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Fundamentals of Mechanical Vibrations

- Vibratory response of machine/spindle/tool/workpiece critical to

machining stability in HSM
- Application of mechanical vibrations to characterizing dynamics

Topics:
• Background concepts
• SDOF free vibration
• SDOF forced vibration
– FRF
– Experimental parameter estimation
• 2DOF free vibration
– Modal analysis basics
• 2DOF forced vibration
– Direct/cross FRFs
• Modeling physical systems
Types of Mechanical Vibrations
1) Free vibration
Initial conditions applied to
body (possessing mass/

x(t)
decay of periodic vibration at
damped natural frequency.
t (sec)
2) Forced vibration
Resonance
Continuing periodic force excites
matches forcing function
frequency with magnitude and
Magnitude

phase governed by system

characteristics. Describe
behavior using FRF. ω
ωn
Types of Mechanical Vibrations

3) Self-excited vibration
modulated into vibration at the

x(t)
system natural frequency.

Examples include: t (sec)

whistle - steady air flow produces acoustic vibration
violin - bow across string produces vibration at frequency that
depends on string length
chatter in machining - steady excitation of teeth impacting work
leads to large tool vibrations at system natural frequency
Modeling Vibrating Systems
Elastic bodies possess infinite DOFs (i.e, number of independent
coordinates to completely describe motion).
We model a finite number of DOFs (within BW of interest) and accept

Ex. Cantilever beam Model free-end response:

k
ωn =

ψ 2(x)

ψ 1(x)
m

where,
3EI
k=
L3
ψ 4(x)

ψ 3(x)
etc. m = 0.24 ⋅ mbeam
x x
Periodic Motion
Important concept in mechanical vibrations is periodic motion.

x (t + τ ) = x (t )

x(t)
τ

t (sec)

Simplest form of periodic motion is harmonic motion (sines/cosines).

Periodic curves resolved into series of sine/cosine functions (Fourier).

x (t ) = X 1 sin (ωt ) + X 2 sin (2ωt )

Periodic Motion
Consider the harmonic motion:

x (t ) = X sin (ωt ) 2π
τ
+X ω 1
f = = (cycle/s or Hz)
2π τ
X - magnitude

x(t)
-X τ
t (sec)
Velocity
dx  π
v(t ) = = ω ⋅ X cos (ωt ) = ω ⋅ X sin ωt + 
dt  2
Acceleration
dv
a (t ) = = −ω 2 ⋅ X sin (ωt ) = ω 2 ⋅ X sin (ωt + π )
dt
SDOF Free Vibration
Consider only damped systems (structural, sliding friction, viscous).
Model by lumped parameters.

Equation of motion from

free body diagram.

ΣF = m&x& + cx& + kx = 0

x (t ) = Xe st

This solution introduces Laplace notation in the variable s = iω. The

Laplace transform allows us to map from the time to frequency
domain by:

Laplace of ( f (t )) = F (s ) = ∫ e − st f (t )dt
0
SDOF Free Vibration
Substitution of the assume solution in the EOM gives the
characteristic equation:

ms 2 Xe st + csXe st + kXe st = ms 2 + cs + k Xe st = 0
( )
ms 2 + cs + k = 0 (s = iω ) Trivial solution
(no motion)
Characteristic equation is quadratic in Laplace variable s.
c k
s2 + s+ =0
m m
Determines system behavior;
Roots: underdamped if:
2 2
−c  c  k  c  k
s1,2 = ±   −   − <0
2m  2m  m  2m  m
Underdamped SDOF Free Vibration
1 1
Time domain solution:    c 2 k  2   c 2 k  2

−c    −  t −   −  t
t   2m  m    2m  m  
s1t s2t
x (t ) = Ae + Be = e 2 m   + Be  
 Ae 
 
damping envelope  
 
oscillatory part
Rewrite in more familiar form:
c k
−ζω n t iω d t − iω d t
x (t ) = e [Ae + Be ] where; ζ = ωn =
2 km m
Equivalent forms:
ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2
x (t ) = Ce −ζω n t cos (ω d t + φc )
x (t ) = Ce −ζω n t sin (ω d t + φ s ) where; A,B - complex conjugates
C,D,E - real
x (t ) = e −ζω n t (D cos (ω d t ) + E sin (ω d t ))
Underdamped SDOF Free Vibration
Numerical Example: m = 1 kg, k = 1x107 N/m, c = 126.5 N-s/m,
x0 = 100 µm, x&0 = 0
Calculate:

ωn = = 3162
1 s
c 126.5
ζ = = = 0.02
2 km 2 1 × 107 ⋅ 1

ωd = ωn 1 − ζ = 3162 1 − 0.02 = 3161 .6
s
Select form for time-domain solution:

x (t ) = Ce −ζω n t sin (ω d t + φ s )
where C and φ s are determined from initial conditions
Underdamped SDOF Free Vibration
Numerical Example:
x0ω d
φ s = tan −1
x (t ) = Ce −ζω n t sin (ω d t + φ s ) x&0 + ζω n x0
x0
C=
sin φ s
−1 x0ω d −1 100 ⋅ 3161 .6
φ s = tan = tan = 0.87 rad
x&0 + ζω n x0 0 + 0.02 ⋅ 3162 ⋅ 100
x0 100
C= = = 130.6 µm
sin φ s sin (0.87 )

Oscillates at damped natural frequency

SDOF Forced Vibration
Consider only damped systems. Model by lumped parameters.
External force excites system at frequency ω (rad/s).

Total solution = homogeneous + particular

SS solution has same form as excitation;
substituting x (t ) = Xe iωt gives:
2
(− mω + icω + k Xe iωt = Fe iωt
)
Rearrange to obtain Frequency
X 1
(ω ) =
Response Function (FRF): F − mω 2 + icω + k
FRF describes complex displacement/force ratio as function of ω.
SDOF Forced Vibration
Rewrite FRF as Real/Imaginary vs. frequency
 
 2 
  ω  
1−  
X  1 ω  
 n

Re  (ω ) =  ωn
2 2 Real (X/F)
F  k  2
 
 1 −  ω   +  2ζ  ω   
ω
   ω     ω   
 n     n 
 

 
  ωn
 ω 
− 2ζ 
X  1 ωn
Im  (ω ) =  
2 2
F  k  2
Imag (X/F)

 1 −  ω   +  2ζ  ω   
   ω     ω   
ω
 n     n 
 
SDOF Forced Vibration
May also write FRF as Magnitude/Phase vs. frequency
1
 2
 
 
X 1 1 
(ω ) =  
F k  2 2
2
Magnitude (X/F)

 1 −  ω   +  2ζ  ω    ωn
   ω     ω   
ω
   n     n 

  0
 ω 
 − 2ζ 
X  ω ωn
n 
φ  (ω ) = tan −1 -90
Phase (deg)

F    ω 2 
1−   
    -180
ω
  n  ω
SDOF Forced Vibration
Alternately, can combine Real and Imaginary parts to obtain
Nyquist diagram -- contains Re/Im/Mag/ϕ information.

0
ω
ωn(1+ζ) ωn(1-ζ)

Imag (X/F)
ωn

Real (X/F)
SDOF Forced Vibration
In general, we do no know parameters for model of system
Rather, we have an experimental FRF. Simple fitting algorithm
may be used to extract SDOF ωn, k, and ζ.

3
2

Real (X/F)
Imag (X/F)

f (Hz) f (Hz)

a) Identify three frequencies, one amplitude.

b) Point 1 frequency is fn.
c) Difference between points 2 and 3 frequencies gives ζ.
f3 - f2 = fn(1+ ζ) - fn(1- ζ) = 2 ζfn
d) Amplitude at point 1 gives k: A1 = (-2k ζ)-1
SDOF Forced Vibration
Numerical example -- identify ωn, k, and ζ.

998.2

1038.1
958.2

Real [X/F] (m/N)

Imag [X/F] (m/N)
-6
-2.119x10
f (Hz) f (Hz)

b) fn = 998.2 Hz.

1038 .1 − 958.2
c) ζ = = 0.04 = 4%
2 ⋅ 998.2
−1 6
d) k = = 5 . 9 × 10 N/m
−6
− 2.119 × 10 (2 )0.04
SDOF Forced Vibration
Numerical example: For identified system, determine
displacement amplitude if 100 N force is exciting at resonance

k 5.9 × 106
m= = 2
= 0.15kg
ω n2 (998.2 ⋅ 2π )
6 N −s
c = 2ζ km = 2(0.04 ) 5.9 × 10 ⋅ 0.15 = 75.3
m
FRF magnitude at resonance:
X
(ω = ω n ) = 1
F 2 kζ

Displacement amplitude at resonance:

F 100
X = = 6
= 0.21mm
2 kζ 2 ⋅ 5.9 × 10 ⋅ 0.04
2DOF Free Vibration
Again consider only damped, lumped parameter system -- 2DOF.
Use modal analysis to uncouple local (physical) coordinates.

Modal analysis algorithm:

1) Write equations of motion in local coordinates.
2) For proportional damping, neglect damping and write characteristic
equation for system 2
det [m ]s + [k ] = 0
[ ]
2 2
s
3) Calculate eigenvalues from roots of characteristic equation i = −ω n ,i
4) Use one equation of motion to determine eigenvectors. Normalize
to coordinate of interest.
[
5) Assemble modal matrix (P) from eigenvectors (ψi) P = ψ 1 ψ 2 ... ]
6) Transform local to modal coordinates. Modal matrices are diagonal
and uncoupled.

[mq ] = [P]T [m][P] [cq ] = [P]T [c][P] [kq ] = [P]T [k ][P]

2DOF Free Vibration
7) Write equations of motion in modal coordinates.
mq11q&&1 + cq11q&1 + k q11q1 = 0
mq 22 q&&2 + cq 22 q& 2 + k q 22 q2 = 0

8) Transform initial conditions into modal coordinates.

{q0 } = [P ]−1{xo }
{q&0 } = [P ]−1{x&o }
9) Determine solutions to uncoupled (SDOF) equations of motion.
10) Transform from modal to local coordinates.

{x} = [P ]{q}
2DOF Free Vibration
Consider 2DOF chain-type lumped parameter model.
Coupled equations of motion are:
m1&x&1 + (c1 + c2 )x&1 + (k1 + k 2 )x1 − c2 x&2 − k 2 x2 = 0
m2 &x&2 + c2 x&2 + k 2 x2 − c2 x&1 − k 2 x1 = 0
In matrix form:
 m1 0   &x&1  c1 + c2 −c2   x&1 
   &&  +   &  +
 0 m2   x2   − c2 c2   x2 

 k1 + k2 − k 2   x1  0
   =  
 − k2 k 2   x2  0

2DOF system has 2 natural frequencies/2 mode shapes.

In general, complex mode shapes (ratio of amplitudes and phase
between X1 and X2 in each mode).
2DOF Free Vibration
For light damping, phase shift is small -- so we choose to solve eigen-
problem assuming no damping or proportional damping.

[c ] = α [m] + β [k ]
As in SDOF case, assume harmonic solution and substitute:

x (t ) = Xe st Trivial solution
2
[[m]s + [k ] {X }e st = {0}
]
For non-trivial solution to exist, determinant of LHS must be
zero -- leads to characteristic equation:

det [m ]s 2 + [k ] = 0
[ ]
m1m2 s 4 + ((k1 + k 2 )m2 + m1k 2 )s 2 + (k1 + k 2 )k 2 − (k 2 )2 = 0
Quadratic in s2 - roots are eigenvalues.
2DOF Free Vibration
Eigenvalues give natural frequencies:

s12 = −ω n21 s22 = −ω n22 (ω n1 < ω n 2 )

Either EOM gives eigenvectors upon substitution of eigenvalues:
2
1
(m s + (k1 + k 2 ) X 1 − k 2 X 2 = 0
) Evaluate at s12, s22

X1 k2 X2 Normalized to
= =1 coordinate 2.
X 2 m1s 2 + (k1 + k 2 ) X2
 X1    X 1  
    
ψ 1 =  X 2   ψ 2 =  X 2   P = [ψ 1 ψ 2 ]
 1 1  1 2
   

In general, system vibrates in linear combination of mode shapes.

2DOF Free Vibration
Transform to modal coordinates (diagonalize m, c, and k matrices).

T  mq11 0  T  k q11 0 
[mq ] = [P ] [m ][P ] =   [kq ] = [P ] [k ][P ] =  
 0 mq 22   0 k q 22 

T cq11 0 
[cq ] = [P ] [c][P ] = α [mq ]+ β [kq ] = 
 0 c q 22 

Uncoupled equations of motion (in modal coordinates).

mq11q&&1 + cq11q&1 + k q11q1 = 0
mq 22 q&&2 + cq 22 q& 2 + k q 22 q2 = 0

We may write solutions of the form:

−ζ qiω ni t
qi (t ) = e (Di cos (ω dit ) + Ei sin(ω dit )) i = 1, 2
2DOF Free Vibration
Parameters for solution of decoupled modal equations:
q&0i + ζ qiω ni q0i
Di = q0i Ei =
ω di i = 1, 2
cqii
ζ qi = ω di = ω ni 1 − ζ qi2
2 kqii mqii

 q01  −1  x01   q&01  −1  x&01 

  = [P ]    &  = [P ]  & 
q02   x02  q02   x02 

Finally, transform back into local coordinates.

 x1 (t )  q1 (t ) x1 (t ) = p11q1 (t ) + p22 q2 (t )
  = [P ] 
x
 2 (t ) q
 2 (t ) x2 (t ) = q1 (t ) + q2 (t )
Sum of modal responses
2DOF Free Vibration
Numerical Example: m1 = 1 kg, k1 = 1x107 N/m, m2 = 0.5 kg, k2 =
2x107 N/m, x1(0) = 1 mm, x2(0) = -1 mm, x&1 (0 ) = x&2 (0 ) = 0

Mass and stiffness matrices are:

 m1 0  1 0 
[m] =  =  kg
 0 m2  0 0.5
 k1 + k 2 − k 2   3 × 107 − 2 × 107  N
[k ] =  = 7  m
 − k2 k 2   − 2 × 107 2 × 10 

Characteristic equation is:

2 7
s + 3 × 10 − 2 × 107
det [m ]s 2 + [k ] =
[ ] 2 7
=0
− 2 × 10 7 0.5s + 2 × 10

0.5s 4 + 3.5 × 107 s 2 + 2 × 1014 = 0

2DOF Free Vibration
Roots of characteristic equation give eigenvalues:
s12 = −6.28 × 106 = −ω n21 ω n1 = 2506
s
s22 = −6.37 × 107 = −ω n22 rad
ω n 2 = 7981
s
Eigenvectors (normalized to X2):
 X1  2 × 107 2 × 107
 
 X  = s 2 + 3 × 107 = − 6.28 × 106 + 3 × 107 = 0.843
 2 1 1

 X1  2 × 107 2 × 107
 
 X  = s 2 + 3 × 107 = − 6.37 × 107 + 3 × 107 = −0.593
 2 2 2

0.843 −0.593 0.843 −0.593

ψ1 =   ψ2 =   P= 
 1   1   1 1 
2DOF Free Vibration
Transform to uncoupled modal coordinates using modal matrix:

T 1.211 0 
[ ]
mq = [P ] [m ][P ] =   kg
 0 0.852 

T 7.6 × 10 6 0 N
[kq ] = [P ] [k ][P ] =  7 m
 0 5.43 × 10 

Rewrite equations of motion in modal coordinates:

1.211q&&1 + 7.6 × 106 q1 = 0
0.852 q&&2 + 5.43 × 107 q2 = 0
Convert initial conditions to modal coordinates:
 q01  −1  x01   0.283   q&01  −1  x&01  0
  = [P ]   =  mm  &  = [P ]  &  =  
q02   x02  − 1.283 q02   x02  0
2DOF Free Vibration
Write solution to uncoupled differential equations of motion in
modal coordinates:
q&01
q1 (t ) = sin (ω n1t ) + q01 cos (ω n1t ) = 0.283 cos (2506t )
ω n1
q&02
q2 (t ) = sin (ω n 2t ) + q02 cos (ω n 2t ) = −1.283 cos (7981t )
ωn2
Transform back into local coordinates for final solution:
x1 (t ) = p11q1 (t ) + p22 q2 (t ) = 0.843q1 (t ) − 0.593q2 (t )
x2 (t ) = q1 (t ) + q2 (t )

Substitution gives:
x1 (t ) = 0.239 cos (2506t ) + 0.761 cos (7981t )
x2 (t ) = 0.283 cos (2506t ) − 1.283 cos (7981t )
2DOF Forced Vibration
Harmonic forcing functions applied to lumped parameter coordinates.
Assuming linear system, may treat separately and apply superposition.

Treat F2 only; equations of motion in

matrix form are:
iωt  0  iω t
[m]{&x&} + [c]{x&} + [k ]{x} = {F }e =  e
 F2 
Assume proportional damping,
determine eigenvalues/vectors from
homogeneous case.

det [m ]s 2 + [k ] = 0
[ ]
Obtain uncoupled equations of motion in modal coordinates:

[mq ]{q&&} + [cq ]{q&} + [kq ]{q} = {R}eiωt where R is the modal force vector
2DOF Forced Vibration
Modal force vector R is written as:

T  p11 1  0   F2  where the eigenvectors

{R} = [P ] {F } =    =   have been normalized to
 p12 1  F2   F2  force location

The FRFs for the two uncoupled (modal) systems are:

 
 Qi  1  1 − (ri )2 
Re  (ω ) =  2 
 Ri 2
 kqii  1 − (ri )2 + 2ζ qi ri
 ( ) ( ) where ri = ω/ωni
and i = 1, 2
 
 Qi  1  − 2ζ qi ri 
Im  (ω ) =  2 
R
 i  k qii  1 − (r )2 2
 ( i + 2ζ qi ri
) ( )
2DOF Forced Vibration
Finally, transform back into local coordinates.

X1 Cross FRF - modal

(ω ) = p11Q1 + p12Q2 = p11 Q1 + p12 Q2 FRFs scaled by mode
F2 F2 R1 R2 shapes
X2 Q1 + Q2 Q1 Q2 Direct FRF - sum of modal FRFs
(ω ) = = +
F2 F2 R1 R2 We’ll use this in simulation section.

Cross FRF Direct FRF

Q1/R1
p11Q1/R1
Re[X2/F2]

Re[X1/F2]
p12Q2/R2 Q2/R2

ω ω
Modeling Physical Systems
Typically, do not know parameters for model and we must start with
experimental FRF measurements of mechanical structure.

Consider a system that can be adequately modeled by 2DOF

with a measured direct FRF:

ω n1 ω n2
ω n1(1+ζ q1)
ω n2(1+ζ q2) -1
-1 2kq22ζ q2
2kq11ζ q1

Re[X2/F2]
Im[X2/F2]

ω n1(1-ζ q1) ω n2(1-ζ q2)

ω ω
Use simple fitting procedure to identify modal parameters.
Modeling Physical Systems
Cross FRF provides eigenvectors and modal matrix.

Ratio of cross to direct Imaginary

p12
peaks gives mode shapes.
2kq11ζ q1
-p11  p11   p12 
2kq11ζ q1
ψ1 =   ψ2 =  
 1 

Im[X1/F2]
 1 
Force applied to X2.

ω
Mode 1:  X1  Mode 2: p12  X1 
− p11 Im  
Im  
2k q11ζ q1  F2 1 2kq 22ζ q 2  F2  2
p11 = = p12 = =
−1  X2  −1  X2 
Im   Im  
2k q11ζ q1 2kq 22ζ q 2
 F2 1  F2  2
Modeling Physical Systems
Determine 2DOF chain-type lumped parameter model.

−T −1  m1 0 
[m] = [P ] [mq ][P] = 
 0 m2

−T −1  k1 + k 2 −k2 
[k ] = [P ] [kq ][P ] = 
 − k2 k2 

−T −1 c1 + c2 − c2 
[c] = [P ] [cq ][P] = 
 − c2 c2 
where
 p11 p12 
P= 
 1 1 
Example: Modeling Physical Systems
Direct/cross FRFs measured on cantilever beam; determine
mode shapes.
X1
Direct:
F1

Cross: X2 X3 X4 X5
F1 F1 F1 F1
-5
x 10
5
X1/F1 FRF
From direct FRF, we see
three modes within the
measurement bandwidth 0
(at 100, 300, and 400 Hz),
Imag (m/N)

although an infinite
number actually exist.
-5
0 100 200 300 400 500
f (Hz)
Example: Determining 1st Mode Shape
-5 -5 -5
x 10 x 10 x 10
5 5 5
X1/F1 FRF X2/F1 FRF X3/F1 FRF

0 0 0

Imag (m/N)
Imag (m/N)
-5 -5 Imag (m/N) -5
0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500
f (Hz) f (Hz) f (Hz)
-5 -5
x 10 x 10
5 5
X4/F1 FRF X5/F1 FRF

0 0
Imag (m/N)

Imag (m/N)
-5 -5
0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500
f (Hz) f (Hz)

ψ 1(x)

x
Example: Determining 2nd Mode Shape
-5 -5 -5
x 10 x 10 x 10
5 5 5
X1/F1 FRF X2/F1 FRF X3/F1 FRF

0 0 0

Imag (m/N)
Imag (m/N)
-5 -5 Imag (m/N) -5
0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500
f (Hz) f (Hz) f (Hz)
-5 -5
x 10 x 10
5 5
X4/F1 FRF X5/F1 FRF

0 0
Imag (m/N)

Imag (m/N)
-5 -5
0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500
f (Hz) f (Hz)

ψ 2(x)

x
Example: Determining 3rd Mode Shape
-5 -5 -5
x 10 x 10 x 10
5 5 5
X1/F1 FRF X2/F1 FRF X3/F1 FRF

0 0 0

Imag (m/N)
Imag (m/N)
-5 -5 Imag (m/N) -5
0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500
f (Hz) f (Hz) f (Hz)
-5 -5
x 10 x 10
5 5
X4/F1 FRF X5/F1 FRF

0 0
Imag (m/N)

Imag (m/N)
-5 -5
0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500
f (Hz) f (Hz)

ψ 3(x)