Biometrics

Abstract: The advent of technology has lead to use of counterfeits by which any confidential data may be accessed. So, there is a need to use identification procedures which can not be counterfeited. Here comes the use of biological (related to physical or behavioral traits) which cannot be faked or counterfeited. “Biometrics” is the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits . In information technology, biometric authentication refers to technologies that measure and analyze human physical and behavioural characteristics for authentication purposes. Examples of physical (or physiological or biometrc) characteristics include fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, facial patterns and hand measurements, while examples of mostly behavioural characteristics include signature, gait and typing patterns. All behavioral biometric characteristics have a physiological component, and, to a lesser degree, physical biometric characteristics have a behavioral element. The purpose of this paper is to present the different methods used in this technology very consisely with related examples. The ways in which counterfeits are kept away from reaching critical data and preventing false members reaping additional benefits.

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Techfest info. Behavioral characteristics are traits that are learned or acquired.. and keystroke dynamics are examples of behavioral characteristics.etc can be shared here. facial characteristics. Biometric authentication requires comparing a registered or enrolled biometric sample (biometric template or identifier) against a newly captured biometric sample (for example. Dynamic signature verification. To contact me just mail to rohith. where the biometric system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a match based solely on the biometric. For example. Just download and also Invite your friends so that their Paper Presentations. speaker verification. All paper presentations. an entire database can be searched to verify a person has not applied for entitlement benefits under two different names. A system can also be used in . Techfest info and Placement procedures. as shown in the picture below. During Enrollment .3. This is sometimes called “one-to-many” matching.papers@gmail. Techfest info. If you have any Paper Presentations. Papers of Top MNC (Multi National Company) are posted here. Biometric recognition can be used in Identification mode. processed by a computer.com (or) rohith.papers@yahoo. With multiple direct links. and stored for later comparison. a sample of the biometric trait is captured. and iris recognition. a fingerprint captured during a login). Placement Papers. Examples of physiological characteristics include hand or finger images.com rohith.com and share your views.com so that there will be published with your name. (or) What is Biometrics? Biometrics is automated methods of identifying a person or verifying the identity of a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. 5. 4. do mail to rohith.papers@yahoo.papers@gmail.

This is also called “one-to-one” matching. a simple touch with a finger or a glance at a camera is enough to authenticate the user. In most computer access or network access environments. verification mode would be used. where the biometric system authenticates a person's claimed identity from their previously enrolled pattern.Verification mode. A user enters an account. . user name. but instead of entering a password. or inserts a token such as a smart card.

It may vary in the range of One out of 10.Two vital specifications: FAR – False Acceptance Ratio is the rate at which a biometric system accepts falsely. verification. and identification tasks.Block diagrams of enrollment. FAR is basically the degree of measure of the security level that the system can offer. .000 to One out of One Million. FAR and FRR .

e.FRR – False Rejection Ratio is defined as the rate at which a system rejects falsely. c) face thermo-gram. The FAR and FRR are mutually exclusive or inversely proportional to each other for given biometric system i. FRR is an indication of comfort factor and typically in the range of One out of 100 to One out of 10..000. d) hand thermo-gram e) hand vein f) hand geometry g) fingerprint h) iris i) retina j) signature k) voice Fingerprints: The patterns of friction ridges and valleys on an individual's fingertips are unique to that individual. One of the most commercially available biometric . a given combination of an algorithm and hardware device. Fingerprints are unique for each finger of a person including identical twins. b) face. For decades. Types of Biometrics: Some of the biometrics technologies areshown • ear. law enforcement has been classifying and determining identity by matching key points of ridge endings and bifurcations.

. Several states check fingerprints for new applicants to social services benefits to ensure recipients do not fraudulently obtain benefits under fake names Fingerprint images from: a) a live-scan FTIR-based optical scanner. d) a live-scan thermal scanner. fingerprint recognition devices for desktop and laptop access are now widely available from many different vendors at a low cost.technologies. c) a live-scan piezoelectric scanner. f) a latent fingerprint . users no longer need to type passwords – instead. With these devices. Fingerprint systems can also be used in identification mode. e) an offline inked impression. only a touch provides instant access. b) a live-scan capacitive scanner.

Using a wide assortment of cameras. Several approaches to modeling facial images in the visible spectrum are Principal Component Analysis. and multiresolution analysis. neural networks. elastic graph theory. . Major benefits of facial recognition are that it is non-intrusive. though many systems use a real-time process to detect a person's head and locate the face automatically. continuous and accepted by most users. the visible light systems extract features from the captured image(s) that do not change over time while avoiding superficial features such as facial expressions or hair. Face Recognition: The identification of a person by their facial image can be done in a number of different ways such as by capturing an image of the face in the visible spectrum using an inexpensive camera or by using the infrared patterns of facial heat emission. Facial recognition in visible light typically model key features from the central portion of a facial image.Fingerprint sensors can be embedded in a variety of devices for user recognition purposes. hands-free. Local Feature Analysis. Some of the challenges of facial recognition in the visual spectrum include reducing the impact of variable lighting and detecting a mask or photograph. Some facial recognition systems may require a stationary or posed user in order to capture the image.

Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioral attributes of the voice and from enrollment using one telephone and verification on another telephone. Systems based on iris recognition have substantially decreased in price and this trend is expected to continue.. which is the colored area that surrounds the pupil. The iris patterns are obtained through a video-based image acquisition system. speaking style). Ambient noise levels can impede collection of the initial and as well as subsequent voice samples.g.g. The various technologies used to process and store voiceprints include pattern matching algorithms. size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e. The technology is not intrusive. which involves selection and enrollment of one or more voice passwords. Iris Recognition: This recognition method uses the iris of the eye. Most speaker verification applications use textdependent input. where the output of several voice filters was averaged over time for matching. Iris recognition has been demonstrated to work with individuals from different ethnic groups and nationalities. Iris patterns are thought unique. ." Speaker recognition systems employ three styles of spoken input: textdependent. neural networks. It does not require physical contact with a scanner.Two dimensional grayscale images representing distinctive characteristics of a facial image Speaker Recognition: Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades. Current systems can be used even in the presence of eyeglasses and contact lenses. These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e. text-prompted and text independent. matrix-representation and decision trees. The technology works well in both verification and identification modes (in systems performing one-to-many searches in a database). voice pitch. Voice changes due to aging also need to be addressed by recognition systems.. This incorporation of learned patterns into the voice templates (the latter called "voiceprints") has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric. Iris scanning devices have been used in personal authentication applications for several years.

Hand recognition has been available for over twenty years. The keystrokes of a person using a system could be monitored unobtrusively as that person is keying in information. This behavioral biometric is not expected to be unique to each individual but it offers sufficient discriminatory information to permit identity verification. pressure and angle used by the person when a signature is produced. a system may measure either physical characteristics of the fingers or the hands. thickness and surface area of the hand. width. in time and attendance systems and in general personal authentication applications. The technology is based on measuring speed. one may expect to observe large variations from typical typing patterns. It can frequently be found in physical access control in commercial and residential applications. Keystroke dynamics : It is hypothesized that each person types on a keyboard in a characteristic way. Signature Verification: This technology uses the dynamic analysis of a signature to authenticate a person. Keystroke dynamics is a behavioral biometric. . These include length. for some individuals. To achieve personal authentication. One interesting characteristic is that some systems require a small biometric sample (a few bytes). One focus for this technology has been e-business applications and other applications where signature is an accepted method of personal authentication.Iris images Hand and Finger Geometry: These methods of personal authentication are well established. Hand geometry has gained acceptance in a range of applications.

It is claimed to be the most secure biometric since it is not easy to change or replicate the retinal aviculture. Infrared sensors are prohibitively expensive which is a factor inhibiting widespread use of the thermo-grams. or due to inebriety.. it is computing and input intensive. All these factors adversely affect public acceptability of retinal biometrics. such as.g. Odo r: It is known that each object exudes an odor that is characteristic of its chemical .Retinal scan : The retinal aviculture is rich in structure and is supposed to be a characteristic of each individual and each eye. entails contact with the eyepiece. hand and hand vein infrared thermo-grams : The pattern of heat radiated by the human body is a characteristic of each individual body and can be captured by an infrared camera in an unobtrusive way much like a regular (visible spectrum) photograph. due to large fluctuations of body weight. The technology could be used for covert recognition and could distinguish between identical twins. The image acquisition involves cooperation of the subject. A related technology using near infrared imaging is used to scan the back of a clenched fist to determine hand vein structure. Acquisition of gait is similar to acquiring facial pictures and hence it may be an acceptable biometric. major injuries involving joints or brain. but is sufficiently characteristic to allow verification in some low-security applications. Facial. may drastically affect the image acquisition phase. especially over a large period of time. hypertension). which is another factor standing in the way of public acceptance of retinal scan-based biometrics. The image capture requires a person to peep into an eyepiece and focus on a specific spot in the visual field so that a predetermined part of the retinal aviculture may be imaged. where heat-emanating surfaces in the vicinity of the body. Retinal aviculture can reveal some medical conditions (e. Gait : Gait is the peculiar way one walks and is a complex spatio-temporal biometric. Because gaitbased systems use video sequence footage of a walking person to measure several different movements of each articulate joint. major shift in the body weight. Gait is not supposed to be very distinctive. Gait is a behavioral biometric and may not stay invariant. room heaters and vehicle exhaust pipes. and requires a conscious effort on the part of the user. A thermo-gram based system is non-contact and non-invasive but sensing challenges in uncontrolled environments.

It is. It is not clear if the in-variance in the body odor could be detected despite deodorant smells and varying Chemical composition of the surrounding environment. currently used mostly in the context of forensic applications for person recognition. each sensitive to a certain group of (aromatic) compounds. DN A: Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the one-dimensional ultimate unique code for one's individuality. Why Use Biometrics? . Ea r: It is known that the shape of the ear and the structure of the cartilaginous tissue of the pinna are distinctive. • Automatic real-time recognition issues: the present technology for DNA matching re-quires cumbersome chemical methods (wet processes) involving an expert's skills and is not geared for on-line non-invasive recognition. however. Several issues limit the utility of this biometric for other applications: • Contamination and sensitivity: it is easy to steal a piece of DNA from an unsuspecting subject that can be subsequently abused for an ulterior purpose.composition and could be used for distinguishing various objects. in hiring practices. for example. The ear recognition approaches are based on matching the distance of salient points on the pinna from a landmark location on the ear. A whiff of air sur-rounding an object is blown over an array of chemical sensors. • Privacy issues: information about susceptibilities of a person to certain diseases could be gained from the DNA pattern and there is a concern that the unintended abuse of genetic code information may result in discrimination. The features of an ear are not expected to be unique to an individual. except for the fact that identical twins have identical DNA patterns. A component of the odor emitted by a human (or any animal) body is distinctive to a particular individual.

application logon. There are. stolen. Tokens. First. data protection. accurate. speaking into a microphone. The promises of e-commerce and e-government can be achieved through the utilization of strong personal authentication procedures. Utilized alone or integrated with other technologies such as smart cards. Another key aspect is how “user-friendly” a system is. Moreover. such as smart cards. and less expensive authentication for a variety of applications. and health and social services are already benefiting from these technologies. remote access to resources. duplicated. encryption keys and digital signatures. Secure electronic banking. biometrics is anticipated to pervade nearly all aspects of the economy and our daily lives. today's fast-paced electronic world means people are asked to remember a multitude of passwords and personal identification numbers (PINs) for computer accounts. dealing with multiple levels of authentication or multiple instances of authentication will become less of a burden for users. law enforcement has used fingerprints to identify people. There is no one “perfect” biometric that fits all needs. The process should be quick and easy.Using biometrics for identifying human beings offers some unique advantages. and Web security. or left at home. magnetic stripe cards. easy-to-use. For example. Point-ofSale and for the protection of all types of digital content such as in Digital Rights Management and Health Care applications. Biometrics hold the promise of fast. Low cost is important. the lifecycle support cost of providing system administration and an enrollment operator can overtake the initial cost of the biometric hardware. can be lost. single signon. Often. bank ATMs. Uses for Biometrics Biometric-based authentication applications include workstation and network access. such as having a picture taken by a video camera. The advantage biometric authentication provides is the ability to require more instances of authentication in such a quick and easy manner that users are not bothered by the additional requirements. As biometric technologies mature and come into wide-scale commercial use. or touching a fingerprint scanner. law enforcement. retail sales. but most implementers understand that it is not only the initial cost of the sensor or the matching software that is involved. for nearly a century. the biometric must be based upon a distinguishable trait. transaction security. Some newer biometric methods may be just as accurate. however.” Technologies such as hand geometry have been used for many years and technologies such as face or iris recognition have come into widespread use. Passwords can be forgotten. investing and other financial transactions. web sites and so forth. reliable. or observed. There is a great deal of scientific data supporting the idea that “no two fingerprints are alike. but may require more research to establish their uniqueness. physical keys and so forth. photo ID cards. shared. some common characteristics needed to make a biometric system usable. . All biometric systems have their own advantages and disadvantages. wireless phones. Biometrics can be used to identify you as you. e-mail accounts. Biometric technologies are expected to play a key role in personal authentication for large-scale enterprise network authentication environments.

Evidence of the growing acceptance of biometrics is the availability in the marketplace of biometric-based authentication solutions that are becoming more accurate. user-friendly authentication with a high level of accuracy and cost savings. biometric technologies are becoming foundation for many highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. or the National Security Agency. Many areas will benefit from biometric technologies. Many biometric technology providers are already delivering biometric authentication for a variety of web-based and client/server based applications to meet these and other needs. less expensive. Highly secure and trustworthy electronic commerce. While biometric authentication is not a magical solution that solves all authentication concerns. Certain specific biometric technologies that may have been identified to adequately describe the subject matter in no way imply endorsement by the Biometric Consortium. . Today's biometric solutions provide a means to achieve fast. for example. faster and easy to use. will be essential to the healthy growth of the global Internet economy. the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Continued improvements in technology will bring increased performance at a lower cost. Interest in biometrics is growing substantially. nor does it imply that the technologies identified are the only ones available in the marketplace. it will make it easier and cheaper for us to use a variety of automated information systems.Summary Recent advances in biometric technology have resulted in increased accuracy at reduced costs.

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Peter T. S. Woodward Jr. Raj Nanavati · Introduction to Fingerprint Comparison by Gary W.References: · Biometrics by John D. Hayashi. Higgins · Biometrics: Advanced Identify Verification: The Complete Guide by Julian D. S. Orlans. I. Halici. Lee. Michael Thieme. Nicholas M. B. C. Jones · Intelligent Biometric Techniques in Fingerprint and Face Recognition by L. Ashbourn · Biometrics: Identity Verification in a Networked World by Samir Nanavati. U. Tsutsui .. Jain. M.

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