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machining stability in HSM

- Application of mechanical vibrations to characterizing dynamics

Topics:

• Background concepts

• SDOF free vibration

• SDOF forced vibration

– FRF

– Experimental parameter estimation

• 2DOF free vibration

– Modal analysis basics

• 2DOF forced vibration

– Direct/cross FRFs

• Modeling physical systems

Types of Mechanical Vibrations

1) Free vibration

Initial conditions applied to

body (possessing mass/

x(t)

elasticity) leads to exponential

decay of periodic vibration at

damped natural frequency.

t (sec)

2) Forced vibration

Resonance

Continuing periodic force excites

system. Steady-state response

matches forcing function

frequency with magnitude and

Magnitude

characteristics. Describe

behavior using FRF. ω

ωn

Types of Mechanical Vibrations

3) Self-excited vibration

Steady input force is

modulated into vibration at the

x(t)

system natural frequency.

whistle - steady air flow produces acoustic vibration

violin - bow across string produces vibration at frequency that

depends on string length

chatter in machining - steady excitation of teeth impacting work

leads to large tool vibrations at system natural frequency

Modeling Vibrating Systems

Elastic bodies possess infinite DOFs (i.e, number of independent

coordinates to completely describe motion).

We model a finite number of DOFs (within BW of interest) and accept

degradation in accuracy.

k

ωn =

ψ 2(x)

ψ 1(x)

m

where,

3EI

k=

L3

ψ 4(x)

ψ 3(x)

etc. m = 0.24 ⋅ mbeam

x x

Periodic Motion

Important concept in mechanical vibrations is periodic motion.

x (t + τ ) = x (t )

x(t)

τ

t (sec)

Periodic curves resolved into series of sine/cosine functions (Fourier).

Periodic Motion

Consider the harmonic motion:

x (t ) = X sin (ωt ) 2π

where, ω= (rad/s)

τ

+X ω 1

f = = (cycle/s or Hz)

2π τ

X - magnitude

x(t)

-X τ

t (sec)

Velocity

dx π

v(t ) = = ω ⋅ X cos (ωt ) = ω ⋅ X sin ωt +

dt 2

Acceleration

dv

a (t ) = = −ω 2 ⋅ X sin (ωt ) = ω 2 ⋅ X sin (ωt + π )

dt

SDOF Free Vibration

Consider only damped systems (structural, sliding friction, viscous).

Model by lumped parameters.

free body diagram.

ΣF = m&x& + cx& + kx = 0

x (t ) = Xe st

Laplace transform allows us to map from the time to frequency

domain by:

∞

Laplace of ( f (t )) = F (s ) = ∫ e − st f (t )dt

0

SDOF Free Vibration

Substitution of the assume solution in the EOM gives the

characteristic equation:

ms 2 Xe st + csXe st + kXe st = ms 2 + cs + k Xe st = 0

( )

ms 2 + cs + k = 0 (s = iω ) Trivial solution

(no motion)

Characteristic equation is quadratic in Laplace variable s.

c k

s2 + s+ =0

m m

Determines system behavior;

Roots: underdamped if:

2 2

−c c k c k

s1,2 = ± − − <0

2m 2m m 2m m

Underdamped SDOF Free Vibration

1 1

Time domain solution: c 2 k 2 c 2 k 2

−c − t − − t

t 2m m 2m m

s1t s2t

x (t ) = Ae + Be = e 2 m + Be

Ae

damping envelope

oscillatory part

Rewrite in more familiar form:

c k

−ζω n t iω d t − iω d t

x (t ) = e [Ae + Be ] where; ζ = ωn =

2 km m

Equivalent forms:

ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2

x (t ) = Ce −ζω n t cos (ω d t + φc )

x (t ) = Ce −ζω n t sin (ω d t + φ s ) where; A,B - complex conjugates

C,D,E - real

x (t ) = e −ζω n t (D cos (ω d t ) + E sin (ω d t ))

Underdamped SDOF Free Vibration

Numerical Example: m = 1 kg, k = 1x107 N/m, c = 126.5 N-s/m,

x0 = 100 µm, x&0 = 0

Calculate:

1 × 107 rad

ωn = = 3162

1 s

c 126.5

ζ = = = 0.02

2 km 2 1 × 107 ⋅ 1

2 2 rad

ωd = ωn 1 − ζ = 3162 1 − 0.02 = 3161 .6

s

Select form for time-domain solution:

x (t ) = Ce −ζω n t sin (ω d t + φ s )

where C and φ s are determined from initial conditions

Underdamped SDOF Free Vibration

Numerical Example:

x0ω d

φ s = tan −1

x (t ) = Ce −ζω n t sin (ω d t + φ s ) x&0 + ζω n x0

x0

C=

sin φ s

−1 x0ω d −1 100 ⋅ 3161 .6

φ s = tan = tan = 0.87 rad

x&0 + ζω n x0 0 + 0.02 ⋅ 3162 ⋅ 100

x0 100

C= = = 130.6 µm

sin φ s sin (0.87 )

SDOF Forced Vibration

Consider only damped systems. Model by lumped parameters.

External force excites system at frequency ω (rad/s).

SS solution has same form as excitation;

substituting x (t ) = Xe iωt gives:

2

(− mω + icω + k Xe iωt = Fe iωt

)

Rearrange to obtain Frequency

X 1

(ω ) =

Response Function (FRF): F − mω 2 + icω + k

FRF describes complex displacement/force ratio as function of ω.

SDOF Forced Vibration

Rewrite FRF as Real/Imaginary vs. frequency

2

ω

1−

X 1 ω

n

Re (ω ) = ωn

2 2 Real (X/F)

F k 2

1 − ω + 2ζ ω

ω

ω ω

n n

ωn

ω

− 2ζ

X 1 ωn

Im (ω ) =

2 2

F k 2

Imag (X/F)

1 − ω + 2ζ ω

ω ω

ω

n n

SDOF Forced Vibration

May also write FRF as Magnitude/Phase vs. frequency

1

2

X 1 1

(ω ) =

F k 2 2

2

Magnitude (X/F)

1 − ω + 2ζ ω ωn

ω ω

ω

n n

0

ω

− 2ζ

X ω ωn

n

φ (ω ) = tan −1 -90

Phase (deg)

F ω 2

1−

-180

ω

n ω

SDOF Forced Vibration

Alternately, can combine Real and Imaginary parts to obtain

Nyquist diagram -- contains Re/Im/Mag/ϕ information.

0

ω

ωn(1+ζ) ωn(1-ζ)

Imag (X/F)

ωn

Real (X/F)

SDOF Forced Vibration

In general, we do no know parameters for model of system

Rather, we have an experimental FRF. Simple fitting algorithm

may be used to extract SDOF ωn, k, and ζ.

3

2

Real (X/F)

Imag (X/F)

f (Hz) f (Hz)

b) Point 1 frequency is fn.

c) Difference between points 2 and 3 frequencies gives ζ.

f3 - f2 = fn(1+ ζ) - fn(1- ζ) = 2 ζfn

d) Amplitude at point 1 gives k: A1 = (-2k ζ)-1

SDOF Forced Vibration

Numerical example -- identify ωn, k, and ζ.

998.2

1038.1

958.2

Imag [X/F] (m/N)

-6

-2.119x10

f (Hz) f (Hz)

b) fn = 998.2 Hz.

1038 .1 − 958.2

c) ζ = = 0.04 = 4%

2 ⋅ 998.2

−1 6

d) k = = 5 . 9 × 10 N/m

−6

− 2.119 × 10 (2 )0.04

SDOF Forced Vibration

Numerical example: For identified system, determine

displacement amplitude if 100 N force is exciting at resonance

k 5.9 × 106

m= = 2

= 0.15kg

ω n2 (998.2 ⋅ 2π )

6 N −s

c = 2ζ km = 2(0.04 ) 5.9 × 10 ⋅ 0.15 = 75.3

m

FRF magnitude at resonance:

X

(ω = ω n ) = 1

F 2 kζ

F 100

X = = 6

= 0.21mm

2 kζ 2 ⋅ 5.9 × 10 ⋅ 0.04

2DOF Free Vibration

Again consider only damped, lumped parameter system -- 2DOF.

Use modal analysis to uncouple local (physical) coordinates.

1) Write equations of motion in local coordinates.

2) For proportional damping, neglect damping and write characteristic

equation for system 2

det [m ]s + [k ] = 0

[ ]

2 2

s

3) Calculate eigenvalues from roots of characteristic equation i = −ω n ,i

4) Use one equation of motion to determine eigenvectors. Normalize

to coordinate of interest.

[

5) Assemble modal matrix (P) from eigenvectors (ψi) P = ψ 1 ψ 2 ... ]

6) Transform local to modal coordinates. Modal matrices are diagonal

and uncoupled.

2DOF Free Vibration

7) Write equations of motion in modal coordinates.

mq11q&&1 + cq11q&1 + k q11q1 = 0

mq 22 q&&2 + cq 22 q& 2 + k q 22 q2 = 0

{q0 } = [P ]−1{xo }

{q&0 } = [P ]−1{x&o }

9) Determine solutions to uncoupled (SDOF) equations of motion.

10) Transform from modal to local coordinates.

{x} = [P ]{q}

2DOF Free Vibration

Consider 2DOF chain-type lumped parameter model.

Coupled equations of motion are:

m1&x&1 + (c1 + c2 )x&1 + (k1 + k 2 )x1 − c2 x&2 − k 2 x2 = 0

m2 &x&2 + c2 x&2 + k 2 x2 − c2 x&1 − k 2 x1 = 0

In matrix form:

m1 0 &x&1 c1 + c2 −c2 x&1

&& + & +

0 m2 x2 − c2 c2 x2

k1 + k2 − k 2 x1 0

=

− k2 k 2 x2 0

In general, complex mode shapes (ratio of amplitudes and phase

between X1 and X2 in each mode).

2DOF Free Vibration

For light damping, phase shift is small -- so we choose to solve eigen-

problem assuming no damping or proportional damping.

[c ] = α [m] + β [k ]

As in SDOF case, assume harmonic solution and substitute:

x (t ) = Xe st Trivial solution

2

[[m]s + [k ] {X }e st = {0}

]

For non-trivial solution to exist, determinant of LHS must be

zero -- leads to characteristic equation:

det [m ]s 2 + [k ] = 0

[ ]

m1m2 s 4 + ((k1 + k 2 )m2 + m1k 2 )s 2 + (k1 + k 2 )k 2 − (k 2 )2 = 0

Quadratic in s2 - roots are eigenvalues.

2DOF Free Vibration

Eigenvalues give natural frequencies:

Either EOM gives eigenvectors upon substitution of eigenvalues:

2

1

(m s + (k1 + k 2 ) X 1 − k 2 X 2 = 0

) Evaluate at s12, s22

X1 k2 X2 Normalized to

= =1 coordinate 2.

X 2 m1s 2 + (k1 + k 2 ) X2

X1 X 1

ψ 1 = X 2 ψ 2 = X 2 P = [ψ 1 ψ 2 ]

1 1 1 2

2DOF Free Vibration

Transform to modal coordinates (diagonalize m, c, and k matrices).

T mq11 0 T k q11 0

[mq ] = [P ] [m ][P ] = [kq ] = [P ] [k ][P ] =

0 mq 22 0 k q 22

T cq11 0

[cq ] = [P ] [c][P ] = α [mq ]+ β [kq ] =

0 c q 22

mq11q&&1 + cq11q&1 + k q11q1 = 0

mq 22 q&&2 + cq 22 q& 2 + k q 22 q2 = 0

−ζ qiω ni t

qi (t ) = e (Di cos (ω dit ) + Ei sin(ω dit )) i = 1, 2

2DOF Free Vibration

Parameters for solution of decoupled modal equations:

q&0i + ζ qiω ni q0i

Di = q0i Ei =

ω di i = 1, 2

cqii

ζ qi = ω di = ω ni 1 − ζ qi2

2 kqii mqii

= [P ] & = [P ] &

q02 x02 q02 x02

x1 (t ) q1 (t ) x1 (t ) = p11q1 (t ) + p22 q2 (t )

= [P ]

x

2 (t ) q

2 (t ) x2 (t ) = q1 (t ) + q2 (t )

Sum of modal responses

2DOF Free Vibration

Numerical Example: m1 = 1 kg, k1 = 1x107 N/m, m2 = 0.5 kg, k2 =

2x107 N/m, x1(0) = 1 mm, x2(0) = -1 mm, x&1 (0 ) = x&2 (0 ) = 0

m1 0 1 0

[m] = = kg

0 m2 0 0.5

k1 + k 2 − k 2 3 × 107 − 2 × 107 N

[k ] = = 7 m

− k2 k 2 − 2 × 107 2 × 10

2 7

s + 3 × 10 − 2 × 107

det [m ]s 2 + [k ] =

[ ] 2 7

=0

− 2 × 10 7 0.5s + 2 × 10

2DOF Free Vibration

Roots of characteristic equation give eigenvalues:

rad

s12 = −6.28 × 106 = −ω n21 ω n1 = 2506

s

s22 = −6.37 × 107 = −ω n22 rad

ω n 2 = 7981

s

Eigenvectors (normalized to X2):

X1 2 × 107 2 × 107

X = s 2 + 3 × 107 = − 6.28 × 106 + 3 × 107 = 0.843

2 1 1

X1 2 × 107 2 × 107

X = s 2 + 3 × 107 = − 6.37 × 107 + 3 × 107 = −0.593

2 2 2

ψ1 = ψ2 = P=

1 1 1 1

2DOF Free Vibration

Transform to uncoupled modal coordinates using modal matrix:

T 1.211 0

[ ]

mq = [P ] [m ][P ] = kg

0 0.852

T 7.6 × 10 6 0 N

[kq ] = [P ] [k ][P ] = 7 m

0 5.43 × 10

1.211q&&1 + 7.6 × 106 q1 = 0

0.852 q&&2 + 5.43 × 107 q2 = 0

Convert initial conditions to modal coordinates:

q01 −1 x01 0.283 q&01 −1 x&01 0

= [P ] = mm & = [P ] & =

q02 x02 − 1.283 q02 x02 0

2DOF Free Vibration

Write solution to uncoupled differential equations of motion in

modal coordinates:

q&01

q1 (t ) = sin (ω n1t ) + q01 cos (ω n1t ) = 0.283 cos (2506t )

ω n1

q&02

q2 (t ) = sin (ω n 2t ) + q02 cos (ω n 2t ) = −1.283 cos (7981t )

ωn2

Transform back into local coordinates for final solution:

x1 (t ) = p11q1 (t ) + p22 q2 (t ) = 0.843q1 (t ) − 0.593q2 (t )

x2 (t ) = q1 (t ) + q2 (t )

Substitution gives:

x1 (t ) = 0.239 cos (2506t ) + 0.761 cos (7981t )

x2 (t ) = 0.283 cos (2506t ) − 1.283 cos (7981t )

2DOF Forced Vibration

Harmonic forcing functions applied to lumped parameter coordinates.

Assuming linear system, may treat separately and apply superposition.

matrix form are:

iωt 0 iω t

[m]{&x&} + [c]{x&} + [k ]{x} = {F }e = e

F2

Assume proportional damping,

determine eigenvalues/vectors from

homogeneous case.

det [m ]s 2 + [k ] = 0

[ ]

Obtain uncoupled equations of motion in modal coordinates:

[mq ]{q&&} + [cq ]{q&} + [kq ]{q} = {R}eiωt where R is the modal force vector

2DOF Forced Vibration

Modal force vector R is written as:

{R} = [P ] {F } = = have been normalized to

p12 1 F2 F2 force location

Qi 1 1 − (ri )2

Re (ω ) = 2

Ri 2

kqii 1 − (ri )2 + 2ζ qi ri

( ) ( ) where ri = ω/ωni

and i = 1, 2

Qi 1 − 2ζ qi ri

Im (ω ) = 2

R

i k qii 1 − (r )2 2

( i + 2ζ qi ri

) ( )

2DOF Forced Vibration

Finally, transform back into local coordinates.

(ω ) = p11Q1 + p12Q2 = p11 Q1 + p12 Q2 FRFs scaled by mode

F2 F2 R1 R2 shapes

X2 Q1 + Q2 Q1 Q2 Direct FRF - sum of modal FRFs

(ω ) = = +

F2 F2 R1 R2 We’ll use this in simulation section.

Q1/R1

p11Q1/R1

Re[X2/F2]

Re[X1/F2]

p12Q2/R2 Q2/R2

ω ω

Modeling Physical Systems

Typically, do not know parameters for model and we must start with

experimental FRF measurements of mechanical structure.

with a measured direct FRF:

ω n1 ω n2

ω n1(1+ζ q1)

ω n2(1+ζ q2) -1

-1 2kq22ζ q2

2kq11ζ q1

Re[X2/F2]

Im[X2/F2]

ω ω

Use simple fitting procedure to identify modal parameters.

Modeling Physical Systems

Cross FRF provides eigenvectors and modal matrix.

p12

peaks gives mode shapes.

2kq11ζ q1

-p11 p11 p12

2kq11ζ q1

ψ1 = ψ2 =

1

Im[X1/F2]

1

Force applied to X2.

ω

Mode 1: X1 Mode 2: p12 X1

− p11 Im

Im

2k q11ζ q1 F2 1 2kq 22ζ q 2 F2 2

p11 = = p12 = =

−1 X2 −1 X2

Im Im

2k q11ζ q1 2kq 22ζ q 2

F2 1 F2 2

Modeling Physical Systems

Determine 2DOF chain-type lumped parameter model.

−T −1 m1 0

[m] = [P ] [mq ][P] =

0 m2

−T −1 k1 + k 2 −k2

[k ] = [P ] [kq ][P ] =

− k2 k2

−T −1 c1 + c2 − c2

[c] = [P ] [cq ][P] =

− c2 c2

where

p11 p12

P=

1 1

Example: Modeling Physical Systems

Direct/cross FRFs measured on cantilever beam; determine

mode shapes.

X1

Direct:

F1

Cross: X2 X3 X4 X5

F1 F1 F1 F1

-5

x 10

5

X1/F1 FRF

From direct FRF, we see

three modes within the

measurement bandwidth 0

(at 100, 300, and 400 Hz),

Imag (m/N)

although an infinite

number actually exist.

-5

0 100 200 300 400 500

f (Hz)

Example: Determining 1st Mode Shape

-5 -5 -5

x 10 x 10 x 10

5 5 5

X1/F1 FRF X2/F1 FRF X3/F1 FRF

0 0 0

Imag (m/N)

Imag (m/N)

-5 -5 Imag (m/N) -5

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

f (Hz) f (Hz) f (Hz)

-5 -5

x 10 x 10

5 5

X4/F1 FRF X5/F1 FRF

0 0

Imag (m/N)

Imag (m/N)

-5 -5

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

f (Hz) f (Hz)

ψ 1(x)

x

Example: Determining 2nd Mode Shape

-5 -5 -5

x 10 x 10 x 10

5 5 5

X1/F1 FRF X2/F1 FRF X3/F1 FRF

0 0 0

Imag (m/N)

Imag (m/N)

-5 -5 Imag (m/N) -5

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

f (Hz) f (Hz) f (Hz)

-5 -5

x 10 x 10

5 5

X4/F1 FRF X5/F1 FRF

0 0

Imag (m/N)

Imag (m/N)

-5 -5

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

f (Hz) f (Hz)

ψ 2(x)

x

Example: Determining 3rd Mode Shape

-5 -5 -5

x 10 x 10 x 10

5 5 5

X1/F1 FRF X2/F1 FRF X3/F1 FRF

0 0 0

Imag (m/N)

Imag (m/N)

-5 -5 Imag (m/N) -5

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

f (Hz) f (Hz) f (Hz)

-5 -5

x 10 x 10

5 5

X4/F1 FRF X5/F1 FRF

0 0

Imag (m/N)

Imag (m/N)

-5 -5

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

f (Hz) f (Hz)

ψ 3(x)

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