Sudyumna , (23) Duşyanta-from his wife Śakuntalā was born famous emperor (24) Bharata-hero of

Abhijñāna-śākuntalam-famous play of Kālidāsa. Ŗşis of his time were-Ŗchīka, Jamadagni, Viśvāmitra,
and Bharadvāja. Bharata was married to Sunandā, daughter of Sarvasena, king of Kāśī. From her, a son Bhūmanyu was born by niyoga (artificial birth) by Bharadvāja. (25) Bhūmanyu (26) Bŗhatkśtra (27) Suhotra (28) Hasti

Nara Samkŗti Rantideva

Garga Śini Trayyāruņi

Mahāvīrya Urukśaya Puşkarin Kapi

Guruvīta

(28) Hasti made a town in his name-Hastināpura, As this became capital of kings of India, Chinese called this country as elephant (hasti) kingdom. East and south parts of India adjacent to China are in shape of elephant head, whose trunk (śuņɖa) has gone to the end of Indonesia after which there is strait of śuņɖā. India was main part of Jambū-dvīpa (Asia), so, jumbo also meant elephant. After

Hasti, his son (29) Vikuņţhana became king. All his 3 sons-Ajamīɖha, Purumīɖha, Dvimīɖha-were brāhmaņas, but on order of sage Bharadvāja, eldest son (30) Ajamīɖha became king. He was
contemporary to Sūrya-vamśa king Tridhanvā. After that, the list is in-complete, but these names are found-(31) Ŗkśa-1, (32) Ahamyati-He married Bhānumatī, sister of Kārttavīrya-Arjuna. (33)

Sarvabhauma, (34) Jayattsena, (35) Avachīna, (36) Ardha, (37) Mahābhauma, (38) Ayutanayī, (39) Akrodhana, (40) Devatithi, (41) Ariha. The list as per Vāyu-purāņa is- (30) Ajamīɖha, (31) Ŗkśa, (32) Parīkśita, (33) Janamejaya, (34) Suratha, (35) Bhīmasena, (36) Jahnu,-in time of Bhagīratha, Sūryavamśa king who brought down Gangā, so it is called Jāhnavī also. (37) Suratha, (38) Vidūratha, (39) Sarvabhauma,(40) Jayatsena, (41) Ārādhita or Akrodhana, (42) Mahāsattva, (43) Ayutāyu, (44) Akrodhana, (45) Devatithi, (46) Ŗkśa, (47) Dilīpa, (48) Pratīpa, (49) Śāntanu. Matināra was in time of Māndhātā in about 7,300 BC and Śāntanu was great-grandfather of Pāņɖavas in about 3,200 BC. Many other names are missing like Kuru, son of Samvaraņa, in whose
name the clan is called Kuru-vamśa. Samvaraņa had been defeated by a Pāñchāla king and was living on banks of Sindhu river he was married with Tapatī, daughter of Sūrya (or of his line). He ruled in (4159-4071 BC). Their son Kuru (4071-3999 BC) re-established kingdom. From his wife Śubhāngī 3, sons were born. Jahnu was a sage who was at time of king Bhagīratha of Sūrya-vamśa and helped flow of Gangā due to which it is called Jāhnavī. Main line at Hastināpur continued with Abhisvān and 9 kings upto Parīkśita has been given in Bhāgavata purāņa. Then Janamejaya, Bhīmasena were important kings. Mahāhbhārata (1/95/74-82) starts with Pratīpa (3370-3310 BC). His eldest son

Devāpi went to Himālaya for tapa and will continue next civilization after destruction of current phase.
Second son Śāntanu (3310-3251 BC) was king at Hastināpur and third Bāhlīka went to west part (Balkh of Persia). Śāntanu from his wife Gangā had son Devavrata who relinquished koingdom for sons of younger wife Satyavatī- for this terrible oath, he became famous as Bhīşma. Sons from were

short lived-Chitrāngada (3248 BC), Vichitravīrya (3248-3238 BC), so Bhīşma (3238-3218 BC) had to take charge.Elder son of Vichitravīrya was Dhŗtarāşţra born blind, so second son Pāņɖu (3218-3213 BC) was made king, but he suffered from severe jaundice, and had to leave Dhŗtarāşţra (3213-3174 BC) in charge. Dhŗtarāşţra shifted Yudhişţhira eldest son of Pāņɖu to Indraprastha and made his own son Duryodhana (3174-3138 BC) as king. Yudhişţhira was not allowed even is Indraprastha and he was called to Hastināpur court to lose kingdom in forced gambling. He and his brothers had to go to forest for 12 years and incognito for 1 year, but kingdom was not returned to them which caused

Mahāhbhārata war (1-18/10/3139 BC) in which 39 lakh army and 165 lakh people from all parts of
world were killed. That ended the civilization. Dharmarāja Yudhişţhira was coronates on 17-12-3139 BC and Bhīşma died after 5 days on 22-12-3139 BC after 58 days on bed of arrows. After 36 years of rule by Yudhişţhira, Kṛṣṇa expired on 17-2-3102 BC and Dwaraka drowned in see. His grandson

Vajranābha was made king back at Mathurā. At Hastināpur, Parīkśita was coronated who was only
survivor as son of Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna, younger brother of Yudhişţhira. On 25-8-3102 BC,

Yudhişţhira and his brothers went to Himālayas when Jayābhyudaya śaka started. Many inscriptions
of Janamejaya, son of Parīkśita are in this era. 25 years after that Yudhişţhira expired and Laukika era started in Kashmir in 3076 BC. Kings after Yudhişţhira are(1) Parīkśita (3102-3041 BC)-he was son of Abhimanyu, He was killed by Takśaka, Nāga king, probably from Takśkaśilā. (2)Janamejaya retaliated against Nāgas, called (nāga-yajña) and their region turned into mass-graveyard, now called Moin-jo-daro (place of dead) and Harappā (place of bones). (3) Śatānīka, and his son (4) Aśvamedhadatta arranged revision of purāņas at institute (mahāśālā) of Śaunaka at Naimişāaraņya. (5) Adhisīmakŗşņa, (6) Nichakśu-In his period there was a great natural upheaval which submerged Hastināpura in

Gangā due to which capital had to be shifted to Kauśāmbī. Probably this was at same time ats drying
up the great river Sarasvatī in west India. The kingdom remained for name sake only and King of Kāśī had to take charge of managing the country. Probably, he was also named Yudhişţhira, but after 5 years of rule, he took sanyāsa as Pārśvanātha (23rd Jaina Tīrthankara) in 2634 BC, when Jainas take start of Yudhişţhira śaka. (7) Ūşņa (Bhūri), (8) Chitraratha, (9) Śuchidratha, (10) Vŗşņimāna, (11) Suśeņa, (12) Sunītha, (13)

Nichakśu-2, (14) Rucha, (15) Sukhabala, (16) Pariplava,(17) Sunaya, (18) Medhāvī, (19) Nŗpa (Ripu-) ñjaya, (20) Durva, (21) Tigmātmā, (22) Bŗhadratha, (23) Vasudāna, (24) Śatānīka, (25) Udayana
(Hero of plays by Bhāsa, in time of Pradyoota, mentioned in epic Meghadūta of Kālidāsa), (26)

Vaśīnara, (27) Daņɖapāņi, (28) Niramitra,(29) Kśemaka-ended in 1634 BC by Magadha king Mahāpadmananda.
Second branch of Kuru family ruled at Magadha-(1) Sudhanvā (3999-3919 BC), (2) Suhotra (39193826 BC), (3) Chyavana (3826-3788 BC), (4) Kŗmi or Kŗti (3788-3751 BC), (5) Uparichara Vasu (3751-3709 BC) (Pratīpa or Chaidya), (6) Bŗhadratha (3709-3637 BC)-capital at Girivraja (Rājagŗha=Rajgir now), (7) Kuśāgra (3637-3567 BC), (8) Ŗşabha (3567-3497 BC), (9) Satyahita (3497-3437 BC), (10) Puņya or Puşpavanta (3437-3394 BC), (11) Satyadhŗti (3394-3351 BC), (12)

Sudhanvā (3351-3308 BC), (13) Sarva (3308-3265 BC), (14) Sambhava (3265-3222 BC), (15) Jarāsandha (3222-3180 BC), (16) Sahadeva (3180-3138 BC)- Bārhadratha vamśa of Magadha.

(5) Magadha kings in Kali-

vamś 1.Bārhadratha vamśa-Started with Somāpi, son of Sahadeva killed in Mahābhārata war.
(1) Somāpi (Mārjāri)-(3138-3080 BC), (2) Śrutaśravā (3080-3016 BC), (3) Apratīpa (3016-2980 BC), (4) Niramitra (2980-2940 BC), (5) Sukŗta (2940-2882 BC), (6) Bŗhatkarman (2882-2859 BC), (7)

Senajita (2859-2809 BC), (8) Śrutañjaya (2809-2769 BC), (9) Mahābala (2769-2734 BC), (10) Śuchi
(2734-2676 BC), (11) Kśema (2676-2648 BC), (12) Aņuvrata (2648-2584 BC), (13), Dharmanetra (2584-2549 BC), (14) Nirvŗtti (2549-2491 BC), (15) Suvrata (2491-2453 BC), (16) Dŗɖhasena (24532395 BC), (17) Sumati (2395-2362 BC), (18) Suchala (2362-2340BC), (19) Sunetra (2340-2300 BC), (20) Satyajita (2300-2217 BC), (21) Vīrajita (2217-2182 BC), (22) Ripuñjaya (2182-2132 BC) Total-22 kings for 1006 years (Brahmāņɖa purāņa 2/3/74/121, Vişņu purāņa 4/23/12 etc)

vamś 2. Pradyota vamśa-Last Bārhadratha king was Ripuñjaya killed by his minister Śunaka (or Pulaka)
and made his son-in-law Pradyota, as king (Brahmāņɖa purāņa 2/3/74/122, Skanda purāņa 12/2 etc). (1) Pradyota (2132-2109 BC), (2) Pālaka (2109-2085 BC), (3) Viśākhayūpa (2085-2035 BC), (4)

Janaka (2035-2014 BC), (5) Nandivardhana (2014-1994 BC)-Total 5 kings for 138 years. unā vamś 3. Śiśunāga vamśa- (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta 2/2, Bhāgavata purāņa 12/2/8 etc.)-(1)Śiśunāga (19941954 BC), (2) Kākavarņa or Śakavarņa (1954-1918 BC), (3) Kśemadhanvā (1918-1892 BC), (4)

Kśatrauja (1892-1852 BC), (5) Vidhisāra (Bimbisāra) or Śreņika (1852-1814 BC), (6) Ajātaśatru
(1814-1787 BC), (7) Darśaka (1787-1752 BC), (8) Udāyi (1752-1719 BC), (9) Nandivardhana (17191677 BC), (10) Mahānandi (1677-1634 BC). In this period Siddhārtha, son of Śuddhodana became

Buddha, who was incarnation of māyā and moha, not of Vişņu (Vişņu purāņa 4/23 etc). He was 5
years younger to Bimbisāra and died in 8th year of Ajātaśatru’s rule in 1806 BC. Udāyi in 4 year of his rule established Pāţaliputra on confluence of Son and Gangā (Vāyu purāņa 119/318). Ten kings of this dynasty ruled for 360 years.

vamś 4. Nanda vamśa- Mahā-Padma-Nanda was the son of last Śiśunāga king Mahānandi by his śūdrā
wife. After death of his father he became king 1500 years (more accurately 1534 years after birth of

Parīkśita in 3138 BC) stated in all purāņas as a landmark of history. He won most of India by
exterminating all kśatriya kings like second Paraśurāma. (Vişņu purāņa 4/24/104, Bhāgavata purāņa 12/1/10). He ruled for 88 years followed by 8 sons for 12 years (Matsya purāņa 270/20, 273/23)-a total of 100 years from 1634 to 1534 BC.

vamś 5. Maurya vamśa-Kauţilya Chāņakya destyoed and made Chandragupta as king. His family belonged
to Murā town (in Sambalpur of Orissa, now submerged in Hirakud reservoir) which was center of iron ore called mura (murrum). So the family was called Maurya. 12 Maurya kings ruled for a total of 316 years (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta 3/2, Matsya purāņa 270/32, Vāyu purāņa etc.)- (1) Chandragupta (1534-1500 BC), (2) Bindusāra (1500-1472 BC), (3) Aśoka (1472-1436 BC), (4) Supārśva (Suyaśa, or

Kuņāla)- (1436-1428 BC), (5) Daśaratha (Bandhupālita)-(1428-1420 BC), (6) Indrapālita (1420-1350
BC), (7) Harşavardhana (1350-1342 BC), (8) Sangata (1342-1333 BC), (9) Śāliśūka (1333-1320 BC), (10) Soma (Deva-) śarmā (1320-1313 BC), (11) Śatadhanvā (1313-1305), (12) Bŗhadratha (Bŗhadaśva)-(1305-1218 BC). There was another Aśoka in Gonanda-vamśa (43rd king) in (1448-1400 BC) who had become

Bauddha due to which Bauddhas from central Asia destroyed the kingdom. Many of the inscriptions in

name of Aśoka are by him (Rājatarangiņī, 1/101-102). No inscription including one at Hathi-gumpha mentions that he had become Buddhist. Only mention is in Bauddha text Divyāvadāna (chapter

Aśokāvadāna) that Aśoka had killed 12,000 Jaina monks on victory over Kalinga. This is too high a
figure for a normal war. There is no basis of figure of 1,50,000 killed, 350,000 injured and 550,000 arrested. This exceeds the population of the then Kalinga and more than current strength of Indian army. Alexander Army was only 120,000 with 20,000 horses, which was afraid of Magadha army of 600,000. Only possibility maybe that Jainas might be powerful in Kalinga administration which was lost after war. Another fallacy is spread that Magadha empire was destroyed due to adoption of nonviolence by Aśoka. Actually, non-violence is feature of Yoga-sūtra and more stressed in Jainism. Rather,Siddhārtha Buddha himself were strongly opposed to vegetarian food even for Bhikśus. It is surprising as to how Buddha was moved by sacrifice of animals in yajña, which is for food, not for God. Maurya kings were never against Brāhmaņs, minister of Last king Puśyamitra was himself a

Brāhmaņa who killed king and became king himself. unga-Vamś 6.Śunga-Vamśa-10 Śunga kings ruled for 300 years (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta, Matsya, Vāyu purāņa).
(1) Puśyamitra (1218-1158 BC), (2) Agnimitra (1158-1108 BC), (3) Vasumitra (1108-1072 BC), (4)

Sujyeşţha (1072-1055 BC), (5) Bhadraka (1055-1025 BC), (6) Pulindaka (1025-992 BC), (7) Ghoşavasu (992-989 BC), (8) Vajramitra (989-960 BC), (9) Bhāgavata (960-928 BC), (10) Devabhūti
(928-918 BC).

Kaņ Vamś 7. Kaņva-Vamśa-4 Kaņva kings ruled for 85 years ((Vişņu purāņa 4/24/39-42 etc). (1) Vāsudeva (918879 BC), (2) Bhūmimitra (879-855 BC), (3) Nārāyaņa (855-843 BC), (4) Suśarmā (843-833 BC).

Vamś 8.Āndhra-Vamśa-33 Āndhra kings ruled for 506 years. During that rule, saptarşi-cycle of 2700 years
started in time of kingYudhişţhira (saptarşi in Maghā from 3176 BC)-(Matsya purāņa chapter 270 etc.). Detailed list is in Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta, list in other purāņas miss some names. (1) Śimukha (Sindhuka or Sumukha)-(833-810 BC), (2) Śrīkŗşņa Śātakarņī (810-792 BC), (3) Śrīmalla

Śātakarņī (792-782 BC), (4) Pūrņotsanga (782-764 BC)-In his time Kalinga king Khārāvela became
independent from Magadha which was suffering under attack from west Asia. He repaired Prāchī canal in 5th year of his rule (Prāchī inscription) which was 803 (Tri-vasu-śata ) years after coronation of Nanda (1634 BC), thus his rule started in 1634-(803-4) = 835 BC. (5) Śrī Śātakarņī (764-708 BC), (6) Skandha-stambin (Śrīvasvanī)-(708-690 BC), (7) Lambodara (690-672 BC), (8) Āpilaka (672-660 BC), (9) Megha-Svāti (660-642 BC), (10) Śāta-Svāti (642-624 BC), (11) Skanda-Svāti (624-617 BC), (12) Mŗgendra-Svāti-Karņa (617-614 BC), (13) Kuntala (614-606 BC), (14) Saumya (606-594 BC), (15) Śata-Svāti-Karņa (594-593 BC), (16) Pulomāvi-1 (593-557 BC), (17) Megha (557-519 BC), (18)

Arişţa (519-494 BC), (19) Hāla (494-489 BC)-author of Gāthā-sapta-śatī, contemporary of Śankarāchārya. (20) Maņɖalaka (489-484 BC), (21) Purandara-Sena (484-463 BC)-saptarşi-cycle
completed in 476 BC in his period. (22) Sundara- Śātakarņī (463-462 BC), (23) Chakra-Vāsişţhī-Putra and Mahendra (462-461 BC), (24)

Śiva-1 (461-433 BC),(25) Gautamī-Putra-Śātakarņī (433-408 BC), (26) Pulomāvi-2 (408-376 BC), (27) Śiva-2 (376-369 BC), (28) Śivakoņɖā ( 369-362 BC), (29) Yajñaśrī (362-343 BC), (30) Vijayaśrī (343337 BC), (31) Chandraśrī (337-334 BC), (32) Pulomāvi-3 (334-327 BC)-He was a child son of

Chandraśrī whose queen had links with commander Chandragupta who killed the king and kept his

infant son as namesake king. His father Ghaţotkacha-Gupta was commander under 2 kings-(30)

Vijayaśrī and (31) Chandraśrī. Finally, Chandragupta killed the son also and became the king himself. Gupta-Vamś 9. Gupta-Vamśa-They have been called Āndhra-bhŗtya also, as they were serving as commander
under them (Matsya purāņa 273/17). Their place is called Śrī-Parvata which should be Śrī-śailam of Andhra Pradesh as the kings were from that area, not of Nepal as surmised. At start of this rule, Alexander attacked India in 326 BC. His historians have mentioned last kings of Āndhra and first 2 kings of Gupta clan as well as strength of army of Āndhra kings. Names as mentioned by Megasthenes are-Ghaţotkacha (Ghaţa = head, Utkacha = remover of hairs) - barber,

Chandraśrī. (Chandra-Bīja)—Agrammas (Xandrammas)-31st. Āndhra king Chandragupta-1-Sandrocottus, Samudragupta-Sandrocryptus, Chandragupta-2 was famous as conqueror or Amitrocchedas (=wiping out enemies)-Amitrochades. Gupta kings adopted titles of earlier great kings of Maurya period-Chandragupta-1-Vijayāditya. Samudragupta-Aśokāditya, Chandragupta-2-Vikramāditya. This was only a title. Famous Paramāra
king of Ujjain of this name was later on.

Śrīgupta was father of Ghaţotkacha or himself named as such due to bald head. His son Chandragupta-1 (327-320 BC) became first independent king. His first son Kacha (320 BC) was
removed shortly due to his cowardice and Samudragupta (Aśokāditya (320-269 BC) took over. His elder son Rāmagupta offered his wfe to Śaka invader, so his wife married younger brother

Chandragupta-2 (Vikramāditya) who killed invader and ruled in (269-233 BC). His son Kumāragupta-1 (233-191 BC) and then Skandagupta (191-175 BC) ruled. He died Issueless. His
brother Puragupta ruled as guardian of Budhagupta followed byVainyagupta (175-174 BC)

Kumāragupta-2 (174-172 BC), Budhagupta (172-166 BC) of same generation. Then Narasimhagupta
(Bālāditya-1)- (166-126 BC) maintained some prestige and it declined with Kumāragupta-3 (126-85 BC), ending with Vişņugupta (85-82 BC). Later Guptas at Valabhi-Bhaţārka of Maitraka family of Valabhi in Gujrat was commander of

Kumāragupta-3 called Kramāditya. He became independent in Saurashtra but continued to call
himself as Seanāpati and governor of Gujrat. He shifted the capital from Girnar to Valabhi and ruled for 44 years. His son Dharasena-1 also continued allegiance to Guptas. His younger brother

Droņasimha came to power in about 147 BC when Narasimhagupta (Bālāditya-1)- was Gupta
emperorand attended his coronation. Then Dhruvasena-1 ruled in Gupta era (starting in 327 BC) 206226 i.e. 121-101 BC.Then his brother Dharapatta came followed by his son Maharaja Guhasena (9281 BC) They had some areas of Magadha empire for which they showed Gupta legacy. Their rule continued till 319 AD when it was destroyed by their tyranny when the business community took help of Shakas. Then Valabhi-bhanga or Valabhi-samvat was started (Al-Biruni, Rajaśehara Sūri in

Prabandha-Kosha, 1362 AD and some inscriptions). Last Gupta is Mahāsena Gupta, king of Malva
whose son Mādhava Gupta was vassal of Harşavardhana (606-648 AD). Kashmir-This is given in Rājatarangiņī. Taranga (chapter)-1, describes Gonanda-vamśa Gonanda-vamś (6) Kings of Kashmir from 3450 BC. Names of first 5 kings are not known. 6 Gonanda-1 (3238-3188 BC), (7) Dāmodara-1 (3188-3140 BC)-He was killed just before Mahābhārata war, then his queen Yaśomatī ruled. (8)

Gonanda-2 (3138-3083 BC)-He was killed by Pāņɖava king Parīkśita

āņɖ kings-( 20 Pāņɖava kings 9) Parīkśita who became 9th king

and ruled from (3083-3041 BC), (10)

Harnadeva was second son of Parīkśita , (11) Rāmadeva, (12) Vyāsadeva, (13) Droņadeva, (14) Simhadeva, (15) Gopāladeva, (16) Vijayānanda, (17) Sukhadeva, (18) Ramaņadeva, (19) Sindhimāna, (20) Mahānadeva, (21) Kamāandeva, (22) Chandradeva, (23) Ānandadeva, (24) Drupadadeva, (25) Haranāmadeva,(26) Sulakhānadeva, (27) Senāditya, (28) Mangalāditya.
Another Kashmir dynasty-(29) Kśemendra, (30) Bhīmasena, (31) Indrasena, (32) Sundarasena, (33)

Galagendra, (34) Baladeva, (35) Nalasena, (36) Gokarņa, (37) Prahlāda, (38) Bambru, (39)
Pratāpaśīla, (40) Sangrāmachandra, (41) Lorikachandra, (42) Bīramachandra,(43) Babighena, (44)

Bhagavantī-with these 16 kings-a total of 36 Pāņɖava kings ruled for 1331 years (3083-1752 BC) Gonanda-vamś Gonanda-vamśa again-(45) Lava (1752-1713 BC), (46) Kuśa or Kuśeśaya, (47) Khagendra, (48) Surendra (Issueless). One relation (44th in Gonanda line) became king named (44) Godhara in 1596
BC. (45) Suvarņa, (46) Janaka, (47) Śachīnāra died issueless in 1448 BC. (48) Aśoka was grandson of Janaka’s brother. He became king in1448 BC. Under influence of Lokadhātu Buddha, he became

Bauddha and was named Dharmāśoka. He made many vihāras and stūpas, many of which are
thought to be by Maurya Aśoka. Bauddhas of central Asia captured his kingdom. By grace of a śaiva saint, he got back his kingdom and got a son named Jālauka. He ruled up to 1400 BC and established Śrīnagara town. (49) Jālauka (1400-1344BC), (50) Dāmodara-2 (1344-1294 BC), Again, Bauddhas of central Asia ruled the state for 60 years-Huşka, Juşka, Kanişka (1294-1234 BC).

Gonanda-vamś Gonanda-vamśa (52) Abhimanyu (1234-1182 BC),
-52 Gonanda kings for 2268 years (3450-1182 years. (53) Gonanda-3, (54) Vibhīşaņa, (55) Indrajita, (56) Rāvaņa, (57) Vibhīşaņa-2, (58) Kinnara, or Nara, (59) Siddha, (60) Utpalākśa, (61) Hiraņyakula, (62) Vasukula, (63) Mihirakula (704-634 BC)-These 3 were kashmiri śaivas, not foreigners. (64) Baka, (65) Kśitinandana, (66) Vasunandana, (67) Nara, (68) Akśa, (69) Gopāditya (417-357 BC)-He built Śankarāchārya temple in 367 BC which is now called Takhta-e-Suleman. (70) Gokarņa, (71) Kinakhila, (72) Narendrāditya, (73) Andha-Yudhişţhirahe was short-eyed not blind,-73+5=78 kings (3450-272 BC)

Taranga Taranga-2-Relations of Harşa-Vikramāditya-(1) Pratāpāditya, (2) Jalaukasa, (3) Tuşājina, (4) Vijaya,
(5) Jayendra, (6) Sandhimati-(272-80 BC)

Gonanda-vamś Gonanda-vamśa-Descendent of Andha-Yudhişţhira (80) Meghavāhana (80-46 BC), (81) Pravarasena, Śreşţhasena or Tuñjina (46-16 BC), (82) Hiraņya-(His younger brother Toramāņa made coins in his
own name-died in jail)-He died issueless-(16 BC-14 AD), 83-Mātŗgupta (Sent by king Vikramāditya of Ujjain)-(14-19 AD), (84) Pravarasena-2-Son of Toramāņa (19-79 AD),(85) Yudhişţhira -2 (79-118 AD)contemporary of king Śālivāhana, grandson of Vikramāditya of Ujjain, (86) Lakśmaņa (Narendrāditya) (118-131), (87) Tuñjina or Rāņāditya, poet (131-173), (88) Vikramāditya (173-215), (89) Bālāditya (215-252)- end of Gonanda-vamśa.

Karkoţaka-vamś Karkoţaka-vamśa-(1) Durlabhavardhana (son-in-law of Bālāditya the last king of Gonanda-vamśa)(252-288), (2) Durlabhaka or Pratāpāditya (288-338), (5) Lalitāditya or poet Muktāpīɖa (431-467), (6)

Kuvalayāditya (467-468), (7) Vajrāditya, Vāpyāyika or Lalitāpīɖa (468-525), (8) Pŗthivyāpīɖa (525569), (9) Sangrāmapīɖa (7 days), (10) Jayāpīɖa, scholar and poet (569-620), (11) Lalitāpīɖa (620672)-Chinese traveler Huensang had come in this period, (12) Sangrāmapīɖa -2 (672-729), (13)

Chipyata,or Jayāpīɖa (729-781), (14) Ajitāpīɖa (781-837), (15) Anangpīɖa (837-840) (16) Utpalāpīɖa
(840-845), (17) Sukhavarmā (845-852)

Utpala-vamś Utpala-vamśa-Avantivarman (town Avantipura in his name) and his son ruled in (852-936). Poets Ānandavardhana, and Ratnākara in that period. Grand-daughter of Bhīma-śāhī was Diddā who ruled
in name of her son Abhimanyu Gupta for (957-971) and countered attack of Mahmud of Gajani. Then

Eka and tyrant Harşa ruled in (1086-1110). Shahmir ruled in name of Shamsuddin in 1318. His family
ruled till 1561 when Moghul king Akbar captured Kashmir. Kings-This is given because Nepal was always independent and its king list is not distorted. Nepal Kings This has important links with other kings of India.

Gopāla-vamś Gopāla-vamśa-(1) Bhuktamānāgata Gupta (4159-4071 BC), (2) Jayagupta (4071-3999 BC), (3) Paramagupta (3999-3919 BC), (4) Harşagupta (3919-3826 BC), (5) Bhīşmagupta (3826-3788), (6) Maņigupta (3788-3751 BC), (7) Vişņugupta (3751-3709 BC), (8) Yakśagupta (3709-3637 BC). He
died issueless.

Ahīra-vamś Ahīra-vamśa-Three kings of India ruled for 200 years-(9) Varasimha, (10) Jayamatasimha, (11) Bhuvanasimha. Kirāta-vamś Kirāta-vamśa-(12) Yalambarā, (13) Pavi, (14) Skandarā, (15) Valamba, (16) Hŗti, (17) Humati-he had
accompanied Pāņɖavas in forest. (18) Jitedāstī-He died in Mahābhārata war on Pāņɖava side. This is also described in Kirāta-parva under Vana-parva of Mahābhārata and famous epic Kirātārjunīyam of

Daņɖī. 7 kings ruled for 300 years (3437-3138 BC), (19) Gali (3138-3137 BC). Then 22 kings ruled
for 782 years till 2319 BC. (20) Pushka, (21) Suyarma, (22) Parbha, (23) Svānanda, (24) , (25)

Stuvanka, (26) Giighri, (27) Nane, (28) Lāka, (29) Thora (30) Thoko, (31) Varmā, (32) Guja, (33) Puşkara, (34) Keśu. (35) Sunsa, (36) Sammu, (37) Guņana, (38) Kimbu, (39) Paţuka, (40) Gasti. Soma-vamś Soma-vamśa-(41) Nimişa, (42) Mānākśa, (43) Kākavarman, (44-48)-Unknown, (49) Paśuprekśa Deva-In his period many persons came from India in 1867 BC (period of Buddha and Mahāvīra in
Bihar). These 9 kings ruled for 464 years (2319-1875 BC). (50-51)-Unknown, (52) BhāskaravarmanHe conquered India (some adjacent parts) and without any son. He adopted Aramāna of Sūrya

vamśa who became king in 1712 BC in name of Bhūmivarman. vamś Sūrya vamśa-(53) Bhūmivarman (1712-1645 BC), (54) Chandravarman (1645-1584 BC), (55) Jayavarman (1584-1502 BC), (56) Vŗşavarman (1502-1441 BC), (57) Sarvavarman (1441-1363 BC),
(58) Pŗthvīvarman (1363-1287 BC), (59) Jyeşţhavarman (1287-1212 BC), (60) Harivarman (12121136 BC), (61) Kuberavarman (1136-1048 BC), (62) Siddhivarman (1048-987 BC), (63)

Haridattavarman (987-906 BC), (64) Vasudattavarman (906-843 BC), (65) Pativarman (843-790 BC),
(66) Śivavŗddhivarman (790-736 BC), (67) Vasantavarman (736-675 BC), (68) Śivavarman (675-613 BC), (69 Rudravarman (613-547 BC), (70) Vŗşadevavarman (547-486 BC)-In his period

Śankarāchārya had come in 486 BC for debate with 12 Bodhisattvas. Due to his blessing the king got
a son who was named after the saint. (71) Śankaradeva (486-461 BC), (72) Dharmadeva (461-437 BC), (73) Mānadeva (437-417 BC), (74) Mahideva (417-397 BC), (75) Vasantadeva (397-382 BC), (76)

Udayadevavarman

(382-377 (347-337

BC),(77) BC), (79)

Mānadevavarman Śivadevavarman

(

377-347 (337-276

BC), BC),

(78) (80)

Guņakāmadevavarman

Narendradevavarman (276-234 BC), (81) Bhīmadevavarman (234-198 BC), (82) Vişņudevavarman
(198-151 BC), (83) Viśvadevavarman (151-101 BC). After him his son-in-law became king.

kurī vamś Ţhākurī-vamśa-(84) Amśuvarman (101-33 BC)-Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain came in 57 BC
and started his Vikrama-samvat at Paśupatinātha from Chaitra śukla 1st. (85) Kŗtavarman (33 BC-54 AD), (86) Bhīmārjuna (54-147 AD), (87) Nandadeva (147-172 AD), (88-89)-Unknown (172-299), (90)

Vīradeva (299-394),(91) Chandraketudeva (394-450), (92) Narendradeva (450-516), (93) Varadeva
(516-570)- Avalokiteşvara and one Śankarāchārya (of a Pīţha) came in 522 AD. (94) Naramudi (570615), (95) Śankaradeva (615-627), (96) Vardhamānadeva (627-640), (97) Balideva (640-653), (98)

Jayadeva (653-668), (99) Balārjunadeva (668-685), (100) Vikramadeva Jayakāmadeva (778-798).

(685-697),

(101)

Guņkāmadeva (696-748), (102) Bhojadeva (748-756), (103) Lakśmīkāmadeva (756-778), (104) lavā kings-United India which continued from Nanda in 1634 BC to Maurya, Śunga, and Kaņva (7) Mālavā kings
periods till 833 BC disintegrated and attacks started after rise of Assyrian empire in west Asia. They attacked directly or the tribes chased by them attacked. They attacked up to Magadha capital at Patna, due to which it had to be shifted. Khāravel of Kalinga tried to chase Hūņas from Patna till

Sindhu river and even attempted Rājasūya yajña, but it was short lived. Finally, Vişņu incarnation Buddha born in Brāhmaņa family of Magadha performed a yajña at Ābū mountain to unite leading
kings, called Agni-kula. 4 kings formed federation under King Śūdraka of Mālavā in 756 BC when

Śūdraka-śaka was started. The 4 kings were-(1) Pramara, or Paramāra, (2) Śukla or Chālukya, (3) Pratihāra,(4) Chāhamāna or Chauhāna. They checked the attacks and finally king Chāhamāna of
Delhi completely destroyed Asura capital at Nineve in 612 BC when a new era was started (indicated by Varāhamihira in Bŗhat-Samhitā 13/3). Nineve in Jewish Encyclopedia and Medes in Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897 (bible.tmtm.com/wiki/) have given many references to Bible. Chāhamāna was devotee of Śākambharī, so the year may be called Śākambharī-śaka. His descendants ruled at Ajmer and Delhi called Chauhāna kings.

Gardabhilla king Darpaņa of Ujjain had kidnapped Sarasvatī, sister of Jain muni Kālakāchārya (599527 BC), who went for help to 96 chiefs of Hinduga (Hindukush). Those chiefs had to save themselves from Darius of Persia (550 BC) and with help of Balamitra, king of Saurāşţra, captured Ujjain. Śaka king Nahpāna or Nahasena was made ruler of Ujjain and accepted Jain path. For this work, Kālakāchārya was called Vīra and after his death in 527 BC, Vīra-samvat started. Nahpāna ruled for 40 years (550-510 BC). Then his son-in-law Uśavadatta’s son Dinika, Mitra etc. ruled. In 457 BC, Śrī-Harşa-Vikramáditya defeated them and became king of Ujjain. He was son of Govinda-

Śarmā, who was teacher of Śankarāchārya as Govinda-Pāda. Bhartŗhari (yogī and author of Nītiśataka etc) was elder brother of Śrī-Harşa (author of Naişadha-Charita). Again in 437-420 BC, Chaşţana, commander of Śaka king Yaśomati ruled Ujjain. There after Jayadamana (420-390 BC), Rudra-damana-1 (390-360 BC), Damajadsri, Jivadamana, his brother Rudrasimha-1 (360-317 BC), Rudrasimha-2 (317-293 BC) ruled in some parts of north-west India till 57 BC.
After Harşa-Vikrama, Paramāra kings captured Ujjan. Pramara was Sāmavedī Brāhmaņa, after being

Agni-kula, he was called Brahma-kśatra. Their list as per Bhavişya purāņa, pratisarga (4/1) is-(1) Pramara (197-191 BC), (2) Mahāmara (191-188 BC), (3) Devāpi (188-185 BC), (4) Devadūta (185-

182 BC), (5) Gandharvasena (182-132 BC), (6) Śankha (132-102 BC), (7) Gandharvasena (102-82 BC)-after sudden death of his son Śankha. (8) Vikramāditya (82 BC-19 AD)-He started Vikrama

samvat in 57 BC at Paśupatinātha in Nepal from Chaitra and at Somanātha from Kārttika month. He
ruled up to Arab in west and he has been praised by Arab poets. He had 9 jewels like Varāhamihira,

Betāla-Bhaţţa, Ghaţakharpara, Śanku, Kśapaņaka, Kālidāsa, Vararuchi etc. Poet Kālidāsa with him
was second who wrote Raghuvamśa, Meghadūta, Kumāra-sambhava and then Jyotirvidābharaņa. First Kālidāsa was dramatist under Agnimitra Śunga (1158-1108 BC) as stated in his drama

Mālavikāgnimitram. Under Betāla-Bhaţţa, Purāņas were revised in 3 Viśālā towns. (9) Devabhakta
(19-29 AD), (10) Śālivāhana (29-89 AD)-After death of Vikramāditya, India was divided into 18 parts and was attacked from all directions by Tatars, Shakas, Hunas, Chinese etc who looted, raped and kidnapped in mass scale. Sanskrit had been official language till Vikramāditya, but after 18 parts, each had its own language (Sarasvatī-Kaņţhābharaņa).Finally, he defeated all invaders and started

Śālivāhana-śaka in 78 AD. After resurrection Jesus Christ came to Shrinagar in Kashmir (called
heaven on earth) and met Śālivāhana. (11) Śālihotra (80-139), (12) Śālivardhana (13) Śakahantā (189-239), (14) Suhotra (239-289), (15) Havihotra (289-339), (16) Indrapāla (Indrāvatī) (339-389), (17) Mālyavān (Mālyavatī) (389-439), (18) Śambhudatta (439-489), (19) Bhaumarāja (489-539), (20)

Vatsarāja (539-589), (21) Bhojarāja (589-639)-He had gone to Balkha with his army, and was
contacted by Mohammad, who sought his help in establishing Islam. This is indicated in Islamic history also. Kālidāsa-3 advised him against helping Mohammad, but many of his men supported Mohammad in his war. This third Kālidāsa was a tāntrika and expert in quick wit and poetry. His contemporary was Jaina Muni Mānatunga. Here, lists are correct, but all kings after Śālivāhana have been assigned average of 50 years. Famous Bhoja was 10 generations and 500 years after this king. Mālavā kings were feudatory to

Rāşţrakūţas. Śrīyaka Harşa (949-973 AD) was first great king in later era. His son Muñja (73-995 AD)
was a great scholar and patron of poets Padmagupta and Dhanañjaya. He annexed regions up to Jodhpur in north-west, Vetravatī in north east, Tāpī in south. East to west, it was from Sābaramatī to

Kalachuri. Finally he was caught in a war by Chālukya king Tailapa and was executed. His nephew
was Bhoja (1018-1060 AD). He expanded his empire and was supreme in India then. He set up a university at Dhara called Sarasvatī-mahālaya. His famous works are- Sarasvatī-Kaņţhābharaņa (grammar and alankāra-both), Samarāngaņa-Sūtradhāra, Yukti-Kalpataru, Vyavahāra-Samucchaya,

Rāja-Mŗgānka, Śabdānuśāsana, Āyurveda-sarvasva etc.
After Bhoja’s death, his son Jayasimha was killed in battle in 1064 AD followed by weak kings. Finally, it was annexed by Muslim sultans of Delhi.

Chāhmā kings-From Amiţa-Kāla-Rekhā, by Sri Parameshvarnath Mishra, Kolkata, and Souvenir of Chāhmāna kings Akhil Bhāratīya Pīṭha Pariṣad, Patna, 2001. It has also given list of Śankarāchāryas of 4 Pīţhas. (1)Chāhmāna, (2) Sāmantadeva, (3) Mahādeva, (4) Kubera, (5) Bindusāra, (6) Sudhanvā - He set up
4 Pīţhas of Śankarāchāryas for which an order was issued on copper plate dated 2663 Yudhişţhira

śaka (485 BC) on Āśvina śukla 15. (7) Vīradhanvā, (8) Jayadhanvā, (9) Vīrasimha, (10) Varasimha,
(11) Vīradaņɖa, (12) Arimantra, (13) Māņikyarāja, (14) Puşkara, (15) Asamañjasa, (16) Premapura, (17) Bhānurāja, (18) Mānasimha, (20) Hanumān, (21) Śambhu, (22) Mahāsena, (23) Suratha, (24)

Rudradatta, (25) Hemaratha, (26) Chitrāngada, (27) Chandrasena, (28) Vatsarāja, (29) Dhŗşţadyumna, (30) Uttama, (31) Sunīka, (32) Subāhu, (33) Suratha, (34) Bharata, (35) Sātyaki, (36) Śatrujita, (37) Vikrama, (38) Sahadeva, (39) Vīradeva, (4) Vasudeva, (41) Vāsudeva (king in 551 AD)his 2 branches started kingdoms. One branch ended with last king of Delhi-Pŗthvīrāja-3 killed in 1192 AD. The other branch had Vīra Gogādeva who fought with Mahmud Gazanavi in desert. Delhi-Ajmer branch- (42) Sāmanta, (43) Naradeva or Nŗpa, (44) Vigraharāja-1, (45) Chandrarāja-1, (46) Gopendra-rāja or Gopendraka, (47) Durlabha-rāja, (48) Govinda-rāja or Guvaka-1-in time of

Pratihāra king Nāgabhaţţa-2. (49) Chandra-rāja-2 (843-868 AD), (50) Govinda-rāja or Guvaka-2 (868893 AD), (51) Chandana- Govinda-rāja (893-918 AD), (52) Vākpati-rāja-1 (Vappayarai) (918-943 AD), (53 A) Vindhya-rāja-very short period followed by his brother. (53 B) Simha- rāja. He had 4 sons-

Vigraha-rāja-2, Durlabha-rāja-2, Chandra-rāja, Govinda-rāja. (54A) Vigraha-rāja-2 (from 973 AD)-He
had defeated Mūlarāja of Gujrat and made Āśāpurā temple in Bhŗgu-kacchha. He had sent army in 997 AD to help Lahore king against Subuktagin. (54B) Durlabha-rāja-2 (998 AD), (55) Govinda-rāja-3 (999 AD), (56A) Vākpati-rāja-2 (999-1018 AD), (56B) Vīrya-rāja (1018-1038), (56C) Chāmuņɖa-rāja (1038-1063 AD)-these 2 were brothers of 56A. (57A) Simhala-eldest son of 56C. (57B) Durlabha-rāja3 (1063-1079 AD) -son of 56C. (57C) Vigraharāja-3 (1079-1098 AD)-brother of 57B. (58) Pŗthvīrāja-1 (1098-1105 AD), (59) Ajaya- rāja (Ajayadeva or Salhana)-(1105-1132 AD)-built Ajmer. (6) Arņorāja (Analdeva, Anna, Anaka)-(1132-1151 AD), (61A) Jagadeva (1151 AD) - He had killed his father

Arņorāja for which he was killed by his brother Vigraharāja-4 (61B) Vigraharāja-4 (Viśāladeva)-(11511167 AD)-he had defeated Chālukyas. (61C) Someśvaradeva (1169-1177 AD)-Brother of 61B, as

Pŗthvīrāja-2-son of 61A had no son. (62A) Apara-Gāngeya or Amara-Gāngeya-son of 61B. (62B) Pŗthvīrāja-2-son of 61A. He defeated 61A and died issueless in 1169 AD. (62C) Pŗthvīrāja-3 (11771192 AD)-last Hindu king of Delhi. He defeated Mohammad Ghori in 1191, but was defeated in 1192 AD due to Jayachanda of Kannauj. HistorydhyaBC)-Chronology from 61,902 BC has been 10. Periods of History-(1) Sādhya-yuga- (before 29,100 BC) indicaed in Purāņas which was start of the first day of Brahmā. It was after Ice age in 69,200 BC. Civilization was primitive in Satya-yuga and the institution of yajña developed in Tretā (57102 BC) as per mahābhārata after glacial floods in 58,100 BC. Pt. Dinanath Shastri Chulet in his Veda-kāla-

Nirṇaya (Indore, 1925) has indicated that many sūktas ofveda and Śatapatha Brāhmaņa etc. are of
that period on basis of calculation of nutation (chyuti) of earth axis. He has used the linear scale of Hansen formula which calculates the inclination of earth axis in current era which is declining for about 6000 years. But it has been wrongly assumed that it was always declining. It was never more than 260, but its values upto 540 has been taken. Summary is also given in his introduction to

Śatapatha Brāhmaņa (5 vols, Nag Publishers, Delhi), Report of Calender Committee, Indore, 1931.
Gradual development in satya-yuga is in dark, but we get many names and references in Veda and

Purāņas. Last verse of Puruşa-sūkta (yajurveda 31/16) tells that in era before devas, Sādhyas existed
who worshipped yajña through yajña itself. Here, the verb-yaj-has been translated as worship. But, in

Gītā (3/10,15), yajña has defined as production of desired objects in cycles and we are to take only
the residue so that yajña continues for ever. Thus, it means that there are chains of production cyclesone yajña is foundation of next yajña. That means that product of one process is raw material of

another. The civilization has been called Maņijā-as it had started excavation of minerals (maņi) and using them for industrial chain of production. Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/6) etc indicate that devas in that era were using Vimānas. Thus, Pt. Madhusudan Ojha has concluded in Jagadguru Vaibhavam (Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur) that it had developed up to the current level of technology. The

Devas were called Yāma (Vāyu purāņa (chapter 31 etc). Leading men were Sādhyas like Brāhmaņas
of Vedic era. Siddhi- means accomplishment of any process or technology. Now, only limited meaning of siddhi as yogic technique is taken. A person having siddhi is Siddha and there tribe is Sādhya who researched into methods and technologies of various sciences. The ruling classes were called

Mahārājika (like Kśatriyas) of 120 types-for prorecting against Barbaras-later on called Asuras.
Persons in trade were Ābhāsvara (like Vaiśyas) of 64 types. Persons expert in technology (śilpa) were

Tuşita (like śūdras) of 36 types.
This civiilization prospered due to yajña which maintains the population from local resourses and man remains in harmony with surroundings and natural cycles of time. This is the quality of India told by all Greek writers like Megasthenes, Solin, Arian, Plutarch etc. that India is self sufficient in everything, so it is the only country whose people never had to migrate, nor any race came from outside. Same applies to other 2 lokas of Devas (Yāma then)-China (people were called Mahāna = Han) and Ŗşīka (Russia)-called Aparājitā-dik (un-conquered). Zenda-Avesta also tells that in ancient times there were 15 zones on earth, of which India was the best and self-sufficient. The Barbaras, did not try to manage their needs locally and always attacked. Mostly the Maņijā could protect themselves. But as in modern era, disputes arose due to alternative theories of world and there were internal and external wars. 10 types of theories of that era are mentioned in Nāsadīya-

sūkta of Ŗgveda (10/129/1-7). These have been explained in Daśavāda Rahasya and separate books
on each vāda by Pt. Madhusudan Ojha. He has added 2 more theories to complete the science of that period indicated in Vedas-Vijñāna Itivŗtta Vāda (Successive development) and Siddhānta-vāda (conclusion). It may be noted that Jaina āgamas also are divided into 12 angas, and they also include

Siddhas in 5 daily Namokars. Brahma(2) Brahma-yuga-(a) 2 parts (a) parts-This was from Svāyambhuva Manu (29100 BC) to Kaśyapa (17,500 BC).
This was in two parts-one started after glacial floods which has been called Dāha-kāla, i.e. period of intense heat from sun. After gradual revival, there was unification of theories that had developed in earlier era. This continued up to the glacial ice age in 20,000 BC. After Svāyambhuva, 5 more Manus came who led the mankind. After ice age, Kaśyapa revived the institute of Brahmā and was head of

Deva, Asura and Mānava-all. Like Manus of earlier age, there were Sāvarņi (similar) Manus in his
period. Brahmā was also called Parameşţhī, which is name of Jaina-tīrthankaras of this period. In each halves-there were 24 tīrthankaras. Bhāgavata purāņa, part 5 indicates that the 7 dvīpa and intervening oceans in earth of solar system (planetary system up to Uranus) was measured by

Priyavrata, elder son of Svāyambhuva. Then Dhruva (son of younger brother of Priyavrata) was the
great king after whose death Dhruva-samvatsara started. These and some ŗşis might have been

tīrthankaras. Jain tradition counts only kings among ŗşis as tīrthankaras who could guide the society.
era-After Kaśyapa, Asuras were supreme for 3600 years or 10 yugas as stated in many (b) Asura era

purāņas (e.g. Brahmāņɖa 2/3/72/69-93, Vāyu 98/51-91). Their supremacy was challenged by

incarmations of Vişņu who were prime strength of Devas. He had developed Chakra weapon which was superior to asura weapons. Hiraņyākśa was killed by Varāha and his brother Hiraņyakaśipu by

Nara-simha incarnations. But Asura supremacy continued. It is stated that Asuras followed the same Vedas learnt from Kaśyapa, but interpreted different meanings of same word-da Thus Asura tradition da. da
also regarded king as form of Vişņu and Hiraņyakaśipu wanted to be worshipped as such. Deva kings always regarded themselves as servant to Vişņu. Finally, Vāmana incarnation took the kingdom of 3

lokas fom Bali, grandson of Hiraņyakaśipu for Indra. Bali had promised 3 steps of land as part of his yajña, which was as per Vedas. Vāmana interpreted it as 3 steps of sun on earth-where 1 step is
motion of sun from equator to 240 north (Tropic of Cancer). Thus, land up to 720 north latitude (in polar circle) was taken over by Indra. That was in Indian hemisphere only-with India, China and Russia as 3 lokas. It was not merely promise of king Bali. Devas were sufficiently powerful to challenge Asuras, who feared blood-bath and agreed to leave Deva part of the world. Some Asuras thought that they could have won in war and continued wars. mining(c) Joint mining Kūrma incarnation explained that the fight is for property only and if it is not produced, then there is nothing to fight for. Asuras agreed for co-operationg inproduction of mineral wealth, which had been widely surveyed during time of king Pŗthu. Asuras were experts in mining, so they agreed to excavate in prime mineral area of Chhotanagpur plateau. It has a rod shaped hill in north-south direction called Mandāra at whose north tip lies Vāsuki-nātha. Vasuki nāga was the prime man to co-ordinate the work. Nāga were engaged in sea trade and sea lanes are called Nāga-vīthi. The asuras who came from Africa have titles related to minerals-Muņɖā = iron ore (Mura= iron ore, murrum), Khalko = Chalcopyrite (copper ore), Xalko = copper, Hembram = mercury (Hg symbol),

Oram = gold (Aurum in Greek), Hansada = location of minerals, Kerketta = locating on map (karkaţa =
compass), Kiskū = blast furnace, This is unit of heat in Vaimānika rahasya, Toppo = Topaz. The excavation was called samudra-manthana. Expanse of earth’s crust is ocean and excavation is its churning. It is stated that Asuras worked in hotter part of Vāsuki Nāga near his mouth, i.e. hotter pit or mouth of mine.

Devas were experts in refining minute quantity of metal from ores of gold and silver. So they worked
at Zimbabwe, whose gold is famous as Jāmbūnada svarņa. That was south of Ketumāla, i.e. mountain chain of north Africa. That Jambū river has been stated to flow from Meru mountain, so Sri

Vinaya Jha has taken Mount Kilimanjaro as Meru in his model for rain forcast. Silver was refined in
Mexico, due to which it was called mākśika in Sanskrit. supremacy(d) Deva supremacy Finally, Kārttikeya militarily defeated Asuras. It is stated that he destroyed

Krauñcha mountain or continent (north America in shape of Heron bird) by śakti (missile) and then
captured it. Actual capture needs naval power in Pacific ocean. Army of Kārttikeya was called Mayūra (pea-cock), so men of his navy are still called Maori and surprisingly, their language remains the same from Hawai to Newzealand and Philippine to Pagos islands-separated by 15000 kms of ocean. There is no other explanation. Pt. Venugopal Sharma of Māņɖyā (Karnataka) has explained all inscriptions of Mexico and Peru as per Kannada script, a branch of Brāhmī which was followed by

Kārttikeya, but Pacific region retained short script for military use. Kārttikeya had 6 centers of army in
India called his 6 mothers in Taittirīya Samhitā (4/4/5/10) and Taittirīya Brāhmaņa (3/1/4/4)-Dulā

(Orissa, Bengal), Abhrayantī (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra), Nitatni (Tamilnadu, Karmataka),

Meghayantī (Rajsthan, Gujrat, where Meghani, Meghawal titles exist), Chupuņīkā (Chopra) in Punjab, Varşayantī (Asam) where rains start. Kārttikeya was called Bāhuleya, i.e son of mother Bahulā who is
called sister of Jagannātha’s mother. Vāmana was named Vişņu, and Kārttikeya was also in time of king Bali. He had started a new calendar in 15,800 BC in which year started with sun in Dhanişţhā from rains. For military purposes, Kārttikeya formed a shorthand of Brāhmī as Tamil, where first 4 letters in each consonant group are merged. Discrete objects are Brahma, merging is Subrahma. So Tamil is Subrahma and Kārttikeya is Subrahmaņya. For writing ancient texts, a separate granthascript is used in Tamil. From his time, India was free of foreign attack or for 15000 years as noted by Megasthenes and others. It has been omitted with protest by editors but re-stressed by Louis Jacolliot (1837-1890 AD) in his book- Nine Unknown Menhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nine_Unknown_Men (d) Some Jainas-Vena was father of Pŗthu and has been called a jaina. Sūktas of both are in Ŗgveda.

Śukra was named Venus on name of Vena. He might have been a Tīrthankara. Jainas continue the Deva practice for eating in day time only called Go-charī by Munis. Chara means to move or to eat. In
both senses Asuras were Niśācharas-who ate and moved in night. Muslims in that tradition eat only at night in Roza, exactly opposite to Jain practice. traditions(e) Current traditions Ratha-yātrā had started as victory celebration which was at beginning of year in rains. Till today, it is observed at start of Āşāɖha month from which rains started at start of Vikrama era. In earlier calendar, year started with Māgha month, so ratha-yātrā at Māgha śukla saptamī also is done. Vāmana had taken hold of 3 lokas on Bhādra śukla 12, so periods of kings are still countedfrom that day only in Orissa, called Anka system. There is alternate counting in which numbers with 0, 6 at unit place are dropped. Thus, there are 3 types of ruling period of kings-normal years, anka of two types. Sahasra is used in 2 meanings-aproximate. When it means 1000, the years are actually days. (f) Asura Veda-Asuras also read the same Veda and did yajña by Vedic methods as by king Bali. f) Asura Even in austerity like a Muni, they were ahaead of Devas. Hiraņyakaśipu and his brother Hiraņyākśa did more tapa than Devas, so they were victorious. Still, there were 2 main branches of Vedic views discussed in detail by Pt. Madhusudan Ojha in Indra-Vijaya. Supporters of Indra considered the zone lighted by Sun as svarga and radiation as start of creation. There are different zones of Indra-svargazones from earth to Uranus orbit are svargas of 17-25 ahargana. North pole of ecliptic is Nāka svarga around which axis of earth rotates in 26,000 years. As the great axis (Kuņţha=pole), it is Vaikuņţha. The entire region of solar system for 33 dhāmas is location of Devas as prāņa (average energy of each zone). Bright and dark regions of Saturn are zones of Dharma and Yama. 3 main rings of Saturn are Vaitaraņī river with shepherd satellites as dogs mentioned in Atharva-veda (entire18 kāņɖa, especially 18/2/48). 3 zones of rings are 3 levels of svarga called Udanvatī, Pīlumati, and Pradyau. All 33 dhāmas or outer part is Śivaloka.

Asuras take the inert matter spread in galaxy as the source. That space is mostly filled with molecules
of Ethyl alcohol (Ŗgveda 1/154/4-5) found by modern astronomy also (Life Itself - F H C Crick - Simon & Schuster, Newyork,1982 etc). That spread of dispersed matter is ocean of Varuņa, so its matter is

Vāruņī (alcohol). On earth, nearer zone of sun is Mitra (friend) and farther is Varuņa (Arab). Galaxy

has been called Janah-loka in purāņas, and Jannat in Koran. Vişņu purāņa (2/7/12,20) tells that souls remain there till kalpa (qayamat in Koran). Both these are alternate models, starting from different points. (g) Super human Veda-Vedic mantras are seen by human (puruşa) ŗşis only, but they are considered

Apauruşeya (super human in the following senses-(1) Ŗşis were beyond individuality and had
consciousness of world, or God. (2) Mantra is seeing unity of 3 world systems-ādhidaivika,

ādhibhautika, ādhyātmika, and not individual theory of any man or system. (3) It is average of all
individual thoughts and thus free from bias. Ŗşis means link or rassi (rope) in Hindi. Is link between world (God) realization and ordinary humans. That person is called Rasul in Koran. It is also link between 3 world system or 5 types of dynamics or yajña. As primordial form, it is string of 10-35 meter called asat -prāņa (invisible force) in śatapatha brāhmaņa (6/1/1/1). 40 types of theories about creation of vedas have been discussed in Upanişad Vijñāna Bhāşya Bhūmikā, vol.1 by Pt. Motilal

Sharma.
texts(h) Jaina texts In each age there were texts to explain current knowledge for explaining different branches of sciences at different levels of study. Veda is universal al time knowledge which is same for 3 worlds. Jaina text is separate for each time, subject, context, language and teaching level. To know real meaning, its science needs to be understood. Then any expression in language needs verbal logic, which is essence of Bauddha philosophy. But it is limited to only 2 options -yes and no. It does not have statistical view of Anekānta Vāda. But it does not mean that Jaina theory had different measures of length, time, mass etc. No country or society can run if different people have different units-nobody will understand each other. (3) (3) Vaivasvata yuga-It started in 13,902 BC after supremacy of Devas was well established. There were 14 main Indras who ruled for about 100 years each and were called Śatakratu =100 yajñas, each year is a yajña, because main yajña agriculture and related yajña are in cycle of a year. Overall, they ruled for 10 yugas or 3600 years, till glacial floods in time of Vaivasvata Yama. Vivasvān (sun) started his calendar starting with Chaitra month when sun enters meşa sign and of yuga system of 12,000 divya years. In historic sense, divya year is solar year. For astronomy, it means 360 solar years. Parallel Vedānga jyotişa also remained. His son was the last Manu called Vaivasvata Manu whose descendants were called. In astronomy, it is 7th out of 14 manvantaras. After glacial floods in about 10000 BC, Matsya was in 9533 BC, when Prabhava samvatsara was in both systems of 60 years Jovian cycle. It was same after 5100 years when Rāma was born (Vişņu

dharmottar purāņa 82/7,8). The seeds preserved by Matsya were used by Ŗşabhadeva Jī (about
9,500 BC). As he started the Vedic civilization of Svāyambhuva Manu, he is called his descendantthough there is gap of 20,000 years between them. Like, Vişņu, he managed the people, like Śiva, he gave the lost knowledge, and like Brahmā, he created grains by revamping agriculture-so he has been called incarnation of all the three- Vişņu, Śiva, Brahmā, He had re-started Brāhmī-script in new form in name of his daughter. So, Jain texts say that he started Asi-masi-kŗşi (i.e. sword, ink, cultivation). As starter of cultivation or carrying burden of people, he has been called Vŗşabha (or,

Ŗşabha)-meaning bull. Images of Śiva in human form depict him only. Though, Kūrma purāņa,
chapter 10 and other tells about 28 human Śivas. Defintely, the Śivas who killed Jalandhara Daitya or

destroyed yajña of Dakśa-were in human forms and different on each occasion. After him, his son

Bharata continue to feed the world, so he was called Bharata and the country itself was named Bhārata. Earlier, it was called Aja-nābha-varşa. None of the sons of Bharata ruled after him, he chose
another successor. About 1000 years after Ikśvāku, in line of Vaivasvata Manu became king on Meşa-sankrānti day on 111-8576 BC. He was about 5326 years after and could have been descendant only-but called son. From him, Sūrya-vamśa (solar clan) rule started. After that, almost all kings of this are described till

Rāma (4433-4262 BC) and most of them were world emperors. Only in 6777 BC, king Bāhu was
killed in attack by Dionysus. Important names till start of Kali (3102 BC) are available. There was important incarnation of Paraśurāma (about 6330-6176 BC) who destroyed kings 21 times, i.e. there were 21 republics whose period of 120 years is indicated by Greeks. He was in 19th

Tretā and after his death Kalamba samvat (Kollam) started in 6176 BC which is still used in Kerala.
There were many important kings who had become sanyāsī later on. Many among them could be

Jaina Tīrthankaras, but their sanyāsa name only is known. After sūktas of Ŗşabhadeva Jī, there are
almost no sūktas of any other ŗşi. Thus, Veda was almost in final shape after revival by Ŗşabhadeva

Jī, who is called11th Veda-Vyāsa. There were many centres of Vedas set up by kings, called Vedaparişads.
(4) (4) Kaliyuga-The civilization started by Ŗşabhadeva Jī, was destroyed in Mahābhārata war. After that King Yudhişţhira became king on 17-12-3139 BC, from which his Yudhişţhira śaka started. After 5 days on 22-12-3139 BC, Bhīşma expired on start of north motion of sun, after lying on bed of arrows for 58 days. Some time after that, King Parīkśita was born which is an important landmark date in history. After 36 years of rule, Kņşņa expired at age of 125 years on 17-2-3102 BC. Then Dwārakā was drowned in sea and its people brought to Mathura where Vajranābha was made king. Parīkśita was made king of Hastināpura. Vijaya samvatsara running since kali start ended and at start of Jaya

samvatsara, Pāņɖavas went to Himālaya for abhyudaya-6 months 11 days after Kali on 25-8-3102
BC. So that is called Jayābhyudaya-śaka. After death of Yudhişţhira in Kali year 25, (3076 BC),

Laukika era started. After that, saptarşi cycle of 2700 years ended at end of Andhra rule. There was
mass disorder after death of 165 lakhs persons in Mahābhārata war. One standard of guiding the society was needed, for which Neminātha Jī, became 22nd Tīrthankara. He has not been mentioned by this name in Vedic texts, but it is assumed that the name Arişţanemi indicates him. He has been called cousine of Kņşņa in Jain texts. We are not sure about his pre-sanyāsa name. His records in India have been lost, but in list of Nepal kings, it is indicated that had gone there and Kirāta king of Nepal-probably Pushka who became king in 3137 BC became his disciple. After that, the kings were called Gopāla vamśa who were kings before Kirātas. Neminātha Jī himself was from gopāla family. As the country was blessed by him (called Nemuni = Nemi-muni), it was named Nepal. Earlier name was

Guhyaka deśa. In India most records are destroyed but his name may be linked with these-(1) Nemāļa (Nemāḍa) district of Madhya Pradesh-now divided into east and west parts. It has famous jyotirlinga of Onkāreśvara-Māndhātā. Nearby in Ujjaina, his brother Kņşņa and may be he also was
taught by Sāndīpani. (2) There is a Nemāļa in Orissa also near Cuttack which has been old pīţha since time of Kņşņa where Achyutānanda did sādhanā about 500 years ago. (3) Just after Kali start,

Nimbārka explained Vedānta and lastly, Chaitanya was called Nimāī. Nimāī is derived from Neminātha or Nimba tree. (4) As repentance of mass murders in Nāga-yajña, on Dīpāvalī day of Jayābhyudaya-śaka 89, King Janamejaya gave grant of land to Muni-Vŗndāraka-Kśetra on Tungabhadrā river bank near Śŗngerī in west Karṇāṭaka. Muni word indicates Jaina tradition.
6 generations after Parīkśita, (about 2700 BC, 400 kali years), Hastināpura was submerged in

Gangā in time of King Nichakśu and the capital was shifted to Kauśāmbī, where Pāṇḍava rule
remained in name only. That was probably linked with great climatic upheaval which also dried up

Sarasvatī river which ruined west India. That has been called period of 100 years draught in Durgāsaptaśatī, chapter 11, when Durgā had incarnated as Śākambharī. In this situation, only king of Vārāņasī was most powerful to manage the country. The king was probably named Yudhişţhira, as
the Jaina texts take start of Yudhişţhira śaka from 2634 BC which should be the date of his sanyāsa as Pārśvanātha, 23rd Jaina Tīrthankara, or date of his nirvāņa (death). Like Rāma in earlier era, he thought sanyāsa as more effective way to revive the society. 4 Bārhadratha kings of Magadha look like his disciples-(12) Aņuvrata (2648-2584 BC), (13), Dharmanetra (2584-2549 BC), (14) Nirvŗtti (2549-2491 BC), (15) Suvrata (2491-2453 BC), After mahābhārata war, India was thought as weak and King Parīkśita was killed by Nāga king

Takśaka. In retaliation, his son Janamejaya completely decimated their empire and stopped only
when he was asked to stop genocide by ŗşis led by Āstīka. Two places in that area are still famous as places of dead persons-Moin-jo-daro = place of dead, and Harappa = place of bones. But one good effect was that no west Asian invader tried to look at India for at least 2200 years. Thus, people in India followed diverse paths of Dharma without any worry or fear. Time of Siddhārtha Buddha is known accurately-31-3-1886 BC to 27-3-1807 BC. He had gone to learn yoga from Mahāvīra and found it too difficult, so he adopted middle path. Thus must have been at least 15 years elder to him. Jain tradition tells that he was at the end of Avasarpiņī which was till 1902 BC. A horoscope of

Mahāvīra given at end of astrology book by Kochhar, indicates his birth time as 11-3-1905 BC. He
expired 15 years after Buddha, i.e. in 1792 BC, Age of 113 years for a yogī like Bhagwān Mahāvīra is not unusual. Philosophy of Anekānta re-started traditions of democracy in regions near Mahāvīra and

Buddha.-in north Bihar and west U.P. It is written with pride by Bauddha texts that 4 branches of
thought were uprooted by Siddhārtha Buddha. The names suggest that these are related to 4 main streams of mathematics mentioned by Bhāskara-1 in his commentary on Āryabhaţīya. These are-

Makkhali Gośāla (Maskari), Pūrana Kassap (Pūraņa), Modgalāyana (Mudgala), Pūtana (not indicated
by Buddha-probably already extinct). Bauddha texts also claim stopping of surgery and sacrifice of animals for non-violence. But surprisingly, meat was not prohibited even for Bhikkhus in Bauddha

maţhas. Buddha expelled his bother Devadatta from sangha only because he had demanded that at
least Bhikkhus should abstain from meat. Buddha had been operated By Jīvaka vaidya in stomach due to excess meat eating. He was prohibited by surgeon not to take meat again, but on offer by a disciple at Sarnath, he again took and expired. (5) Revival-In 800 BC, Asura empire rose in Assyria and Babylone. Due to their pressure, Śakas and (5) Revival other tribes pushed into India. Within India itself, democracies developed indecision and corruption. King Ajātaśatru of Magadha took advantage of internal disputes and annexed them. Then, Mahā-

Padma-Nanda annexed most kingdoms in India which marked the end of rules by Sūrya and Chandra vamśa. Revival of India began with Vişņu incarnarion of Buddha, born to Ajita Brāhmaņa in Kīkaţa
(Magadha) who united 4 kings of India-Paramāra, Pratihāra, Chālukya, Chāhamāna-under King

Śūdraka of Mālavā in 756 BC at Mount Abu. Finally with blessing of Śākambhariī, Chāhamāna wiped
out Asura capital Nineve in 612 BC. Revival of knowledge started with Jain Muni Kālakāchārya (599-527 BC) of Ujjain who re-created many lost scriptures of Jaina āgamas. His disciple Kumārila Bhaţţa (557-493 BC) revived Vedas with a commentary on Mīmānsā darśana. After death of his revered Guru, he was charged with treachery with Jaina Guru by supporting Vedas also, as if 2 branches of knowledge are aopposed to each other.

Kumārila like his guru did not believe that Jaina āgama is opposed to Vedas, but to show his devotion
to Guru, he burnt himself in slow fire of straw in 493 BC at Prayāga, where Śankarāchārya had his last meating. Finally, Śankarāchārya took help of Kumārila’s disciple Maņɖana Miśra on west bank of

Son river in sal forest area. (Between Bikramaganja and Ara in Bhojpur district of Bihar).
Politically, it resulted in Śrī-Harşa expelling śakas in 456 BC. He was son of Govinda Śarmā,who was guru of Śankarāchārya as Govinda-pāda. Kutub-minar a model of Meru was set up (likely in 456 BC). It has been called Vişņu-dhvaja in iron pillar inscription indicating a name Chandra. This can not be Chandragupta-2 of Gupta period. It is more likely a mark of northmost position of moon. Later on, Megasthenese has called the town Palibothri as set up by Hercules (Vişņu, sun). This is indicated as pillar of Hercules. This time is alsoindicated by Moroccon traveler Ibn-Batuta in 13th century. Alexander had seen this India revived in period of Śankarāchārya and powerful Gupta empire in

Magadha. After decay of Guptas in 82 BC, Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain expanded his empire
till Arab where he has been praised by poets. His astrologers gave certificate that Jesus was a great man. His era in 57 BC was followed even in Roman empire under Julius Caesar when his calendar in 46 BC had to start 7 days late to tally with Pauşa month of Vikrama era. Vikramāditya ordered reediting of purāņas under Betāla Bhaţţa at 3 Viśālā towns (Ujjain, Vaishali and Badri-Vishal). After death of Vikramāditya in 17 AD, India had disintegrated into 18 parts and was ravaged by invasions from all directions. In 29 AD, his grand-son Śālivāhana, recaptured all parts and expelled Śakas west of Indus river in 78 AD. In his time Jesus Christ had come to Śrīnagar and his 2 disciples Francis and Thomas took shelter in Goa and Tamilnadu. This shows that India was then the safest and best place of shelter and progress. It was not always ravaged by foreign attacks as shown.

Bhojarāja in 10th generation of had gone with army to Balkha (Persia) when he was requested by
Mohammad to help him in starting a new religion. Kālidāsa-3 with him opposed, but many in his army and Mohyali Brāhmaņas helped Mohammad. Brahma-spuţa-siddhānta by Brahmagupta in his rule was followed in starting Hizri era in 622 AD which followed Vikrama era for 11 years. After 632 AD, on death of Prophet Mohammad, there was no body to enforce extra months and the practice stopped. This astronomy text has been written under patronage of king of Vyāghrapada gotra of Mālavā. This was the gotra of Pāņɖavas and their branch Paramāras. Due to close academic link, the book was translated as Al-Zabar Ul-Miquabala within 15 years in time of Calif Al-mansur. This is origin of word Algebra.

ChapterChapter-2

PURĀ GEOGRAPHY OF PURĀṆAS
1.Location 1.Location of Meru-Basically this is meant to be rotation axis of earth. Its length is 100,000 yojanas (1

yojana = 1000 part of equatorial diameter = 12800 kms approx. here). The disc shaped zone around
earth in plane of ecliptic is called Jambu-dvipa of 50, 000 yojana radius in Bhagavata purana,

skandha 5, Vishnu purana 2/7-8 etc. That is exclusive gravitational zone of earth in which a body will
revolve round earth. Moon is at about 61r distance, r = radius of earth. Vishnu purana 2/8 tells about

Shishumara-chakra which is perpendicular to ecliptic plane around which earth’s axis rotates in 26000
years, called precession of equinoxes (also explained by Al-Biruni). This has been called Nāka-svarga in Vedas (Madhusudan Ojha-Brahma-siddhanta etc.). Axis of solar system and galaxy (Parameshthi

mandala) have been called Lingas in space in Shiva-purana. Kutub-minar is model of Sumeru of earth in space. At Delhi, its semi-vertical angle is equal to
difference between true and mean latitude there. That was not known after Mahabharata till 1850 AD. In 456 BC at start of Sri-Harsha shaka (Al-Biruni, Abul Fazal), it was place of northern most position of moon on earth surface (inclination of earth’s axis 23.90 + inclination of moon’s orbit with ecliptic 5.020)-Refer my commentary on Siddhānta-Darpaṇa, chapter 16. So, ‘Chandra’ has been written on iron pillar there. A pillar of 12 units (called Shiva-linga of 12 angula in Shiva purana) was used to measure time and latitude of a place. It is called Shanku in surya-siddhanta etc. Smallest shadow is at noon time and locus of shadow end around that time is in shape of a ‘Kutup’ called kuppi (funnel, thistle-kip) in Hindi. So, the muhurtta at noon time is called Kutupa-muhurtta. By bisecting the shadow line equi-spaced from noon, say at 11 and 13 hrs-we get north–south direction. This is explained as traversing in books of astronomical survey for M.Tech (civil). The bisection is by common part of two circles in shape of a ’Mina’ (fish), so the pillar is called Kutup-Mina or Kutub-minar. Magnetic compass does almost same work, so it is called Kutub-numa. In that also, needle floating on mercury is called ‘Mina’. Local references of latitude also have been given name of fish like Rohataka (almost at longitude of Ujjain) and Hilsa near Patna (100 east of Ujjain). Mapping of earth surface of north (and south) hemisphere was in 4 sheets of 900 longitude width. It was centered round north pole called Meru or Sumeru. Bharata-varsha (India) has been called one of the 4 petals of that lotus (earth surface) as it roughly extends 450 west and 450 east of Ujjain. Thus,

Meru has 4 faces and its linga (symbol) has square base-called Svayambhu linga as in Kaaba of Arab
at west end of Bharata. Pyramids were constructed 450 and 1800 west of Ujjain in Ezypt and at Mexico (called Siddhapura in Surya siddhanta)-Valmiki Ramayana, Kishkindha kanda (40/54, 64). South pole was called Kumeru (opposite to Sumeru in north). Aryabhata (Kali 360 = 2742 BC) has stated that north pole is in water and south pole on land mass. South pole is joint of 2 land massescalled Yama-dvipa. Yama is lord of south and Yama also means twin or double.Till 1985, it was not confirmed whether south pole is in water channel between 2 land masses or on land itself. Only by echo-sounding, in 1985, it was known that it is actually on land. Nearest land mass is New Zealand which has again 2 islands. So it was called Yama-koti-Dvipa (at end of Yama dvipa). Actually, Yama star (southern Crux) has same southern latitude as this island. Its south western tip has been called

Yama-koti-pattana (port of Yama-koti)-stated to be 900 east of Ujjain in Surya-siddhanta etc. There
should be a pyramid at this point also-probably it is submerged in ocean now. Largest land mass is Jambu-dvipa (Asia + Europe). Center of mountain ranges is called Pran-Meru (Eastern Meru) or Pamir. Human Brahma was here at Pushkara (120 west of Ujjain and 350 north where maximum day length is of 16 hours). This is now called Bukhara on north of ancient Persia, now in Uzbekistan. 4 highways went in 4 directions, so Brahma was called 4 faced. Till today convention of script by him continues- north east part writes from up to down, south west to left and south east (India) to right side. North west part uses Sankhya script of 52 letters-see my article ‘Vedic origin and classification of scripts’ on www.scribd.com/Arunupadhyay. Opposite to that is Pushkara-

dvipa (south America) having Apara-Meru (western Meru) at Peru from where 4 highways emanated
in 4 directions from Kuzco as in Pran-meru. In between is central Meru at equator in Kenya (mount Kilimanjaro). Sri Vinay Jha used it for the first time for rain forecasting as it starts from equator region only and reached India as rains after Adhana (in womb) period of 6.5 months (193 days) as in Brihat-samhita of Varahamihira. The places around it have still the name of Meru. (see website of Sri Vinay Jha). 2. Purāṇas as source Purāṇas are remnants of knowledge of very ancient times. They were copied Purā sourcelast time under rule of Paramāra King Vikramāditya (82 BC-19 AD) as per Bhaviṣya purāṇa. Then the compilers did not know the whole world and mixed up the accounts of solar system and earth surface which had been given similar names. To some extent, description of galaxies and higher structures also was mixed up. Examples of past knowledge are several in all texts of astronomy like Āryabhaṭa-1 (337 Kali=2765 BC), Varāhamihira (95 BC-20 AD), Āryabhaṭa -2 (476-550 AD), Brahmagupta (76 BC), Bhāskara 1 and 2-(1) North pole is in water surrounded by land and south pole is on land surrounded by water (2) Revolutions of planets, their apogees and nodes in 1 kalpa of 4.32 billion years, (3) 4 cardinal points on earth at 900 east and west and 1800 east from Ujjain-this indicates accurate world survey in past.

Puarā cosmology-World can be described as a Puruşa and as Śrī (stree). Puruşa is hierarchy of 3. Puarāṇa cosmology Viśvas. Viśva is an entity which is almost complete, closed, and interconnected. Viśva as a number
means 13, because there are 13 levels. Starting from man, higher viśvas are successively 1 crore times bigger. So koţi means limit as well as 100 lakhs. Limit of world for man is earth which is 100

lakhs times bigger, so 100 lakhs is 1 koţi. Similarly, for earth, limit of world is Solar system which is 1 crore times bigger. For solar system, limit is Parameşţhī maņɖala (Galaxy), 1 crore times bigger. Svayambhū maņɖala (Satya-loka) should be 1 crore times it, but visible universe (Tapah-loka) is
smaller, 264 times earth size for 64 letters in Brāhmī –script (actually it is called 63 or 64, so exponent should be about 63.5).These measures are given in 7 types of length units. Sphere of lunar orbit is another level of world due to its proximity with earth. Man is 6th world. Ratio and number of lower worlds is not symmetric. This is summarized in 2 verses of Vişņu purāņa (2/7/3-4)रिव च मसो-याव मयूखै-रव भा यते । स समु सिरत् शैला पृिथवी तावती मृता ॥३॥ This defines 3 earths. 3 earths and their 3 skies have been called-Ambā-Ambaka, Mātā-Pitā (mother –father), Pŗthivī-Dyu (earth-sky) etc. for example-

य बकं यजामहे सुगि ध पुि वधनम् । उवा क-िमव ब धनात् मृ योमु ीय मामृतात् ॥ (ऋ वेद७/५९/१२, अथव १४/१/१७, यजुवद३/६०, तैि रीयसंिहता१/८/६/२-महामृ यु यम ) सव म गल मा ग ये िशवे सवाथ सािधके । शर ये य बके गौरी नारायणी नमो तु ते ॥ (दुगा स शती, ११/१०) Meaning-The three earths are defined as zones lighted by sun and moon and in all these earths-seas, rivers and mountains are described. Thus, the 3 earths are-(1) Planet earth-lighted by sun-moon both. It has sea, rivers, mountains all. (2) Earth of solar system-This is zone exclusively lighted by sun. Up to 30 dhāma, light of sun is more than average of galaxy (Trinśat dhāma vi-rājate vāk patangāya

dhīyate-Ŗgveda 10/189/3)). Each dhāma is double of previous. Starting from earth, it is 230 of earth
size. This has been called ratha of sun of 157.5 crore yojanas (1 yojana =sun diameter of 13,92,000 kms.). Within this Maitreya maņɖala is of 1 lakh sun diameter radius. Creative zone (Kratu) is planetary system called disc shaped earth of 100 crore yojanas in Bhāgavata purāņa, skandha 5. It is up to Neptune orbit, here 1 yojana =1000 parts of earth diameter=12.8 kms. Inner half of 50 crore

yojana diameter is Loka (Bright) part, rest is dark (aloka). In Loka up to Uranus orbit, zones formed by
rotation of planets are called Dvīpas and intervening zone is called ocean. Successive double size of oceans gives Bode’s law in modern astronomy-mean distance of nth planet (including asteroid belt taken as a planet) from sun is (a+ b x 2n-2), where a = 0.4 and b = 0.3. (3) Third earth is the galaxy having 49 dhāma called maruts. Its creative zone is called Kūrma (as it does work) in Vedas and

Goloka (zone of light) in Brahma-vaivartta purāņa, Prakŗti khaņɖa, chapter 3. Kū rma has been
defined of size 1018 yojana in Narapati-jaya-charyā, svarodaya, i.e. 10 times size of galaxy-earth. It is called neutrino corona of galaxy. Central rotating disc is called a river-Ākāśa-gangā. यावत् माणा पृिथवी िव तार पिरम डलात् । नभ तावत् माणं वै starting from earth, O Dvija ! (Maitreya to Parāśara). Measure of earth starts from man. Earth and sky have been called similar halves of a pulse grain in ास-म डलतो ि ज ॥४॥ =Whatever is the measure of earth by diameter and circumference, the same is measure of its sky,

Bhāgavata purāņa. Man within earth is same as earth within its sky. Thus, earth is koţi (limit) of world
for earth and its size is 100 lakh times that of man. So 100 lakh is called koţi. Similarly, limit for earth is earth of solar system, called its sky-again 100 lakh times bigger. Sky for solar earth is galaxy-again 100 lakh times bigger. In same sequence, universe is sky for galaxy earth taken 100 lakh times bigger. It is infinite, its visible part is called Tapah loka of 264 times earth. ceans-At most places in purāṇas, 7 dvīpas (continents) surrounded by 7 oceans are described. 4. Oceans That is both in solar system and on earth surface. According to Muzaffar Ali (The Geography of the

Purāṇas), the sāgaras separating dvīpas may be desert/cold difficult zones also. Accordingly, he had
fitted all 7 dvīpas in east hemispheres only excluding Antarctica. But it appears that, it included both Americas and Antarctica also. At other places, 4 oceans are stated as in Raghuvamśa (2/4) by Kālidāsa. This is parallel to oceans (spread matter in space). These zones are called 3 dhāmas1. Upper (uttama) dhāma-Universe-field is Aryamā, ocean is Sanyatī, water is salila. 2. Middle (madhyama) dhāma is field of galaxy called Varuṇa, ocean is Sarasvatī, water is ambha. Both Ambha and salila are Ap. 3 Lower (avama) dhāma is solar system whose field is Mitra, ocean is Arṇava, water is mara.

All the dhāma combined are Parama dhāma containing uniform material rasa or ānanda (Taittirīya

upaniṣad 2/7/2).
Correspondingly, largest land mass is Jambū-dvīpa, which is (Asia +Europe), or Eurasia. Mathematically, it is land between north pole and 240 north latitude circle. Ocean on 4 sides-north, east, west, south-are 4 oceans. These oceans are covered by 4 dvīpas-Australia, 2 Americas and Africa. Antarctica may be 5th, called place of Ananta (Śeṣanāga). In space, Śeṣanāga is the spiral arm of galaxy. The place where sun is located, is Mahar-loka which is sphere of diameter is equal to width of arm there.

Purā 5. Continents in Purāṇas-List from various sources is as belowContinets Bhāgavata,Garuḍa,Vāmana,Brahma, Matsya Varāha Skanda Mahābhārata Siddhānta & oceans (1) 1. 2. 3. 3a. 4. 4a. 5. 6. 6a. 7.

Mārkaṇḍeya, Linga, Kūrma, Devī, Brahmāṇḍa, Agni, Vāyu, Viṣṇu
(2) (3) (4) (5)

& Padma
(6)

Śiromaṇi
(7)

Jambū Plakśa Śālmala(i)
Wine (surā)

Jambū
Salt water

Jambū Śaka
Milk

Jambū Śaka
Milk

Jambū
--

Jambū
---

1a. Salt water (Lavaṇa) 2a. Sugarcane juice (Ikśu)

Salt water Salt water

Śaka
Milk(kśīra)

Śaka
---

Śaka
---

Kuśa Krauñcha
Curd (dadhi)

Kuśa Krauñcha Ghee Śālmala Gomeda Puṣkara

Puṣkara
Wine

Kuśa
---

Śālmala
---

Ghee (ghṛta) Curd (dadhi)

Kuśa Ghee (Sarpi) Krauñcha Śaka
Milk (Kśīra)

Kuśa
Curd

Krauñcha
---

Kuśa
---

Śālmala Gomeda (ka)
Sugarcane (Ikśu)

Krauñcha Śālmali Gomeda

Puśkara -------

Krauñcha Gomeda (ka)
--------

5a. Curd (dadhi) Wine (surā) Wine Ghee (Sarpi) --- --Sugarcane Sugarcane juice ---Fresh water Fresh water

Puṣkara

Puṣkara

7a. Fresh water (Swāduda) Fresh water There are many views about seven Dvīpas-

(1) These are Asia, Europe, Australia, North and South America and Antarctica. (2) The seven Climates of the ancients. (3) Various lands in the old world(a) Jambū (India), Plakśa (Arakan and Burma), Kuśa (Śuṇḍā Archipelago); Śālmali (Malaya Peninsula), Krauñcha (South India); Śaka (Kamboja) and Puṣkara (N. China and Mongolia)-Col. Gerini, Researches on Ptolemys Geography of Eastern Asia (1909) page 725 (b) Jambū (India), Kuśa (Iran), Plakśa (Asia Minor), Śālmali (Central Europe), Krauñcha (Western Europe), Śaka (British Isles) and Puṣkara (Iceland)-F. Wilford-Asiatic Researches, Vol.III, page 287346 (c) Jambū (India), Krauñcha (Asia Minor), Gomeda (Komedie, Tartary), Puṣkara (Turkistan), Śaka (Sythia), Kuśa (Iran, Arabia and Ethiopia), Plakśa (Greece), Śālmali (Sarmatia?)-V.V. Iyer-The Seven

Dvīpas of the Purāṇas in The Quarterly Journal of the Mythical Society (London), Vols. 15-17.

lands6. Adjacent lands-Vāyu purāṇa, chapter 48, gives list of lands adjacent to Jambū dvīpa(1) Mahākula Parvata named Vidyutvān runs thrice for 3000 yojanas. It abounds in flowers, fruits with many peaks and ranges. Many rivers, tanks and wells. Many valleys and broad plains, large population. Many towns on mountains are walled with one gate, linked and on one route. Short statured people, long beard, whiskers, live on monkeys and fruits. (2) Anga Dvīpa-many small states, mlechhas, gold, gems, corals, rivers, mountains, forests, Lavaṇa sea. Both ends of Chakragiri mountain touch the sea in Nāgadeśa. Many rivers, falls, caves. Australia in agni-koṇa (south east). (3) Yama Dvīpa-Dyutimān, gems and gold, This may be Antarctica with 2 land masses (Yama is lord of south and yama =2). Nearest to it is New zealand which is also double and can be called Yama-koṭi

Dvīpa. Yama-koṭi-pattana has the same south latitude as Yama star (southern Crux) and it is 900 east
of Ujjain. (4) Malaya Dvīpa-Gold and precious stones, sandalwood, mines of silver (Tin ?), Agastya āśrama on

Mahā-malaya mountain and on Mandāra mountain also. Trikūṭa mountain has gold and silver, abode
of Rākśasas. Gokarṇa temple of Śankara on west coast. (5) Śankha Dvīpa-of 100 yojanas has many Gaṇas of Mlechhas. Śankhagiri mountain and

Śankhanāga river, on its bank is āśrama of serpent king Śankhamukha. (Śankha = Zanga, Zanzibar)
(6) Kuśa (or Kumuda) Dvīpa. (7) Varāha Dvīpa-savage people, many cities, mountains, forests, Varāha mountain with waterfall, gorges, caves. Varāhī river. Viṣṇu in form of Varāha is principal deity. 8 islands of Jambū-Dvīpa are mentioned in Bhāgavata purāṇa (5/19)(1) Āvartana-Britain, (2 Nāramaṇaka-Norway/Sweden. (3) Pāñchajanya-5 islands in east under name Nippon (Japan)-Sakhalin, Honshu, Hokkaido, Shikokyu, Kyushu. (4) Chandra-Śukla-Philippines. (6) Svarṇaprastha-Borneo, Java (Yava =barley shaped), Sumātrā, Singapur, Penang, Nikobar, Andman. (7) Simhala-Present Srilanka. (8) Lankā-Laccadiva-Māladiva-It is on 00 longitude passing through Ujjain and touching equator.

Lankā and Simhala have always mentioned separately in Bṛhatsamhitā and all texts of astronomy. Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Sundara-kāṇḍa tells Lankā as 30 yojana wide and 100 yojana long. Uttara kāṇḍa
(5/5, 20-28, 6/7,15; 8/22-24) tells that land of Mālī was in southern part of Lankā, called Māleya.

Bhā varṣ 7. Parts of Bhārata varṣa-Bhārata varṣa had 9 khaṇḍas (parts) of which Bhārata-khaṇḍa (present
India, Pakistan) is one. These are listed by Madhusudan Ojha in Indravijaya, chapters 2-3 by Jodhpur University, Rajsthan , 1997Sl. No. Name 2. Nāgadvīpa 3. Saumya 4. Gāndharva Synonym ---------Common name English name Andman Nikobar Lumbak, Sumbaflorin etc. 1. Indradvīpa Indradyumna

Indramana
Nikobar Philippines

Somatrā Sumātrā Yavadvīpa, Balidvīpa (Java, Bali)

5. Vāruṇa 6. Kaśerumān 7. Gabhastimān 9. Kumārikā

------

Borneo Selebese Malaccā

Brunei -------------

Kaseru
-----

8. Tāmraparṇa Tāmraparṇī Ṭāpūroven/Śrīilankā

Srilanka
India

Kumārī

Bhārata-khaṇḍa

Western parts according to that book(1) Gāndhāra-Madra-Gandhar was east part of Afganistan called Kandahar now. West part was

Madra divided into north and south parts.
(2) Sāgara had expelled 5 tribes of west part-Pārada, Pahlava,Kamboja, Śaka, Yavana. Pārada followed the custom of Kālakeya Asuras (Chaldia, Caucassus). Pārada means bow wielding in Arabic. later on they were called Parthians. (3) Pahlava-There was a similar Pallava dynasty in Tamilnadu. It means powerful. Pallava is leaf or petal of flower. Developed muscles due to exercise are also called pallava (puṣpita in Aitareya

Brāhmaṇa, 32/1). Thus, a wrestler is called Pahalvān. Later on, they were called Sassani, Pārthava
etc. Mārkaṇḍeya purāṇa, chapter 54 tells that Bāhlīka, Vāṭadhāna, Pahlava, Charmakhaṇḍika,

Gāndhāra, Pārada, Hārabhūṣika, Kāmboja and Darada were like people of Kashmir.
(4) Kamboja is derived from kāma-bhoja, i.e. free in consuming. It was in west and different from Combodia, south of Thailand. (5) Śaka are followers of Jaratha-uṣṭra (old camel) or Zoroster in west of Afganistan as per Bhaviṣya

purāṇa (139/43-45, chapter 14). Śaka dvīpa is different.
(6) Yavana are on west border of India. On being expelled by Sagara, they settled in Greece. (7) Heli are Haileya asuras living in Greece. They were called Pelasgi. By living in mountains (giri), they were called Girikāya (or big body like mountain) which became Greece. namesDouble names India was standard of culture, education and civilization (Viṣṇu Purāṇa 2/3). Thus, names and customs of different parts were copied in connected parts1. Malaya-Malayagiri and Malayalam are in Kerala. Its parallel in Malaya peninsula in south east India (greater India). Its capital is Kualalampur. On Kerala coast west of Tiru-Anantapuram also, there is

Kovalam beach. Kalamba is south pole in ecliptic system. Kadamba is north pole. Thus port town,
specially in south are Kalamba (Colombo), Kalamba era is in Kerala starting from death of

Paraśurāma in 6177 BC. Kadambas were rulers here.
2. Balikuda etc in Orissa are original areas of influence of Bali in north Kiṣkindhā, Its counterpart is

Bāli dvīpa in Indonesia. Probably it was capital of that group of islands and meant the whole
Indonesia. 3. Anga is present west Bengal. Correspondingly, there was Anga dvīpa, whose description in Vāyu

purāṇa tallies with Australia.
4. Kanyā-kumārī-Kenya. It also means virgin-mother, mentioned in new testament. 5. Mumbai-Mombasa, port of Kenya. 6. Maldiv-Mali in West Africa. 7. Banga-Bangladesh. Kalibangan, Kalimantan in Borneo. 8. Champā-Bhagalpur, Champāraṇa in Bihar, Cambodia.

9. Suhma-Midnapur-Shyāma or Siam (Thailand) 10. Kiṣkindhā-land of Kandhas. Place of Vānaras (Bandar=port or its controllers). Linked with Borneo where main town is Bandar-Sri-Bhagwan. Thus, parts of India on mainland and greater India are1. Indradvīpa (a) Land east of Irāvatī (East Burma Mahendra mountains, Laos-Airāvata elephant of

Indra). Indrāvatī river area Indra is lord of east region
(b) Control of Pāka tribes on west border Indraprastha base by Śakra-Indra was called Śakra and Capital of Pāṇḍava in Delhi was Indraprastha. Pākaśāsana-Sakkhar, Hakkar river of Pakistan. 2. Kaśerumān South east Indonesia, Vietnam Anam of Andhra coast (Yenam) (old Anam), Mekong (Mā-Gangā) delta Godāvarī delta 3. Gabhastimān South of Kaśeru, Malacca strait, Between Godāvarī to Mahānadī islands south and north of it, Indonesia. Ṛkśa and Malaya mountains 4. Tāmraparṇī Śrīlankā called Tāmraparṇī in Region south of Kāverī, Tāmralipti (north in Ashoka inscriptions Orissa port) also had connection with it. 5. Nāgadvīpa Andman and Nikobar Nagapattinam district in Jaffna in Srilanka Tamilnadu 6. Saumya (north) Tibet (Triviṣṭapa)-Brahma viṭapa Coastal belt south of Sindhu, is catchment of Brahmaputra, Śiva may be Bengal delta also . Viṭapa of Gangā, Viṣṇu viṭapa of

Sindhu (Sundarvana)
7. Varuṇa Arabian sea island (Pāñchajana =five tribes West coast of Arab peninsula. Continents-(1) Jambū-dvīpa is most of Asia and Russian region. Its parts are-(a) Ilāvṛtta8. Continents Scandinavia, Siberia.(b) Niṣadha is Varkhoyansk region (Varṣa parvata-mountains separating countries), Ural mountains (north Russia), Kjolen muntains of Sweden are west boundary. (c) Harivarṣa is Russian and Mongolian plains. Hemakūṭa is Altai, Nanshan ranges in China. (d) Kimpuruṣa varṣa is China and Tibet areas, whose Mongoloid features have given the name of Kinnara or Kimpuruṣa (=are they man?). (e) Uttara-Kuru is near polar regions. It can be Siberia or Canada, if we consider north of 240 latitude as Jambū-dvīpa in Jaina astronomy. (f) Bhārata-varṣaMost important country of Jambū-dvīpa is India, its capital town was Hastināpur (elephant town). Eastern Himalayas bent south look like head of elephant and the land to south including islands of Indonesia are like its trunk (Śuṇḍā-upto Sunda strait)). Thus, the Chinese called India as elephant kingdom. Being the most important country of Jambū-dvīpa, jambu (Jumbo) itself has come to mean elephant or large size. (g) Above Yamakoṭi (south west Newzealand, 900 east of Ujjain as per Sūrya-

siddhānta), there is no other land mass. Hence, only one mountain has been named-which may be
Sikhote-Alin range in eastern China. Korea, Japan. Aśva means fast moving, carrier and one of the meanings is horse which has these qualities. However, in seas, trade winds carried mast ships and they were called horse. Region of gentle winds is Bhadrāśva-in one sense, it is Pacific sea surrounding the land and north of Yamakoṭi. The land mass close to it is still referred to as Horse latitude, though it has nothing to do with horses-it is merely a translation of Bhadrāśva. (2) Kuśa Dvīpa is almost universally accepted as Africa. Ezypt was called Kuśa in earlier days. Ethiopeans call themselves Kuśa. M. Ali opines Kuśa as the land from Perisa to Israel as Kuśa and north Africa as it abounds in kuśa= grassland. Himalayas in Afganistan and Persia are called

Hindukuśa, as it is Hindu part of Kuśa. But Muslim historians Ibn-batuta, Badauni, Abul Fazal and
encyclopaedia Britannica, National geographic and many history text books mention with pride that about 300 lakh hindus captured were brought as slaves through these ranges and many of them died on way. So the name Pariyātra parvata was changed to Hindu kuśa (kush =to kill in Persian). 7 parts are-Udbhid, Veṇumān, Vairatha, Lambana, Dhṛti, Prabhākara, Kapila. 7 mountains-Vidruma,

Hemaśaila, Dyutimān, Puṣpavān, Kuśeśaya, Hari, Mandarāchala. 7 Rivers-Dhūtapāpā, Śivā, Pavitrā, Sammati, Vidyut, Ambhṛ, Mahī.
(3) Śaka Dvīpa is opined to be south east Asia by M. Ali as it abounds in Śaka (Teak) trees. Actually,

kuśa (kṛśa =thin) means a reed. Its stronger version is śaka (strong) by joining reeds in a bundle or by
bigger size. Symbol of 1 is kuśa, its bundle śaka is cumulative count. The calendar system for calculation of planetary positions uses cumulative count (śaka) of days from a point of time, so it is called śaka. The calendar which is followed by society is samvatsara. Bigger size trees shaped like a big kuśa or pole are also śaka. In north India, Sal tree in sub Himalayan tracts is śaka (sakhua),

Siddhārtha Buddha from that region was called Śākyamuni. In south India, it is Sagwan (śaka-vana)
=teak. Actually, only teak tree cannot make south east Asia as Śaka dvīpa. Śaka tree of Australia is Eucalyptus in pillar shape. Śaka worshipped Agni and Agni -koṇa is south east direction. The land mass in that direction is Australia. Agni dvīpa has become Anga-dvīpa in Vāyu-purāṇa. Śaka tribe, however, was in central Asia, where pole shaped trees were prominent. There place is called

Śakasthāna =Sistan. Śaka tribes are Slav, Ukrain, Croat, Ugyur etc.7 parts of Śaka dvīpa-Jalada, Kumāra, Sukumāra, Marīchaka, Kusumoda, Maudāki, Mahādruma. 7 mountains-Udayāchala, Jalādhāra, Raivataka, Śyāma, Astāchalla, Āmbikeya, Kesarī. 7 rivers-Sukumārī, Kumārī, Nalinī, Dhenukā, Ikśu, Veṇukā, Gabhasti.
(4) Śālamali Dvīpa- It is identified as south and east Africa. It includes Magadascar-Hariṇa dvīpa of

Purāṇas or Śankha dvīpa (Zenz of Arab), i.e. Zanzibar on Tanzania coast. Mṛgavyādha (south of
Orion star) constellation has the same southern latitude. It means the same as Malgasi or Mṛga-

taskara (Magadascar). 7 countries-Śveta, Harita, Jīmūta, Rohita, Vaidyuta, Mānasa, Suprabha. 7
mountains-Kumuda, Unnata, Balāhaka, Droṇāchala, Kanka, Mahiṣa, Kakudmān. 7 rivers-Yoni, Toyā,

Vitṛṣṇā, Chandrā, Muktā, Vimochanī, Nivṛti.
(5) Krauñcha dvīpa -It is named on mount Krauñcha. Mahābhārata tells is west from Meru (12/14/2125) and in north (16/12). Bṛhat-samhitā and Rāmāyaṇa locate it in the north. Kuśa and Krauñcha are always mentioned together. It may be north west Europe according to M. Ali. But on these considerations, it should be East Canada and Greenland. Krauñcha dvīpa and its mountain are broken in these regions which fits the description. Actually, it is eastern part only of Krauñcha. The whole of north America and main mountain range Rockies are Krauñcha. whose shape is like

Krauñcha (Heron) bird in flying position. It surrounds Ghṛtoda (butter like) sea, i.e. the icy sea
between north west Europe and Canada. Another point is that the rule of Asuras was in Pātāla which is in opposite hemisphere. Their power was supreme in 19302 BC when Krauñcha era started. (Dhruva samvatsara of 9090 mānuṣa years =8100 solar years is called Krauñcha samvatsara also in

Vāyu purāṇa). King Dhruva died in 27402 BC or 3 Dhruva-years before Kali start (3102 BC). Krauñcha power was 2 Dhruvas before. Kārttikeya demolished Krauñcha dvīpa in 16000 BC when

Pole shifted from Vega (Abhijit) and summer solstice started with Dhaniṣṭhā star (Mahābhārata, vana

parva 301/8-10). Its 7 countries-Kuśala, Mandaga, Uṣṇa, Pīkara, Andhakāraka, Muni, Dundubhi. 7
mountains-Krauñcha, Vāmana, Andhakāraka, Svāhinī (shape like mouth of horse), Divāvṛt,

Puṇḍarīkavān, Dundubhi. 7 Rivers-Gaurī, Kumudvatī, Sandhyā, Rātri, Manojavā, Kśānti, Puṇḍarīkā.
(6) Plakśa dvīpa-is also named as Gomeda in Varāha and Matsya purāṇas and in Siddhānta-śiromaṇi of Bhāskara-2. It is named after Plakśa or Pakar tree which is characteristic of warm temperature or Mediterranean islands. It is also in central America and Caribean islands. It is identified with fig tree. According to Wilford, the name still persists in Placia, a town in Mycia (south west Europe). There was a Pelasgi race in Cristone or Crotonen near Tyrrhanians in Italy and Pelasgi who lived on shores of Hellespont. According to Herodotus, they all spoke the same language. Sri V.V. Ayer identifies it with Greece and adjacent lands. The old names in America have been lost, but it appears to have continued till central America through west Indies and old Atlantis. 7 countries-Śāntahaya, Śiśira,

Sukhodaya, Ānanda, Śiva, Kśema, Dhruva (near pole). 7 mountains-Gomeda, Chandra, Nārada, Dundubhi, Somaka, Sumanā, Vaibhrāja. 7 rivers-Anutaptā, Śikhī, Vipāśā, Tridivā, Aklamā, Amṛtā,, Sukṛtā.
(7) Puṣkara-Dvīpa-It has two parts-one had no rainfall, no spring or vegetation. Other part is full of water, lakes. It has a huge circular mountain chain in eastern half of dvīpa. Western half is surrounded by another circular range named Mānasa with Mahāviṭa (as its spur covering outer rim) son of

Mānasa. Other purāṇas tell that there is a mountain range running through the whole dvīpa, dividing it
into two parts. According to Matsya, Mānasa is like full moon rising near sea coast. Sri M. Ali tries to fit it with Korea and Japan. Mountain range on sea coast is in Australia, which is actually called the Great Dividing range and its almost semicircular. Mountains of west and central desert are not exactly circular, but the region between them is full of lakes and rivers, while the outer region is desert. But all the points tally only with south America which is actually divided from north to south by Andes mountain in west part. This may be Mānasa range which is exactly semi-circular from north coast to Bolivia. Guyana highlands are almost its continuation, which may be called son of Mānasa or

Mahāviṭa. Circular mountains in east coast are Brazilian highlands which are called Chitrānśu due to
extensive forest cover (hence colourful and picturesque). West of Andes is desert, but east and specially north east portion is full of water. Actually, north America also is continuation of that mountain range. Rockies and Andes combined may be called Lokāloka parvata as it extends from

Loka (north pole circle) to Aloka (south pole circle). Beyond that is Pacifc, the biggest ocean, called
Sweet water ocean. Another feature is that it is exactly opposite to Puṣkara town of human Brahmā (120 west of Ujjain and at 350 north latitude). Thus, the same Nyagrodha tree (axis on globe) is at both places and same name is given. Only one varṣa parvata is Mānasottara (Andes). Its two parts are-

Dhātakī-inside the circle of Andes i.e Brazil, Argentina. West part is Mahāvīra (=long boundary).
(8) Ananta- This may be part of the Puṣkara (south America) called place of Ananta or Śeṣanāga. Being southern-most part and shown down in map, it holds the earth. In India also, south parts are called Ananta-e.g. Tiru-Ananta-puram, Ananta-pura. Ananta has always been described with

Puṣkara. It has become Antactica.

9. Lokas and Talas-In astronomy, lokas are names of successively larger structures of universe. Out of them, 4 are maṇḍalas, i.e. spherical structures and 3 are intervening spaces. The 7 lokas are (1)

Bhū =earth planet, (2) Bhuvah =Seen from earth it is varāha of 4000 times earth size, seen from sun it
is Īṣā-daṇḍa (axle of wheel) up to 3000 sun diameters from sun which is extent of solar wind as per

Yajurveda (1/1).(3) Svar loka is the solar system. Earth of solar system is of 1 lakh sun diameters
which is exclusive zone of sun gravitation. Dyu or sky of solar system is 1 crore times sun or 230 times earth size till which light is more than average of galaxy in that region. (5) Mahar loka is a sphere of width of spiral arm containing sun of size of 240 earth. Spiral arm is Śeṣanāga and 1000 suns in maharloka are 1000 heads. (5) Janah loka is galaxy. Its spherical system is Brahmāṇḍa (an egg of Brahma = universe), or Parameṣṭhī (largest brick). its creative sphere is Goloka (region of raysnutrino corona) or Kūrma (which does work of creation). galaxy is grand child of 246 times earth size, or 1017 yojanas (yojana is 1000 part of earth diameter). Kūrma is 10 times bigger i.e. 1018 yojanas as per Tantra texts. (6) Tapah loka is visible universe 264 times earth size or 864 billion light years radius called a kalpa or day of Brahmā. (7) Satya loka is imaginary infinite world which is self created i.e.

Svayambhū maṇḍala taken as 10th part of Puruṣa of 272 times earth size. This is satya is 3 wayshomogenous, isotropic and steady i.e. same in all places, directions and time. Bhū, Saura (Svar),

Parameṣṭhī (Janah) and Svayambhū-these are 4 maṇḍalas. All are successively107 times previous.
This is also the ratio of earth and man as stated in Viṣṇu purāṇa (2/7/3-4). Smaller worlds are in ratio of 105 starting from man at levels. Thus, limit (koṭi) of world at each stage starting with man is 107, which is called koṭi (107). Each world sphere is a viśva which is a complete, closed and interconnected system. Viśva smaller than man is cell (kalila) which is 10-5 times smaller. Since this is limit of resolution of human eyes, it is called 105 is called lakśa (=to see). 7 levels of viśva are smaller than man. There are images of 7 lokas in human body which are subject of tantra and yoga. On earth also, 7 lokas are in hemisphere of Bhāratavarṣa between equator to north pole. Equator to Vindhyas is

Bhū, Vindhya to Himālaya is Bhuvar amd Himālaya is Svarloka. The country Triviṣṭap (Tibet) means svarga. China is maharloka as people of this region were called Mahān (Han race) by Brahmā. Janah loka is Mongolia. Janah loka is final place of soul after which there is no individual structure. The soul
on leaving the body is called Preta (=Pra+itah =gone from here) or Mukul (mukta =released) in Arabic. Thus, the image of Janah loka is Mongolia.

Tapah loka is land up to Polar circle. Tapas is called Steppees. Polar circle is coldest corresponding
to Satya loka having least density. Europe also has Bhūloka = Meditarranean (Bhūmadhya sāgara) lands, Bhuvar = Bavarian plain, Svar =Sverge (Sweden). Puṣkara (south America) has Iron land (Brazil means Iron, Dhātaki), Argentina (Argentum =silver) and Ananta as gold. In sky, sun, moon, earth are called puras of gold, silver, iron. The lands surrounding Atlantic ocean are divided into 7

talas, called 7 pātālas. Atala is identified as Italy or south west Europe. Talātala is north Africa. In
Ezypt, there is a place called Til-et-tal-Amarnā. Last place Rasātala is farthest from Himālaya, i.e. Amazon basin which is full of water (=rasa). Atalāntaka is beyond Atala, i.e. old Atlantis described by Plato. Its remnants are west Indies and other islands of Atlantic. Pātāla is other part of south America. North America may be divided into Sutala and Vitala. Sutala may be plain and Vitala hilly region.

10, India Madhyade adeś 10, Janapadas of India (a) Madhyadeśa

doā (i) Gangetic doāb -Kuril - west of Yamunā from Delhi north wards. Jāngala - wooded north eastern part of Kuru. Pāñchāla - Rohilkhaṇḍa and Yamunā Gangā doāb.
North panchal had capital at Ahicchatra and south at Kāmpila.

Kośala - Sarayū-Rāptī doāb; Ayodhyā was old capital, Later capitals were Śrāvastī and Sāketa. Kāśī - One of 16 mahājanapadas. Capital at Vārāṇasī. South part of Gangā Gomatī doāb upto Son
river in south.

Gangā Yamunā (ii) South of Gangā-YamunāMagadha . - South of Gangā, east of Son and north of Vindhya hills up Munger. Kuritala - Mirzapur region in south east U.P. Yamunā (iii) West of Yamunā -Matsya - Alwar and Gudgaon dists. Śūurasena-Bharatpur, Dholpur-Karauli region Śālva- This was around Śuktimatī-Loharu-Bhivani. Bodha part was Hansi, Hisar-Sirsa tract. Bhadrakāra was west of Arāvalīs. Makarā (b) North west janapadas (i) Makarān Region - Angaloka or Hingulāja - Shrine of Śiva Pallava Parikan river valley Valley of Dashta. Annabel town towards Indus delta to Gāṇḍav near Kalāt. Mouth of Hāb river and Churmā islands inhabited by pirates.

Bāhubhadra - Bāhu river valley. Gwadur is at mouth. Deshamanka Hārabhūṣika Charmakhaṇḍa -

(ii) Balūchistān -Kālatoyaka - Kalāt, valley of Malla river. Balūchistā

Bahlika - Baluchistān-valleys of Bolon, Nān and Goklī rivers named Bālistān also. Balkha of Persia. Vāṭadhāna- North of Bāhlīka-valleys of Zob, Kuṇḍār, Gomal, Waziristan. Toṣara Āprīta Further north in valleys of Kurram and Tochi. West of Peśāvar-Afrīdī tribe.

Indus(iii) North mountain zone of Indus-Gāndhār - Lower Kābul valley (Kāndhār)

Śatadrujā - Valley of Swāt river. Darva - Valley of Panjakorā, capital at Dīr. Kamboja - Kunār river valley. Lempaka- Lamghan now-upper Kābul valley.
(iv) North and north eastern mountains -

Auras Darada Kashmir -

Urusa or Hazārī distt in N-W. Frontier of Pakistan.
Tribe of Darada is Kiśangangā valley of Kaśmir. Present Kashmir valley drained by Jhelum.

(v) West Bank of Indus -Parada - Dera Gazikhan distt of Punjab.

Sindha - Upto sea along Sindha river.
(vi) East Bank of Sindha -Śūdra - Dry bed of Hakra (Śakra river), Bahawalpur distt.

Hakra and Sakkhar town are corruptions of Indra (Śakra) Ābhīra - West part of Hydrabad distt of Sindh.
(vii) Punjab plains -Sainika or Piḍikā - Rāwalpiṇḍī and Piṇḍī Ghali region.

Jāngala - South half of Jhelum-Chenāb Doāb.

Kaikeya - North of Jāngala, capital Rajgarh or Girivraja is modern Jalālpur. Madra-Ravi-Chenab doab. Capital Sukel is now Sangalāwālā tibbā.
(c) South western janapadas-Bharukaccha - Bharocha, north of Narmadā delta and south of Māhī.

Samāhīya-Adjacent of Māhī river up to Sābarmatī. Sārasvata-Pāṭan-Mehsānā plain between Arāvalī and Kaccha. Drained by Saraswatī river in past. Arbuda - North west of Sāraswat-Sirohi, Koṭrā, Pālanpur, Kachha (Cutch) Anarta - North Saurāṣṭra-Dwārakā, Jāmnagar, etc. Surala -Tāptī basin round Surat and Navasārī, Jalagaon, Tapal etc. Turīyamīna - Tāptī valley between Badnur and Burahānpur (south Nemāḍa) Rupasā - Middle and lower Pūrṇā valley. ' Karaskara - Upper Pūrṇā valley-Karasgaon, Elichpur towns. Nāsikya - Around Nāsik, Darnā basin. Shūrāaraka (Sūryarka) - Sūryā valley, Thāne distt, Towns Safāle, Mālā, Sopārā. Kālavana (Kolā vana) - Kalyāṇ town on Girnā river, Girnā valley upto Chālīsgaon. Kulujā- Kum river Valley. Durga - Damangangā (old Durgā) valley.
(d) Eastern janapadas(i) Middle Gangetic Valley-Malla - Doāb of Gaṇḍaka and Rāptī-Gangā (Gorakhpur)

Videha - Gaṇḍaka to Kośī river, capital Mithilā 56, kilometers north west of Vaiśālī. Magadha-East of Son. South of Gangā, north of Hazāribāg upto Munger, capital Rājgīr near Gayā. Anga-East of Mokāmā and west of Mandārgiri, between Gangā in north and Rājmahal in south.
Capital was Champā (near Munger). (ii) Kośī-Gangā and Brahmaputra-Yamunā doāb-

Puṇḍra-Capital Mahāsthān is 7 miles north of modem Bogrā. Gangā-Brahmaputra Doāb between two Yamunās to east' and west. West of Duārs. Present Kośī division of north east Bihar, Siliguri region. Māladā - Present Māldā distt, Rājaśāhī and west Dinājpur.
(iii) Middle Brahmputra Valley -Prāg jyotiṣa - North of Brahmaputra, east of Tīstā, belt of alluvial land. (iv) Delta- Vanga - (Sundarban)-Vana =-low trees, Araṇya - high trees, Jāngala -sparse forest. This is sundar as tracts of vana are joined by water bodies of delta. Perons moving there are Vangā =

Vana + gā,
(v) Western margin -(Rādhā country) in TWO parts Suhma Murshidābād, Tāmraliptika-Midnapur distt. MarginYamunā (vi) Eastern Margin-East of Yamunā -Padmā was Bhārgava-Angayā. (vii) Hilly regions -Mndgārka-North east spur of Rājmahal Hills. East Santhāl paraganā, south Hugalī, Burdwān, Bīrbhūm,

Munger and Bhāgalpur Distts (Mudgagiri hills in Munger). Antargiri - Between Rājmahal and Hazāribāg. Bahirgiri - Beyond Hazaribagh-Dāmodar valley.
(e) Sorthern janapadas-(i) West coast plain –Kerala has two parts, Keralaputra is Malābār coast, (i)

Satyaputra is Satyamangalam in Madurā kingdom. Setuka East hinterland near Cardamom hills.

Vanavāsaka-North and south Kanārā disitt. ruled by Kadamba family.
(ii) Deccan plateau -

Māhiṣaka-Modern Karṇāṭaka, Mysore region up to Tungabhadrā river (south Karṇāṭaka). Kumāra- South portion, near Kumārī cape. Kuntala- Dhārwāḍ. Bellārī, Anantapur. Rāichūr regions. Mahārāṣṭra- Bhīmā basin. Kupatu- Coimbatore and part of Salem. Aśmaka- Valley of Godāvarī below confluence of Manjīrā, capital at Bodhan. Maulika- Upper Godāvarī Valley. Capital at Paiṭhan on north bank. Parts of Aurangābād, Ahmednagar, Bhīr and Parbhanī distts. Paurika (Pauṇika)- Valley of river Puraṇā which joins Godāvarī at Nāndeḍ. Vidarbha- Basin of river Wardhā and Penagangā which forms southern boundary. Bhoga-varddhana-Upper Pūrṇā valley below Sahyādri. Bhokardon is 32 kms south of Ajantā.
(iii) East coastal plains -

Pāṇḍya - South of Vallāru river (Pudukoṭṭai) to Kanyākumārī. East upto Cholamaṇḍala coast, west
upto Acchamkovil pass near south Kerala, Madurāi, Tirunelveli.

Chola - Kāromaṇḍala coastal plain from Tirupati to Pudukoṭṭai, Karur and Tiruchirāpalli. Āndhra- Delta plains of Kṛṣṇā and Godāvarī rivers. (land of cyclones) Kalinga-Coastal plain from Godāvarī delta to Mahānadī. Capital was Dantapur. Other cities were Rājāpur, Simhapur (or Singapuram in Śrīkākulam), Kanchanpura and Kalinganagar (Mukhalingam) on Vamśadhārā river. Shavara - Valley of river Śabarī- a left bank tributary of Godāvarī. Pulinda - Region between Prāṇahita and Bandiā rivers joining Godāvarī from north. Mūṣika - Upper valley of river Mūsī, a tributary of Kṛṣṇā. Nala Kālika (Kalūpā) - Basin of lower Mūsī. Present Nālagoṇḍā distt. of Āndhra pradesh. Daṇḍaka- From hills of Orissa to source of Godāvarī, Mainly valley of Indrāvatī, left bank tributary of Godāvarī.
(f) Vindhya Region (i) Norh slope of Vindhya -

Avanti-Capital of Ujjayinī. Later on named Mālavā. It covered source of Chambal and area drained by Śiprā and Kālī-sindha. Bhoja-Area around Bhīlawārā, areas drained by Chambal and Banās rivers (Parṇāśa of purāṇas) Byolia. Mandalagarh and Nīmach.
(ii) North east slope of Vindhya –

Vidiśā- Basin of upper Betwā (Vetravatī) Daśārṇa-Sāgar plateau drained by Dhasān river. Karūṣa-North slope of Kaimur range, basin of upper Ṭons river. West limit was Ken river. North
boundary was scarps of Vindhya facing Yamunā.

Mālavā - Basin of middle and upper Ken (Karmanāśā).
(iii) Intermediate Vindhya iii)

Niṣadha - Narawar region near Gwāliar associated with king Nala.

Tumbura-North of Narawar from Foot hills of Vindhya to Chambal (Land of Tomar rajputs)
(iv) Eastern and south eastern slopes of Vindhya -

Utkala- Present Baleśvar distt, north Orissa coast. Tośala- Whole Mahānadī delta, Tośali (modern Dhaulī) near Bhubaneswar was centre. Kośala-.North margin of Mahākośala region. Mekala-Southern slopes of Maikal range, south of Amar-kaṇṭak, present Bilaspur distt. Narmadā (v) Narmadā basin Tripurā-Arround Tewar (15 Kms west of Jabalpur). Upper Narmadā valley covering Jabalpur and
parts of Mekala and Narasimhapur distts.

Tuṇḍikera-Two towns of this name exist- One is north east of Narasimhapur beyond Bhāṇḍer forest.
Other is in Narmadā basin. It occupied south stretch of Narmadā basin. Town Sāinkheḍā on south bank is old name Śauṇḍikerā.

Tumura-West of Tuṇḍikera, southern basin of Narmadā. West half of Hoshangābād distt. centred
around Tumurni.

Kiṣkindhā - Further down in Khaṇḍawā-Khārgon region . Pālavi - Foot hills of Satpuḍā, facing Narmadā. Pālī town is south of Barwānī. Vītihotra - North of Narmadā and west of Tuṇḍikerā. Drained by Kolār, Jamner, Kanār rivers. Anūp - Marshy or ill drained land. Alluvial tract of Narmadā basin just after Vindhya Satpuḍā branch.
11. Conclusion onclusion-List of Janapadas in purāṇas is necessary to understand the Indian purāṇas, 11. Conclusion

Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata. Some places like Tripurā, Kiṣkindhā, Narasimhapur are at more than
one place. Reason is that same history was repeated in different areas. Regions in bordering regions were counteparts of regions in greater India. Like Prāgjyotiṣapur extended to south east China at time of Mahābhārata whose king was Bhagadatta. Kekaya in Punjāb region was a representative town of much bigger Kekaya (Caucasus, Kazzakistan) country. Bāhlīka was modern Persia whose kings fought in Mahābhārata (Bhūriśravā). Due to change in political situations, the boundaries of empire changed. Thus Orissa was associated with more than ten janapadas-Kalinga. Utkala, Śavar, Mūṣik,

Kośal, Kiṣkindhā, Mekal, Suhma, Tāmraliptika, Kāraṇḍaka (Kālāhāṇḍī), Daṇḍaka etc. Thus complete
background of Indian Janapadas is necessary. ChapterChapter-3 REMNANTS OF PAST IN ORISSA

1.Devayuga 1.Devayuga-German philologists followed by Oxford univesity conceived the following scheme to
place Indian language and literature at last, and India being conquered by different races one after another. It starts with Pre-historic era after which people from Tasmania ruled. That followed period of

Deva-Asura-Kirāta. Then free old socialist societies eveloped with rise of paternal societies and Varuṇa Emperor,Aditi Worship,Yaksha,Gandharvas worship of female Kuber. Self rule of Indra
killing of Vṛtra. Rakśa, worshippers of Śiva went to south. Viṣṇu Upendra defeated Asuraa then Deluge occurred. After that Vaivasvat Manu started Gaṇa in Satyayuga. Different in Latin, veda,

Avestā. Other Deva tribes Suparṇa, Ṛkśa, Vānara followed. Ārya dāsa wars were in Tretā Yuga, Kśatriya era, resulting in Ārya victory. In Dvāpara- Āryagaṇa formed. Rise of Anārya power checked

by Kṛṣṇa.Then Kali era declined, period of Yakśa, Upaniṣad era - Kapil, Pāṇini, Sanskrit, Buddha

Mahāvīra followed. That ended with Aristocracy.
It is unnecessary to comment on such arbitrary and baseless imaginations. Asuras were originally in south America, Dānavas in north America according to Avestā and Indian puranas. (Avestā -

Vendidād - first chapter) Indra attacked through Nāgas, who reached by river route. Due to change of
climate, Asuras tried to capture lands of Asia, which started war with Devas. Dānavas went to east Europe, Russia (east of Danube = Dānava river). Daitya were in Deutsch land (Germany, Dutch or Netherlands-Nether also means Pātāla or low land) Asuras established empire in north Africa and west Asia. Rākśas (Nairṛtya or Negrito) were in south west direction. Due to their attack, Yakśas went north wards. Some Rākśasas came to south India and settled. Rāvaṇa was accepted as learned

Brāhmaṇa and they merged. Ṛkśa tribe and mountain are in east Vindhya range. This means Kola tribe (both mean bear). Kolā is
bear also in Australia, (Kola bear), U.S.A. (Coca-cola = drink of bears). Ṛkśa means Ṛṣi = sage or to move. They might have been wanderers 'Vānara' means living in 'vana' or forest areas. Vananidhi also means ocean-Ports or their controllers are also Vānara. 'Nāga' has several meanings in different contexts - As warriors using missiles (nāgāstra), hand cuff or shackles (nāga-pāśa), forts in hill areas (naga = mountains), sea farers (Avesta 1-1). In vedas also, routes on both sides of equator are called

'Nāga vīthis' (nāga = routes) which encircle the globe. Agni purāṇa has divided the strips into nine
parts from north to south according to names of nāgas (24° N to 24° S latitude)

Airāvat mārga-1. Nāga vīthi , 2. Gaja vīthi, 3. Airāvata vīthi. Jaradgava mārga -1. Ṛṣabha, 2. Go and 3. Jaradgava vīthis. Vaiśvānara mārga -1. Aja vīthi, 2. Mṛga vīthi, 3. Vaiśvānarī vīthi.
Before floods (Deluge), there were three classes of gods according to Egyptian traditions quoted by Herodotus. 1. First class of 8 - Sons of Diti (Asura ) = daitya 2. 2nd class of 12 - 12 sons of Aditi (Āditya or deva) 3. 3rd class - Dānava - Bāccus of Bible or Viprachitti of purāṇas (his descendant after 6451 years 3 months was Alexander Greek - Megathenese). Drinks are named after two tribes -

Kolā (= bear all over world) - Bear, coca cola. Baccus - Aṣṭānga sangraha of Vāgbhaṭa (Sūtra sthāna, chap 6) mentions Bacchus wine (Whisky)
After deluge, from abouth 9000 B.C. with Vaivasvat Manu, 4 yugas stated - Satya, dvāpara, tretā and

kali. Before that, there was Deva yuga according to Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa (Bālakāṇḍa 9/12). Kāśyapa samhitā has divided old era into 3 parts - Ādi yuga, devayuga and kṛta yuga.
incarnation-This was at beginning of deluge, when sea farers or hill top peope 2. Names of Matsya incarnation (Nāgas of two types) surrived and prospered. Nāgeśvara gotra is common among all castes in Orissa as it is on sea coast. Many of Kśatriya (Khaṇḍāyata) and Goṇḍas have Nāgeśvara gotra. In Bengal, adjacent areas of Orissa 'Nāga' is a title of Brāhmaṇs and Karaṇas.

'Nāga-maṇi' is very famous. Maṇi means jewel which nāgas put on their heads. However, Brahmasphuṭa siddhānta of Brahmagupta (14-34) tells that a 'maṇi' can use sun rays to burn wood at a
distance. Thus, maṇi means a lens also. A watchman at hill top or a person travelling at sea needs to

see far through a telescope or binocular which is always in front of eyes. Thus 'nāga maṇi' is spectacles. All animals including man have two eyes. But man has a third eye of knowledge or fire like shiva. Hence only 'Trilochana' (three eyed) name is popular all over India. But in orissa only, people are named two eyed also like Bāikoli (Binocular), Bāilochana etc. This name is not found any where else, Thus, use of binoculars (nāga maṇi') by ship men is obvious. 3. Names of Varāha incarnation-This was at beginning of Deva-asura war around 20 thousand years Varā incarnation ago. Areas ruled by Hiraṇyakśa were flooded (Avestā, 1-1) hence he tried to enter deva lands. Viṣṇu took from of 'Varāha' which was then considered sacred. He could approach Hiraṇyakśa town without obstruction. Thereafter, in the war Hiraṇyakśa was killed. Since then Semitic religious consider Boar (Varāha) as inauspicious. For this war purpose, main regions of his activity should be near sea. His places are named 'Śukarava' according to Varāha purāṇa. This has become 'Suvar' 'Saura' 'Soro' etc. One 'Soro' is identified as 'Soro' in Eṭā dislt of Uttar Pradesh on banks of Gangā. In Orissa coast region, 'Soro' is near Bhadrak. 'Śukarpaḍā' is near Salepur in Cuttack. Other function of 'Varāha' (Boar) is digging the earth. This function has been explained by name

Vaikhānasa in Viṣṇu- sahasra-nāma, Śankara commentary. Thus 'Śavara' or 'Saura' tribe is near all
the mining areas of central India. In Orissa, Saura area is in south and south west portion. 4. Regions associated with Kūrma-Main region is considered 'Kūrmāchala' (Kumaon) is western U.P. There is a 'Kurmī' caste which is agricultural labourers. 'Kurmīs' are mostly in Bihar, U.P. but spread to middle Indian states from Maharasthtra to Orissa. In Orissa, place of residence of agricultural labourers was called 'Karmānta' which has become 'Khamār'. They worked on money or purchased with money (mūlya) hence they are called muliyā. Person looking after Khamār is called 'Khamārī' which is a title in Orissa. 'Khmer' tribe is in Kambodia who are of warrior class. 'Kurmīs' were originally 'Kūrma' Kśatriyas. After loss of power, they became labourers. Outside India, they had gone as warriors in Combodia etc and still belong to that class. Major incident in this incarnation was

Samudra-manthana in which many ratnas (jewels) were extracted. Minerals are obtained by mining
only, so this was a co-operation for mining between Devas and Asuras. Asuras had mostly come from Africa and were engaged near mouth of Vāsuki which was hotter-thus they went deep inside pit. There title names were from names of minerals in language of Asuras ruling north Africa and parts of west Asia in 16000 BC. From same region later on king Sagara of India expelled Yavanas in 6762 BC from west Arab to Greece, whose name became Yunāna (Ionia) as per Herodotus. Till today, Arabi medicine is called Unānī. Thus, Greek language retained the same words of Arab. The title names of tribals in mineral area of Orissa/Jharkhand are same as names of minerals/metals in Greek. Examples have been given earlier. Iron ore is called Mura, so the Asura killed near ocean (Mediterranean) was called Mura as he had iron fencing around his capital (Brahma purāṇa 1/93

Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa 3/4/29/125, Bhāgavata purāṇa 10/59). In India also, center of iron ore region is
called Murā (now submerged in Hīrākud reservoir and shifted to Burlā in Sambalpur district. Descendants of Pāṇḍava king Janamejaya ruled before Nanda (1634 BC) with capital at Sonepur, but govt headquarter at Murā, called Murā-śāsana. Their officers in govt. there were called Maurya who took over from Nanda in 1534 BC. The Veda śākhā of this region was Muṇḍaka of Atharva-veda whose upaniṣad of that name remains. Students of that branch have still Muṇḍa title among

Brāhmaṇas in west Orissa. Tribal titles are recalled here-Muṇḍā =Iron ore, Kiskū = blast furnace, Karkattā (compass)=mapping the region, Hembram =mercury, Orām (aurum) = gold, Ṭoppo =Topaz, Minz (mīna = fish) =refining the ore, Hansadā =extracting metal, Khālko = copper (Chalcopyrite), Sinkū =Tin (stannum),
5. Regions associated with NarasimhaHiraṇyakaśipu had occupied north Africa, west Asia, south Europe etc. When he attacked India and captured some parts, mainly south India through sea, he was killed by Narasimha (i.e. lion among men). He was 'Bala' (power) form of Viṣṇu who used pure brute force. However, in Egypt, he is projected as lion body with human head as a beast. In India as a praise, he is a human being with lion like face. In pre-Jewish /chirstian era 'Baal' was worshipped in north Africa, west Asia. In India, Śankar digvijaya has described "Balāchala' as area of Narasimha. 'Balāchala' has become 'Balāngir (achala =

giri = mountain) Region of Narasimhanāth is in that distt only. 'Hiranṇya-kaśipu' means golden cloth or
a bed. This corresponds with Sonepur region there which has been named Suvarṇapur distt. now. 6. Regions associated with Vāmana-After Hiraṇyakaśipu, his great grandson Bali defeated gods and ocuupied svarga i. e. India. Vāmana means soul (Ātmā), so the persom who has realised the soul is called Vāmana. Vāmana approaced Bali who was doing yajña. Yajña of kings means tax collection after defeat of devas they were not getting share of yajña. Main centre of yajña was near place of

Śukra (Kāvya) which is Kābā in Arab. Makha - medinī (makha = yajña, medinī = earth or place, dirtied
with blood etc) is Makkā, Medinā nearby. In India, the tax centres were near Mahiṣmatī on Narmadā bank. Corresponding to old "rasātala' (Amazon river) of Asuras, there was Tel' river in Orissa which is southern tributary of Mahānadī.'Yajña' place is 'Jājpur' in Orissa, its 'medinī' is Midnāpura on north Orissa Border. Capital of Indonesia also was yajña place hence it was called Yajñakarttā (Jog-

Jakārttā). Orissa and Indonesia have several places named after Bali. Bāli island is Indonesia, Bālikudā in Cuttack etc.
A king has 4 methods of victory - pure force is Bala called 'daṇḍa' which was used by Narasimha. Remaining three are 'chhala' i.e. deception - sāma (equality), dāma (bribe), bheda (distinction). These three steps of deception were used by 'Vāmana', hence he was called 'Trivikrama' i,e. three braveries. In Persian, this is Tikaḍam or deception. 'Trivikrama' name is popular mostly in Orissa. In Bangla, it has become Tinkauḍī.

Vāmana activity started in Śrāvaṇa month when daily tributes were paid symbolically to Śiva, being
worshiped by Bali. This is Kānwar yātrā now. At the end of month on Pūrṇimā day Rakśā bandhana is done which is bondage of love. The mantra for that purpose tells clearly that Bali was tied with this only. Thus tributes were dāma (money), rakśā bandhana was sāma. In the process, dispute between

Bali and his guru Śukra was created which is bheda. After that, Bali was forced to retreat to Pātāla
which was called Bali Yātrā. After rakśā bandhana, Vāmana dvādaśī is in Bhādra śukla 12th which is his birth day (27 days after rakśā bandhana). Amalī era of Orissa starts on this day which is new year day for that calendar. On this day, Vāmana victory was complete or accepted by Bali. Then, Indra

utsava starts on same day when his flag is hoisted, indicating rule of Indra re-established. Then,
instead of Bali, gifts are given to Indra. This is Aśūnya śayana day in Bhubeneswar. Indra had become zero earlier, his wealth is revived on that day. It is also considered birth day of Vāmana and

Indradyumna King who had discovered Viṣṇu idol in Purī town. Bhubaneswar town was in name of Bhubaneśvarī devī whose birth day also falls on Vāmana Dvādasśī. Complete withdrawal of Bali from deva areas to pātāla took 2 months more on Kārttika Pūrṇimā after which Bali-yātrā is observed only
in Orissa. There is another tradition surviving from those days. Reign of kings in Orissa are counted in

Anka system. Years are counted only from Vāmana Dvādasśī following coronation. Since counting
starts on this day, it is śūnya divasa. There are 2 systems-in one system all years are ounted. In another system, year numbers ending with 0 and 6 are left out. Thus, there are 3 systems including normal count of reign from coronation. This may be the cause of different reignal years of same king mentioned in old records and purāṇas.

Paraśurā 7. Names associated with Paraśurāma- Around 6,500 B.C. Kings had become tyrant and usurped the
public property at will. Arjuna, son of Kṛtaviīya was King of Mahiṣmatī on Narmadā bank and was the most powerful. He saw the good cow of Jamadagni and snatched it away. On protest, Jamadagni was killed (Jamaniā near Vārāṇasī on Bihar border). Paraśurāma retaliated and killed Arjuna of thousand arms (i.e. of big army) and was called Sahasrarāma (Sāsārām town in west Bihar bordering

Vārāṇasī). In war of Paraśurāma, 14 tribes assisted him which included Śabara, Kalinga and Auḍra these three are parts of Orissa. Paraśurāma destroyed kings 21 times, but did not rule himself, he donated the entire land to Kaśyapa, under whose name govt was run. At present, President is figure head in democracy like Kaśyapa. This was for 120 years without kings as mentioned by Megasthenese Then in 6174 B. C., Kollam (Kalamba) era started after 21 st republic. At the time of

Rāma's marriage, Paraśurāma (or his successor with same name like institution of Śankarāchārya)
gave his weapon to him and came to Mahendra mountain in Kalinga for austerity and repentence of violent works. Thus temples related with Paraśurāma, his mother Reṇukā, father Jamadagni and grand rather Ṛchīka are found in Bānkī region near Bhubaneswar. Paraśurāma worshipped Tripurā for 12 years on Mahendragiri as tanght by Dattātreya at 'Gandhamardana' in north Orissa. Then,

Hāritāyana Sumedhā learnt worship of Tripurā at Mahendragiri or Puṣpagiri (Phulbānī or Kalinga ghāṭī). The same sage taught worship of Durgā to king Suratha and Samādhi as per Durgā-saptaśatī.
Since then Bhubaneswar, Puri, Jajpur region is centre of Tantra. In Vedic terms, 10 forms of Durgā are called Mahāvidyā. For Bauddhas, he is Sumedhā Buddha and 10 forms are called by similar name Prajñā-pāramitā. After this Buddha, this place is called Baudh district. 8. Names associated with Rāma

Rāma was born in 4433 B.C., but still :pālā or dramas based on his life are most popular in Orissa and
other parts of the country. Rāma's mother was born in Kośala, so she was called Kauśalyā. Other wives of Daśaratha were Sumitrā from nearer Mitra deśa i.e. Magadha and Kaikeyī from Kekaya (Caucasus, Kazzakistan). During his exile into forest, Rāma lived in Daṇḍaka forest which included Koraput, Bastar and adjacent areas of Mahārāṣṭra and Āndhra pradeśa, He went to house of Śabarī (i.e.a woman of Śabara caste). Śabara tribe and Śabarī river (a tribulary of Godāvarī in western part of

Malkāngiri) are remnants of that era. North part of Kiṣkindhā in east sea coast was in support of Rāvaṇa and Bāli was his friend. Thus, Bāli was killed and his brother Sugrīva was installed as king. Bāli's friendship with Rāvaṇa is mentioned at several places in Rāmāyaṇa. Rāvaṇa supporting region
on sea coast is mentioned in Sundarkāṇḍa. When Rāma decided to use 'Agni-bāṇa" (fire missile) to

dry the ocean, ocean or the people near Rāmeśvaram region advised him to build a bridge and divert the missile to northern sea coast where people of anti-side (Rāvaṇa supporters) lived. That could have been north Kiṣkindhā under Bāli's influence. People in south Orissa (Koraput, Ganjam) and adjacent regions in Andhra pradesh still keep Rāvaṇa name. Even in Tamilnāḍu where D.M.K founders denounced Rāma and supported Rāvaṇa tradition, had their names as Rāma only, like M.G.

Rāmchandran, Rāmasvāmī Nāikar, Jairām Rameśa.
'Bāli' names like Bāliguḍā, Bālimelā, Bālikudā and Kandha tribe is still found in Orissa. In Padma purāṇa. pātāla khaṇḍa, regions of Orissa have been mentioned in Aśwamedha yajña of

Rāma. His brother Śatrughna with horse arrived in Ahicchatra town after which he went to Payoṣṇī
river. Payoṣṇī river was in Orissa having āśrama of Chyavana as he saw Nīlāchala of Puruśottama after crossing it. Payoṣṇī starts from Ṛkśa mountain (west Orissa, East M.P) acording to Viṣṇu purāṇa (2/3/11), Brahma purāṇa (17/11-12) from Sahya (east Mahrashtra) as per Agni purāṇa (116/7). Other puranas mention it from Vindhya range which includes these two mountains . From Ṛkśa and Sahya, it appears to be southern tributary of Mahānadī. There is a Dudhvā lake (Dudha = milk = paya) in

Raipur distt from which Kharunā river emerges and joins Mahānadī from south. Payoṣṇī also means
emerging milk which is hot. Between Payoṣṇī and Nīlāchala, Śatrughna went to Ratnalatā town. (This may be a mineral town on banks of Mahānadī like Hīrākuda, Baudha famous for daimond mining. Near Nīlagiri (Nīlāchala ?), there was Chakrānkā town where Śatrughna had to fight. This might be a coastal capital near Purī and Chilkā lake. There is a Chakra-tīrtha in Purī itself.

ṛṣṇa era-As a recent incarnation, his effects are maximum. Jagannātha as 9. Names linked with Kṛṣṇa era
eternal God was at Puruṣottama Kśetra Purī long before Kṛṣṇa and even before Rāma. Vālmīki

Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa describes Rāma's birth as incarnation of Jagannātha. Even at time of death,
he has stated that Jagannātha is Kula-devatā of his family from time of Ikśvāku and entrusted

Vibhīṣaṇa to continue His worship. Indradyumna was long before Rāma who had found Jagannātha
idol from Śabaras as mentioned in Padma purāṇa, pātāla khaṇḍa. In Kṛṣṇa period, his wooden idol was revived after death of Kṛṣṇa by arrow of Jarā Śabara. As per Harivamśa purāṇa, chapter 103, verse 27, Vasudeva had a son named Jarā from his śūdrā wife who became king of arrow wielding

niṣādas. Niṣāda means profession of sea/ river travelers, thus he was king of Niṣādas on east coast.
There is still a river named Jarā or Jīrā near Baragarh which might have been west boundary of

Śabara area. This name is associated with Jarāsandha also. Thus, Jarā Śabara was step brother of Kṛṣṇa and as repentance of his act of killing Kṛṣṇa, he installed wooden idol again at the old place of Puruṣottama.
Next reference in Mahābhārata is of elephant army (gaja-senā) of Kalinga which fought on the side of

Duryodhana and Duśśāsana. This has two effects till today. Even now. all the kings of Kalinga regionPuri, Parlākhemuṇḍī, Śrīkākulam, Vijayānagaram are called Gajapati though Kalinga had no
remarkable elephant army after Mahābhārata war. In Delhi region itself names of defeated heroes

Duryodhana and Duśśāsana are not heard, but these are common in Kalinga area. Dantavaktra was king of Karūṣa on west border of Kalinga and associate of Jarāsandha in various
attacks on Kṛṣṇa. His place was Dantākura (Mahābhārata, udyoga 23/24,48/76), capital of Kalinga

mentioned as Dandagulā. capital of Kalingae by Pliny. This may be modern Dantevāḍā in Bastar distt where Danteśvarī Devī is the main goddess.

Jarāsandha appears to be from Jarā river area. When his son-in-law Kansa of Mathurā was killed by Kṛṣṇa in Dhanuṣa yajña (annual sports function), wives of Kansa came to their paternal place in Baragarh on bank of Jarā river. The places where descenants of Kansa settled are called Kānsabahāl, Kansar etc. Last function of Kansa was Dhanuṣa yajña, so it is still observed annually in Baragarh, not in Mathurā itself.
10. Names associate with Buddha-Baudha religion became dominant in Orissa after Kalinga invasion of Ashoka in 1464 B.C. Earlier, Jainas were dominant in trade and govt. That was destroyed, and by default Bauddhas took over. There is no mention in any inscription or bauddha text that Ashoka had become Bauddha. Divyāvadāna, in chapter Ashokāvadāna tells that after victory over Kalinga,

Ashoka had killed 12,000 Jaina monks. That is exaggeration, but it means end of Jaina supremacy.
Most of the existing institutions were dominated by Buddha followers after that. Education instititutes were earlier also, but in Maurya era, their heads were Buddhists. It is thought that all were established by them. Influence of Buddha remained strong till Śankarāchārya (509-477 B.C). As per chapter 19 of

Śankara-digvijaya. Śankara defeated Bauddhas, but respected Buddha himself as incarnation of Viṣṇu. Thus, Jagannātha also had one form as Buddha. Buddha followers were not persecuted, but
they remained in some pockets and Harṣavardhana (7th century), was follower of Buddha. Buddha was different from other incarnations of Viṣṇu in two respects. He didn't accept the authority of vedas. Due to that two important technical disciplines were ignored-Astonomy, as jyotiṣa was a limb of Vedas and surgery as part of Āyurveda which involved himsā. His other attempt was to use foreign words which were used by Prahlāda in śāntiparva of Mahābhārata, Chinese system of Tantra etc. Due to that, it remains more popular in west and China. But neglect of technical knowledge created inaccuracies and it collapsed in India. In Chinese tradition, students are called flowers (Kinder-garten in French also) and schools colleges were named as such. University part of Paṭnā was called

Kusumapua according to Āryabhaṭa (now called Phulvārī sharīf). Schools in Orissa were called Puṣpagiri (Phulbānī) and Lalitagiri (Lalita =mild or flower). Takśaśilā university area also was named Puṣpapura (Peśāvar in north west Pakistan).
rule11. Effects of Jaina rule Jaina tradition was always present and it survives even now. However, Jaina dominance was under Khārāvel rule who ruled over the whole India. Khārāvel had done Rājasūya

yajña in 11 th year of his rule. He himself may not be Jaina. But hehad profound respect for Jaina munis and constructed Guphā and temples. Supremacy of Jainas in trade etc was restored. Powerful
kings become tyrant. Majority was non Jaina and a proverb in Sanskrit became famous- even on being chased by elephant, one should not enter Jaina temple for saving life. Ruling class of kśatriyas to became closer to power kept their title as Jenā which is common in Orissa. Bengal and Assam.

Gorakhnā century)-On pattern of Śankarāchārya, Gorakhnātha established 4 12. Effect of Gorakhnātha (8th century) tantra-pīṭhas. One of them is in Jājpur (Oḍḍīāṇapīṭha). Followers of Gorakhnātha who fostered
national unity kept their titles as Nātha. This title is common among many castes of Orissa.

Chapter - 4 OLD PARTS OF ORISSA

Bhā Jagannā Jagannātha is lord of world, then why is Purī his preferred place? There 1. Bhārata and Jagannātha- Jagann
are 4 reasons for that(1) Firstly, why Jagannātha is located in India? India was earlier called Ajanābha bha-varṣa, i.e. centre of world. Aja = Self-born or non-born, nābhi = navel, centre. This has been explained by Huensang, the born, Chinese traveler visiting India in 642 AD. He has stated that India is called Indu (moon) due to 3 reasons-(a) As seen from north, the Himālaya in semi-circular arc like crescent moon is seen. (b) (a) circular

Himālaya is also cool like moon. (c) India has been giving light of knowledge to world like moon gives
light to world on setting of sun. He has also stated that the Greek are unable to pronounce it correctly and call it Inde. This is origin of the word In India. Thus, Jagannātha has to remain in heart of world, i.e. India. Shape of India has become the symbol of heart (in game of cards) and love sign also. As seen from south sea, India is a triangle with vertex down wards. Reverse triangle is called Śakti (feminine)

trikoṇa (triangle).

India is main part of 9 parts of Bhārata-varṣa from sea to Himālaya and from Arab to Vietnam and Indonesia. This Purāṇic view is summarized by Kālidāsa in Kumāra-sambhava opening verse, that sambhava

Himālaya is taken as touching sea to east and west. India is defined as north of sea and south of that Himālaya. It is also centre of civilization whose conduct was taken as standard. These are described
in all purāṇas e.g. in Viṣṇu-purāṇ ṇa भारतः के तुमाला भ ा कु रव तथा । प ाणां लोकप य मयादा शैलबा तः। (िव णु पुराण २/२/४० ४०) Four equal petals of the world world-lotus are-Bhārata, Ketumāla (west), Bhadrāś āśva (east) and Kuru (Americas). Their boundaries are indicated by mountains. उ रं य समु य िहमा े ैव दि णम् । वष तद् भारतं नाम भारती य स तितः । १। The land north from sea and south of Himālaya is Bhārata whose people are Bhārat āratī. भारत या य वष य नव भेदाि शामय । इ ीपः कसे ता पण गभि तमान् । ६। नाग ीप तथा सौ यो गंधव वथ वा णः। अयं भारत ख डः तु नवम तेषां ीपः सागर संवृतः । ७। । This Bhārata varṣa has 9 parts-Indra Indra-dvīpa, Kaseru, Tāmraparṇī, Gabhastimān, N¢gadvīpa, Saumya, n, N¢gadv

Gandharva, and Vāruṇa. This 9th part (Bhārata or Kumārikā) is surrounded by seas.

च वािर भारते वष युगा य महामुने । कृ तं ेता ापर

किल ा य न कविचत् । २०।

Only in Bhārata, 4 yugas and their functions exist-kṛta, tretā, dvāpara and kali- no where else. पु षैय पु षो ज बू ीपे सदे यते। य ैय मयो िव णुर य ीपेषु चा यथा । २१।

Viṣṇu is worshipped as yajña puruṣa only in this Jambū-dvīpa and not in other continents.-Bhārata is
main part of this continent, its eastern part is like head and trunk of elephant, its capital also was

Hastināpura (Hastī =elephant), so it was called elephant kingdom by Chinese. Thus, Jumbo also
means large or elephant. अ ािप भारतं े ं ज बू ीपे महामुने । यतो िह कमभूरेषा others are just places of living or enjoyment. गायि त देवाः िकल गीतकािन ध या तु ते भारत भूिम भागे । वगापवगा पद मागभूते भवि त भूयः पु षाः सुर वात् । २४। (िव णु पुराण २/३) Even the devas sing praise of persons born in Bhārataland. This is giver of wealth of heaven. The people here are like gods. Joining reverse triangle with crescent at top, we get shape of heart, i.e. India. Purī is centre of India from Arab to Vietnam and from sea to Himālaya. Thus, the king तोऽ या भोगभूमयः । २२। Here also, in Jambū continent, Bhārata is the best. This is the place of karma (productive work),

Indradyumna who set up Jagannātha idol here, has been called king of central India.
(2) Image of Cosmic wheel- Ratha, or more properly the wheel of sun is up to 1000 diameter, i.e. up to Saturn orbit. in exponential scale, it is 17 times doubling of earth size. Counting 3 zones within earth, it is 20 ahargaṇa. Its image on earth will be at 200 north latitude. As India is standard of conduct, its east coast (Udayagiri-place of rising sun) is place of sun and at 200 north latitude, ratha

yātrā is celebrated.
(3) Bhārata and Purī- Bharaṇa is production and pūraṇa is supply to fill the need. India had been centre of food production, while asuras concentrated on looting. From here, the supply of food was through port of Orissa. As rice was sent from Uḍra, it was called a²r¤ya or Oryza in Greek. Oryza has become rice. Even now, names around central Orissa are named after rice-Chauliaganja,

Dhanmandal, Salepur, Ali etc. Cuttack itself was called Dhānyakataka in Bauddha literature. This is
given in vedas at many places. पृिथ ाः सध थादि पुरी यमि गर वदा भराि पुरी यमि गर वद छेदोऽि पूरी यमंिगर वद् भिर यामः। (वाजसनेयी यजुवद ११/१६)

Agni is above all on earth, he is radiant (angirā), feeds and fills us. May we get powerful leader
capable of feeding and improving us. We will fill him (with taxes etc). स यद य सव या सृजत त मादि ह वै तमि िर याच ते परो म्। शतपथ ा ण ६/१/१/११) That which was created first of all was called agri (leader). Indirectly, agri is called agni. त ा एनम े देवानां ( जापितः ) अजनयत । त मादि रि ह वै नामे त ि िरित। शतपथ ा ण २/२/४/२) This was the first among devas to be created by Prajāpati. Being leader, it was agri which is indirectly called agni. िव भरण पोषण कर जोई । ताकर नाम भरत आस होई। (तुलसीदास कृ त राम चिरत मानस, बालका ड) Who feeds and nourishes the world is called as Bharata. िदवा याि त म तो भू याऽि रयं वातो अंतिर ेण याित । अि याित व णः समु यु माँ इ छ तः शवसो नपातः । (ऋक् संिहता १/१६१/१४) ै All these devas are lords of their places and protect them. Maruts move in dyu (sky), air in intermediate space and agni on earth. Varuṇa moves in waters.

त मा अि भारतः शम यं स योक् प यात् सूयमु र तम् । य इ ाय सुनवामे याह नरे न याय नृतमाय नॄणाम् । (ऋक् संिहता ४/२५/४)

Indra does welfare of people, leads them and best among leaders. The provider Agni may give
comfort to him and people may see the sunrise for long. अि व भरतः । स वै देवे यो ह ं भरित। (कौषीतिक ा ण उपिनषद् ३/२)

Agni is Bharata as it feeds the devas.
एष (अि ः) िह देवे यो ह ं भरित त मात् भरतोऽि िर या ः । (शतपथ ा ण १/४/२/२, १/५/१/८, १/५/१९/८) This Agni only gives food to devas, so it is called Bharata Agni. अ ेमहाँ ा ण भारतेित । एष िह देवे य ह ं भरित । (तैि रीय संिहता २/५/९/१, तैि रीय ा ण३/५/३/१, शतपथ ा ण १/४/१/१)

Agni was called great by Brahmā as only he supplies food to devas.
अि दवो दै ो होता .... देवान् य द् िव ाँि िकतवान् .... मनु यवद् भरत वद् इित । (शतपथ ा ण १/५/१/५-७)

Agni is hotā (feeder) of devas. It maintained devas and learned men. It is like man and Bharata.
अि जातो अथवणा िव ि १०/२१/५) ािन का ा । भुव दूतो िवव वतो िव वो मदे ि यो यम य का यो िवव से । (ऋ संिहता

This Agni is born of sage Atharvā. It knows all verses and praises. It is messenger for calling desired

devas by the doer of yajña.
वम े य ानां होता िव ेषां िहतः। देवेिभमानुषे जने। (ऋ संिहता ६/१६/१- भर ाजो बाह प यः) O Agni ! You complete all yajñas of men, so learned have placed you here. यो अि ः स मानुषः ि तो िव ेषु िस धुषु । तमाग म ि प यं म धातुद युह तममि (ऋ संिहता ८/३९/८-नाभाकः का वः) य ेषु पू म् नभ ताम यके समे ।

Agni resides in 7 hotā, all rivers and 3 loka and protects learned and maintains them. We may get that Agni, the trouble-shooter in our yajña to finish all our enemies.
वां दूतम े अमृतं युगे युगे ह वाहं दिधरे पायुमी म् । देवास मतास जागृिव िवभुं िव पित नमसा िन षेिदरे । (ऋ संिहता ६/१५/८) O Agni ! Deva and men make you the messenger You are eternal carrier of food. You are worth praise, always alert, and looking after people> We salute and worship you. िवभूष उभयाँ अनु (ऋ संिहता ६/१५/९) ता दूतो देवानां रजसी समीयसे । यत् ते धीत सुमितमावृणीमहेऽध मा नि व थः िशवो भव ।

O Agni ! We praise you for your moving in earth and sky as messenger of devas and men. Our mind, intellect and body may be protected. You may give us happiness. अि ह ता गृहपितः स राजा िव ा वेद जिनमा जातवेदाः । देवानामुत यो म यानां यिज ः स यजतामृतावा ॥ (ऋक़् ६/१५/१३ )

Agni is messenger for calling devas, radiant and lord of houses. He knows all beings and deserves
worship by devas and men. That truthful Agni may satisfy devas with yajña. आि रगािम भारतो वृ हा पु चेतनः । िदवोदास य स पितः । (ऋ संिहता ६/१६/१९) This Agni has come who is protector of Bharatas, destroyer of asuras like Vṛtra, conscious of world, lord of Divodāsa (A king of Vārāṇasī, =follower of true path), and lord of the gentle. उद े भारत ुमदज ेण दवी ुतत् । शोचा िव भा जर । ॥ (ऋक़् ६/१६/४५) O feeder and nourisher Agni ! You are shining with upward flame. You have eternal youth and light. You are bright with enormous energy. वामीळे अध ि ता भरतो वािजिभः शुनम् । ईजे य ेषु यि यम् ॥ (ऋक़् ६/१६/४) भरणा जना ैष मनुभरत उ यते । एति वचनाद् वष तद् भारतं मृतम् । य वयं मानवो ीपि तयग यामः कीिततः । य एनं जयते कृ ं स स ािडित कीिततः । (म य पुराण ११४/५,६,१५, वायु पुराण ४५/७६, ८६)

Manu (lord of Bhārata) is called Bharata due to feeding and looking after people. As per the saying of Nirukta, this country is called Bhārata. This is famous land of Manu oblique in south. The ruler
conquering it is called Samrāṭ (emperor). The common desire of Indians is to feed others, so this country is Bhārata. दातारो नोिभवध तां वेदाः स तित रे व च । यािचता न स तु मा च यािच म क न । ा च नो मा गमत् ब देयं च नो ि वित। अ ं च नो ब भवेदितथ लभेमिह ।

Our donations may increase, our knowledge and progeny also may grow. Our faith may never reduce and we may have sufficient wealth for charity. We may have profuse grains and many guests may come. Others may borrow from us, we may never borrow.

Koś 2. Kośala-Kośala means land of Kuśa i.e. pole like trees. Its capital Sāketa also is derived from śaka
i.e. pole tree, it was called Śākya kingdom. Buddha has been called Śākya muni. From Sambalpur to

Ayodhyā and sub himālayan region, sāl (i.e śaka or kuśa) forests are spread. It was capital of most
powerful empire of Sūrya vamśa in Tretā era, hence it was also called Ayodhyā (i.e. unchallanged city). Its first powerul King was Ikśvāku who started cultivation and 'Ikśu' (sugar cane) is named after him. Then, Māndhātā was the first world emperor in whose Kingdom sun never set according to Viṣṇu

purāṇa (4-2-65). In Oriya, any old tradition is referred to be from Māndhātā rule.
After Rāma, his empire was divided into 8 parts. Kośala proper was divided into his two sons. (Mahābhārata, Sabhā parva 30/3, 31/ 12-13), (1) Southern Kośala was given to Kuśa who shifted his capital from Ayodhyā to Kuśasthalī, founded by him on Vindhya range (Vāyu purāṇa, uttara khaṇḍa 26/198). (ii) Lava ruled at northern Kośala and had his capital at Shravasti. The two Kośala had

Sarayū river as boundary line. Kuśavatī is mentioned in Vmdhyas (Sambalpur or Bilaspur) in several purāṇas-Matsya (114/53). Vāyu purāṇa (457 133) Brahma (25/41, 60) Viṣṇudharmortara purāṇa (1222) Viṣṇu (4/24/64) Varāha chapter 126, Mārkaṇḍeya (14/3, 54/32) Vāmana (13/55, 64/10)

Bhāgavata (9/10/29,11/22, 10/2/3,58/35,52, 86/20, 11/12/24), Skanda (Vāsudeva 18/43), Yoga vāsiṣṭha (utpatti 36/22, Sthiti 10/58), Brahmāṇḍa (1/16/41,1141/31, 74/197), Padma (svarga 6/36), Garuḍa (55/12), Bhaviṣya purāṇa (Part III 2/13. 6/36, 24/68) Agni (130/10). Raghuvanśa (16/25) also
has mentioned location of Kuśāvatī and later return of Kuśa to Ayodhyā. Many Buddhistic texts such as Anguttara, Majjhima. and Jātakas etc give details about Kośala, its capital Śrāvastī and its Kings. It was one of the 16 mahājanapadas. Kāśī and Kośala were great rivals. Finally, both were annexed by Magadha during Ajātaśatru's time.

Viṣṇudharmottara purāṇa (I ch 12) describes Saptakośala which suggests various parts of Kośala.
.Ptolemy has mentioned a Kontakossula (Koṇḍā = hill top in Telugu) in South which might have been forests of Amarkaṇṭaka near Bilāspur or Umarkoṭ in Nowrangpur distt on southern boundary of

Kośala. Dakśiṇa Kośala has been indetified with modern Raipur, Bilaspur, Sambalpur and the great
forest region of Madhya pradesh and Orissa, Uttar Kośala was synonymous with Ayodhyā. 3. Kalinga-The Kalinga country was named after the prince Kalinga, the son of Bali (Viṣṇu purāṇa 4/18/13-14, Vāyu purāṇa, uttara 37/28-34, Agni purāṇa 277/ 11,13 Brahma purāṇa 11/29 - 36),

Bhāgavata purāṇa 9/23/5-6) It is placed both in centre and south parts of India. Matsya and Vāyu purāṇas place them to the south of Amarakaṇṭaka hills and Garuḍa purāṇa to the south east along
the Vindhya range. Bhaviṣya purāṇa places them south east of Pāñchālas. This is mentioned in all

purāṇas and Mahābhārata. Rāmāyaṇa (Ayodhyā kāṇḍa 71/16-18) locates Kalinganagar between river Gomatī and city of Ayodhyā. Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana (33/32, 70/12) shows that Vaitaraṇī river was regarded as boundary of Kalinga. Raghu vamśa (4/43, 6/ 54) has called Kings of Kalinga as lord of Mahendra which shows that
it was mostly Orissa state. Matsya purāṇa refers to Jāleśvara (north Bāleśvara) as a holy place in Amarkaṇṭaka mountain. (196/ 15, 187/3). Padma purāṇa (Bhūmi 47/9) places Śrīpura-pattana in

Kalinga. Mahābhārata (udyoga 23/24,48/76) calls Dantākura as capital of Kalinga. Pliny shows Dandāgula or Dandaguḍā as capital of Kalinga. Raghuvamśa (4/43. 6/54) tells Kalinga upto Godāvarī
river. It mentions Utkala as a separate Kingdom. Mahābhārata mentions Rājapura (Raipur or Raigarh) as other city of Kalinga (udyoga 23/24, 48/7, śānti 4/3). Mahāvāstu (p/432) mentions Simhapur (Simhapuram near Śrīkākulam). Jaina texts have mentioned Kanchanpur (Sonepur or Subarṇapur) and Kalinganagar (Mukhalinga on Vamśadhārā river or Kalingapattan). Origin of name

Kadamba is a spherical furit of a fig tree (Ficus Kadambai). With its hairy surface, it is model of
spherical earth with hairs as mountains, forests. In Astronomy. Kadamba is top point or pole with ecliptic as central reference. Its opposite is Kalamba which is lower pole. Thus, Kalamba also means anchor of ship which goes downwards. Kalamba may mean Column (going from up to down), port town (Colombo of Srilanka). Kalanja is people in shipping trade. Kalinga is land of shipping people.

Trikalinga refers to three parts of Kalinga. Pliny refers to 3 parts - (1) Ganga - Ridae - Calingae (2)
Macco - kalinga (Mekala or Mūka Kalinga on Vamśadhārā) (3) Calingae proper. However, Trikalinga has been mentioned in inscriptions of all Pāṇḍu vamśī kings with capital at Sonepur. They wre always called ruler of 3 Kalingas-(1) Utkala (north part of Kalinga), (2) Kośala (3) Kalinga with Trilinga (Telānganā region) is north hilly part of Andhra pradesh. Accordingly, two parts of Kalinga are marked by important Śivalingas of the region. The whole of India has been divided into 4 tantra pīṭha (4 methods of worship), 12 Jyotirlingas (12 centres of military and financial power) and 52 śakti pīṭha (centres of cantonment). Thus, Kalinga had one main linga at Lingarāja (Bhubaneswar). Capital at time of Khārāvel was at Kibir on river Prāchī which might be somewhere near or in the Bhuhaneswar (Hāthī gumphā inscription). In Trikalinga. the three lingas are at Kālahastī, Śrīśailam and Drākśārāma on Godāvarī (These Ārāmas are Amarāvatī, Kumārārām or Sāmalkoṭ in Kākināḍā, Bhīmāvaram and

Kśīrārām). These appear to be peripheral forts or administrative centers. In lower Burmā also, local
people are called Talāing (Tri-Kalinga). Malaya peninsula people are called Kling (Kalinga). Kings with royal power have called themselves as Kadamba in Orissa and in Goa, coastal Karnataka.

Anga, Vanga, Ganga
From Kailāsa region, two river systems have originated - eastern part gives rise to Gangā and west to

Sindhu. Terminating seas also had the same name. Thus, Arab sea was Sindhu and Bay of Bengal
was called Gangā sāgara. As main power of Gangā sāgara Orissa Kings were called Ganga (Hastivarman, Indravarman and Devendravarman). Vanga = Vana+gā i.e. people living in vana of

Gangā delta which is still called Sundarvana. Upstream from Gangā delta is Anga which means part.
This is hinter land or part of main empire. Anga was also called Rādhā country and in that sense its king Kaṇa was called son of Rādhā. Similarly, protector of central Gangā region was Bhīṣma who was

called son of Gangā. Rādhā is opposite to dhārā (current) in meaning and letter-order. At origin of rivers, several branches combines to form one dhārā (river current). Before delta region, river again branches out. As a reverse process, it is called Rādhā. People of Rādhā region are Rāḍhī Kśatriyas of Orissa and Bengal. In Kalinga, there were two more rādhās.

Mahānadī delta was called Tośali (Tosra is opposite to srota - source of river). Area near Kalingapattana was called Viśākhā (dvi+śākhā = two branches). Here, Nāgāvalī and Vamśadhārā
rivers both join sea separately, though they start from same hill on broder of Kālāhāṇḍī - Rāyagaḍā districts. Rādhā and Viśākhā are same is evident from list of constellations. Viśākhā comes after

anurādhā (= which is followed by Rādhā or Viśākhā). Thus port of Viśākhā region is called Viśākhāpaṭanam.
Most of the famous wrestlers of Kamsa at Mathurā were from this region as he himself was son in law of Jarāsandha of Baragaḍha. Viṣṇu-sahasranāma gives a name-Chāṇūrādhra-niṣūdanah. I.e

Chāṇūra was from Āndhra region. Even Ur suffix of this name indicates a town-that is popular in
Andhra and Karnataka-eg. Bangaluru, Elluru etc. Uru means big, Viṣṇu has been called Urukrama as builder of big design (krama). Biggest design is city (Chiti =design), socity is called Ur. उ ं िह राजा व ण शं नो िव णु कार (ऋग् वेद १/२४/८) =King Varuṇa built Uru. मः (ऋग् वेद १/९०/१) = Viṣṇu is builder of Uru, he may give peace.

Founder of Maurya empire was Viṣṇugupta. He was from this region-Chaṇaka, so he was called

Chāṇakya. Main town of this region was Chāṇūra. Jaina texts tell his place as Golla janapada-That is Golāntarā and people of that place are called Ergollā. Even his Kauṭilya title is explained in Sanskrit
grammar. Kuṭī = hut, hut like structure used for keeping grain is called Kuṭila. Traders who store grains in that are Kumṭī. That structure is now called Gumṭī. Other wrestler was Tośala from Tośali. Muṣṭika was from Mūṣika (north of Mūsī river in Telangānā.

Kūṭa may be from any hilly area, it means hill top, or he maight be expert is secret tricks. Śala might
be from Kośala. 4. Śabara In previous chapter, under Varāha incarnation this tribe is mentioned. Varāha dug the earth, hence

Śabaras are spread in mining areas. Agriculture also needs ploughing which is shallow digging. Śabara or Śambara means peaceful use of force (śam + bal). Centres of Śabaras were Śambhal or Sambal (viz Sambalpur). In same sence, Śiva is called Śabara or Śankara (śam = peace). In south
Orissa, Śabarī river is west boundary of Korāpuṭ and joins Godāvarī. In upper reaches, it is called

Kolāb. All meanings of Sanskrit world Kolah are common in Orissa - 1. boar (varāha) according to Śiśupāla vadha 14/43, 2. boat. 3 breast of female, 4. hip (Kūlhā in Hindi), 5. lap or embrace. 6. Down
trodden people, 7. forest dwellers. Kolañch is a name of Kalinga. Kolāp is river from boar mountain which means same as Śabarī. River encloses area like a lap embrace, so kolap means lock in Sambalpur. Kolap might have been origin for lock also. Sambalpur silk has been mentioned in Roman records as per History of Orissa by Sri N.K. Sahu. Thus, kolap word could go as lock. Śabara area extended in south upto Kerala, where a mountain is named Śabarīmalai. In north also, there is

Śūkarkśetra in Eṭā district of Utter Pradesh. However, main region of Śabara was Sambalpur to Viśākhā-paṭanam.

5. Tāmraliptaka As per Mahābhārata (Bhīṣma 9/57. sabhā parva - digvijaya section) it was near Suhma (south west Bengal) and Banga. Huensang mentions it on sea coast west of Vanga. It was a major sea port and is identified with Tāmluk in Midnāpur distt on north Orissa border.

Muṇḍ ṇḍā 6. Muṇḍā and Malla Muṇḍa literally means head. Its other meanings are clean shaven head, iron ore, tree without
branches, barren hill (mound in English). Thus, Muṇḍā tribe are spread is hilly regions of south Bihar and north Orissa which is richest in Iron ore.

Malla is a popular title in Orissa. It literally means wrestler. Malla country was originally a large area
east of Videha. north west of Magadha and north of Gangā. Its important towns were Kuśīnārā (East U.P.), Rājamahal (East Bihar, South of Gangā), Māladā distt in north Bengal. 7. Utkala

Utkala was named after son of Ilā (Padma, sṛṣṭi 8/123, Śiva - umā kāṇḍa 36/18, Vāyu, uttara 23/19, linga purāṇa I 65/26-27, Brahmāṇḍa (pūrva 16/42, Madhya 60/17-18), Brahma 5/18, Harivamśa I 10/19, Agni 273/8). It was situated on Vindhya plateau (Matsya 114/52, Vāyu purāṇa 45/132-134.

Mārkaṇḍeya 54/52-54, Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa 16/63, Vāmana 13/54, Padma, svarga 6/36). According to Nārada purāṇa, it extended to southern ocean upto Viraja maṇḍala (II - 52/7-8). Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa
calls it central country while Skanda purāṇa Puruṣottama Khaṇḍa describes it from Ṛṣikulyā river to

Suvarṇarekhā to Mahānadī. It is mentioned at many places in Mahābhārata, Yogavāsiṣṭha,
Rāmāyaṇa and various Bauddha texts also.

Mahābhārata and other texts tell Utkala as separate from Oḍra and Kalinga. However, they were all
adjacent and were frequently under one empire. Mahābhārata (Vana 114/35) calls it north part of

Kalinga i.e. Ut+Kalinga which has become Utkala. Raghuvamśa (4/ 38) tells Utkala south of river Kapiśā (Kasai in Midnāpur distt).
In middle ages, Utkala became more famous and it denoted almost whole of Orissa. Due to various temple architectures, Utkala came to mean Utkṛṣṭa - Kalā (i.e., grand art). However, big buildings also need presence of labourers and utkalī became coolie = labourer in English 8. Tośala Plotemy has called it Tośalei (Mc-crindle- Ancient India as described by Ptolemy, p-230). Tośali is opposite to srota (source) and indicates the area full of streams in delta part. During Ashoka rule, seat of provincial Kalinga govt was at Tośali which may be identified with ruins of a city near Dhaulī, south of Bhubaneswar on banks of Dayā river.

Auṇḍ ṇḍra 9. Auṇḍra
This is denoted as a tribe, rather than a region. It is almost in same area as Utkala or north Orissa.

Manusmṛti X44, mentions this tribe with Śaka, Pāradas Chīnas etc. It has been called Uḍra in Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharatamuni and in Bṛhatsamhitā (14/6) of Varāhamihira. Yoginī tantra (II - 9/21) calls
it Oḍra, Padma purāṇa (sūrya 6/52) calls it Auṇḍra. Mahābhārata has used both Uṇḍra and Oḍra. Buddhist work called it Oḍḍaka (Apādāna pt II 358). Telugu version is Oḍrulu and Kannada is Oḍḍāru.

Brahma purāṇa (28/1-2) gives Oḍra region northwords from Biraja maṇḍala. It has three kśetras Puruṣottama or Śrīkśetra, Savitu or Arkakśetras and Biraja kśetras through which flowed the river Vaitaraṇī. Uḍupa means boat made of wood or wooden poles. Thus, Uḍupī is on Karnataka coast also. Uḍra
means boat men who went to rivers or coastal regions compared to Kalingas who went to farther seas. Coast in north Orissa is shallow and will not allow bigger vessels to dock. In Uḍra region, idol of

Jagannātha also is made of wood. Thus, Uḍra has given rise to wood meaning timber or forest in
plural form. Rice was exported from Uḍra region to Roman empire, hence it was called commodity of

Uḍra or' Auḍrīya. This became Oryza in Greek. This has become rice whose botanical name is still
Oryza indica. Its other variant is Orissa, which is present name of the state.

Purā Orissa Mahānadī 10. Purāṇic rivers of Orissa 1. Mahānadī : Varāha purāṇa (85/5) Mahābhārata (Bhīṣma 9/26, vana parva 85/ 8) have called it Jyotirathā or Jyotirathyā also. Its source has been mentioned as Pariyātra, Ṛkśa or Vindhya in various purāṇas. Brahmāṇḍa purāṇa (44/5-6) tells that it enters the southern ocean. Padma purāṇa (svarga 37/4-9) Brahma (6/11) has called Phalgu in Gayā distt of Bihar also as Mahānadī. It is largest river in Orissa.
Three sides of Amarkaṇṭaka mountain (like trident of Śiva) are sources of 3 rivers-Narmadā falling into Arab sea, Son river joining Gangā west of Paṭnā and the third is Mahānadī. It flows through Bilaspur, Sambalpur, Dhenkanal and Cuttack districts where it forms a delta. Main branch joins the sea at port town of Paradeep.

Chitrotpalā 2. Chitrotpalā :Its source is Ṛkśa mountain. It is also a branch of Mahānadī in its north delta. Vaitaraṇ 3. Vaitaraṇī :Its descent to the earth has been ascribed to Paraśurāma (Mahābhārata Ādi parva
169/22). Various purāṇas describe it passing through Viraja kśetra. This river rises in the southern part of the district of Singhbūmi. It flows to south west first and then towards east forming bound ides between Keonjhar and Mayūrbhanja districts and between Keonjhar and Cuttack (now Jājpur district). South of Bhadrak, it joins Brāhmaṇī and passing by Chāndbāli. It joins sea as Dharmā river.

Mahāgaurī 4. Mahāgaurī : Mahāgaurī starts from Vindhya range as per various purāṇas (Matsya 114/28, Vāyu 1-45/103, Vāmana 13/8 etc) Megasthenese has called it Garoia and Arrian as Gouraios. Pargiter (page 300)
has identified it as Brāhmaṇī river which enters Orissa near Rourkela and joins sea near Chāndbāli.

Trisā 5. Trisāmā :This originates from Mahendra mountain according to most purāṇas but Kūrma (I - 47/36)
gives its source in the Śukti-mat range (south Bihar hills). This has also been called Pitṛsomā in

Brahma purāṇas (25/37). Śukti-mat source indicates it to be Brāhmaṇī till Rourkela where 3 rivers join
at Vedvyāsa-Śankha and Koel.

Vamśadhā 6. Vamśadhārā :
This arises from Mahendra mountain according to many Brāhmaṇī and passing through Ganjām distt it falls into Bay of Bengal at Kalingapaṭnam in Śrīkākulam district. It retains the old name.

Ṛṣikuly ikulyā 7. Ṛṣikulyā :
It still has the same name and arising from Mahendra mountain, it falls into sea near Brahmapur town.

ngūlinī 8. Lāngūlinī :

It has been mentioned in Mahābhārata (sabhā 9/22) and many purāṇas (e.g. Mārkaṇḍeya 54/29) Now, it is called Lānguliā which passes through Śrīkākulam town on south Orissa border.

mraparṇ 9. Tāmraparṇī :
Its source has been called as Mahendra, Malaya, Śukti-mat and Vindhya mountains. Possibly, there are many rivers of that name. Tāmralipti may be Silāi river (Śīlavatī) of Midnāpur distt which emerges from Ghāṭaśilā region of Simhabhūmi distt rich in. copper mines (Tāmra). It passes through Tāmralipti port after joining Rūpanārāyaṇa river. 10. Others : Other rivers from Mahendra mountain like Ikśukā. Tridivā (or Trivindā), Mūlī, Śākhā and Vimalā are difficult to identify. SACRED PLACES OF ORISSA

Agastyāś āśrama 1. Agastyāśrama : Agastyeśa linga has been established here on bank of Suvarṇamukharī as per Yoginī tantra (II, 1/29,
2/54, 4/44, 136, 138, 5/160, 164) Nīlamata purāṇa (verses 128-137), Skanda purāṇa (Kāśī Khaṇḍa chap 3). Rāmāyaṇa (yuddha 126/41-42, uttara 82/3) places it on the river Godavari and the Skanda

purāṇa on Nyankumatī, Rāmāyaṇa (Araṇya 11/42) tells it east of Nāsik. Mahābhārata (Vana
38/18,7/20, 96/1) tells it on Vaidūrya mountain. There are three other places of this name-(1)

Agastipur, 38 kms south east of Nāsik (2) Agastyakūṭa mountain in Tirunelveli district of Tamilnadu
from where Tāmraparṇī river emerges. Agastya still resides here in unseen form. (3) About 20 kms from Rudraprayāga in Gahwāl is a village called Agastyamuni on river Mandākinī. It is near Jagatsinghpur town on Cuttack Paradeep line having an old temple and small grove. The region was an old river bed which might have been called Nyankumati in past.

Utkalā 2. Utkalāvartaka :
It is a sacred kśetra mentioned is Matsya purāṇa purana (13/45), Uttara (Matsya 22/64) and

Umātunga (Vāayu, uttara 15/82) are also mentioned. Ekā 3. Ekāmbhaka :
It is mentioned in Matsya (13/29,29/51), Brahma (ch 39, 61/8) Nārada (11/60/26), Padma (Sṛṣṭi 17/87,198). It may be same as Ekāmrakśetra mentioned in Yoginī tantra (II- 1/8, 37, 38, 2/60, 4/ 10),

Skanda (Puruṣottama 12/89, Nāgara 108/28) Garuḍa (81/11) and Nārada (11/60/28) There are other Ekāmra kśetras in country, but the place in Puruṣottam kśetra is definitely old part of Bhubaneshwar
town where Linga-rāja temple is situted. 'Ekāmra' means Kalpa Tree which is tree of devas and grants desired objects.

Brahma purāṇa (39 /12) tells that there were Ekāmra trees (Eka = number one, among āmra = trees)
in previous kalpa, it was called Ekāmraka. In modern terms, it means that if trees/forests are preserved for long, they will give all our desired objects. 4. Kārāpatha : It is mentioned in Vāyu purāṇa (uttara 26/187) Raghuvamśa (15/90). It was called Kārupatha in

Rāmāyaṇa (uttara kāṇḍa 102/5-8). It was also called Angadīya after Angada, son of Bāli, who had
founded it. Some has tallied it with Cārāabāṭ (bāṭa = patha = road) of Travernier which is now

Karabag 55 kms from Gazani on Kāndhār road in Assam. Bali empire had influence beyond Indonesia
also as per Kiṣkindhā kāṇḍa of Rāmāyaṇa. Then it can be Kiribāṭī islands near Fiji also, where huge idols have been bound, and described by Eric Von Daniken (Gods of Kiribāṭī ). However, Bāli's central area appears to be in south Orissa, where 'Korāpuṭ' can be the Kārāpatha. Bālimelā is towards south west (150 kms) and Bāliguḍā to north (about 200 kms) from here. Bāliguḍā is in Kandha area of old

Kiṣkindhā. Kārā means prison or a fort for that purpose. This is on way to Daṇḍaka-araṇya in Malkāngiri district, which means forest for giving punishment. Meghadūta of Kālidāsa (verse 1) states
that Yakśa had been sent to Rāmagiri (in Boipāriguḍā) as a punishment by Kubera. Korāpuṭ due to its height might have been named like that. It may be a key point on highway to watch defence of the region. After visit by Rāma, this place improved.

Daś 5. Daśapura :
There are towns of this name in other regions also as per purāṇas. But Skanda purāṇa (Puruṣottama ch 16, 17/1, 29/38, 34/ 35) mentions it on the bank of Indradyumna sarovara. Present Indradyumna

sarovara is in Purī town itself. Daśapur might have been a part of Puri town or some other town near
which Indradymna had constructed a lake by building dams etc.

Puruṣ Kś 6. Puruṣottama Kśetra :
It is mentioned in most purāṇas and is area of Puri town. The whole area extends from Virajā Kśetra

Jājpur (river Chitrotpalā) to sea coast. It is also called Śrīkśetra on sea coast (Belā-bhūmi) from Svargadvāra to Chakratīrtha having the famous Jagannātha temple. Here, Śiva is called Loknātha
and Jagannātha is called Bhairava and Vimalā as Bhairavī. Kṛṣṇa resides in heart of every being, hence it is the heart region among 52 śakti pīṭhas of India.

Maṇ 7. Maṇipura : Mahābhārata (Aśvamedha ch 79) calls it capital of Kalinga country. The situation described in Mahābhārata (Ādi 215/12, 13) and Raghuvamśa (6/56) and the name itself indicates its identification
with Māṇikapattana, a seaport at the mouth of Chilkā lake.

Siddhakś 8. Siddhakśetra :
There are many Siddhakśetras - in Kalinga. (Vāyu, uttara 15/13-14), on Himālayas (Vāyu purāṇa 23/164,172) and on Gangā (Kūrma 40/4, Skanda, Kāśī II 66/76, Padma uttara 242/105). According to

Rāmāyaṇa Bālakāṇḍa (29/3,4) Vāmana incarnation was here who did penance here. Himālaya place
is between Kanchanjanghā and Dhaulāgiri (Rāmāyaṇa Kiṣkindhā 43/33) on banks of river Mandākinī.

Siddhāśrama of Viśvāmitra where Tāḍakā was Killed by Rāma is in Buxar. In Kalinga, there is one Siddhanātha in Talagarh village near Narāja after which Mahānadī delta starts. Kāṭhajoḍī branch of Mahānadī starts from here. Varāha kśetra Barambā of Cuttack is near this place. Dhaulāgiri is on
other side beyond Bhubaneswar. In Jājpur also there is Varāhnātha temple. 9. Karanja : This place is described in Revākhaṇḍa of Skanda purāṇa (105, 230/45) and Matsya (190/11) where there is Karanjeśvara Śiva temple. This can be identified with Karanjiā in Keonjhar distt.

Chakratī 10. Chakratīrtha :

Skanda purāṇa setu khaṇḍa (ch 4, 5, 6) indicates it on shore of southern ocean near Phullagrām upto Devīpattan, Revākhaṇḍa chapter 109 has called it Senāpura also. It is north of Puri town where Devī
river flows.

Jvāleś 11. Jvāleśvara :
It is situated on Amarakaṇṭaka mountain at source of Narmadā. Skanda purāṇa Revākhaṇḍa describes it as Jāleśvara. In satya yuga, Bāṇa, son of Virochana captured the three towns of Brahmā,

Viṣṇu and Śiva. To attack him, Śiva with his army went to Śrīśaila and fired arrows or missiles from
his Aghora weapon. After destroying three cities, missiles fell and created a jāla beyond Tripura, so it was called Jāleśvara. Three towns are Brahmapur (of Brahmā). Bhubaneswar (of Śiva) and

Jagannātha Purī (of Viṣṇu). Bāṇapur is in the triangle formed by three towns. Śrīśailam is in north Andhra Pradesh. Missiles sent from that place towards Bhubeneswar will fall beyond Baleswar where Jāleśvara is situated. Present missile testing range of India is also situated there. Tripura 12. Tripura :
There is another story of Tripura built by Maya Asura after he was defeated by devas in Matsya

purāṇa, chapters 129 to 132. His 3 puras (towns) were 100 yojana (about 1000 kms) from each other.
Iron town was protected by Tārakāsura, silver town by Vidyunmālī and Gold town by Maya. Maya was originally from south America. For learning astronomy from Sūrya, he went to Romakapattana, 90° west from Ujjain (Rabāt in Morocco). Original Tripura was in Tripoli, capital of Libya, other two were probably Madinā (silver) and Damishq (iron). In India, gold town was in Kolār (having gold mines,

Kolār = Gold) Iron town should be Orissa iron field and may be in Asikā (Ayas = iron). Silver town
should be somewhere in Gujrat to complete the triangle.

Dipeś 13. Dipeśvara :
It was hermitage of Vyāsa according to Matsya purāṇa (191/ 41, 193/80) and Padma purāṇa (svarga 20/76). Mahānadī returned back as she was afraid of Vyāsa and started flowing to right. This should be Vedavyāsa on Śankha - Koel confluence near Rourkela. Mahānadī starts from Amarkaṇṭaka in that direction but turns towards right in Sambalpur direction. At Vedavyāsa, there is island (dvīpa) on which Vyāsa was bom and hence he was called Dvaipāyana. Chapter - 5 SUFFIXES OF PLACE NAMES

Purī 1. Pura, Purī:
'Pu' is 'puruṣa' or the conscious being, where 'Pu' is roaming ('ram' in Sanskrit), that place is 'pura'. Thus 'Pura' is a human body, its mind or a town where people live. Any town with suffix 'pura' is a habited area of 3 kms square, 'Purī' means a major town which is capital of a big empire. Its lord is a king or god and Townn is like wife in feminine gender. There are seven 'Purīs' is India - Ayodhyā,

Mathurā, Māyā (Haridvāra) Kāśī, Kāñchī, Avantikā and Purī (i.e. Jagannātha Purī) Nagara, Nagarī 2. Nagara, Nagarī :
Where buildings are like 'naga' i.e. mountains. These suffixes also indicate big towns.

tha Īśvar vara 3. Nātha, Īśvara :
Both mean Śiva. The towns which are centres of Śiva worship are named with suffix Īśvara. Name of

Śiva linga or its devotee is prefixed e.g. 'Rāmeśvaram' where linga was established by Rāma. As a

founder teacher of all sciences, specially tantra, Śiva is called Ādinātha. Thus, places of tāntrik worship of Śiva Shiva have 'nāth' as suffix. 'Puri' has become 'bury' in German, English. Īśvara has become 'shire' e.g. Lankeśvara has become 'Lancashire", Sarpeśvara as 'Shropshire.'

Kaṭ Kaṭ 4. Kaṭaka, Kaṭa :
'Kaṭ' as a verve means 'to go', 'to cover'. In cover sense 'Kaṭa' means a grass, mat or cot (= khāṭ). It also means hip or waist portion of man or elephant. Kaṭaka means bracelet, ring round waist, chain, salt, mat, side of a hill, town, fort or army camp. Meaning as a fort is derived from 'Kaṇṭaka' i.e. thorn. In plain regions, artificial obstruction through river, ditch or high walls are created which is like thorn for intrudes, Thus, fort or an army camp is called Kaṭaka.

Koṭ 5. Koṭa: Koṭa is derived from 'Kūṭa' i.e. building. Smaller form is Kuṭī i.e. hut, bigger construction is fort. It is
used for army camp, storage place of army etc.

Koṇḍ ṇḍā 6. Kūṭa, Koṇḍā : Kūṭa is a hill top or any angular top, Koṇḍā (Koṇa + ḍā) means angular sides of mountain. Both
suffixes indicate a hilly place.

achala parvata 7. Giri, achala, parvata:
All these words indicate mountains. However, these generally indicate holy places where god or saint lives. For example Nīlāchala. Nīlagiri, are places of lord Viṣṇu. Ulmāchala is of Durgā and Balāchala is of Narasimha.

Grā Gā gā 8. Grāma, Gāon, gām : Gram - gras + man. It means family or collection of objects, order of tunes in music. In English also
'grāma" is music tune. Thus it is a locality where many families live. 'Gāon' and "Gām" are corruptions of 'grāma'. Guḍ Guḍ 9. Guḍā, Guḍem :

Gulma = Guḍ + mak. This means groups of trees or shrubs, group of soldiers, fort or river bank. Guḍā
and Guḍem are corruptions of Guḍa, Gulma. In Oriya 'Guḍā' or 'Guḍāe' means many, thus it is collection of many families or a town. 'Guḍem' means collection of objects which has become 'godown' in English, or 'Godām' in Hindi. Oriya. Pāllī Pā 10. Pāllī, Pālī:

Pallā means stock of grain. Pallī means village, Pālī is its corruption. Khiṇḍā Khimaṇḍ ṇḍī 11. Khiṇḍā, Khimaṇḍī :
Both appear to be derived from 'Kśiti (= earth) + mandal (region). Khiṇḍa or Khimaṇḍī is a village or town which is headquarter of a block or a subdivision.

Golā Gola 12. Golā, Gola :
It is from 'Guḍ’ verb meaning "to protect". (Amara koṣa 3/5/20). 'Gola' means sphere or a group of men, articles for protection. Thus 'Aṇī-gola’ (Anugul) is group of elephants. "Golā" usually means market place where commodities are stored.

Gummā gumuḍ 13. Gummā, gumuḍā :

This is derived from 'Gulma" which is again based on verb 'guḍ' (Amara koṣa 2/8/81). As a unit of armed forces it is a group of 81 units, third level organization from bottom. It has 9 chariots / elephants, 27 horses and 45 soldiers. Thus, Gummā is a small village or out post having less than 100, families. It is also similar to 'Gumphā' which means a cave as well as structure of houses, flowers etc. 14. Pāḍā, padā : 14. pa 'Pad' verb means 'to move". Thus, 'Janapada' is a district or country. Padā = pad + rā is a place where people more. It means a village. Thus, Bāripadā. Kendrāpāḍā are names of towns. 15. Bila :

Bila means hole, underground hollow or mine, or depressed line created by ploughing. Thus 'Bila" in
common terms means farmland or a village (Bila = village). Villa in English maens a big house, groups of Villas make a village. It also indicates mining town like ''Baḍabil'. There is a similar word in Tamil and Malayālam-Velī (well) =water. Vellam =flood. Habitation is possible only if water is available there

Gaḍ Gaḍ 16. Gaḍhā or Gaḍha :
It is a fort town which may be a capital of state or a province. It includes palace of king. Original word may be 'Gahvara' which means a difficult place to approach, or safe place for hiding. 17. Gāḍa : Root verb is 'Gāh' which means to submerge in water. This means a small stream. Town on bank of a small river is named as 'gāḍ'. In same sense, gādha = to take bath in Oriya. 18. Māla : 'Māla' means plain elevated land (Meghadūta of Kālidāsa, chap 16). Its Persian derivative is 'Mahal’ which means high building or floor of a building. 'Mālā' means garland or a series of objects. Thus 'māla', 'mahal' suffixes mean high lands like 'Chārmāl', 'Kandhamāl' in Orissa or 'Rājmahal' hills in east Bihar. 19. Malik : It may mean a small 'māl' or forest near a village, e.g. Āṭhamalik. 20. Nāl: 'Nāl’ means canal or pipe. Nālī means small water channel or nail to prick ears of elephant. This may indicate a town having canal or elephants (Ḍhenkānāl). In same sense, Nāla = fibers of lotus stem, they carry water and nutrients. Lotus (earth) is base of Brahmā, having 4 faces, so nāl =4 in Tamil. Rectangular houses and streets mark the twon (all with 4 sides), so town is Nāla.

Muṇḍ murā ṇḍā 21. Muṇḍā, murā : Muṇḍa means fallow land or iron Murram is ferric oxide-iron ore. Thus the place with iron ore or
barren land can be called 'muṇḍā". 'Murā' means walled city having fences. Kṛṣṇa had destroyed town of "Mura" which had various protective fences.Murā town was at center of iron ore region of India extending from Bilaspur to Tatanagar. Now it is submerged in Hirakud reservoir and shifted to Burlā in Sambalpur district. The Veda branch of the area was Muṇḍaka of Atharva veda of which an upaniṣad remains. Muṇḍa is a Brāhmaṇa title in that region. Persons originally working in iron mines are

Muṇḍā. Muṇḍa also means head. There are 3 heads or Trinity, called Jagannātha, Balabhadra,

Subhadrā. Thus, it means 3 in Tamil. Place of 3 heads is Paṭṭāmuṇḍaī in Kendrāpāḍā district. Paṭṭāmuṇḍaī is also the name of village in Tamilnāḍu where svāmī Śivānanda was born.
22. Khol :

Amara koṣa (2/6/49) gives a word 'Khoḍ' which means uneven motion. Uneven land is called Khol.
'Kśoḍ" means pillar for tying elephant. Khol or kholaka means pot, ant hill or small hut. Thus small huts or rooms are called 'Kholi' in Mumbai. Kalā 23. Kalā, Khurd : 'Kalā' means big and 'Khurd' (Kśurdra) means small - both are Persian words. Corresponding prefixes are 'Paralā'- 'Sān-' meaning number one, other or big and small. 24. Arka :

Arka means sun or essence. These are places of sun worship generally on sea coast or on deep
navigable rivers.

Śāl 25. Śālā, salai :
'Śalya' or 'śalākā" means small rod or pole fixed in earth. This can mean border check post or, small suburb of a town. 'Śāl' means sal tree and 'śālav' means 'palāś' or 'lodha' tree.

Poś paśī 26. Pośa, paśī :
'Puṣkara" means open space, cage, pond and elephant in Sanskrit. Thus any place with open land, ponds or elephant can be called 'poṣa' or paśī. (Panposh, Bangaripashi)

Bā 27. Bāḍī, Bārī : Vāṭī = Vaṭ + Ghañ +ī. This means house, garden or road. Its corruption 'bāḍī' is used to indicate small
town or villages.

Bahā Bā 28. Bahāl, Bāl :
'Bahāl’ is a Persian word originated from Sanskrit 'vihāra' which means a garden, big house or beautiful place. 'Bahāla' means to settle, or reside. 'Bāl' is same word where 'h' becomes silent. In Himachal Pradesh, 'Khaner’ (Kandhar = shoulder) is hill top region and 'Bahāl' is low land where people reside. In western Orissa also, 'Bahāl' is a plain low land near a hill.

vatī 29. Āvatī, Ābād :
'Āvatī' is Sanskrit suffix meaning inhabited by. Āvalī (Ālī in Jajpur) is used in same sense. 'Āvarta' is used in masculine form. All mean living place of a particular tribe or group. 'Ābād' is a Persian word which means settled. Conquerers have named the towns with their names by adding suffix '- ābād'.

Dvā 30. Dvāra, bat: Dvāra means gate, bāṭa (vaṭa in Sanskrit) means path. A place on entrance route or junction of roads
has these suffixes.

Avalī 31. Avalī, Ālī: Avalī means chain or garland (of houses, jewels, flowers etc). Its corruption is 'Ālī'.
32. Vana:

Vana means forest, or garden. This indicates towns surrounded by forest. This has become 'Bani'
(Phulbani), 'Bonei, (Sundargarh) 'Van' etc.

Āśraya, Sarā Sarā 33. Āśraya, Sarāi, Sarā :

Rest houses on major highways are called by ashraya. It has become 'sarāy' or 'sarā'. 'Sarā' may be corruption of 'Sara' also meaning a pond (Polsarā in Ganjam).

Kudā 34. Kudā, Khud, :
'Kuḍya' means wall, trench or crack in wall, 'Ku' means earth, 'da' means 'to dig'. This is origin of 'Kudāl' which means digging equipment. There is a place named 'Kodalā' also in Ganjam. There are many others with 'Kudā' suffix like 'Hīrākud' which indicates a mine area. 35. Pattan, Paṭnā : Paṭ 'Pat' verb means to fall or to go. Where ships go and drop their anchor is called a 'pattana'. Loosely, it means other places of trade, amusement or district capitals where people go.

Puṭ 36. Puṭ : Korāpuṭ has been described as corruption of 'Kārāpatha' of Rāma era. However, there are many other
places with 'puṭ' name. Śrī Kāśīnāth Miśra who has written a lot about tribes and places of Korāpuṭ, opines it to the variant of Persian word 'puṭṭhā' which means shoulder. In Sanskrit, the word is 'prastha' (Pra+stha = situated on top). Thus the places on hills can be called 'puṭ'. 37. Ganja : Two verb roots give the popular meanings. 'Khach' means to arrange, compile or stove. 'Khaj' means to shake, to distribute. Thus 'Khazānā' in Persian means treasury or store of wealth were money, jewels etc are collected and distributed. This verb has become 'Khañja' in Oriya which means to arrange or to compile. 'Ganja' also means mine, treasury, cowshed, trading store of grains, hut, liquor den etc. Thus 'Ganja' suffix all over India means a market place which has grain stock, treasuries, liquior shops etc. In Orissa, there is a district and town both named Ganjam close to Berhampur town. This is opposite to Jangama =moving. Vijangama = port (Vizagapatnam, Vijangam near Trivendram in Kerala) 38. Chhatra : As a suffix it is corruption of 'Kśetra' which means a field or region generally a associated with a form of worship or a god. As a proper name it has two means both derived from Sanskrit 'chhatra' meaning umbrella. Chhatra-pati means emperor under whose umbrella various kings live. Symbolically, an umbralla is kept above his seat. Thus 'chhatra' is residence of emperor. It is also used for market with small shops which are under umbrella type small sheds. This is originof word Chhātra =student who remains under chhatra (control) of his teacher. Its opposite is Chhatrā who is always moving (vagabound). Fixed objects in space are Nakśatra.

Peṭ peṭ 39. Peṭ, peṭh :
In Maharashtra 'peṭh' means weakly markets. 'Peṭ' or 'Peṭī' means a basket, which is used for selling vegetables in weakly markets. In Marathi, "Peṭh' is prefixed with weak day on which market is held. 40. Hāṭ : " Hāṭ " also means small market. Sanskrit word is 'Haṭṭa' meaning market, trade fair etc.

Chaṭṭ ṭṭī 41. Chaṭṭī :
Sanskrit root is (Chiti = Chi + Ktin) meaning to compile, to arrange, to collect. It is used for trading places on pilgrim or trade roots. In Andhra, 'chanṭī' (English "Shanti" = market place) is used for weakly markets. It is derived from 'chhanda' which means desired object or to elude, to cheat. In

market we get desired objects but are likely to be cheated by traders. 'Chiti has become "City', 'Cheat'.

Paṭṭ ṭṭī 42. Paṭṭī :
Literally it means belt or a strip. It is used to denote part of a town or a big village. Sometimes, the whole village is called a paṭṭī. 43. Velā : Velā In Sanskrit, it means coastal land. It has become "Belā', or ‘Bālī'. Near Russia also, there is 'Belārus' meaning coastal land of Russia. In Orissa, 'Sardhābālī' (Puri coast), 'Chāndabālī' are famous.

Beḍ Beha 44. Beḍā, Beharā :
'Beḍā' is Sanskrit means boat or rather a fleet of boats. 'Bṛh' or 'Bṛnha' verb means to grow, to enlarge or to raise. Dense grown forest or deep interior area is called 'Bīhaḍ'. Beherā is in same sense a town in deep forest. However, 'Beḍā' appears to be corruption of 'Veṣṭa' i.e. to encircle or ring around. 'Āmalābeḍā' of Jagannātha temple is a ring round the temple at top. 'Vedī' is shackle in feet or wrist. 'Beḍā" is generally used for bigger ring around waist, i.e. belt. Thus, 'beḍā' indicates a town encircling a hill top, a big garden or lake. As per Mādalā Pāñji (Jagannātha Sthala Vṛttāntam-S. N Rajaguru),

Beherā was a post in Jagannātha temple who was in harge of collecting milk from various villages.
Thus, this remains as a name of Gauḍa (Gau =cow, La =tending) caste.

ṇḍī 45. Hāṇḍī :
'Hāḍī" means wooden ring or shackle. 'Hāṇḍī' in Sanskrit means earthen pot for cooking. On heating, earthen pot becomes black. Thus, it indicates place names in regions of black soil (Kālāhṇḍī) or habitations in forest area.

Bagā 46. Bāg, Bagā :
Both mean garden in Persian. 'Varga" means class of objects, people or trees. Thus it indicates a village.

Kirā 47. Kirā :
'Kirā" or "kirī" means boar or pig. Kirāta means forest, forest tribe or hill. Swampy area or places for hunting in hills are called 'kirā'. This is used in western Orissa.

Bā 48. Bisi, Bāsā :
'Viś' verb in Sanskrit means to enter, to reside or to capture. Thus is used for a common village or a common man (Vaiśya).' Vāsa" is hiling place. Thus 'Bisi', 'Bāsā' both suffixes are used for place names. 49. Bandha :

Bandha means to bind. In forest areas, houses are built by-tying wooden poles, shrubs etc. Hence,
villages have suffix 'bandha'.

ngī 50. Tāngī :
'Tanka' means axe in Sanskrit. It is also used for hill which has sharp edge or steep slope like axe. Places near such hills are called 'Tāngī'. This was weapon of Paraśurāma, whose original name was

Rāma only, he was famous for his Paraśu, so this prefix was added. His temples in Chattisgarh are
called Tāngī-bābā temple. There are 2 famous Tāngī, one to north and other to south of Cuttack on national highway. There are many places with this suffix, like Nāgeśvara-Tāngī or Bhīma-Tāngī in

Bhubaneswar. There is a place called Tanka-Pāṇi also in Bhubaneswar. This is name of body-guard of Lingarāja who holds Tanka (small pointed rod) in his hand as per Narapati-Jaya-Charyā. 51. Ṭāṇḍa : ṇḍa This is from root verbs Taḍ (Pāṇini 10/48), or Taḍi (Taṇḍi)-(1/179), both = to beat. The derived words mean separation. Tāṇḍava means random dance, opposite to Lāsya, which has harmony.Taṇḍula = separate grains of rice. Tāṇḍya =outer boundary. There is a Tāṇḍya-Mahā-Brāhmaṇa of Sāma-veda which explains outer boundaries of influence (=sāma). This is also root of Tāḍa (palm) tree, which remain separate. Thus, Tāṇḍya means outskirts of village which has usually palm trees. This has become Tāṇḍa or Tāṇḍā in north India. In Maharashtra, it is Taḍī (outer limit of town). Taḍīpār means expelling somebody from town. ChapterChapter-6 TITLES IN ORISSA

hmaṇ Brāhmaṇa Titles Miś 1. Miśra :This is oldest title of Brāhmaṇas or of any caste, associated with Maṇḍana Miśra in time of Śankarāchārya. He was from west bank of Son river having sal forest as per Śankara-digvijaya and
other books. Another great scholar after him was Vāchaspati Miśra who explained all the branches of philosophy. He was from Mithilā, hence, it is assumed that Brāhmaṇas originally from Mithilā are called Miśra. But even in Mithilā very few are Miśra and frequently Brahmins have changed titles on migration. Miśra literally means 'mixed". Maṇḍana and Vāchaspati were called Miśra as a respect because they had mastery over all branches of knowledge. This was used to indicate respectable or learned man in the same sense as 'Mister" or 'Master" are used in English. Mālavikāgnimitram play of

Kālidāsa in chapter 1 has used this word to say that Miśra (learned) is standard for others. Vasiṣṭha
and Maṇḍana have been called Miśra.

Upādhyā 2. Upādhyāya : Upādhyāya = up + adhyāya, i.e. the person near (up) whom study (adhyayana) is done. Thus, it
means a man who is a teacher by profession.

chā 3. Āchārya : Āchārya is a person who teaches conduct by his own behaviour. Āchārya and Upādhyāya both words
are used in same sense, they are popular in south and north India respectively. There is minor difference between the uses of these words. Any teacher is an Upādhyāya, but his student will address him as an Āchārya, Even if a person is not a teacher, but has done pioneiring work in any subject is called ' Āchārya' (authority) in that subject. Learned men were given honorary titles of

Mahāamahopādhyāya. angī 4. Ṣaḍangī : Vedas have 6 anga or limbs - Śikśā (personal teaching specially for pronounciation) Kalpa (practical
methods or conduct), Nirukta (origin and meaning of words), Vyākaraṇa (grammer, meaning and structure of sentence). Chhanda (metre of a verse, its devatā, Ṛṣi and viniyoga or use) and jyotiṣa (astronomy, astrology and auspicious times). To understand the vedas, these parts must be learnt. A person who has studied the six parts is called Ṣaḍangī (Ṣaṭ = six. angī = with parts or anga)

āśa 5. Dāśa :

This is derived from 'Daśa' meaning ten. A person having alround knowledge (4 vedas + 6 angas) is called 'Dāśa. In Rāmāyaṇa, great warrior was named 'Daśaratha' (father of Rāma) and great scholar was called 'Daśānana' (= ten heads, name of Rāvaṇa) Even now goondas praise themselves by calling 'das-nambarī'. Daśa brāhmaṇas might have been advisors (priests or ministers) to 'Sudāsa' in the last war between deva and asura called Dāśa-rāja-yuddha. (war of ten kings against asuras)'. Their original place was Daśapur on banks of Indradyumna sarovar (pond). Such a pond is in Puri town. Daśapur might have been part of Puri town or a town nearby, where a lake might have been constructed by construction of dam etc by Indradyumna. Dāśa-rāja may not be group of 10 kings, it means all round development, as in names of Daśaratha and Daśānana. In Sanskrit, daśa (10), daśā (condition or state), diśā (direction = this also indicates 10)-all have same derivations. Even āśā means hope, aspiration and is a synonym for direction.

Mahā 6. Mahāpātra : Pātra means a pot or container. Greatest (mahā) container is head as it keeps most valuable thing,
human brain. Thus, literal meaning of Mahāpātra is head. Head of any department is called

mahāpātra. There are Hāthī-mahāpātras in Puri and Bhubaneswar. According to a story of Kathāsaritsāgara, hāthī-mahāpātra means the person in charge of hāthī (elephants). Dāna (grant) also is
received in pot. Greatest Dāna is at the time of death. Receiver of that Dāna is also called mahāpātra.

Nanda 7. Nanda : Nanda title of brāhmaṇa is common in Orissa only. 'Nandā' is used in Punjab. There was a famous
'Nanda' empire of Magadha which was dethroned by Kauṭilya. It is probable that Nanda Kings were

brāhmaṇas of Orissa region who had their capital in Magadha. After defeat, they came back to
Orissa. Even their successor Maurya clan was son of Nanda through 'Murā' wife. Murā town was only in Sambalpur which is now submerged in Hirakud reservoir of Mahānadī river. Another 'Nanda' was patron father of Kṛṣṇa near Mathurā. In jyotiṣa, Nanda as a number always means nine. All these have a connected meaning. There were nine Kings in Nanda-clan. According to Bhāgavata of

Jagannāth Dāsa, Nanda was a ninth grade authority under Kansa (lower ones were Khuḍ. Mahākhuḍ, Bhoi etc). The classification of Bhāgavata is based on property measured by number of cows. Thus, Nanda brāhmaṇas appear to be minth grade in official hierarchy or rank of minister or just below him. Bhāgavata purāṇa also tells that Nanda had nine lakh cows or equivalent property.
8. Guru : 'Guru' also means a teacher and is a brāhmaṇa title. Its compound words are 'Rāiguru' or 'Rājaguru' who is advisor to king or a land lord.

9. Pati: 'Pati' means lord, or husband. As a brāhmaṇa title, this may mean head of a religious mam or
educational institute (called Kulapati).

Muṇḍ ṇḍa 10. Muṇḍa :
Literally it means clean shaven. It is a variety of ascetics who shave their head. However 'muṇḍaka' means small muṇḍa or student (in Punjabi, muṇḍā = boy), while muṇḍaka is his teacher. There is a

muṇḍaka upaniṣad also. Another upaniṣad is 'māṇḍūkya" meaning frog because students with

bookish knowledge read books like sound of a frog. True philosophical knowledge is given by teacher only. Both are branches of Atharvaveda. Thus ' muṇḍa ' is a teacher of Atharva veda branch. 11. Hotā : Hotā Root verh is Hotṛ = the person giving offerings in fire. This has become Hortā in Indonesia (Bālī, Timor). Yajvan of Kerala and 'yājñika' (Jānī of Gujarat have same meaning. Yajva is person offering sacrifice, object of worships is also Yajña or Yahva which has become Jehova in Bible. Hotā is a person who himself does the Yajña, does not guide others.

Udgā Brahmā 12. Pāṭhī, Udgātā, Brahmā :
These three guide others in "Yajña'. Pāṭhī reads the verses of Yajurveda which is compilation of verses for such purpose. (Paṭh = to read). Udgātā sings the Sāmveda which is meant to be sung (gātā -singer). Brahmā observes all three -Hotā following Ṛik, Pāṭhī of Yaju and Udgātā of Sāma and corrects their mistakes. Thus, Brahmā belongs to be fourth Atharva veda which is a coordination of

Veda - Trayī making 4 eternal vedas. Brahmā has to read all the four vedas, thus he has four heads in
same sense as ten heads of Rāvaṇa. 13.

Dwivedī Dwivedī (Dūbe), Tripāṭhī (Tiwārī), Chaturvedī (Chaube) : Dwi = Two, Tri = three, chatur = four.

Thus the titles mean learner of second, third and fourth vedas like Pāṭhī, Udgātā, Brahmā.

Paṇḍ ṇḍā 14. Paṇḍā : Paṇḍā is the knowledge which shows the absolute. Thus. Paṇḍā is used all over India for priests in
sacred pleaces who guide a devotee to the temple. Paṇḍita is a person having Paṇḍā or divine knowledge. However, Paṇḍā itself is used as a title. In north India, it has become Pāṇḍeya and in Gujarat, Pāṇḍyā. In Maharashtra, there is a derived title of Varadā Pāṇḍe. Here, varadā means giver of boon.

grahī 15. Pāṇi, Pāṇigrahī : Pāṇi means hand, grahī means catcher. This has same meaning as another title Kara =hand. This will
literally mean holding hand of king or society. Kara also means tax. Tax collection is like drawing of water by elephant through its trunk, so the trunk also is called Kara. Person collecting tax is also called Karāṭa. Even Gaṇeśa with elephant head, has been called in Gaṇeśa-gāyatrī of Maitrāyaṇī-

samhitā (2/9/1)-तत् कराटाय िव हे हि तमुखाय धीमिह । त ो द ती चोदयात्। This meaning is similar to Paṇi
=market. Overseas traders and pirates both were called Paṇi. It is always linked with Phoenicians on west coast of Asia and Europe, but nobody has bothered to see India itself. Here can be only in on sea-coast of Orissa which was main center of trade. There is tribe, now called Pāṇa, as well as Pāṇi,

Pāṇigrahī among brāhmaṇas in Orissa.
16. Pāḍhī : This is short form of Upādhyāya which is shortened to Upāḍhī in Himachal Pradesh. Another short version pādhā means priest in Punjabi. 17. Ratha :

Ratha has various meanings - Chariot, orbit of earth (or apparent orbit of sun), human body. Rathī is
occupier of ratha i.e. soul, sun or charioter. Ratha-yātrā is held only in Purī which may be origin of

Ratha brāhmaṇas. They are entitled to do their own pūjā without any priest. Purī had two classes of
main brāhmaṇas-Dāśa was basically a learned man, Ratha was organiser of society or Govt

machinery which is like a wheel or chariot. Dāśa has been discussed above at serial 5. Dāśa-rāja or

Daśaratha means king who maintains condition of the country by promoting all industries and
production. Individual sector is a yajña which needs (3+7) components, called samidhā in puruṣa-

sūkta-स ा यासन् पिरधयि ः स ः सिमधः कृ ताः।
3 modes of yajña with 7 hands has been stated elsewhere also. That is for grammar alsoच वािर शृ गा यो अ य पादा े शीष स ह तासो अ य । ि धा ब ो वृषभो रोरवीित महो देवो म या आ िववेश॥ (ऋग् वेद४/५८/३) Coordination of different yajñas is by Ratha so that one yajña may be basis of further yajñas. The dynamic system is Ratha, its use or influence outside is called Rathantara-sāma. That is last verse of

puruṣa-sūktaय ेन य मयज त देवा तािन धमािण थमा यासन्। ते ह नाकं मिहमानः सच त य पूव सा याः सि त देवाः। रसतमं ह वै त थंतरिम याच ते परोऽ म् । (शतपथ ा ण ९/१/२/३६) अिभ वा शूर नोनुमः (ऋग वेद ७/३२/२२) इ य यामृ यु प ं साम रथंतरम् (ऐतरे य ा ण ४/१३, सायण भा य) (यजुवद १५/५) अयं वै (पृिथवी-) लोको रथंतरं छंदः । (शतपथ ा ण ८/५/२/५) वचसं वै रथंतरम् । (तैि रीय ा ण २/७/१/१) देव रथो वै रथंतरम् । (तां महा ा ण ७/७/१३) रथंतरम् वै स ाट् । (तैि रीय ा ण १/४/४/९) वस तेन ुना देवा वसवि वृता तुतम् । रथंतरे ण तेजसा । हिविर वयो दधुः। (तैि रीय ा ण २/६/१९/१) े 18. Chakra :

Chakra is brāhmaṇa title in north Orissa. This may be connected with Chakratīrtha north of Purī
temple or having gotra of Chakrāyaṇa Uṣasti - a vedic ṛṣi.

Purohita 19. Purohita :
Means priest and is brāhmaṇa title all over India. It means any person who represents others, a leader or advocate. This is in opening verse of Ṛgveda.

armā 20. Śarmā :
All over India brāhmaṇas Brahmins call themselves as Śarmā during any pūjā, marriage etc. Śarma =

Charma = skin. This means a person who is self contained with his knowledge. Śarma in Persian
means shame, which also causes a person to hide inwards.

Kara 21. Kara: Kara also means hand. It is a brāhmaṇa as well as karaṇa title. They were probably govt servants and
as such hands of the state. Kara means tax and kamanṇḍlu also.

atpathī 22. Śatpathī : Yajurveda has 101 branches and its brāhmaṇa (explanatory text) is called Śatpatha brāhmaṇa. Śatpatha literally means hundred (more accurately 101) ways. Śatpathīs are followers of Yajurveda or Śatpatha brāhmaṇa. It has two versions - in Orissa and Karnataka. Kāṇva version is popular. In rest
of India, Vājasaneyī is popular. KARAṆA TITLES 1. Karaṇa :

Karaṇa is caste name as well as a title. As govt servants, they were unpopular in common public. In
north India, they are called Kāyastha whose popular concept is explained in Auśanas samhitā verse 35. It has opportunism like kāka (crow), cruelity like yama and cutting like sthapati (architect). In

Chaitanya charitāmṛta, Chaitanya visited Rājmahendrī where Rāmānanda Rāi was collector. He has

been praised thus - despite being a Karaṇa, he was a good man. Karaṇa has two similar meanings. As Govt servants, they are Karaṇa (instruments) of state. Karaṇa also means hand-book or manual which is used in Govt offices. Arthaśāstra of Kauṭilya explains Karaṇī as columns of a cash accounts book, Thus cashier or accountant is a Karaṇa. This has become Kirāṇī in Hindi and Oriya which means a clerk. 2. Mahānti : Mah nti In Sanskrit. 'Mahanta' means head of an establishment. Mahattāraka means member of king's court or warden of palace. Same title with slight difference in pronounciation is common in a tribe of Keonjhar distt and in Asam also.

Paṭṭanāyaka ṭṭan 3. Paṭṭanāyaka : Paṭṭa means head, or chief, board for writing, chair, silk cloth, head gear etc. Nāyaka means leader. Paṭṭanāyaka means writer of govt orders or letters or govt documents. He has been called Paṭṭaupādhyāya in Apte's Sanskrit dictionary. 4. Dāsa :

Dāsa literally means a servant. One interpratation is that it is short form of Dāsa-Mahāpātra which is
common in Bengal and Orissa. However, Dāsa title is common in the whole of north India. Dāsa-

Mahāpātra means steno or assistant to head of department. Dāsa itself is not derogatory. Officers all
over the world have always been called government servants. Even Ministers, President all are called public servants. The higher a person goes and expands his pride, the more he poses like servant of people. Thus, senior echelons of Govt service are all called as service like - Indian Administrative service, civil service, Judicial service etc.

Jenā 5. Jenā :
This is a Karaṇa as well as Khaṇḍāayata (Kśatriya) title. This title might have become popular during

Jaina power at time of Khārāvela. In Bengal and Assam, this has become Jānā. In Gujarat, there is a Jānī title. All have different origins. Jina in Sanskrit means victorious or winner. Jina also means
crown on head. Thus Jenā as a kśatriaya title means general in army, this may be origin of general word also. This is confirmed by the tradition among kśatriaya Jenās that the eldest son is called

Mahārathā or Mārthā because eldest son was made head of an army unit. Jānā may mean head of a yāna or ship. For coastal states Jānā, Jenā have similar meaning as half the armed force was navy
here. Jānī in Gujarat is corruption of yājñika, which is a brāhmaṇa title. TITLES GIVEN BY KINGS

Praharā 1. Praharāja : Prahara means three hour time. Rāja means king. In old days, all over the world, there were time
keepers in towns and villages, generally in temples of Śiva, who indicated lapse of each prahara after sunrise. All institutes, churches, temples, govt offices maintained their work schedule on that basis. They were called Praharāja. Their role is mentioned in Arthaśāstra of Kauṭilya. In muslim period, a Persian narne Ghaḍiyalī was given to persons who indicated Ghaṭī (24 minute time) or Ghaḍī (watch). Even now, one shift of watch is maintained for 2 - 3 hours, as a man can remain alert for that period only. Thus, praharī in Sanskrit and 'watch-men' in English mean guard. A three hourly log was

maintained on ships also to check its position, speed, on basis of which its route chart was drawn. In Andhra Pradesh, Persian title, Ghaḍiāl is given to brāhmaṇas.

Chaudhar dharī 2. Chaudharī : Chaudharī means head man. This is a respectable address for village heads, farmers or harijans in
north India. However, in Mithilā, Bengal and Orissa, honorary tille of Chaudharī was given to

brāhmaṇas, who were given income of some villages. Village head usually takes one fourth income
as tax, hence he is called Chaudharī. (Chaturtha = one fourth, hri = to take, dhri = to keep). 3. Rāya and prefixes : Rya means land, Rayī is a region. Thus land lords or vassals were called Rāya. In Orissa, various prefixes were used with this word in honorary titles like - ChampatiRāya , Sāmantarāy, Chhoṭarāya,

Rāutrāya. Mahā 4. Mahāpātra :
As explained earlier, it was title of head of departments. Mahāmātra means a minister. It was given as houorary title also and like Chaudharī, it is used in beginning of name. It was for kśatriyas also. 5. Chandana :

Chandana is sandal wood, having flavour. The person who has earned name in wars outside the
state was called Chandana as his name spread like fragrance of sandal (Siddhānta-darpaṇa-last chapter). It is used with two prefixes -Śrīchandana and Harichandana. Actually, these titles are related to area of Jagannātha. Ṛk and sāma are Hari-ie. 2 boundaries-ऋक् सामे वै हिर (शतपथ ा ण 4/4/3/6). These are Chhanda, which means cover (chhadi = to cover). Boundary of or his town is Chandana (called Chandanpur). Boundary of his Dhāma (at 1/20 circumference = 55.5 kms.) is Harichandana. Its synonyms are Kalpavṛkśa, Ekāmra etc. Śrīchandana may means body itself whose śrī resides in head, so it is called śira or th influence outside. Thus, Harichandana are protectors of Jagannātha

Dhāma and Śrīchandana is protector of outer region. Simha 6. Simha :
This is title of Kings and generals all over India, probably after Narasimha. Rāma has been called

Rāmachandra Simha in Lāngūlopaniṣad. Even in crusade wars the Christian king was called Richard,
the lion hearted (Rāmachandra Simha ?). In Orissa, honorary titles were given with 'sinha' as suffix -

Kāhalsimha. Paṭṭasimha, Bāghasimha Baliyārsimha etc. Baliyāra is written as Varrier in Kerala for kśatriyas. This has become warrior in English. Kabā 7. Kabāṭa: Kabāṭa means door. Khurdā was seat of army Jagannātha was main lord and king of Khurdā being
next to him was smaller lord. Thus, the town was called Khurdā (kśudra = small). East direction was protected by sea. Other there directions were given in charge of separate groups who were called

Uttara-Kabāṭa, Dakśiṇa-Kabāṭa and Paśchima-Kabāṭa.
KHAṆḌĀ TITLESKHAṆḌĀYAT TITLESṆḌ

Senā 1. Senāpati :This means commander of an army unit. Only Pati is a brāhmaṇas title. Brāhmaṇas,
specially saints are called swāmī or pati (meaning lord) out of respect.

uta 2. Rāuta : Rāya, Rāo, Rāula, Rāwala and Rāuta mean land lord, cultivator, all over India. This is used
for small farmers, cowherds or land lords also. Richer man is called Routrāya.

yaka 3. Nāyaka : Nāyaka is a leader. Daṇḍanāyaka was head of army unit (now called lance naik). It is a brāhmaṇa title
also who might be head of their sections or group.

Khaṭ 4. Khaṭuā :
Khaṭvānga is name of a weapon with wooden handle. It is name of Śiva and some kings of sūrya

vamśa. Khaṇḍ yata ṇḍā 5. Khaṇḍāyata :
Generally, they are called Kśatriya else where. Kśat = wound or injuiry, triya = protector – thus, protector from injury is kśatriya. Khaṇḍa also means cut and āyatta is protector, thus Khaṇḍāyata is same as Kśatriya. Another interpretation is wielder of Khaṇḍā i.e sword which is not the full meaning.

haṇḍ ṇḍoi 6. Khaṇḍoi : Khāṇḍavika or Khāṇḍika means seller of sugar (Khāṇḍa) or articles made out of it. However, Khāṇḍavā was main place of nāga tribe who were basically, sea farers or protector of hilly forts. Khāṇḍava was converted to Indraprastha by Arjuna in Mahābhārata period. Khāṇḍavā is a place in
Madhya pradesh. Thus, Khaṇḍois are sea - farers which may be a warrior or trader or both.

Beherā 7. Beherā : Beh means hard, tough, A difficult fort on hill is called Bīhaḍa. Its protector is Beherā as a kśatriya. It
is a brāhmaṇa title in western Orissa. This appears to have been derived from Sanskrit word Bahvṛch which means owner of many ṛchas (verses) or riches (property). This is used for Ṛgveda which is largest among 4 vedas or a branch of that. Baharaich district of Eastern U.P. is a coruption of that word. It has been divided into two Beherā + Aich, both of which are titles in Orissa. Beḍā means a boat, vahitra (floating or boat, Boita in Oriya) also means boat. In that sense, Beherā is a boatman.

Pradhā 8. Pradhāna, Padhāna : Pradhāna means head of a region or a department. mala 9. Sāmala : Sāma is a policy of King which maintains peace. Sāmala is an officer incharge of foreign relations,
friendship, trade etc. Sasmal is cultivator, which might be derived from 'sasyapal' or watcher of field. 10. Prusti :

Pruṣu = to burn (Pāṇini dhātu pāṭha1/467). Prusti is a person who burns or attacks others. Operator of
fire arms.

Pariḍ 11. Pariḍā:
This may be from verb Pṛtha = to through, or to guide (Pāṇini dhātu pāṭha 10/22). He is commander or trower of arrows etc.

Dalaī 12. Dalaī, Dalabeherā :
Leader of a dala or a small group. It has become Baḍadalaī (big. dala head, 'Bardoloi' in English) in Asam. Dalawāī is the form in Karnataka. This title is common among sailors or traders also.

Dalabeherā is owner of a fleet or leader of a fort. Biś 13. Biśvāla :

Biśa or viśa is a small village or hamlet. Vimśa meaning twenty is derived from that word. Viśa means
living together with cooperation, which was deva culture. Oposite was aviśa i.e. village or community of asura. Viśa has derived words like Vaiśya (common man), veśyā (common or public woman). Aviśa has become Habśī (negro in Persian) or Abissenia (old name of Ethiopea). Biśvāla is chief priest of village as a Brāhmaṇa. A main land owner, employing about 20 labourers is also a Biśvāla. 14. Bisi, Bisoi : 14. Bisi Both mean head of a village. 15. Swā 15. Swāin : It is derived from Sanskrit word Swāmī meaning lord. It has similar meaning as Biśvāla and may be a

Brāhmaṇa or cultivator both.
16. Bala, 16. Bala Bhujabala : Both mean strong man. 17. 17. Malla : It means wrestler. 18. Khuḍ 18. Khuḍa, Mahākuḍa, Bhoī etc. : These were classification on basis of property or revenue field officers of different grades. In

Mahābharata of Sāralā Dās, Virāṭa parva, page 28, division has been made on basis of cows owned
by the family.

Goṣṭha = shed for 1000 cows Palli = 100 Goṣṭha Lauḍī = 100 palli. Mahākhuḍa = 100 Lauḍī, Bhoī =
100 Mahākhuḍa, Mahābhoī = 100 Bhoī Dr. K. C. Pāṇigrahī in his History of Orissa (p/239,1st edition) has described Govinda Vidyādhara (1549) as a Bhoī King. Cows are not the only symbol of wealth or power, but it appears to be a measure of wealth like a currency. Even now in villages, land area is ronghly stated by number of bullocks which can plongh it. Similar description is in Harivamśa by Achyutānanda Dāsa. 1 Goāla = 1000 cows. Jhankyā =10 Goals (Jhānkara is also a title, village watch man)

Palli = 10 Jhankyā Bhoī =10 Palli Mahābhoī = 10 Bhoī , Khuḍa =10 Mahābhoī Mahākhuḍa = 10 Khuḍa, Nanda = 10 Mahākhuḍa.
Thus, Nanda is ninth level revenue officer. TRADERS / CULTIVATORS There is little difference between cultivators and khaṇḍāyatas, very few persons were in regular army. At the time of war, mostly cultivators were called upon to join the army. Those who got power or money, left cultivation and solely became arms men. Thus, a chāsī (cultivator) became khaṇḍāyata. After lapse of power, again king and royal class merged with common men. Thus, power and cultivation or trade has changed hands many times.

Seṭ Seṭ 1. Seṭha, Seṭhī : Original word was śreṣṭhī which is is still common in Nepal. Big menchants were
always influencial people and were called śreṣṭha or Mahājana meaning great man. In Nepal,

Mahārjana also is title of merchants.

2. Sāhū : Origin is Sanskrit letter Śāha meaning the person who cuts or destroys. It means weapon also (Kirātārjunīyam 15/45). In game of chess śah (check) is challenge to cut. Thus, in Persian, śāh meant a King who cuts or destroys others. Hindu kings of Afghanistan were called Śāhī. In Gupta period (327 BC), their name was Devaputra-śāhī, whose rule continued till 60 generations upto Mahamud Gazanavi in 1000 AD. This is definition of king in asura culture. In India, Rājā (king) means the person, who pleases people. Thus, any rich man is like a king and is called Śāha or Sāhū. As a respect Brāhmaṇas are also called Mahāraja or Sāhū. As a Brāhmaṇa title, this appears to be a

Marāṭhā custom where Brāhmaṇa minister (peśavā) became king after Śivājī. This could be from word sādhu which has become in 5 Namokāra mantras of Jaina-Namo Loye (loke) savva (sarva) sāhūnām
(sādhūnām) = salute to all sādhus of world.

Jeṣṭ Jeṭ ṣṭh 3. Jeṣṭhī, Jeṭhī :
Both are corruptions of Sanskrit word jyeṣṭhī meaning senior or elder. Rich merchants were influencial men of town, hence they were called jyeṣṭhī. 4. Meher :

Mihira word literally means sun, Persian Meher is title of King. English mayor is head of town, major
means big. This does not oppear to be origin of Meher who weave clothes. Arabic Mahal means

Mahat-ālaya or king's house. It generally denotes a palace. Palace workers of different types have
titles related to Mahal or Mahat. Mahallika or Mahālika (vowel before double letter becomes long) is incharge of palace management Mahalla or Meher prepares clothes. Mahattara or Mahatara is sweeper.

Pratihā 5. Pratihārī:
It is a Sanskrit word meaning house guard or body guard. 6. Dhala : Original Sanskrit word is Dhavala meaning white. Modern parallel is probably white collar jobs. There was famous Vīra-dhavalā book by Vīrasena in Jain literature. Eastern boundary of iron ore is comparatively white-iron ore (murrum) is brown. So, it is called Dhavala-bhūmi (Dālbhūma-garh east of Tatanagar). Rulers of that region might be Dhala. 7. Subudhi : They are traders of south Orissa or Kalinga, called Kumaṭī. Small store houses for grains are called

Kumaṭī because they are used as Kumbha (big pot). Traders are considered to be one of five sources
of wisdom, hence their title is Subuddhiदेशाटनम् राजसभा वेशो 8. Pātra : ापािर िव न संगित । सवषु श े वलोकन चातुय मूलािन भवि त प ।

Pātra is title of all castes. It means pot, container or an able man. Khamā 9. Khamārī : Khamāra is place for storing grain. Person incharge of that place is Khamārī. In Viṣṇu sahasranāma
verse 60, Kśamah is the element in which everything vests (vest as verb or as noun meaning upper cloth are derived from Viṣṇu). This Kśama also means a container. In that sense, khām has two

meanings-big vessel for keeping grain, envelope for letters. Since a king is a form of Viṣṇu or Kśama, he is called Chhāmu in Oriya, Khammā is Rajastan.

pakā 10. Sūpakāra: Suūakara is a Sanskrit word meaning a cook. This work in temples was done by Brāhmaṇas. Sutā 11. Sutāra : Tāra = to cross river or difficulty. Sutāra =smooth-sailing. Living in house becomes pleasant by
furnitures, created by carpenter, so they have this title.

Mahā Rā 12. Mahārāṇā, Rāṇā :
These are titles of carpenters and sculptures. They make the house pleasing (ramaṇīya). In that sense, they are Rāṇā or Mahārāṇā. This meaning is used in mantra for sprinkling water for purification (prokśaṇa). आपो िह ा मयो भुव तान ऊज दधातन । महे रणाय च से । (यजुवद ११/५०) Both these words are also used for king of Mewār, and not for any other king of Rajsthan or Gujrat. One reason may be that, both these are places of abstract form of Śiva called Lingarāja in Orissa and

Ekalinga in Mewār. In Orissa, Lingarāja is at boundary of Jagannātha Dhāma. In Mewār, it is at
boundary of Brahmā’s place at Puṣkara. 13.Ojhā : Normally, this is a Brāhmaṇa title in north and west India. Only in Orissa, it means a carpenter or mason. As Brāhmaṇa title also, it has 2 interpratations. One is that, it is from word Upādhyāya, which became Upajjhā in Pākṛta and Ojhā in Hindi. Finally, it has become Jhā in Maithilī. Another meaning is that they are always called of 52 grāmas. These are not physical villages, but 52 places of śakti worship. Correspondingly, there are 52 zones of galaxy upto its corona, and 52 letters of Devanāgarī script. It has 49 letters only, symbols of 49 Maruts. By adding 3 for Kśetrajña (Kśa, tra, jña), it is parallel to 52 forms of śakti. The world described in words is born from these letters, so they are called Mātṛkā. In all auspicious functions Mātṛkā-pūjā is done by symbolic placing of 52 letters in body.They obtain Ojas (aura, energy) by this, so they are Ojhā. A mason or carpenter also makes the house shining (like ramaṇīya by Rāṇā).This is carpenter title in north Orissa, because it was center of art-Utkala = utkṛṣṭa kalā = finest art. OTHER TITLES

Jośī 1. Jośī : Jośī is title of Marāṭhī Brāhmaṇas who have settled in western Orissa and western U.P. hills. It is
derived from word Jyotiṣī meaning astronomer.

Garā 2. Garābadu :
Original word is Gargabaṭu meaning student of Garga, the great astronomer who was priest of lord

Kṛṣṇa.
3. Jachuk : Original word is Yāchaka meaning borrower. They are of two types-one was like follower staff of

Marāṭhā army. Other was working on a ship called Yāchaka (Yatch in English). Ships were either
driven with shafts driven by men or with wind power. Sail of a ship received wind, hence it was called

Yāchaka (Yatch). Yāchaka was either a owner of yatch or the man in charge of tying the mast or sail.

4. Deo, Simhadeva : Deo means god. These are titles of kings. 5. Gajapati: Title of Kalinga kings. In Mahābhārata war, Gaja-senā (elephant army) of Kalinga king had fought on side of Duryodhana. Since then, king of this region is famous as Gajapati. Duryodhana and

Duśśāsana names are still popular only in this region. ṇḍī ṇḍī 6. Tāṇḍī, Kāṇḍī : Taṇḍī was the sage who wrote 'Tāṇḍya Mahābrāhmaṇa'. Mahābrāhmaṇa means lower caste, thus Tāṇḍī has become a harijan title. Both Ṭāṇḍa, Kāṇḍa mean out skirts of village, people living there
may be given these titles. 8.Tribal 8.Tribal titles : Main area of tribes is Jhārkhaṇḍa which has been called Karka-khaṇḍa in Mahābāarata (3/255/7), while describing conquests of Karṇa, king of Anga with capital at Mudga-giri (modern Munger in east Bihar). Another variant of the text calls it Arka- khaṇḍa. Both mean the same thing-karka-rekhā (tropic of cancer) passes through it, which is the northernmost place of sun on surface of earth, then sun (Arka) is in Karka (Cancer) sign of zodiac. Similarly, a place on this line in west India (now Pakistan) is called Karachi. As a county, it has been called Puṇḍra. Dr. D.S. Triveda opines (Pran-Maurya Bihar, pages 27-28) that Pundra-vardhana is extension of Puṇḍra where people of central Pundra went later on. Muslim historians have called it Jhārkhaṇḍa or Kokarā (Ain-e-Akabari, edited by Blackman in 1983 part 1, pages 401,473, Tujak-e-jahangiri, page 154). There is a Kokrājhār in Asam also where survivors of Khokhar tribe of west Pakistan went after they were wiped out by Turk invaders after 712 AD in about 200 years with more than 15 lakh persons killed. This has Jhār trees mostly, which has given the name Jhārkhaṇḍa. In Orissa also, there is Jhārsuguḍā and Jhāḍeśvarī temple at Puri. Main tribes here are-Muṇḍā, Santhāl, Orām Ho, Khariyā, Bhūmij, Kor, Asur. Kol tribes are divided in 12 clans as Hansadā, Soren, Kisku, Marāṇḍī, Tuḍu, Chaunde, Hembram, Bāske, Beserā, Chunair,

Murmū and Kisnov. Asur tribe is divided into three sub-tribal divisions, namely Bīr (Kol) Asur, Birjiā Asur and Agariā Asur. Ho are concentrated in the Kolhaṇa i.e. present Singhbhum district. According to their tradition, they
are of the same family as Muṇḍā and they came in Kolhaṇa from Chotanagpur, The Orāon claim that they were driven in the Kolhaṇa by their invasion. When the Ho came to settle in the Kolhaṇa area, the area was occupied by the Bhuinyās and the Jains. They were driven away by the Ho and the entire Kolhaṇa was inhabited by them. They belong to proto-australoid racial stock. They speak Ho language of Muṇḍārī family.

Baigā has several meaning. Apart from using for an ethnic tribal groups, it is also used to signify a
medicine man Guṇī or Ojhā, like Rājagoṇḍa, the Binjhwār Baigā are Zamindars.

Khariyā claim that they are the descendants of the elder brother of the Muṇḍā, the Nāgvamśī Rājā
(Vāsuki ?). They do not enter in the house of Nāgvamśī Rājā following the avoidance rule of kinship usage. The Khariyā are divided in the three sections namely Hill Khariyā, Dūdha Khariyā and Ḍhelkī

Khariyā.

origin-Most of the tribes in Jhārkhaṇḍa and Orissa have separate physical features and 3. Ancient origin language, so they are not part of the remaining majority in India. Many are from India itself and some have come from Africa or Australia. Tribal languages are grouped into 2 classes-Austric-asian group is Muṇḍā, and Draviḍa group is Orāon and Mālṭo. Sir George Grierson in ‘Lingustic survey of India’ tells that Muṇḍā and Draviḍa languages have possibly the same origin. Anthropologist Sharat

Chandra Rai feels that Muṇḍā has close links with Sanskrit-both have long joint words (samāsa).
Sanskrit and Mundari-both have dvi-vachana (plural for 2) in noun, pronoun, and verb and grammar is very similar with many common words. Sri T.S. Nārāyaṇa Śāstrī in “Age of Shankara’ tells that the 5 Draviḍian languages-Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Tullu-have intimate links with Sanskrit. Ṭullu word is common in Oriya also. For manual work on long distance ships, boys were taken who were called

Ṭullu. This word was common in shipping circles up to Africa coast and has become ṭahal (to serve,
work) in Arabic and ‘toil’ in English. traders-Due to trade beyond seas, many tribes were settled in different parts of world. 4. Common traders

Nāga-vīthi is a lane between equator and tropic of cancer. Thus, all the persons engaged in
international trade were called Nāga. In India, there are many places related to them-Nāgpur,

Nāgerkoil and Nāgapaṭṭanam in Tamilnadu, Nāgāvalī river in Orissa. Many kings of Orissa are Nāgavamśī as it was major center of marine trade. Arjuna had married Nāga girl Ulūpī and Kuśa, elder son
of Rāma married Nāg girl Kumudvatī. Outside India also, Nāga were found till Mexico called Āstīka (of

Pātāla) in India, or Aztecs in Mexico. That zone is also on Nāga-vīthi. Śeśanāga was ruling in Rasātala (south America, full of water in Amazon valley). Another sign of common link is Khūṇṭia title
in diverse parts of world. Any ship coming to coast is fixed with pillar (Khūṇṭa) with a rope. So the persons receiving ship, unloading material and storing it were called Khūṇṭia in Orissa, Khuṇṭe in Maharashtra and Kuṇṭe in Nigeria, Ghana etc on west coast of Africa. Vedas have described frequent wars by Indra to punish the pirates called Paṇis (Ṛgveda 8/64, 10/108 etc). Panis have been equated with similar tribe Phoenisians, but no body have thought about Pāṇa tribe of Orissa or Pāṇi title of Brāhmaṇas. MiningMining Shabar or Saura tribe is related to mining activities. They are originally from India. Oldest commentary on Mīmānsā-sūtras is by Śabara muni. Śābara mantras are given by Śiva which give result without any meaning of letters or words. Saura is derived from word Śūkara (Suar in hindi) meaning boar which digs the earth with its mouth. Thus, the persons digging earth are called Śūkara or Śabara. It appears to be universal name as Śabara word has similar meaning in Hebrew as used at several places in Old testament (Online dictionary)7665. shabar (shaw-bar') A primitive root; to burst (literally or figuratively) -- break (down, off, in pieces, up), broken((-hearted)), bring to the birth, crush, destroy, hurt, quench, X quite, tear, view (by mistake for sabar). Another word has been used for Śabara, which is Vaikhānasa. Viṣṇu has been called Vaikhānasa as he dug into the scriptures for learning on Śuddha-sattva-987th name in Viṣṇu sahasranāma,

Śankara commentary. This is an important branch of Pāñcharātra-āgama and there is Vaikhānasa Śrauta sūtra also.

Co6. Co-operation with Asuras-After Vāmana Viṣṇu freed the 3 lokas (Russia, China, India) from Bali, many Asuras were dissatisfied that they could have defeated Devas in direct war. To stop scattered wars and enmity, Kurma (=who does work) suggested that war is only for getting share of riches. Unless wealth is produced, there will be nothing to loot or share. After persuasion, Asuras agreed to co-operate with devas in extracting mineral wealth. This has been called churning of ocean. Main mineral center in India is plateau from Bilaspur to Singhbhumi. A branch of hill has gone north wards called Mandāra hill going near Bhagalpur. There is a holy place Vāsukinātha (Nāga) there. Mandāra hill was used for churning ocean and Vasuki Nag was the organizer-called rope for churners. Asuras were near his mouth, which was hot. In mining context, mouth is pit of the mine which is hotter. It appears that Asuras were better in mining, so they did this job. Devas were better in extracting minute amount of gold and silver in minerals. The gold refining by Devas was in Zimbabwe called

Jāmbūnada-gold in Purāṇas. It has been stated to be south of Ketumāla (Pillar of Hercules in
Morocco). Silver was refined in Mexico, so silver is still called mākśika in Sanskrit. Most of the tribal titles are based on metallurgy(1) Muṇḍā- Iron ore was called Mura (murrum used for building roads). Narakāsura was called Mura as there was iron fencing around his town. At the center of iron ore are of India was Murāa town on banks of Mahānadī which was submerged in Hirākud reservoir in 1956 and shifted to Burla. Derivative of Mura is Maurya-kśatriyas of that area. It has become Morchā in Hindi having two meanings-rusting of iron and battle-front. Jung word in Persian has the same two meanings. Persons engaged in mining of iron ore are Muṇḍās. The branch of Atharva-veda in this region was Muṇḍaka whose Upanishad still remains. The Brāhmaṇas of that branch have Muṇḍa title. Like Pāṇi, Muṇḍās also are tribal and

Brāhmaṇa both.
(2) Hansadā-Hansa-pada means powder of mercury or sindūra compound of mercury. Persons engaged in refining mercury are Hansadā. (3) Khālko-Xalco in Greek means copper. Ore of copper is still called chalco-pyrite. (4) Orām-Aurum means gold in Greek. (5) Kerkeṭṭā-Karkaṭa means compass in geometry and astronomy. This is used to demarcate position on map, where mining pit can be dug. (6) Kiskū- This is used as a measure of mass in Artha-śāstra of Kauṭilya. In Vaimānika rahasya, of

Bharadvāja, Kiskū is a measure of heat and blast furnace also is called Kiskū (Kiosk). In modern
physics also, units of mass and heat are related. Thus, persons maintaining blast furnace are called

Kiskū.
(7) Toppo-Topaz, (8) Sinku-Stannic (Sn symbol) =Tin, (9) Minz = washing of minerals, (10) Kaṇḍulanā (= ant) = extraction of gold particles like collection of grains by ants. This has given rise to story of Gold-digging ants given by Herodotus and Megasthenes. (11) Hembram (Hg) mercury. The co-operation of Asuras did not last long. Kūrma also was in time of Bali. His later generals were defeated by Kārttikeya whose time has been indicated in Mahābhārata. At the time of Kārttikeya, pole had shifted from Abhijit star which started in 16400 BC (Mahābhārata, Vana parva, 230/8-10). Till the supremacy of Asuras, year started with southward motion of sun-called day of Asuras in all texts of

astronomy. At the time of Kārttikeya, year start was from Dhaniṣṭhā instead of Abhijit. Then,

Dhaniṣṭhā was start of south motion of sun-in about 15800 BC. As year was starting with varṣā
(rains), it was called varṣa. Attackers7. Attackers Durgā-saptaśatī, chapter 1 tells that kingdom of Suratha of Chaitya-vamśa in time of second Manu Svārochiṣa was destroyed by Kolas. That was in about 17500 BC. In about 17000 BC,

Pṛthu was the king whose period is marked by extensive mining. His father was Vena, who was killed
by Rishis. From his right hand were born Nishad and left hand produced Kola and Bhīla (Bhāgavata

purāṇa 4/14). Thus, Kola might have been from India only, from eastern part (left hand, if one sleeps
on map of India with head to north). Kola means bear, more specifically strong embrace of the bear. In that sense, kolap means lock in Oriya. Most valued treasure is kept in lock, so place of Lakśmī is called Kolāpur. Ancient gold mine was called Kolār in Karnataka. Kolār has become gold in English.

Kola tribe might have been protector of treasures. Russia is called land of bears as it is south of north
pole like saptarshi in sky. Ṛikśa means sage and bear both. East part of Siberia is Kolā peninsula. In Australia also, Kolā is a type of bear. In USA also, famous drink was favourite of Kolā (bears), so it was called Coca-cola. Thus, Kolas were spread all around pacific ocean. They might have been of different tribes, but called Kola due to same function. Similarly, Vānara or Bandar means port town and they were controlling ports everywhere. Capital of Borneo is Bandar-śrī-Bhagavān. Bandar means port and monkey both in Persian. Kolas also appear to be their associates, protectors of hinterland. That was the reason as to why Rāma had to take help of Vānara and Bears (Ṛkśa) for attacking after crossing ocean. Main region of Kolas was Ṛkśa mountain on west part of Orissa.

Kolābirā is name of police stations in Jharsuguda and Simdega (Jharkhanda) districts. Kolāb (Colaba)
and Kolābirā are in Orissa and Mumbai-a port town. rulers8. Old rulers Kandha were rulers of east coast-mainly the hilly area. Kandha or prastha mean shoulder, hill-top towns are called ‘puṭ’ in this region (e.g. Korāpuṭ). Land of Kandhas was Kishkindha in Rāmāyaṇa period (about 4400 BC). North part in present Orissa appears to be against Rāvaṇa, so it helped Rāma. South part was dominated by Bālī who was ally of Rāvaṇa, so he had to be eliminated by Rāma. Till today, Rāvaṇa name is popular in Orissa-Andhra border regions.

Goṇḍa or Goṇḍawānā is the central hilly region of Vindhya mountains. Even in eastern UP, there
is a district named Goṇḍā, but that is variant of Gonarda, birth-place of Patañjali. The rulers of this land were Goṇḍas. The last Indian empire to resist Moghals was queen Durgāvatī whose husband

Vīrasingh was from Lāñjīgarh in Kālāhāṇḍī of Orissa (Rānī Durgāvatī -a hindi novel by Vṛndāvanlāl Varmā). As they did not compromise, they became backward as tribals. Ruler class among them are
called Rāja-Goṇḍa. Her priest and cook who spied on her on behalf of Akbar were made kings of Kāśī and Mithilā and they claim higher caste. ChpaterChpater-7 SOME PLACE NAMES OF ORISSA CUTTACK DIVISION 1. Cuttack :

Kaṭaka is from word Kaṇṭaka = thorn, which means a fort in plain region formed with obstruction of
river, walls etc. Fort has a walled city with big gates, hence it is called Dvāravatī (Bārabāṭī). Dwārakā

on Gujarat coast was first such city built by Kṛṣṇa. In 16th century, Puruśottama Deva named a portion of Cuttack as Abhinava Vārāṇasī or new Vārāṇasī. Original Vārāṇasī is described on trident (triśūla = three obstructions) of Śiva. Two are formed by Gangā and Varuṇā rivers, third is Asi (sword) on banks of Gangā. In Cuttack also, trishul covering Biḍānāsī (Vārāṇasī) is formed by Mahānadī and

Kāṭhajoḍī rivers and Bārabāṭī fort. Like Vārāṇasī, it has a Śiva temple at Chahaṭā which means water
body with slow or no current (in Bhojpurī, Chhattisagarhi languages). Durgā is goddess of any durga (fort). Thus, Chaṇḍī, a form of Durgā is main goddess of Cuttack. All the riverside areas are named

Pattana or Paṭnā like Madhupaṭnā, Rausapaṭnā, Nūāpaṭnā. Purīghāṭa was the place from where
boats went to Puri. Gaṇḍarpur was a low lying area where high grass (called gāṇḍar in Rāma charita

mānasa of Tulasīdāsa, Ayodhyā kāṇḍa,) grow. Pīṭhāpur is named after old capital of Kalinga. Chhatrā
bazar is vegetable market as explained earlier. 2. Places named on rice : As mantioned earlier, Orissa was centre of rice export and rice name itself has come from Orissa. Thus there are many places with names of rice-Chauliaganja in Cuttack town out skirts, Dhānmaṇḍal,

Sālipur (śāli = rice), Āli, Kanikā (a variety of rice), Rājakanikā etc.
3. Tīrtol : Old name is Tīrthāvali. From Jājpur to Puri there are śakti pīṭhas in shape of half moon. Centre of outer circle is Tirtol which passes through Kākaṭpur. Puri, Jhānkar Sāralā etc. Inner circle passes through Chhatiā, Cuttack, Bānkī. Centre of this half moon is Kapilās which is like Kailāsa being a point inside lune (half moon) shaped Himalayan range. In centre of this range (avali) of tīrthas, lies Tirtol. 4. Kandarpur : Kandarpa (Kāmadeva) had killed Śambara, king of Śavaras. Hence his town is here. He got his 'Anga' in Anga desh. It is about 10 kms from Cuttack on Paradeep line. Other villages or towns with name Kenduli (Kendubilba-village of Jayadeva) Kendrāpaḍā might have been derived from 'Kandarpa'. 5. Bhubaneswar : Bhuvaneswari is one of the ten mahavidyas. Its location is above navel and below heart region according to Tantra. Its complete description is given in Devī-Bhāgavata purāṇa. Summary is given in verses 8 of Saundarya-laharī of Śankarāchāryaसुधा िस धोम ये सुर िवटप वाटी पिरवृते मिण ीपे नीपोपवनवित िच तामिण गृहे । िशवाकारे म े परमिशव पय क िनलयां भजि त वां ध याः कितचन िचदान द लहरीम् । । = in ocean of Sudhā, surrounded by orchard of Deva-trees, in island of jewel, in shed of Vaṭa (ficus) trees, in house of Chintā-maṇi, you are sitting on the platform in form of Śiva on bed with Parama-

śiva. Your devotees worshipping that form are blessed with eternal ocean of joy.
It is place of Lingarāja as a boundary of Jagannātha Dhāma. Extent of Dhāma has 0.50 of earth circumference, i.e. 55.5 kms.away from Puri. In Uṣā-sūkta (Ṛgveda, 1/123/8), it is stated that Uṣā (twilight) moves 30 dhāmas west (in Varuṇa direction). In India, twilight zone is takenas 150, so 0.50 is 1 dhāma.

Lingarāja is abstract form. When Brahmā and Viṣṇu requested to see his visible form, it appeared as
a pillar of fire (Śiva purāṇa). As Agni (dense matter or energy), Śiva has 8 forms called Vasu, as air 11 Rudras, and as light 12 Ādityas. The 8 forms as Agni (fire) around Lingarāja are-1. Niāli (=fire in Oriya), 2. Damaṇā on way to Chandraśekharpur (Damunā =fire in Vedas), 3. Chaṇḍakā (fierse fire), 4.

Aiginia (Agni), 5. Jagāmarā (Yajñāmra = agni carries offerings of yajñā to Devas), 6. Retānga (Agni is
Reta =energy of Śiva), 7. Kiśana nagar (Kṛśānu =agni), 8. Sātaśankha on way to Puri (Saptārchi = agni, 7 flames). Location of Bhubaneswar town is compared with tantra and ŚankaraTantra 1.Between heart and navel (Anāhat and Maṇipūr region.) 2. Base is Mañcha (platform) in form of Śiva. 3. Above Mañcha their is house of Chintāmaṇi (wish jewel) 4. Place of goddess is in ocean of sudhā (nectar) 5. In forest of divine tree kalpavṛkśa (wish tree) 6. Garden of Nīpa (Kadamba or Vaṭa) 4. Bindusāgar pond near Lingarāja temple 5. Region is called forest of Ekāmra (i.e first among āmra trees) 6. Garden of ficus-Baragaḍha is root, Yajñāmra (Jagāmarā) stem, Baramuṇḍā crown, Dumdumā (druma from arial root of Druma) 7. Sleeping with Paramśiva 7. Bhuvaneśvarī with Lingarāja i.e Paramaśiva 2. Base from Jājpur direc -tion is Mañcheśvar 3. After Mancheshwar there is Chintamaṇīśvar Real location 1.Between heart (Puri) and navel (Jajpur) region.

ranga 6. Bāranga : Kaṭaka means fort and Bahiranga means outpost. Near Koṭā (also meaning fort) of Rajsthan there is Bāranga. Similarly, near Cuttack also, there is Bāranga. There are similar groups of fort/outpost like Bagālogarh-Bagālobahārāṇa (Bahiranga) in Cuttack district. Original name of Aligarh also was Bāranga as written by Ferishta etc. Purī 7. Purī:
This is one of 7 main purīs of India. Out of 5 limbs of Satī (devī), navel fell at Jājpur (Virajā kśetra) and heart at Purī (Vimalā). In maṇipūr chakra at navel, there is fire without dust (i.e vi+raja). Heart is centre of cleanliness (blood circulation), hence it is called Vimalā (vi = not, mala = dist). As per Gītā (18/61), Kṛṣṇa lies in the heart region, thus Jagannātha resides there. Kṛṣṇa is of blue (nīla) colour hence his place is called Nīlāchala. Another interpratation is that east horizon is Udayāchala (place of

udaya or rising), west horizon is Ratnāchala. In between, there is the whole blue sky, which is abode
of Kṛṣṇa. Udayagiri is on east coast of India (near Bhubaneswar) and Astāchala (Ratnāgiri) is on west coast (a district of Mahrashtra) or Sūryāsta (Sūrat) in Gujrat coast. If we consider all nine parts of India including south east Asia and adjacent islands, then Purī is at centre in north south as well as in east west direction. Thus, it is truly at heart region. In story of Indradyumna (Padma purāṇa) etc Orissa has always been referred to as madhyadeśa, not pūrvadeśa. Purī sea coast from Purī to

Chilkā, south of Chandrabhāgā in Koṇārka and east of Bārunei is in shape of a Śankha (conch),
hence Purī region is called Śankha kśetra. Varuṇa is lord of west direction, thus western boundary of this region is called Bāruṇei hill.

8. Places of sun worship : Sāmba son of Kṛṣṇa had leprosy, he brought priests from Miśra (Egypt) and worshipped sun at Orissa coast and was cured of leprosy. In worship of planets, sun is addressed as born in Utkala deśa (Udayagiri). In yogāsana also, sūrya-namaskāra cures skin diseases. Sun is used for finding direction and location in sea journeys. Hence, in coastal regions all over world, there are temples of sun. In Gujarat also, there is sun temple at Moḍherā. Places of sun worship have suffix arka =sun. Koṇārka was the port town near Purī where Sun temple is situated. It has two reasons for being named as koṇa (angle). Sea coast from Purī to Koṇārka is in angle direction (north east). Koṇārka is northern most point where sun's southern angle can be up to 45°. There is Conakry in Guinea and Canary island on west coast of Africa with angled coast line. Other place is Bhadraka (Bhadrārka). Here, sea is shallow, hence waves are very gentle or Bhadra.

Bhdrāśva varṣa was also on east coast of Asia (Korea, Japan region) where sea winds (horse or aśva) was gentle. Now, it is called horse latitude. Paṭna in Bihar was also a river port. East of Patna,
near confluence of Pun-pun river there is Puṇyārka (Punārakh). In both regions, sun is worshipped at

Kārttika pūrṇimā (Bālijātrā) when sea travel starts after end of rainy season. Since Paṭna is farther
inland, sea travel has to start 9 days earlier on Kārttika śukla 6th, when sun is worshipped.

leś ara Jāleś ara 9. Bāleśvara, Jāleśvara : Jāleśvara or Jvāleśvara was the place where missiles of Śiva fell after destroying Tripuras (sl.no. 11
in sacred places of Orissa). In Bāleśvara, name of goddess is Ramaṇā, thus there is Remunā near

Bāleśvara town. Mayū 10. Mayūrbhanjha :
The place names here are based on picuresque locations, waterfalls good forests etc. Thus,

Rangāmaṭiā, Rāirangapur are coloured (ranga) places. Mayūrbhanja means visiting place of
peacocks. Bāripadā is land of waterfalls. Khīching is forest of kīchaka (Bamboo). SOURTHERN DIVISION 1. Brahmapur : This was a big town of Brahmā in capital region of Kalinga. Main stock yard or wholesale market was at Ganjam (Ganja= market place, storage). Retail market or vegetable market was at Chhatrapur, having small sheds like chhatra (umbrella)for each shop.

Kodalā Askā 2. Kodalā, Askā :
These were mining towns. Ayaska means iron. Kodalā is mine like kuda.

Golāntharā 3. Golāntharā :
This might have been Golla janapada which has been described as birh place of Kauṭilya in jain texts. There is Ergollā tribe in this region. Gola means storage place, Thara means to shake (tharva in Sanskrit). Thus, Golānhtarā is a major trade post. Even Kuṭila is atrade name in name of Kauṭilya.

Kuṭi = hut, paddy is stored in structures like that, called Kuṭila or Kumaṭī (Gumaṭī). Persons doing
trade of paddy etc are Kumaṭī.

Therubā 4. Therubālī : Tiru mans śrī in Tamil. This might be one of the places of Bālī. Other places are Bāliguḍā in Phūlbānī
and Bālimelā in Malkāngiri. Therubālī is near Rāyagaḍā. Between Bālimelā and Therubālī, Angada had established Kārāpatha (Korāpuṭ).

Puṭṭ singā Jaltara ṭṭā 5. Puṭṭāsingā, Jaltara :
This is a small hilly police station near Guṇupur. Śrī Kāśīnātha Miśra has explained Puṭṭāsingā = Puṭṭā (Puṭṭhā of Persian meaning shoulder), + singā (shring = horns) Both these are symbols of force. This might have been al hill fort. Puṭa is corruption of Prastha (shoulder). Jaladā means giver of water (cloud). Like Draviḍa (watery), this indicates currency (fluid money of economics). Thus Jalatar means trader. As traders take his profits, Jalatar means ṭhug in local Saura language. Jāla in Sanskrit also means net as it is used in water for catching fish-Its derived meanings are net work (of trade), conspiracy etc. There is a similar Jaldā near Rourkela, Jhālidā near Ranchi in south Bihar. There are several Jaladāpāḍās in Bengal including a wild life sancuary. Āla-jāla word means conspiracy or cheating based on a Tamil epic Silappādhikaram ot Ilangovan, but surprisingly it is used in Orissa and north India, not in Tamilnadu itself.

Malkā 6. Malkāngiri :
This was Mālyavāntagiri of Rāmāyṇa, where Rāma had stayed during exile. Māthilī is a place named after Sītā (Maithilī). Boṇḍā tribe live on hills near Mathilī laughed at Sītā who was taking bath after taking her cloths off. They were cursed by Sītā, so they do not put on clothes. There is also Rāmagiri nearby where Yakśa had been expelled for 1 year by Kubera. Kālidāsa in his Meghadūta has called this hill as pudified by water for bath of Sītā. Chitrakoṇḍā (picturesque hill) is named after Chitrakūṭa in Madhya pradesh where Rāma had stayed in Bharadvāja āśrama and Bharata had gone to call him back to Ayodhyā. There is a Chitradurga in Karnataka and Chittor in Rajsthan - all hill forts. 7. Thuāmul - Rāmpur of Kālāhāṇḍī : Thuā ṇḍī

Thuāmūla means srotamūla or origin of rivers. This hill is root of two rivers Nāgāvalī and Vamśadhārā. ṇḍī 8. Kālāhāṇḍī : ṇḍī Hāṇḍī means black earth or earthen pot for cooking. Due to black soil, this region is called Kālāhāṇḍī.
Other places of such name are Chaṇḍāhāṇḍī, Pāpaḍāhāṇḍī (a police station in Nowrangpur.)

bugā 9. Ḍābugāon :
Ḍābu means money in Telugu (Dravya). Ḍābugāon is a market place and a police station in Nowrangpur district. 10. Nowrangpur : Navranga means nine colours. This could mean varied colours of the town. However, govt officers and traders of a big town are always viewed with suspicion by simple public. Thus Nowranga also means cheating, bluff etc in oriya.

Borigummā 11. Borigummā :
'Gulma' is a unit of army. There are several places with 'gurnmā suffix in Koraput region.

Phūlbā 12. Baudha, Phūlbānī :
Teaching institutes were named after flowers as students are considered soft like flowers. Thus school of Āryabhaṭa was Kusumpur, teaching institutes in Orissa were called Lalitgiri in Kendrāpaḍā and Phūlbānī (Puṣpagiri). Baudha means teaching place. Earlier gurukulas were in isolated forests, so this was appropriate place for university. This is old tradition, subsequently buddhist monks dominated such schools.

njigaḍ 13. Lānjigaḍha :This is a hilly police station in Kālāhāṇḍī bordering Phūlbānī. Lānji means Langoṭa, a
'T' shaped cloth piece tied at hip by wrestlers. Part of the piece hangs like tail of monkeys (Langoor) hence it is called lanjis. This was one of the forts of Vānara Kingdom in Rāmāyṇa. In middle ages, this was bordering town of Goṇḍa-vānā empire under queen Durgāvatī who had fought with Moghul king Akbar. Prince of Lānjigaḍha was husband of Durgāvatī. NORTH DIVISION 1. Sambalpur : Originally, this could be town of Śambara king of Śabaras. In purāṇas, this has been mentioned as

Sambhala where future incarnation of Kalki will take place. But there are many claimants for Sambhala in U.P. and Tibet also. Sambala means resting place or shelter. As Haridvār is gate of Gangā to enter plains, Sambalpur is gate of Mahānadī, after which its course is almost straight. Mahānadī divides Orissa into north Utkala and south Kalinga. It also divides east west. Source region
is called Kośala (Kuśala means to uproot kuśa, or emerging of river). Water finally reaches near sea and saturates (Toṣa) it, so delta region is called Tośal. Thus, Sambalpur town marks the border of

Kośala after which Mahānadī is straight. kuda 2. Hīrākuda :
It was mine of diamonds. Diamond region extends down stream upto Baudha. Other precious metals are in Kālāhāṇḍī region where Māṇikeśvarī temple is situated.

Rengā 3. Rengālī :
There are two Rengālīs-one is between Sambalpur and Jhārsuguḍā, the other is near Talcher. Both are near river bank and near chain of colourful spots (Rangāvalī) 4. Naikul : It is in Devagaḍha and on bank (Kūl) of river (Nadī or Naī). 5. Rājagangpur : It is in Sundargaḍha distt. Orissa Kings were called Ganga as they controlled the Gangā ocean (now called Bay of Bengal). Their might (rāja) extended upto this town, so it was called Rājagangpur. Similarly, kings of Mahendra mountain (Kalinga) ruled upto Godāvarī where there is Rājmahendrī (Rājmundhri) There was a King Mahendra varman also in 16th century. 6. Rourkela : There are many other places with-kalā suffix in this area-Saraikelā, Jaraikelā. Kalyā means beautiful, wine. Kalanka means rusting of iron. Kalpa means metallurgy Thus, kalā means good towns, places of wine and also of iron metallergy. Rour is derived from Raol or Rāwal meaning King like. Thus, rour in Bhojpuri is a term of respect meaning 'yours". Rourkela means central or royal place in mining region of iron. The steel plant here was in collaboration with Germany and their impression was that this town was named after "Ruhr" province of Germany which is rich in iron. But 'Rourkela' was a much older town and a railway station on old Bengal- Nagpur line. Baḍ 7. Baḍabil :

Bil means hole or scratch made by ploughing. Thus, Badabil is a mining place.
8.

Balā Balāngir :In Śankara digvijaya, Balāchala is the place where Sanandana had worshipped

Narasimha. Sanandana was disciple of Śankarāchārya and become first head of Puri Pīṭha as

Padmapāda, Narasimha is incarnation of force (bala). hence his place is called Balāchala or Balāngir
(hill of force).

ikmā 9. Pāikmāl : Pāika means padātika or foot soldier. Camp (māla = garland) of pāika is called Pāikamāl. Bhaṭ 10. Bhaṭalī : Bhaṭa means soldier, avalī means chain. Camp of soldiers is Bhaṭalī. They worship Ambā or Durgā
whose house (Bhawan) is nearby at Ambābhonā (Ambā + Bhavan).

Burlā 11. Burlā : Barlā is a tribal title which means varāha or boar - Boar lad two roles - mining (Vaikhānasa is name of Varāha incarnation) and moving on land and sea both. Thus, mining area near river is called Burlā.
12. Anugola :

Aṇi means elephant which is controlled through a nail like instrument (Aṇi). Anugola is place for
keeping elephant army like Anugol in Belagam distt of Karnataka. One of the reasons for claiming Belagam in Maharashtra was that it was stated to be a Marathi word and place for Maratha elephant army. Other places with elephant name are Hāthībārī in Angul distt and another near Rourkela. There is another Anogola in Andhra Pradesh which has become Ongole due to English (a railway station on Vijaywada-Chennai route). NAMES OF MARINE PROFESSION 1. Āndhra was south part of Kalinga : It is source of sea cyclones, hence it is called Āndhra (Āndhī or Andhār in Hindi) which makes a person blind (āndhra). Kalinga and Uḍra also are related to ships.

Erāsamā 2. Erāsamā :
Irā means water current, samā means centre of two (water) bodies. This is origin of word Irasmus meaning link between two seas.

śāgh ghāī 3. Mārśāghāī : Masar is Sanskrit means thick liquid. Ghāī means deep. This means a swampy area and is origin of
English word "marsh". Jā 4. Jāchak : Yāchaka means borrower in Sanskrit. The ship which receives wind through its sails is called Yāchaka i.e. 'Yatch in English, person driving such ship is called Jāchak. Tarāniā 5. Tarāniā : Taraṇi means boat. 6. Manga : 'Manga' means front portion of boat or head. 'Mangarāja' title in Orissa means head of boats Mahangā in Cuttack is boat fuilding centre. Mangalore of Karnataka and Munger of Bihar are ports. 7. Tullu : Boys were kept as labourers on ships who were called Tahalū (Tahal in Persian means to sen'e.) This has become Tullu in Oriya and 'toil' in English.

Chapter 8 Orisa Special Sanskrit words of Orisa We have been taught that India was place of Australian tribals, Nāgas followed by Draviḍas who were conquerd by Āryas coming from unspecified region from Arctic to central Asia. Tribal areas like Orissa were sanskritized much later. Tribals of Jhārkhaṇḍa and Orissa were original inhabitants. That is proved totally false when we see that there are specific Vedic words of each region in India.So called Ādivāsīs had come from Africa for cooperation in mining and are in areas of mines only. Egyptian culture and language was followed by Yavanas in west Arab who were expelled by Sagara in 6762 BC to Greece. Thus Greek language retaine same name of minerals which are titles of tribals linked with their mining specialization. Some examples of specific Vedic and Sanskrit words are given below(1)Bhuāśunī is goddess of Bhubaneswar. Indra as radiation is śunah as it is present even in vacuum (śūnya = zero) As a king, he is śunah as the property without ownership lapses to the king. His landed rule is Bhuāśunī. ने ात् ऋते पवते धाम िक न । (ऋक् ९/६९/६) There is no place not occupied by Indra. He is Maghavan also as he oversees subjects like megha (cloud), so called Meghavāhana शुनं वेम मघवानिम म् । (ऋक़् ३/३०/२२), युवमघोनामति ते (अ ा यायी ६/१/३३) As energetic, he is yuvan (young). Young men, dog (śvan), and Indra all have tendency to enter vacant places, so their forms are similarिवचारवान् पािणिनरे क सू े ानं युवानं मघवानमा ः । (शंकर िदि वजय) (2) Chinnamastā- is at Sambalpur called Samleśvarī due to place. In mantras she is addressed as

Vajra vairochnīye (i.e. power of vajra which is held by Indra. His vedic mantra is in Ṛk (10/86/10)
(3) Buḍhārājā-in Sambalpur is local word for Buḍhārājā, an adjective of Indra (meaning with wide reputation, or the first among equals-śravā means hearing or line). वि त न इ ो वृ वा … (वाजसनेयी यजुवद २५/१९) (4) Ākhaṇḍala Maṇi- At Bhadraka, it is name of Indra. Due to that, kśatriyas in Orissa are called

Khaṇḍāyata who controls one part, Ākhaṇḍala means lord of all parts.
(5) Bīra-This is used as owner of land only in Orissaअ ा ेतमनु । अ ा िह वीरः । त मा दाह ... दि णाध (दि ण भागे) सादयित । (शतपथ ा ण ४/२/१/९)

Attā (eater) is manu (man), vīra (brave). As right-hand (assistance), he is placed towards south. South
of Sambalpur, place of Buḍhārājā and Chinnamastā is Attābirā. All other places donated to persons are called Bīra in Orissa. As elder brother inherits the property, he is called Vīra in north-west India. In south India, it is annāda (same as attā), so annā means elder brother. (6) Gojā is the stream of energy from sun. At source, it comes out in conical shape, so gojā means cone in Oriya. Light travels in a straight line, so gojā means rod also. Extent of gojā is called īṣā whose distance from sun is 3000 yojana (up to Uranus orbit, yojana is sun-diameter) as per

Bhāgavata purāṇa, part 5.
ईषे वो वा वायव थः। (वाजसनेयी यजुवद १/१) You are rod of energy in air.

गोिजता बा अिमत तुः िसमः कम क म छतमूितः खज करः । अक प इ ः ितमानम् ओजसाथा जना िव वय ते िसषासवः । (ऋक़् संिहता १/१०२/६)

Indra with Gojā hands is un-paralleled in power, with great deeds, hundreds resources, and fighter. Indra is form of power, so people desiring power call him. It is born out of Go=light, so called gojā. It is Bayānī (weaver of creation), so there is place of Gojā-bayānī between Sun at Koṇārka and Indra at Bhadraka.
(7) Indra is perceived as Rudra (intense energy) so he is worshipped as Śiva at Buḍhārājā, and

Ākhaṇḍala Maṇi. Sūkta of rudra use a word toka meaning son, so ṭokā means son only in Oriya
(western Orissa)मा न तोके मा न आयौ ... (ऋ संिहता १/११४/८, वाजसनेयी यजुवद १६/१६, तैि रीय संिहता ३/४/११/२, ४/५/१०/३) (8) Asanā means bad in Oriya. There are three verbs for eating with varying senses in usage. Bhuj = to consume. Ad = to eat with joy (svāda = taste), Aśna =to eat with worry about results which is prohibited. We should not worry about result of actions (Gītā 2/47) ा सुपणा सयुजा सखाया समानं वृ ं पिरष वजाते । तयोर यः िप पलं वा यन (ऋ संिहता १/१६४/२०, अथव ९/१४/२०, मु डक उपिनषद् ३/१, Here, pariṣa is used in Oriya as Pariṣā (neighbour). (9) Indra is capable of fighting many enemies aligned together. For that, he shoots arrows incessantly. This Ghanāghana word is used in Oriya with same meaning. आशुः िशशानो वृषभो न भीमो घनाघनः िन १/१५). ोभण षणीनाम् । सं ं दनोऽिनिमष एक वीरः शतं सेना अजयत साकिम ः ॥ (ऋक् संिहता १०/१०३/१, सामवेद १८४९, अथव संिहता १९/१३/२, वाजसनेयी यजुवद १७/३३, तैि रीय संिहता ४/६/४/१, (10) Bhāva word is used all over India. But as verb, it is used only in Oriya. Jagannātha is in heart of everybody and receives Bhāva (feelings of everybody). So, Bhāvagrahī name is only in Oriya. देवा भावयतानेन ते देवा भावय तु वः । पर परम् भावय तः ेयः परमवा यथ । ११। (गीता, अ याय ३) आप सु म ः मरणं वदीयम् करोिम दुग क णाणवेिश । नैत छठ वं मम भावयेथा ुधातृषा ा जनन मरि त । (देवी अपराध मापन तो ) एवं गजे मुपविणत िनिवशेषं ादयो िविवध िलगिभदािभमानाः। नैते यदोपससृपुिनिखला मक वात् त ािखलामरमयो हिररािवरासीत् ।। (भागवत पुराण, गज मो ) (11) Jagannātha is viewed in 2 ways in Gītā. One is extended form of human abilities, called Mahāयो अिभचाकषीित । ेता तर उपिनषद् ४/६)

puruṣa. All the qualities (vibhūti) in Him can be achieved one by one following path of yoga. In that
form, He has been called Mahābāhu in Gītā. This word is used only for Jagannātha. This form was explained by Achyutānanda, so he himself was called Mahā-puruṣa. God worships us in same way we worship him. पं मह े ब व ये यथा मां प ने ं महाबाहो ब बा पादम्। (गीता ११/२३). तेतां तथैव भजा यहम् (गीता ४/११)

There is another aspect of which is root source of world beyond our imagination. That is bigger than and is described in Bhāgavata purāṇa. Jagannātha Dāsa described this aspect, so he himself was called Ati-baḍī (too big). वमािददेवः पु षः पुराण वम य िव य परं िनधानम् । (गीता ११/३८) (12) While weighing rice etc, we say ‘Rāma’ instead of 1 and then count 2, 3, 4, … etc. That too has come from Gītā. Two incarnations of Jagannātha are complete. Rāma never went beyond limits of human capability, hence he was called Maryādā-Puruṣottama. Jagannātha too is in the sense that he

is far beyond two Kśara Puruṣa and also higher than Akśara Puruṣa. He is Prathita as Puruṣottama, so adjective of 1 is Prathama (first) and for first number we use name of Puruṣottama Rāma. य मा रमतीतोऽहम रादिप चो मः । अतोऽि म लोके वेदे च िथतः पु षो मः । (गीता १५/१८) (13) Rāga word is used for anger only in Oriya. Reason is that, it follows Kāma, which s called

Anurāga as stated in Gītā.
कामात् ोधोऽिभजायते (गीता २/६२) (14) There is famous saying of Jagannātha Dāsa that God schemes against those who plan against others. For scheming, he has used the word ‘Pānche’ which is from a verse with same meaning in

Śvetāśvatara upaniṣad, which has used ‘Pāchyān’. Such clear meaning has not been given in any
commentary of that upaniṣad. य वभावं पचित िव योिनः पा यां सवान् पिरणामये ः । ( ेता तर उपिनषद् ५/५) (15) There is another saying of Jagannātha Dāsa is from Manusmṛti-that wealth from wrong means increases fast but in the end it vanishes from the root. अधमणैधते तावत् ततो भ ािण प यित। ततः सप ान् जयित समूल तु िवन यित (मनु मृित ४/१७४) (16) Kāṇva samhitā and Kāṇva Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa were popular in Orissa. So, Śatapathī title of

Brāhmaṇas is used only in Orissa. As Kaṇva and Praskaṇva Ṛṣis were authority here, any
authoritative saying is called ‘Khanā-vachana’. A word ‘musmus’ meaning crisp food is used only in

Kendrapada area. This is from Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.
सव च म मसा कु ि वित(शतपथ ा ण ६/६/३/१०-सायणभा यम्) म मसा अनुकरणश दोऽयं। यथा भ णसमये-म मसा श दं कु वि त-तथा कु िव यथः। मृ मृ सा (मै ायणी संिहता २/७/७) मृ मृ षा (पै पलाद संिहता १/२९/३) ये च मुटमुटा कु भमु का अयाशव (अथव वेद ८/६/१५) सायणभा यम्- मु मुटाः = मु मुट् इित श दं कु व तः । मु मुट् इ य श दानुकरणाथ इित। (17) Loḍā word is used only in Orissa and Punjab which means desired or needed. This has come from verb ‘Loḍṛ or Luḍ’ = to be mad after something (Pāṇini 1/246). Manji word also is used only in these 2 states, but with different meanings. In Punjab it means cot and is derived from ‘mancha’ = platform or stage. In Orissa, it means seed and is derived from word ‘majjā’ =bone marrow which produces ‘śukra’ or seed in men. For plants, it means seed. बल-शु -रस- े म-मेदो-म -िवव नः । म ा िवशेषतोऽ ना बलकृ त् ेहनेिहतः। (चरक संिहता) य य य य फल येहवीय भवित यादृशम्। त य त यैव वीयण म ा नमिभिनिदशेत् (राज व लभ ) (18) Ships are received by tying them with a pole (Khuṇṭa). The person doing the job and loading/unloading ships is called Khuṇṭiā. This has become Khuṇṭe in Maharashtra and in west Africa cost of Nigeria and Ghana. There are two types of ships. Some move by own force. Some borrow (Yācha in Oriya/ Sanskrit) power from sea winds. These are called Yācha (yatch in English) and persons operating it are Yāchaka. This title is only in Orissa. (19) Low land (ghāī) in coast is slippery (masṛṇa)-so it is called Marshaghai in Kendrapada district. This has become marsh in English. Land covered by water on both sides is Irā-samā (Irā =water, its flow is Irāvatī, a river in Burma and west Punjab). Samā = equally on both sides. This has become Erasmus in Greek, re-translated as Jala-ḍamaru-madhya in Hindi-Oriya. (20) In Hydraulics, source of water was called Muṇḍa (head)-as per description of reversed tree in

Gītā- ऊ वमूलमधः शाखम

थं ा र यम् (गीता १५/१). The place up to which Mahānadī river has single flow

or Muṇḍa was called Muṇḍalī. The place where it has bifurcated in 2 branches is called Baimuṇḍī (Bai

=dvi or 2).This is called head from which discharge of water is calculated.

(21) Kārttikeya was commander of Indra. After victory on Krauncha Dvīpa (north America), he celebrated it by constructing a victory pillar in sea at Koṇārka. Later on, a temple was made there in about 1200 AD by Narasimhdeva. He has been called son of Viśākhā and Bahulā. His mother was named who might be from Viśākhā, a port in Kalinga bound by 2 rivers ( 2 śākhā)-Nāgāvalī and

Vamśadhārā-which remain separate right from the source in Thuamul (root) Rampur in Kalahandi.
Sister of Bahulā was mother of Vāmana whose proper name was Viṣṇu. He was incarnation of

Jagannātha. 6 mothers of were 6 centers of military power in India-Dulā was in Orissa-Bangal. There
are temples of Dulā around in Cuttack and Bhubaneswar. Dulal name means son of Dulā, i.e.

Kārttikeya. In Tamilnadu-Karnataka, it was Nitatni, in Andhra-Maharashtra, it was Abhrayantī. It was Varṣayantī in Asam, which is source or Varṣā. In Rajsthan-Gujrat, it was Meghayantī, where there are
little megha (clod), but titles of Meghani and Meghawal. In northwest, it was Chupuṇīkā (Chopra title of Punjab). These names are given in Taittirīya samhitā (4/4/5/10) and Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa (3/1/4/4).

(22) Indra had started Deva-nāgarī script with help of Marut. Till today, it is used from east (place of Indra) to north west (place of Marut) India. In this, 33 consonants from k to h are symbols of 33 devas
and total of 49 letters are symbols of 49 Maruts. The script is thus a ‘nagara’ or town of Devas in symbols, hence called Deva-nāgarī. Since Indra had started this script, he was called Lekharṣabha -

Taittirīya samhitā 6/4/7), Maitrāyaṇī samhitā (4/5/8), Kāṇva samhitā (27/2), Kapiṣṭhala samhitā (42/3).
See Sūrya-tanu-lekhana in Mārkaṇḍeya purāṇa also. Thus, Alekha name is used only in Orissa. At the time of attack by Maurya Ashoka on Kalinga in 1464 BC, name of Kalinga king has been mentioned as Alekha-sundara in inscription at Kalsi near Dehradun (Uttaranchal). Names of 4 kings won by him are-Tulamaya, Antikina, Maka, Allikasudala. One of them must be the king of Kalinga, won in 8th year of his rule. But date of Ashoka has been shifted to 269 BC and this name is tagged with Alexandria which was never part of India. In time of Ashoka this town never existed. (23) There are many other names peculiar to Orissa. Ghanaśyāma are all over India, but Dukhiśyāma are only in Orissa. Trilochanas are everywhere, but Bilochana or Baikoli (Binocular) are here only. APPENDIX 1. Original Sources : (a) Purāṇas - There are 18 purāṇas since time immemorial. After Mahābhārata war, their revised Purā edition was complied in institute of Śaunaka in Naimiṣāraṇya under Romaharṣaṇa Sūta and his successors (3048-2878 B.C.)- This was mostly by students of Vedavyāsa who also compiled various branches of 4 vedas. Later on, it was revised under Vikramāditya of Ujjain (82 BC-19 AD) under

Vetāla Bhaṭṭa in 3 towns called Viśālā. Number of verses in each purāṇa according to Bhāgavata are–
1. Brahma 2. Padma 3. Viṣṇu 4. Śiva 6. Nāradīya 8. Agni 9. Bhaviṣya 10,000 10. Brahma- Vaivarta 55,00 0 11 . Linga 23,000 14,000 12. Varāha 13. Skanda 11,000 24,000 81,000 10,000 17,000 24,000 19,000 18,000

5. (Śrīmad) Bhaāgavata 18,000 14. Vāmana 25,000 15. Kūrma 16. Matsya 17. Garuḍa 15,000 18,000 7. Mārkaṇḍeya 9,000

18. Brahmāṇḍa 12,000 Total 4,10,000

Sometimes Vāyu purāṇa is counted instead of Śiva purāṇa. This has 24,000 verses. In this counting, total numbers of verses is 4, 32,000 which is equal to number of years in Kali era. Vāyu purāṇa is

Vāyavīya branch of original Śiva purāṇa of 1 lakh verses. Devotees of Durgā count Devī Bhāgavata
instead of Bhāgavata, each having 18,000 verses. 18 upa-purāṇa are 1. Sanat Kumāra, 2. Nārasimha, 3. Nanda, 4. Śivadharma, 5. Durvāsā, 6. Bṛhan-nārdīya, 7. Kapila, 8.

Mānava, 9. Uśanas, 10. Vāruṇa, 11. Kālī, 12. Māheśvara, 13. Sāmba, 14. Saura, 15. Parāśara, 16. Mārīcha, 17. Bhārgava, 18. Devī Bhāgavata.
Other upa- purāṇas are - 1. Kālikā, 2. Nandikeśvara, 3. Vasiṣṭha, 4. Ādi, 5. Bhārgava, 6. Mudgala. 7. Mahābhāgavat, 8. Brihad-dharmottra, 9. Viṣṇu-dharmottara (probably part of Viṣṇu purāṇa), 10. Parānanda, 11. Paśupati. 12. Harivamśa (Appendix to Mahābhārata) All 18 purāṇas in original have been published by M/S Nag publishers, 11 A/U.A., Jawahar Nagar, Delhi-110007. It has published some up apuranas also like Kālikā and Kalki purāṇa. English translation of 18 purāṇas is being published in 100 volumes by M/S Motilal Banarsidass, 39, Jawahar nagar, Delhi-110007. Out of that 60 volumes have come up. Gītā Press, Gorakhpur (U.P) has published hindi translation of Viṣṇu, Bhāgawata, Harivamśa, Kūrma,

Matsya and Varāha purāṇa. Hindi translation in short is published for Padma, Skanda, Brahma, Mārkaṇḍeya, Brahmavaivarta, Nārada, Devībhāgavata, Śiva and Vāyu purāṇa.
Hindi Sahitya Sammelana, Prayag,12 Sammelana marga, Allahabad has published original and Hindi translation of Brahma Vaivarta, Agni, Vāyu, Skanda purāṇa. (b) Vedic literature All the 4 vedas with Hindi translation have been published by Swadhyaya Mandala, Paradi, Balasad (Gujrat), M/S Chowkhamba Pubishers Delhi/Varanasi and Aryasamaja, Delhi - 2. (c) Other literature Mahābhārata of Vedavyāsa in 1 lakh verses is published with Hindi translation by Gita Press Gorakhpur. Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa with Hindi and english translations has also been published by Gita Press. Yoga Vāsiṣṭha Rāmāyaṇa of Vedavyāsa with Hindi tranlation is published by Choukhamba publishers. Hindi version only is published by Gita Press. Most of Bauddha and Jain texts are available with Hindi or English translation from M/S Motilal Banarsidass. 2. Secondary Sources 1. Indica of Megasthnese - J.W.Mc Crindle 2. Al- Biruni's India - Tr. by Edward C. Sachau -S.Chand & Co. Delhi. 3. Sanskrit Dictionaries by VS. Apte - MLBD. 4. Avesta - Kanga FM and Sontakke, Pune. 1962. 5. History of India 12 vols - Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Mumbai 6. Cambridge History of India - 5 Vols. 7. Geographical survey of the Purāṇas - Savitri Saxena.- Nag Publishers, Delhi - 7. 8. The Geography of the Purāṇas - S .M. Ali - People's Publishing House, Delhi - 55. 9. Siddhānta Darpaṇa - Translation and commentary by A.K. Upadhayay - Nag Publishers, Delhi - 7. 10. Other related matter may be seen at website-www.scribd.com/Arunupadhyay