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Biometrics

Abstract: The advent of technology has lead to use of counterfeits by which any confidential data may be accessed. So, there is a need to use identification procedures which can not be counterfeited. Here comes the use of biological (related to physical or behavioral traits) which cannot be faked or counterfeited. “Biometrics” is the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits . In information technology, biometric authentication refers to technologies that measure and analyze human physical and behavioural characteristics for authentication purposes. Examples of physical (or physiological or biometrc) characteristics include fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, facial patterns and hand measurements, while examples of mostly behavioural characteristics include signature, gait and typing patterns. All behavioral biometric characteristics have a physiological component, and, to a lesser degree, physical biometric characteristics have a behavioral element. The purpose of this paper is to present the different methods used in this technology very consisely with related examples. The ways in which counterfeits are kept away from reaching critical data and preventing false members reaping additional benefits.

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papers@gmail. Techfest info.com rohith. and stored for later comparison. For example. Papers of Top MNC (Multi National Company) are posted here. do mail to rohith. as shown in the picture below. (or) What is Biometrics? Biometrics is automated methods of identifying a person or verifying the identity of a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Placement Papers. 5. To contact me just mail to rohith.com (or) rohith.com and share your views. and iris recognition.papers@gmail. If you have any Paper Presentations. A system can also be used in .3. 4.com so that there will be published with your name. where the biometric system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a match based solely on the biometric. During Enrollment . Techfest info.etc can be shared here. processed by a computer. Just download and also Invite your friends so that their Paper Presentations. With multiple direct links.papers@yahoo. All paper presentations. a fingerprint captured during a login). an entire database can be searched to verify a person has not applied for entitlement benefits under two different names.papers@yahoo. Biometric recognition can be used in Identification mode. Biometric authentication requires comparing a registered or enrolled biometric sample (biometric template or identifier) against a newly captured biometric sample (for example. a sample of the biometric trait is captured. speaker verification. Dynamic signature verification. facial characteristics.. Behavioral characteristics are traits that are learned or acquired. Techfest info and Placement procedures. This is sometimes called “one-to-many” matching. and keystroke dynamics are examples of behavioral characteristics. Examples of physiological characteristics include hand or finger images.

Verification mode. but instead of entering a password. or inserts a token such as a smart card. user name. a simple touch with a finger or a glance at a camera is enough to authenticate the user. This is also called “one-to-one” matching. . A user enters an account. verification mode would be used. In most computer access or network access environments. where the biometric system authenticates a person's claimed identity from their previously enrolled pattern.

Two vital specifications: FAR – False Acceptance Ratio is the rate at which a biometric system accepts falsely. verification. FAR is basically the degree of measure of the security level that the system can offer. FAR and FRR . and identification tasks.Block diagrams of enrollment. It may vary in the range of One out of 10.000 to One out of One Million. .

law enforcement has been classifying and determining identity by matching key points of ridge endings and bifurcations.FRR – False Rejection Ratio is defined as the rate at which a system rejects falsely.. One of the most commercially available biometric . c) face thermo-gram. The FAR and FRR are mutually exclusive or inversely proportional to each other for given biometric system i.e. Types of Biometrics: Some of the biometrics technologies areshown • ear.000. d) hand thermo-gram e) hand vein f) hand geometry g) fingerprint h) iris i) retina j) signature k) voice Fingerprints: The patterns of friction ridges and valleys on an individual's fingertips are unique to that individual. a given combination of an algorithm and hardware device. For decades. Fingerprints are unique for each finger of a person including identical twins. b) face. FRR is an indication of comfort factor and typically in the range of One out of 100 to One out of 10.

With these devices.technologies. b) a live-scan capacitive scanner. users no longer need to type passwords – instead. e) an offline inked impression. only a touch provides instant access. Several states check fingerprints for new applicants to social services benefits to ensure recipients do not fraudulently obtain benefits under fake names Fingerprint images from: a) a live-scan FTIR-based optical scanner. Fingerprint systems can also be used in identification mode. d) a live-scan thermal scanner. c) a live-scan piezoelectric scanner. f) a latent fingerprint . . fingerprint recognition devices for desktop and laptop access are now widely available from many different vendors at a low cost.

and multiresolution analysis. Several approaches to modeling facial images in the visible spectrum are Principal Component Analysis. Local Feature Analysis. . though many systems use a real-time process to detect a person's head and locate the face automatically. Major benefits of facial recognition are that it is non-intrusive. Using a wide assortment of cameras. Face Recognition: The identification of a person by their facial image can be done in a number of different ways such as by capturing an image of the face in the visible spectrum using an inexpensive camera or by using the infrared patterns of facial heat emission. continuous and accepted by most users. elastic graph theory. Some facial recognition systems may require a stationary or posed user in order to capture the image. neural networks.Fingerprint sensors can be embedded in a variety of devices for user recognition purposes. Some of the challenges of facial recognition in the visual spectrum include reducing the impact of variable lighting and detecting a mask or photograph. Facial recognition in visible light typically model key features from the central portion of a facial image. the visible light systems extract features from the captured image(s) that do not change over time while avoiding superficial features such as facial expressions or hair. hands-free.

size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e. which is the colored area that surrounds the pupil. which involves selection and enrollment of one or more voice passwords.. Iris scanning devices have been used in personal authentication applications for several years. Most speaker verification applications use textdependent input. This incorporation of learned patterns into the voice templates (the latter called "voiceprints") has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric. The technology works well in both verification and identification modes (in systems performing one-to-many searches in a database). The technology is not intrusive.g. . Voice changes due to aging also need to be addressed by recognition systems." Speaker recognition systems employ three styles of spoken input: textdependent. Current systems can be used even in the presence of eyeglasses and contact lenses. voice pitch. Iris patterns are thought unique. neural networks. Iris recognition has been demonstrated to work with individuals from different ethnic groups and nationalities.g. These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e. Ambient noise levels can impede collection of the initial and as well as subsequent voice samples. The various technologies used to process and store voiceprints include pattern matching algorithms.. where the output of several voice filters was averaged over time for matching. text-prompted and text independent. Systems based on iris recognition have substantially decreased in price and this trend is expected to continue. The iris patterns are obtained through a video-based image acquisition system.Two dimensional grayscale images representing distinctive characteristics of a facial image Speaker Recognition: Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades. It does not require physical contact with a scanner. speaking style). Iris Recognition: This recognition method uses the iris of the eye. Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioral attributes of the voice and from enrollment using one telephone and verification on another telephone. matrix-representation and decision trees.

To achieve personal authentication. pressure and angle used by the person when a signature is produced. Hand recognition has been available for over twenty years. This behavioral biometric is not expected to be unique to each individual but it offers sufficient discriminatory information to permit identity verification. Keystroke dynamics : It is hypothesized that each person types on a keyboard in a characteristic way.Iris images Hand and Finger Geometry: These methods of personal authentication are well established. for some individuals. One interesting characteristic is that some systems require a small biometric sample (a few bytes). one may expect to observe large variations from typical typing patterns. It can frequently be found in physical access control in commercial and residential applications. Signature Verification: This technology uses the dynamic analysis of a signature to authenticate a person. . One focus for this technology has been e-business applications and other applications where signature is an accepted method of personal authentication. The technology is based on measuring speed. The keystrokes of a person using a system could be monitored unobtrusively as that person is keying in information. Keystroke dynamics is a behavioral biometric. Hand geometry has gained acceptance in a range of applications. width. a system may measure either physical characteristics of the fingers or the hands. in time and attendance systems and in general personal authentication applications. thickness and surface area of the hand. These include length.

Retinal aviculture can reveal some medical conditions (e. hand and hand vein infrared thermo-grams : The pattern of heat radiated by the human body is a characteristic of each individual body and can be captured by an infrared camera in an unobtrusive way much like a regular (visible spectrum) photograph. Infrared sensors are prohibitively expensive which is a factor inhibiting widespread use of the thermo-grams. Gait : Gait is the peculiar way one walks and is a complex spatio-temporal biometric. major injuries involving joints or brain. but is sufficiently characteristic to allow verification in some low-security applications. may drastically affect the image acquisition phase. entails contact with the eyepiece. especially over a large period of time. Facial. where heat-emanating surfaces in the vicinity of the body. The image capture requires a person to peep into an eyepiece and focus on a specific spot in the visual field so that a predetermined part of the retinal aviculture may be imaged. it is computing and input intensive. A thermo-gram based system is non-contact and non-invasive but sensing challenges in uncontrolled environments.. Acquisition of gait is similar to acquiring facial pictures and hence it may be an acceptable biometric. All these factors adversely affect public acceptability of retinal biometrics. Odo r: It is known that each object exudes an odor that is characteristic of its chemical . It is claimed to be the most secure biometric since it is not easy to change or replicate the retinal aviculture. The technology could be used for covert recognition and could distinguish between identical twins. major shift in the body weight. Because gaitbased systems use video sequence footage of a walking person to measure several different movements of each articulate joint.Retinal scan : The retinal aviculture is rich in structure and is supposed to be a characteristic of each individual and each eye. hypertension). and requires a conscious effort on the part of the user. due to large fluctuations of body weight.g. room heaters and vehicle exhaust pipes. such as. The image acquisition involves cooperation of the subject. or due to inebriety. A related technology using near infrared imaging is used to scan the back of a clenched fist to determine hand vein structure. Gait is not supposed to be very distinctive. Gait is a behavioral biometric and may not stay invariant. which is another factor standing in the way of public acceptance of retinal scan-based biometrics.

• Privacy issues: information about susceptibilities of a person to certain diseases could be gained from the DNA pattern and there is a concern that the unintended abuse of genetic code information may result in discrimination. It is. A whiff of air sur-rounding an object is blown over an array of chemical sensors. The ear recognition approaches are based on matching the distance of salient points on the pinna from a landmark location on the ear. however. currently used mostly in the context of forensic applications for person recognition. each sensitive to a certain group of (aromatic) compounds. DN A: Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the one-dimensional ultimate unique code for one's individuality. Ea r: It is known that the shape of the ear and the structure of the cartilaginous tissue of the pinna are distinctive. Why Use Biometrics? . in hiring practices. for example. except for the fact that identical twins have identical DNA patterns. The features of an ear are not expected to be unique to an individual. • Automatic real-time recognition issues: the present technology for DNA matching re-quires cumbersome chemical methods (wet processes) involving an expert's skills and is not geared for on-line non-invasive recognition. Several issues limit the utility of this biometric for other applications: • Contamination and sensitivity: it is easy to steal a piece of DNA from an unsuspecting subject that can be subsequently abused for an ulterior purpose. It is not clear if the in-variance in the body odor could be detected despite deodorant smells and varying Chemical composition of the surrounding environment. A component of the odor emitted by a human (or any animal) body is distinctive to a particular individual.composition and could be used for distinguishing various objects.

” Technologies such as hand geometry have been used for many years and technologies such as face or iris recognition have come into widespread use. single signon. magnetic stripe cards. . encryption keys and digital signatures. application logon. investing and other financial transactions. Moreover. First. biometrics is anticipated to pervade nearly all aspects of the economy and our daily lives. For example. can be lost. Tokens. There is a great deal of scientific data supporting the idea that “no two fingerprints are alike. and health and social services are already benefiting from these technologies. As biometric technologies mature and come into wide-scale commercial use. The process should be quick and easy. or left at home. web sites and so forth. Biometrics hold the promise of fast. The promises of e-commerce and e-government can be achieved through the utilization of strong personal authentication procedures. e-mail accounts. There is no one “perfect” biometric that fits all needs. photo ID cards. Low cost is important. the biometric must be based upon a distinguishable trait. duplicated. and Web security. law enforcement. such as smart cards. the lifecycle support cost of providing system administration and an enrollment operator can overtake the initial cost of the biometric hardware. retail sales. transaction security. All biometric systems have their own advantages and disadvantages. accurate. Utilized alone or integrated with other technologies such as smart cards. Passwords can be forgotten.Using biometrics for identifying human beings offers some unique advantages. Biometric technologies are expected to play a key role in personal authentication for large-scale enterprise network authentication environments. Often. dealing with multiple levels of authentication or multiple instances of authentication will become less of a burden for users. some common characteristics needed to make a biometric system usable. Point-ofSale and for the protection of all types of digital content such as in Digital Rights Management and Health Care applications. data protection. or observed. wireless phones. speaking into a microphone. Some newer biometric methods may be just as accurate. such as having a picture taken by a video camera. bank ATMs. but may require more research to establish their uniqueness. today's fast-paced electronic world means people are asked to remember a multitude of passwords and personal identification numbers (PINs) for computer accounts. or touching a fingerprint scanner. law enforcement has used fingerprints to identify people. easy-to-use. for nearly a century. remote access to resources. physical keys and so forth. and less expensive authentication for a variety of applications. reliable. Another key aspect is how “user-friendly” a system is. Biometrics can be used to identify you as you. The advantage biometric authentication provides is the ability to require more instances of authentication in such a quick and easy manner that users are not bothered by the additional requirements. Secure electronic banking. but most implementers understand that it is not only the initial cost of the sensor or the matching software that is involved. however. shared. There are. Uses for Biometrics Biometric-based authentication applications include workstation and network access. stolen.

Many biometric technology providers are already delivering biometric authentication for a variety of web-based and client/server based applications to meet these and other needs. for example. less expensive. faster and easy to use. or the National Security Agency. biometric technologies are becoming foundation for many highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. Certain specific biometric technologies that may have been identified to adequately describe the subject matter in no way imply endorsement by the Biometric Consortium. Many areas will benefit from biometric technologies. Evidence of the growing acceptance of biometrics is the availability in the marketplace of biometric-based authentication solutions that are becoming more accurate. While biometric authentication is not a magical solution that solves all authentication concerns. user-friendly authentication with a high level of accuracy and cost savings.Summary Recent advances in biometric technology have resulted in increased accuracy at reduced costs. it will make it easier and cheaper for us to use a variety of automated information systems. Highly secure and trustworthy electronic commerce. the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Continued improvements in technology will bring increased performance at a lower cost. Today's biometric solutions provide a means to achieve fast. nor does it imply that the technologies identified are the only ones available in the marketplace. will be essential to the healthy growth of the global Internet economy. . Interest in biometrics is growing substantially.

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Raj Nanavati · Introduction to Fingerprint Comparison by Gary W. Woodward Jr. Nicholas M. Michael Thieme. U. Jones · Intelligent Biometric Techniques in Fingerprint and Face Recognition by L. I. Hayashi. S. B. Peter T. Orlans. C. Ashbourn · Biometrics: Identity Verification in a Networked World by Samir Nanavati. Higgins · Biometrics: Advanced Identify Verification: The Complete Guide by Julian D. M. Lee. Tsutsui .References: · Biometrics by John D.. Jain. Halici. S.