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substantially increase the load capacity of the anchorage.

Early evaluation of the


CCD method for typical examples in petrochemical design supports the observation
of more conservative results and found that, without the use of reinforcing, this
method would lead to unacceptably conservative concrete member sizes.

This report is intended to give guidance for design of anchorages found in the
petrochemical industry. Therefore, based on the observations above, it will identify
the critical steps in anchor bolt design and will make recommendations for providing
reinforcing detai Is to provide safe and economical reinforced concrete designs.

3.2 PETROCHEMICAL ANCHORAGE DESIGN

Design of foundations in petrochemical design often involves the anchorage of


tall vessels and structures subjected to heavy wind and seismic forces, resulting in
large diameter anchor bolts. To transfer the loads from the anchor bolts to the
reinforced concrete foundation, the embedment length of these anchor bolts can
sometimes become quite large, and it is not uncommon for these anchor bolts to
control the depth of the foundation.

The size of the concrete members in which the anchorage is embedded is often
limited by the available space, which is often severely restricted by piping and
electrical conduit, as well as by other foundations and access requirements. Because
of the size and configurations of anchorages used in the petrochemical industry,
design decisions often involve different choices not found in other industries. The
flow chart shown in Figure 3.2 shows the design path that an engineer typically
follows when designing an anchorage to concrete using a headed bolt.

3.3 BOLT CONFIGURATION AND DIMENSIONS (

r
3.3.1 Bolt Configuration t

The bolt configuration consists of either a headed bolt or a steel rod with threads
on each end. ASTM A36 rods have one nut tack welded to rod at the end which is
embedded in concrete. For high strength material which is not weldable (such as
ASTM A193), two nuts are provided at the end embedded in concrete. The two nuts
are jammed together before bolt installation to prevent loosening when the top nut is
tightened.
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AC1349-90, Section B4.5.2 does not differentiate between ASTM A36, A307 and
high strength bolts. For high strength bolt assemblies such as ASTM A193, due to
the very high bearing stress at the nut, it is recommended that a standard washer, of a
material compatible with the threaded rod material, be used. See Section 3.6.4 for d
washer requirements at high strength bolts. tl
tl

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