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Name ____________________________________

1. A piece of wood of S = 0.651 is 8 cm square and 150 cm long. How many kilograms of lead weighing 11,200

kg/m3 must be fastened at one end of the stick so that it will float upright with 30.5 cm out of water?

S 0.651

kg

w ood 0.651(1000) 651

m3

V1 0.08(0.08)(1.5) 0.96 m 3

W1 0.96(651) 624.96 kg

W2 11,200V2

BF1 (1.5 0.305)1000 1195 kg

BF2 1000V2

W1 W2 BF1 BF2

624.96 11,200V2 1195 1000V2

1195 - 624.96

V2 0.056 m 3

10,200

W2 625.93 kg

2. A barge is loaded with 150 Metric tons of coal. The weight of the empty barge in air is 35 Metric ton. If the barge

is 5.5 m wide, 16 m long and 3 m high, what is its draft. (Depth below the water surface)

W BF

W1 W2 Vs

(150 35)(1000) 1000(5.5)(16)h

h 2.1 m

3. A prismatic object 20 cm thick by 20 cm wide by 40 cm long is weighed in water at a depth of 50 cm and found

to weigh 50 N. What is its weight in air and its specific gravity?

W1

W2 50 Newton

V1 (0.20)(0.20)(0.4) 0.016 m3

m1

1

V1

m1

V1 W1

S

1000 W1 W2

W1 m1g Newton

W1

gV1 W1

1000 W1 W2

W1 W1

9810V1 W1 W2

1 1

9810V1 W1 W2

W1 W2 9,810(0.016)

W1 156.96 50

W1 206.96 Newton

206.96

S 1.312

206.96 - 50

FLUID MECHANICS QUIZ NO. 3

1. A block of wood has a vertical projection of 15.24 cm when placed in water and 10.2 cm when placed in

alcohol. If the specific gravity of alcohol is 0.82, find the specific gravity of wood gravity of wood.

In water

W BF 1000A(h - 0.1524) 1

In Alcohol

W BF 0.82(1000)A(h - 0.102) 2

Equating eq. 1 and eq. 2

(h - 0.1524) 0.82(h - 0.102)

h - 0.82h 0.1524 0.82(0.102)

h 0.382 m

W 1000(0.2296)A 3

W B A(0.382) 4

eq.3 eq. 4

1000(0.2296) 0.382 B

B 0.2296

SB 0.601

1000 0.382

2. A cubical block of wood 10 cm on a side floats at the interface between oil and water with its lower surface

1.50 cm below the interface. The density of the oil is 790 kg/m 3 . What is the gage pressure at the lower face

of the block? What is the mass and density of the block?

3. Compartments A and B of the tank shown in the figure below are closed and filled with air and a liquid with S =

0.6. If the atmospheric pressure is 101 KPa (abs) and the pressure gage reads 3.5 KPa (gage), determine the

manometer reading h in cm.

3.5 0.6(9.81)0.02 13.6(9.81)(0.03)

h 1 .9 m

9.81(1 0.6)

4. The gate shown is hinged at A and rests on a smooth floor at B. The gate is 3 m square. Oil (S = 0.80) stands

on the left side of the gate to a height of 1.5 m above A. Above the oil surface is a gas under a gage pressure

of -6.9 KPa. Determine the amount of the vertical force P applied at B that would be required to open the gate.

P = -6.9 KPag

Free Surface

1.5m

h

A

F

· CG

P · CP

45°

m

3

F 6.9 0.80(9.81)2.56(3)(3) 118.8 KN

5. A spherical buoy 2 m in diameter floats half submerge in a liquid with S = 1.5. What is the weight of the lead

anchor weighing 7000 kg/m 3 will completely submerged the buoy in the liquid.

kg

L 1.5(1000) 1500

m3

4

Vsphere R 3 4.18 m 3

3

1 4

Vs (1) 3 2.09 m 3 volume submerge

23

W1 BF1 L ( Vs )

W1 1500(2.09) 3135 kg

from figure 2 :

W1 W2 BF1 BF2

BF1 1500(Vsphere ) 1500(4.18) 6270 kg

W1 3135 kg

W2 7000V2

BF2 1500V2

3135 7000V2 6270 1500V2

V2 0.57 m 3

W2 3990 kg

6. A glass tube 1.5 m long and 25 mm diameter with one end closed is inserted vertically with the open end down into

a tank of water until the open end is submerged to a depth of 1.2 m. If the barometric pressure is 98 KPa, and

neglecting vapor pressure, how high will water rise in the tube. (Assume isothermal conditions for air)

fOR isothermal :

P1V1 P2 V2

V1 (0.025)2 (1.5) 0.00074 m3

4

P2 98 9.81(1.2 x ) 1

V2 (0.025)2 (1.5 x ) 2

4

98 (0.025)2 (1.5) 98 9.81(1.2 x ) (0.025)2 (1.5 x )

4 4

98(1.5) 98 9.81(1.2 x )(1.5 x )

147 (98 11.772 9.81x )(1.5 x )

147 (109.772 9.81x )(1.5 x )

147 164.658 109.772x 14.715x 9.81x 2

9.81x 2 124.487x 17.658 0

x 2 12.7 x 1.8 0

12.7 12.98

x

2

x 0.14 m 14 cm

1. A brass cube 152.4 mm on a side weighs 298.2 N. We want to hold this cube in equilibrium under water by

attaching a light foam buoy to it. If the foam weighs 707.3 N/m 3, what is the minimum required volume of the

buoy?

W1 298.2 N

BF1 (0.1524) 3 (9810) 34.72 N

W2 707.3 V2 1

BF2 V2 (9810) 2

298.2 707.3 V2 34.72 V2 (9810)

298.2 34.72

V2 0.029 m 3

9810 707.3

2. A man dives into a lake and tries to lift a large rock weighing 170 kg. If the density of the granite rock is 2700

kg/m3, find the force that the man needs to apply to lift it from the bottom of the lake. Assume density of lake

water to be 1000 kg/m3.

W 2700V 170 kg

170

V 0.063 m 3

2700

BF 1000(0.063) 63 kg

W BF T

T 170 - 63 107 kg

3. A 1.2 m diameter steel pipe, 6 mm thick, carries oil with S = 0.822 under a head of 122 m of oil. Compute

a. The stress in the steel in KPa

b. The thickness of the steel pipe required to carry a pressure of 1724 KPa with an allowable stress

of 124 MPa

PD

S

2t

P 0.822(9.81)(122) 983.8 KPa

983.8(1.2)

S 98,379 KPa

2(0.006)

1724(1.2)

t 0.0083 m 8.3 mm

124,000(2)

Example 1

A large pipe called a penstock in hydraulic work is 1.5 m in diameter. Here it is composed of wooden staves bound

together by steel hoops each 3.23 cm 2 in area, and is used to conduct water from a reservoir to a powerhouse. If the

maximum tensile stress permitted in the hoops is 130 MPa, what is the maximum spacing between hoops under a

head of 30.5 m.

L L

1.5 m

D 1.5 m

On the vertical projection

F

P ; A LD

A

F 299.205(1.5)L 448.81L KN

F

T 224.4L KN

2

Tensile Stress on the hoop

T

S ; A 3.23 cm2

A

A 0.000323 m2

S 130000 KPa

224.4L

130000

0.000323

L 0.187 m 18.7 cm

Example 2

Compute the wall stress in a 1200 mm diameter steel pipe 6 mm thick under a pressure of 970 KPa.

Given:

D = 1.2 m

t = 0.006 m

P = 970 KPa

PD 970(1.2)

S 97,000 KPa

2t 2(0.006)

Example 3

What is the minimum allowable thickness of 600 mm diameter steel pipe under an internal pressure of 860

KPa with a working stress in the steel of 70,000KPa.

PD

S

2t

860(0.600)

70,000

2t

t 0.004 m 4 mm

Example 4

A wood stave pipe is bound by steel rods which take the entire bursting stress. Find the proper spacing for

25 mm steel rods for a 1800 mm diameter wood stave pipe under a pressure of 590 KPa if the working

stress in the steel is 105,000 KPa.

Given

Dr = 0.025 m

D = 1.8 m

P = 590 KPa

S = 105,000 KPa

F 2T

P

A DL

For the rods

T

S

0.0252

4

4T

105,000

0.025

2

T 51.54 KN

2(51.54)

L 0.10 m

590(1.8)

L 10 cm

QUIZ NO. 4

Problem No. 1

The velocity of water in a 10 cm diameter pipe is 3 m/sec. At the end of the pipe is a nozzle whose velocity coefficient

is 0.98. If the pressure in the pipe is 55 KPa, what is the velocity in the jet? What is the diameter of the jet? What is the

rate of discharge? What is the head loss?

d1 0.10 m

m

v1 3

sec

C v 0.98

P1 55 KPa

Applying Bernoulli' s equation

2 2

P1 v 1 P v

z1 2 2 z 2 HL

2g 2g

1 v 2 1 v2

2

v2

2

HL 2 1 2 2

1 2g 0 . 041

Cv 2g (0.98) 2g

2 2 2

P1 v 1 v v

0 0 2 0 0.041 2

2g 2g 2g

2 2

v2

1 0.041 P1 v1

2g 2g

P v 2

2g 1 1

v2 2g 10.75 m

1 0.041 sec

m3

Q Av (0.10)2 (3) 0.024

4 sec

2 m 3

Q d2 (10.75) 0.024

4 sec

d2 0.053 m 5.3 cm

(10.75)2

HL 0.041 0.24 m

2g

Problem No. 2

A centrifugal pump draws water from a well at the rate of 142 L/sec of water through a 203 mm ID suction line and a 152

mm ID discharge line. The suction gauge located on the pump centerline reads 254 mm Hg vacuum, while the discharge

gauge is 6 m above the pump centerline. If the power input to the water is 75 KW, find the reading of the discharge

gauge in KPa.

m3

Q 0.142

sec

d1 0.203 m ; A 1 0.032 m2

d2 0.152 m; A 2 0.018 m2

2

A d

4

Q

v

A

m m

v 1 4 .4 ; v 2 7 .8

sec sec

z1 0; z 2 6 m

101.325

P1 -254 33.86 KPa

WP Qh t 760

75

ht 53.84 m

(0.142)(9.81)

P2 P1 v 2 v 1

2 2

ht z 2 z1 HL

2g

v v1

2 2

P

P2 h t 2 z 2 z1 HL 1

2g

Problem No. 3 P2 414.45 KPa

A 15 KW suction pump draws water from a suction line whose diameter is 200 mm and discharges through a line whose

diameter is 150 mm. The velocity in 150 mm line is 3.6 m/sec. If the pressure at point A in the suction line is 34.5 KPa

below the atmosphere where A is 1.8 m below that of B on the 150 mm line, Determine the maximum elevation above

B to which water can be raised assuming a head loss of 3 m due to friction.

FP 15 KW

d1 0.2 m

d2 0.15 m

v2 3.6 m/sec

P1 -34.5 KPa

P2 0 KPa

HL 3 m

A1 0.03 m^2

A2 0.02 m^2

Q 0.064 m^3/sec

v1 2.025 m/sec

SW 9.81 KN/m^3

P1/SW -3.52 m

P2/SW 0.000 m

v1^2/2g 0.209 m

v2^2/2g 0.66 m

z1 0.0 m

z2 1.8 + h

ht 24.04 m

D(Phead) 3.52

D(Vhead) 0.45

D(Ehead) (1.8 + h)

h 15.27 m

Problem No. 4

A power nozzle throws a jet of water that is 50 mm in diameter. The diameter of the base of the nozzle and of the

approach pipe is150 mm. If the power of the nozzle jet is 42 HP and the pressure head at the base of the nozzle is 54

m, compute the head lost in the nozzle.

Problem No. 5

A fire pump delivers water through a 150 mm main to a hydrant to which is connected a 75 mm hose, terminating in a

25 mm nozzle. The nozzle is 1.5 m above the hydrant and 10 m above the pump. Assuming frictional losses of 3 m from

the pump to the hydrant, 2 m in the hydrant and, and 12 m from the hydrant to the base of the nozzle, and a loss in the

nozzle of 6% of the velocity head in the jet, to what vertical height can the jet be thrown if the gage pressure at the pump

is 550KPa.

Problem No. 6

Water issues from a circular orifice under a head of 12 m. The diameter of the orifice is 10 cm. If the discharge is found

to be 75 L/sec, what is the coefficient of discharge? If the diameter at the vena cotracta is measured to be 8 cm, what is

the coefficient of contraction and what is the coefficient of velocity.

m

v 2(9.81)(12) 15.34

sec

m3

Q' 0.075

sec

m3

Q (0.10)2 (15.34) 0.12

4 sec

Q'

Cd 0.625

Q

a d' 8

Cc 0.67

A D 12

Cd Cc(Cv )

0.625

Cv 0.93

0.67

Problem No. 7

A jet discharges from an orifice in a vertical plane under a head of 3.65 m. The diameter of the orifice is 3.75 cm and the

measured discharge is 6 L/sec. The coordinates of the centerline of the jet are 3.46 m horizontally from the vena

contracta and 0.9 m below the center of the orifice. Find the coefficient of discharge, velocity and contraction.

Problem No. 8

The inside diameters of the suction and discharge pipes of a pump are 20 cm and 15 cm, respectively. The discharge

pressure is read by a gage at a point 2 m above the centerline of the pump, and the suction pressure is read by a gage

1 m below the pump centerline. If the pressure gage reads 145 KPa and the suction gage reads a vacuum of 250 mm

Hg when diesel fuel (S = 0.82) is pumped at the rate of 30 L/sec, Find the KW power of the driving motor if overall pump

efficiency is 75%.

d1 0.20 m

d2 0.15 m

z1 -1 m

z2 2 m

P1 -33.33 Kpa

P2 145 KPa

S 0.82

SW(water) 9.81 KN/m^3

SW 8.0442 KN/m^3

Q 0.03 m^3/sec

A1 0.031 m^2

A2 0.018 m^2

v1 0.955 m/sec

v2 1.70 m/sec

P1/SW -4.14 m

P2/SW 18.03 m

v1^2/2g 0.05 m

v2^2/2g 0.15 m

D(Phead) 22.17 m

D(Vhead) 0.10 m

D(ElHead) 3.00 m

HL 0.00 m

ht 25.27 m

WP 6.10 KW

e 0.75

BP 8.13 KW

Problem No. 9

A jet of water 7.6 cm in diameter discharges through a nozzle whose velocity coefficient is 0.96. If the pressure in the

pipe is 82.7 KPa and the pipe diameter is 20 cm and if it is assumed that there is no contraction of the jet, what is the

velocity at the tip of the nozzle? What is the rate of discharge?

Q A 1v 1 A 2 v 2

4

d 2

v 1 2 v 2

2

d1

4

v1

2

d v 2

2 2

2g d1 2g

2 2

P1 v 1 P v

z1 2 2 z 2 HL

2g 2g

P1 v 1

2

P v

2

1 v 2

z1 2 2 z 2 2 1 2

2g 2g Cv 2g

4

P1 d2 v 2

2

P v

2

1 v 2

z1 2 2 z 2 2 1 2

d1 2g 2g Cv 2g

v2

2 1 d P P

4

2 1 1 2 1 2 ( z1 z 2 )

2g C v

d1

d1 0.20 m

v 2 1 d2 P1 P2

2 4

d2 0.076 m ( z1 z 2 )

2g C v 2 d1

Cv 0.96

P1 82.7 Kpa P1 P2

P2 0 KPa 2 ( z1 z 2 )

v2

v1 1.80 m/sec

2g 1 d 4

v2 12.467 m/sec 2 2

SW 9.81 KN/m^3 C v d1

g 9.81 m/sec^2

v2 12.47 m/sec

A1 0.031 m^2

A2 0.005 m^2

Q 0.057 m^3/sec

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

APPLICATION OF BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

ExampleNo. 1

The water in a 10 m diameter, 2 m high aboveground swimming pool is to be emptied by unplugging a 3 cm diameter,

25 m long horizontal pipe attached to the bottom of the pool. Determine the maximum discharge rate of water through

the pipe.

h=2

m

2

2 2

P1 v 1 P v

Z1 2 2 Z 2 Q Av

2g 2g

P1 0; v 1 0; P2 0; Z1 0; Z 2 -2 m

Q (0.03)2 (6.23) 0.0044 m3 /sec

2

4

v2

000 0 ( 2)

2g

2

v

2 2

2g

v 2 2(9.81)( 2 ) 6.23 m/sec

Example No. 2

A large tank open to the atmosphere is filled with water to a height of 5 m from the outlet tap. A tap near the bottom of

the tank is now opened and water flows out from the smooth and rounded outlet. Determine the water velocity at the

outlet.

2 2

P1 v 1 P v

Z1 2 2 Z 2

1 2g 2g

P1 0; v 1 0; P2 0; Z 1 0; Z 2 - 5 m

2

v2

000 0 ( 5)

2g

2

v

5 2

2g

v 2 2(9.81)5 9.623 m/sec

Example No. 3

The water level of a tank on a building roof is 20 m above the ground. A hose leads from the tank bottom to the

ground. The end of the hose has a nozzle, which is pointed straight up. What is the maximum height to which the

water could rise.

2 2

P1 v 1 P v

Z1 2 2 Z 2

2g 2g

P1 0; P2 0; Z1 0; Z 2 h; v 2 0

2

v1

0 0 00h

2g

2

v

h 1

2g

h max imum height

v 1 velocity at the tip of the nozzle

Example no. 4

Water flows through a horizontal pipe at the rate of 1 Gal./sec. The pipe consist of two sections of diameter 4 in. and

2 in with a smooth reducing section. The pressure difference between the two pipe sections is measured by mercury

manometer . Neglecting frictional effects, determine the differential height of mercury between the two pipe sections.

Q = 1 gal/sec = 0.0038 m3/sec

D1 = 4 in. = 0.1016 m

D2 = 2 in = 0.0508 m

1 2

x

Mercury S

= 13.6

2 2

P1 v 1 P v

z1 2 2 z 2 HL

2g 2g

Q A 1v 1 A 2 v 2

Q

v ; A D2

A 4

2

0.030 m v 1 (0.424) 2

v1 0.424 ; 0.009 m

2 sec 2g 2(9.81)

( 0 .3 )

4

2

0.030 m v 2 (3.82) 2

v2 3.82 ; 0.744 m

2 sec 2g 2(9.81)

(0.1)

4

KN

0.8(9.81) 7.848 3

m

20

HL 2.55 m

7.848

2 2

P1 v 1 P v

Z 1 2 2 Z 2 H L

2g 2g

Z1 Z 2 : (Z 2 - Z1 ) 0

2 2

P2 P1 v 1 v 2 200

HL 0.009 0.744 2.55

2g 2g 7.848

P2 174.22 KPa

Example No. 5

A 300 mm pipe is connected by a reducer to a 100 mm pipe. Points 1 and 2 are at the same elevation. The pressure

at point 1 is 200 KPa. Q = 30 L/sec flowing from 1 to 2, and the energy lost between 1 and 2 is equivalent to 20 KPa.

Compute the pressure at 2 if the liquid is oil with S = 0.80. (174.2 KPa)

P1 9.81x 9.81h 13.6(9.81)h 9.81x P2

P2 P1 9.81h 13.6(9.81)h

P2 P1 123.606 1

from 1 to 2

P1 v 2 P v 22

1 Z1 2 Z2

γ 2g γ 2g

Q 0.0038

v1 0.47 m/sec

A1 π

(0.1016) 2

4

Q 0.0038

v2 1.875 m/sec

A2 π

(0.0508) 2

4

v 12 (0.47) 2

0.0113m

2g 2(9.81)

v 22 (1.875) 2

0.18 m

2g 2(9.81)

P1 P

0.0113 0 2 0.18 0

γ γ

P2 P1

0.0113 0.18 0.1687

γ

P2 P1 9.81(0.1687) 1.655 KPa 2

Equating eq. 1 and eq. 2

- 123.606h -1.655

- 1.655

h

- 123.606

h 0.0134 meters

h 0.53 inches

Example No. 6

A venturi meter having a diameter of 150 mm at the throat is installed in a 300 mm water main. In a differential gage

partly filled with mercury (the remainder of the tube being filled with water) and connected with the meter at the inlet and

at the throat, what would be the difference in level of the mercury columns if the discharge is 150 L/sec? Neglect loss of

head. (h=273 mm)

L 1m 3 m3

Q 150 x 0.150

sec 1000L sec

S of mercury 13.6

KN

13.6(9.81) 133.416

m3

d1 0.30m

d2 0.15m

Q 0.150 m 3 / sec

HL 0

Q

v

A

2

0.150 v1

v1 2.122 m / sec; 0.230 m

2g

(0.30)2

4

2

0.150 v2

v2 8.488 m / sec; 3.672 m

2g

(0.15)2

4

2 2

P1 v 1 P v

Z1 2 2 Z 2

2g 2g

Z1 Z 2 0

P1 P2 v 2

2 2

v

1 3.672 0.230

2g 2g

P1 P2

3.442 m

P1 P2 3.442(9.81) 33.766 KPa

P1 9.81h 133.416h P2

P1 P2 133.416h 9.81h

P1 P2 h(133.416 9.81)

P1 P2 33.766

h

(133.416 9.81) (133.416 9.81)

h 0.273 m

h 273 mm

Example no. 7

A mechanical engineer of an industrial plant is required to install a centrifugal pump to lift 15 L/sec of water from a

sump to a storage tank on a tower. The water is to be delivered into a 105 KPag tank and the water level in the tank is

20 m above the water level in the sump. Pump centerline is 4 m above the water level in the sump. The suction pipe is

100 mm diameter and discharge pipe is 65 mm diameter. Head loss at suction is 3 times the velocity head in the

suction line and head loss at discharge is 20 times the velocity head in the discharge pipeline. Other data are as

follows:

p = 75 %

m = 80 %

E = 220 Volts

Motor – 3-Phase

Power Factor = 0.92

Requirements:

a. Sketch of the problem

b. Total dynamic head in m

c. Water Power in KW

d. Motor power in KW

e. Line current drawn by the motor in amperes

f. Total power cost per day for 10 hours a day continuous operation and a power costs of P 5.00/KW-hr

105 KPa

2·

20

65 mm m

100 mm

4m

1·

Q Av

Q

v

A

Q 0.015 m

vs 1.91

As sec

(0.10)2

4

Q 0.015 m

vd 4.52

As sec

(0.065)2

4

2

vs (1.91)2

0.186 m

2g 2(9.81)

2

vd ( 4.52)2

1.041m

2g 2(9.81)

v s2

hLs 3 0.56 m

2g

v 2

hLd 20 d 20.83 m

2g

HL 0.56 20.83 21.39 m

P P1 v 2 v 1

2 2

ht 2 Z 2 Z1 HL

2g

at 1 to 2, datum line through point 1

105 - 0

ht 0 (20 0) 20.83

9.81

h t 52.091 m

WP 0.015(9.81)(52.091) 7.67 KW

7.67

BP 10.22 KW

0.75

10.22

MP 12.8 KW

0.75

3 EI(P.F.)

MP

1000

3 (220)I(0.92)

12.8

1000

I 36.44 amperes

Cost 12.8(10)(5) P639.00

Example No. 8

Figure below shows a siphon discharging oil (sp gr 0.90). The siphon is composed of 8 cm. pipe from A to B followed

by 10 cm. pipe from B to the open discharge at C. The head losses are from 1 to 2, 0.34 m; from 2 to 3, 0.2 m; from 3

to 4;0.8 m. Compute the discharge in L/sec

4.5 m

3m

Example No. 9

The liquid in the figure has a specific gravity of 1.5. The gas pressure P A is 35 KPa and PBis -15 KPa. The orifice is

100 mm in diameter with Cd = Cv = 0.95. Determine the velocity in the jet and the discharge when h = 1.2. (9.025

m/sec; 0.071 m3/sec)

PA ·1 2 2

P1 v 1 P v

Z1 2 2 Z 2

2g 2g

h

PB Datum at point 1 :

Z1 0 ; Z 2 - h; v 1 0

P P2

2

v2

·2 1 Z1 Z 2

2g

P P2

v 2 2g 1 h theoretical velocity

KN

1.5(9.81) 14.715 3

m

35 15

v 2 v t 2(9.81) 1.2 9.5 m/sec

14.715

Example no. 10

A pump draws water from reservoir A and lifts it to reservoir B as shown in the figure. The loss of head from A to 1 is 3

times the velocity head in the 150 mm pipe and the loss of head from 2 to B is 20 times the velocity head in the 100

mm pipe. Compute the horsepower output of the pump and the pressure heads at 1 and 2 when the discharge is 20

L/sec. (FP= 20.73 HP; 5.74 m ; 84.3 m)

2·

72 m

100 mm

1·

6m A B

I-1 I-2

150

V-1 V-2

mm pump

20 m3

Q 0.020 Water Power 0.020(9.81)(78.63)

1000 sec

Q

v Water Power 15.43 KW 20.7 HP

A

0.020

vs 1.13 m/sec At 1 to A (Point 1 on datum)

(0.150)2

4

2 2

0.020 P1 v1 P v

vd 2.55 m / sec Z1 A S ZB hLs

2g 2g

(0.100)2

4

v 2 PA (1.13)2

hLs 3 s 0.20 m 000 6 0.20

2g 2(9.81)

v 2 PA

hLd 20 d 6.63 m 5.73 meters ; PA 56.2 KPa

2g

At B to 2 (Point B on datum)

2 2

PB v d P v

HL hLs hLd 6.83 m ZB 2 2 Z2 hLd

2g 2g

PB 2.55)2

At point 1 to 2 0 0 0 78 6.63

2(9.81)

2 2

P1 v1 P v PB

Z1 ht 2 2 Z2 HL 84.3 meters; PB 827 KPa

2g 2g

v1 and v2 are negligible

P1 P2 0 gage (Atmospheric)

ht Z2 Z1 HL

ht 72 6.83 78.63 m

Example No. 11

The diameters of the suction and discharge pipe of a fuel pump for a day tank of a gasoline engine are 150 mm and 100

mm, respectively. The discharge pressure gauge located 10 m above the pump centerline reads 320 KPa and the suction

pressure gauge which is 4 m below the pump centerline reads a vacuum of 60 KPa. Head losses due to pipe friction,

turbulence and fittings amounts to 15 m. If gasoline with a relative density S = 0.75 is pumped at the rate of 35 L/sec,

find

a. The total dynamic head developed by the pump

b. The fluid power in KW

c. The brake or shaft power delivered to the fluid for a pump efficiency of 75%

d. The brake torque if the pump speed is 1200 RPM

e. The electrical power input to the pump motor for a motor efficiency of 92%

f. The line current drawn by the motor if the motor is 3 – phase, 240 volts, and 0.9 Power Factor

g. The cost of power for 5 hours operation, if electricity costs P 1.50/KW-hr

Q 0.035 m^3/sec

S 0.75

SW(water) 9.81 KN/m^3

SW 7.3575 KN/m^3

g 9.81 m/sec^2

d1 0.150 m

d2 0.100 m

P1 -60.00 KPa

P2 320.00 KPa

z1 -4 m

z2 10 m

HL 15 m

FP 75 KW

A1 0.018 m^2

A2 0.008 m^2

v1 2.0 m/sec

v2 4.5 m/sec

v1^2/2g 0.20 m

v2^2/2g 1.01 m

P1/sw -8.15 m

P2/sw 43.49 m

D(Phead) 51.65 m

D(vhead) 0.81 m

D(Zhead) 14 m

ht 81.46 m

Water Power 20.98 KW

Pump

75.00 %

Efficiency

Brake Power 27.97 KW

Motor

92.00 %

Efficiency

Motor Power 30.40 KW

E (Volts) 220.00 Volts

Power Factor 0.90

Phase 3.00 Phase

N(RPM) 1200.00 RPM

Torque(N-m) 222.57 N-m

Line Current 88.65 Amperes

PowerCost 1.50 Pesos/KW-hr

Cost 228.01 Pesos

Example No. 12

A jet of liquid is directly vertically upward. At A (Nozzle tip) its diameter is 75 mm and its velocity is 10 m/sec.

Neglecting air friction, determine its diameter at a point 4 m above A.

d1 0.075 m

v1 10 m/sec

P1 0 Kpa

P2 0 KPa

g 9.81 m/sec^2

A1 0.0044 m^2

Q 0.0442 m^3/sec

SW 9.81 KN/m^3

P1/SW 0 m

P2/SW 0 m

v1^2/2g 5.097 m

z1 0 m

z2 4 m

HL 0 m

v2^2/2g 9.097 m

v2 13.36 m/sec

A2 0.0033 m^2

d2 0.065 m

d2 6.5 cm

Example No. 13

A closed vessel contains water up to a height of 2 m and over the water surface there is air having a pressure of 8.829

N/cm2 above atmospheric pressure. At the bottom of the vessel there is an orifice of diameter 15 cm. Find the rate of

flow of water from orifice if Cd = 0.6.

h 2 m

P1 88.29 Kpa

g 9.81 m/sec^2

SW 9.81 KN/m^3

P1/SW 9.0 m

d(orifice) 0.15 m

A(Orifice) 0.018 m^2

Theoretical 14.69 m/sec

Velocity

Cd 0.60

Q(m^3/sec) 0.1558 m^3/sec

Q(L/sec) 155.8 L/sec

Example No. 14

The 600 mm pipe shown in the figure conducts water from a reservoir A to a pressure turbine, which discharges

through another 600 mm pipe into tailrace B. The loss of head from A to 1 is 5 times the velocity head in the pipe and

the loss of head from 2 to B is 0.2 times the velocity head in the pipe. If the discharge is 700 L/sec , what horsepower

is being given up by the water to the turbine and what are the pressure heads at 1 and 2.(FP = 537.4 HP; 53.628 m; -

4.75 m)

Q 4(0.70)

v 2.5 m/sec

A (0.6)2

v2 ( 2 .5 ) 2

0 .3 2 m

2g 2(9.81)

hLA -1 5(0.320 1.6 m

hL2-B 0.20(0.32) 0.064 m

HL 1.6 0.064 1.664 meters

At A to B

2 2

PA v A P v

Z A B B Z B HL h

2g 2g

With datum line through poin B

Z B 0; Z A 60 m

PA PB 0 gage

v A VB 0

h ( Z A Z B ) HL

h 60 1.664 58.336 meters

WP Qh 0.70(9.81)(58.336) 400.6 KW 537 HP

At A to 1

2 2

PA v A P v

Z A 1 1 Z1 hLA 1

2g 2g

with datum through point A

ZA 0 ; Z1 -55.5 m

P1

000 0.32 55.5

P1

55.5 0.32 55.18 meters

P1 55.18(9.81) 541.3 KPa

At 2 to B, with datum through point 2

Z 2 0 ; Z B -4.5 m

2 2

P2 v 2 P v

Z 2 B B Z B hL 2B

2g 2g

P2

0.32 0 0 0 4.5 0.064

P2

4.5 0.32 0.064 4.756 meters

P2 -4.756(9.81) -46.7 KPa 46.7 KPa vacuum

March 15, 2017

Name ____________________________________

4. A piece of wood of S = 0.651 is 8 cm square and 150 cm long. How many kilograms of lead weighing 11,200

kg/m3 must be fastened at one end of the stick so that it will float upright with 30.5 cm out of water?

S 0.651

kg

w ood 0.651(1000) 651

m3

V1 0.08(0.08)(1.5) 0.96 m 3

W1 0.96(651) 624.96 kg

W2 11,200V2

BF1 (1.5 0.305)1000 1195 kg

BF2 1000V2

W1 W2 BF1 BF2

624.96 11,200V2 1195 1000V2

1195 - 624.96

V2 0.056 m 3

10,200

W2 625.93 kg

5. A barge is loaded with 150 Metric tons of coal. The weight of the empty barge in air is 35 Metric ton. If the barge

is 5.5 m wide, 16 m long and 3 m high, what is its draft. (Depth below the water surface)

W BF

W1 W2 Vs

(150 35)(1000) 1000(5.5)(16)h

h 2.1 m

6. A prismatic object 20 cm thick by 20 cm wide by 40 cm long is weighed in water at a depth of 50 cm and found

to weigh 50 N. What is its weight in air and its specific gravity?

W1

W2 50 Newton

V1 (0.20)(0.20)(0.4) 0.016 m3

m1

1

V1

m1

V1 W1

S

1000 W1 W2

W1 m1g Newton

W1

gV1 W1

1000 W1 W2

W1 W1

9810V1 W1 W2

1 1

9810V1 W1 W2

W1 W2 9,810(0.016)

W1 156.96 50

W1 206.96 Newton

206.96

S 1.312

206.96 - 50

In a hydroelectric power plant, the water surface on the crest of the dam is at elevation 75.3 m while the water surface

just at the outlet of the head gate is at elevation 70.4 m. The head gate has 5 gates of 0.91 m x 0.91 m leading to the

penstock and are fully opened. Assume 61% as coefficient of discharge, determine

a. The quantity of water that enters the hydraulic turbine in m 3/sec

b. The KW power that the turbine will developed, assuming eturbine = 90% efficiency and the turbine is 122 m

below the entrance of the penstock

c. The brake torque for a speed N = 1800 rpm

d. The number of generator poles if f = 60 Hertz

e. The electrical power developed by the generator if electrical and windage loses amounts to 18%

v 2gh theoretical velocity

Q 5(Av) theoretical flow for 5 gates

Q' CdQ Actual flow

m3

Q' 0.61(5)(0.91x0.91) 2(9.81)5 25.016

sec

h t total dynamic head

h t 122 5 127 m

BP e Turbine Q' h t 25.016(9.81)(127)(0.90) 28,050.02 KW

2TN

BP

60,000

T 148,810 N m

GP 122, 024.16 KW

SET 2

NAME _____________________________________

1. An object weighs 25.95 N when submerged in kerosene (S = 0.81) and weighs 26.6 N when

submerged in gasoline (S = 0.68). Determine the specific weight of the object.

KN

6.23(9.81) 61.116

m3

2. Determine the water power and mechanical efficiency of a centrifugal pump which has an input of 3

KW. If the pump has a 203 mm diameter suction line and a 152 mm diameter discharge line and

handles 10 L/sec of water at 66°C ( =980 kg/m3; = 9.6 KN/m3). The suction line gauge shows 102

mm Hg vacuum and the discharge gauge shows 180 KPa. The Discharge gauge is located 61 cm

above the center of the discharge pipeline and the pump inlet and discharge lines are at the same

elevation.

BP 3 KW

D1 0.203 m

D2 0.152 m

Q 0.01 m^3/sec

A1 0.032 m^2

A2 0.018 m^2

v1 0.309 m/sec

v2 0.551 m/sec

g 9.810 m/sec^2

v1^2/2g 0.005 m

v2^2/2g 0.015 m

SW 9.6 KN/m^3

P1 -13.60 Kpa

P2 180 KPa

z2 0.61 m

z1 0 m

(P2-P1)/sw 20.17 m

(v2^2-

0.01 m

v1^2)/2g

(z2-z1) 0.61 m

HL 0.00 m

Ht 20.79 m

WP 1.996 KW

em 66.52 %

3. A piece of wood of S = 0.651 is 8 cm square and 150 cm long. How many kilograms of lead

weighing 11,200 kg/m3 must be fastened at one end of the stick so that it will float upright with 30.5

cm out of water?

S 0.651

kg

w ood 0.651(1000) 651

m3

V1 0.08(0.08)(1.5) 0.96 m 3

W1 0.96(651) 624.96 kg

W2 11,200V2

BF1 (1.5 0.305)1000 1195 kg

BF2 1000V2

W1 W2 BF1 BF2

624.96 11,200V2 1195 1000V2

1195 - 624.96

V2 0.056 m 3

10,200

W2 625.93 kg

4. At one point in a pipeline the water speed is 3 m/sec and the gage pressure is 50 KPa. Find the

gage pressure at a second point in the line, 11 m lower than the first, if the pipe diameter at the

second point is twice at the first.

FLUID MECHANICS (PRE – FINAL S2)

March 04, 2017

Name ____________________________________

1. The diameters of the suction and discharge pipe of a fuel pump for a day tank of a gasoline engine are 150 mm

and 100 mm, respectively. The discharge pressure gauge located 10 m above the pump centerline reads 320

KPa and the suction pressure gauge which is 4 m below the pump centerline reads a vacuum of 60 KPa. Head

losses due to pipe friction, turbulence and fittings amounts to 15 m. If gasoline with a relative density S = 0.75

is pumped at the rate of 35 L/sec, find

b. The fluid power in KW

c. The brake or shaft power delivered to the fluid for a pump efficiency of 75%

d. The brake torque if the pump speed is 1200 RPM

e. The electrical power input to the pump motor for a motor efficiency of 92%

f. The line current drawn by the motor if the motor is 3 – phase, 240 volts, and 0.9 Power Factor

g. The cost of power for 5 hours operation, if electricity costs P 1.50/KW-hr

Q 0.035 m^3/sec

S 0.75

SW(water) 9.81 KN/m^3

SW 7.3575 KN/m^3

g 9.81 m/sec^2

d1 0.150 m

d2 0.100 m

P1 -60.00 KPa

P2 320.00 KPa

z1 -4 m

z2 10 m

HL 15 m

FP 75 KW

A1 0.018 m^2

A2 0.008 m^2

v1 2.0 m/sec

v2 4.5 m/sec

v1^2/2g 0.20 m

v2^2/2g 1.01 m

P1/sw -8.15 m

P2/sw 43.49 m

D(Phead) 51.65 m

D(vhead) 0.81 m

D(Zhead) 14 m

ht 81.46 m

Water Power 20.98 KW

Pump

75.00 %

Efficiency

Brake Power 27.97 KW

Motor

92.00 %

Efficiency

Motor Power 30.40 KW

E (Volts) 220.00 Volts

Power Factor 0.90

Phase 3.00 Phase

N(RPM) 1200.00 RPM

Torque(N-m) 222.57 N-m

Line Current 88.65 Amperes

PowerCost 1.50 Pesos/KW-hr

Cost 228.01 Pesos

2. A jet of liquid is directly vertically upward. At A (Nozzle tip) its diameter is 75 mm and its velocity is 10 m/sec.

Neglecting air friction, determine its diameter at a point 4 m above A.

d1 0.075 m

v1 10 m/sec

P1 0 Kpa

P2 0 KPa

g 9.81 m/sec^2

A1 0.0044 m^2

Q 0.0442 m^3/sec

SW 9.81 KN/m^3

P1/SW 0 m

P2/SW 0 m

v1^2/2g 5.097 m

z1 0 m

z2 4 m

HL 0 m

v2^2/2g 9.097 m

v2 13.36 m/sec

A2 0.0033 m^2

d2 0.065 m

d2 6.5 cm

3. A closed vessel contains water up to a height of 2 m and over the water surface there is air having a pressure

of 8.829 N/cm2 above atmospheric pressure. At the bottom of the vessel there is an orifice of diameter 15 cm.

Find the rate of flow of water from orifice if Cd = 0.6.

h 2 m

P1 88.29 Kpa

g 9.81 m/sec^2

SW 9.81 KN/m^3

P1/SW 9.0 m

d(orifice) 0.15 m

A(Orifice) 0.018 m^2

Theoretical

14.69 m/sec

Velocity

Cd 0.60

Q(m^3/sec) 0.1558 m^3/sec

Q(L/sec) 155.8 L/sec

Example No. 15

A Francis turbine is installed with a vertical draft tube. The pressure gauge located at the penstock leading to the turbine

casing reads 372.6 KPa and velocity of water at inlet is 6 m/sec. The discharge is 2.5 m 3/sec. The hydraulic efficiency is

85%, and the overall efficiency is 82%. The top of the draft tube is 1.5 m below the centerline of the spiral casing, while

the tailrace level is 2.5 m from the top of the draft tube. There is no velocity of whirl at the top or bottom of the draft tube

and leakage losses are negligible. Calculate,

a) the net effective head in meters (43.817 m)

b) the brake power in kw. (881.2 kw)

c) the plant output for a generator efficiency of 92%. (810.7 kw)

d) the mechanical efficiency (96.550)

GIVEN:

P1 = 372.6 KPa

v = 6 m/sec

Q = 2.5 m3/sec

eh = 0.85

e = 0.82

ZB = (1.5 + 2.5) = 4 m

at point b to 2 (datum line through point 2)

2 2

PA v A P v

Z A 2 2 Z 2 hL A 2 h

2g 2g

P2 0

v2 0

Z2 0

hL A 2 0 (negligible)

2

PA v A

h ZA

2g

372.6 ( 6 )2

h 4

9.81 2(9.81)

h 43.817 m

WP Qh

WP 2.5(9.81)( 43.817) 1074.6 kw

BP 1074.6(0.82) 881.2 KW

PLANT OUTPUT 881.2(0.92) 810.7 KW

e em eh e v

0.82 em (0.85)(1)

0.82

em 0.965 96.5%

0.85

Example no. 16

A 4 m3/hr pump delivers water to a pressure tank. At the start, the gauge reads 138 KPa until it reads 276 KPa and

then the pump was shut off. The volume of the tank is 160 Liters. At 276 KPa, the water occupied 2/3 of the tank

volume.

a) Determine the volume of water that can be taken out until the gauge reads 138 KPa.

b) If 1 m3/hr of water is constantly used, in how many minutes from 138 KPa will the pump run until the

gauge reads 276 KPa.

P1 138 101.325 239.325 KPa

P2 276 101.325 377.325 KPa

1

V2 (0.160) 0.0533 m3

3

P1V1 P2 V2

V1 0.084 m3

Vw@138 (0.160 - 0.084) 0.076 76 Liters

2

Vw @ 276 (0.16) 0.1067 106.7 Liters

3

Vtaken out 0.1067 0.076 0.0307 30.7 Liters

4t 1t 0.0307

t 0.01023 hrs 0.614 min 36.84 sec

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