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# FLUID MECHANICS (PRE – FINAL S4)

## March 15, 2017

Name ____________________________________
1. A piece of wood of S = 0.651 is 8 cm square and 150 cm long. How many kilograms of lead weighing 11,200
kg/m3 must be fastened at one end of the stick so that it will float upright with 30.5 cm out of water?

S  0.651
kg
 w ood  0.651(1000)  651
m3
V1  0.08(0.08)(1.5)  0.96 m 3
W1  0.96(651)  624.96 kg
W2  11,200V2
BF1  (1.5  0.305)1000  1195 kg
BF2  1000V2
W1  W2  BF1  BF2
624.96  11,200V2  1195  1000V2
1195 - 624.96
V2   0.056 m 3
10,200
W2  625.93 kg
2. A barge is loaded with 150 Metric tons of coal. The weight of the empty barge in air is 35 Metric ton. If the barge
is 5.5 m wide, 16 m long and 3 m high, what is its draft. (Depth below the water surface)

W  BF
W1  W2  Vs
(150  35)(1000)  1000(5.5)(16)h
h  2.1 m

3. A prismatic object 20 cm thick by 20 cm wide by 40 cm long is weighed in water at a depth of 50 cm and found
to weigh 50 N. What is its weight in air and its specific gravity?

W1 
W2  50 Newton
V1  (0.20)(0.20)(0.4)  0.016 m3
m1
1 
V1
m1
V1 W1
S 
1000 W1  W2
W1  m1g Newton
W1
gV1 W1

1000 W1  W2
W1 W1

9810V1 W1  W2
1 1

9810V1 W1  W2
W1  W2  9,810(0.016)
W1  156.96  50
W1  206.96 Newton
206.96
S  1.312
206.96 - 50
FLUID MECHANICS QUIZ NO. 3

1. A block of wood has a vertical projection of 15.24 cm when placed in water and 10.2 cm when placed in
alcohol. If the specific gravity of alcohol is 0.82, find the specific gravity of wood gravity of wood.

In water
W  BF  1000A(h - 0.1524)  1
In Alcohol
W  BF  0.82(1000)A(h - 0.102)  2
Equating eq. 1 and eq. 2
(h - 0.1524)  0.82(h - 0.102)
h - 0.82h  0.1524  0.82(0.102)
h  0.382 m
W  1000(0.2296)A  3
W   B A(0.382)  4
eq.3  eq. 4
1000(0.2296)  0.382 B
B 0.2296
SB    0.601
1000 0.382

2. A cubical block of wood 10 cm on a side floats at the interface between oil and water with its lower surface
1.50 cm below the interface. The density of the oil is 790 kg/m 3 . What is the gage pressure at the lower face
of the block? What is the mass and density of the block?
3. Compartments A and B of the tank shown in the figure below are closed and filled with air and a liquid with S =
0.6. If the atmospheric pressure is 101 KPa (abs) and the pressure gage reads 3.5 KPa (gage), determine the

## 3.5  9.81h  0.6(9.81)h  0.6(9.81)0.02  13.6(9.81)(0.03)  0

3.5  0.6(9.81)0.02  13.6(9.81)(0.03)
h  1 .9 m
9.81(1  0.6)

4. The gate shown is hinged at A and rests on a smooth floor at B. The gate is 3 m square. Oil (S = 0.80) stands
on the left side of the gate to a height of 1.5 m above A. Above the oil surface is a gas under a gage pressure
of -6.9 KPa. Determine the amount of the vertical force P applied at B that would be required to open the gate.

P = -6.9 KPag
Free Surface

1.5m

h
A
F

· CG
P · CP
45°
m
3

## h  1.5  1.5 sin 45°  2.56 m

F   6.9  0.80(9.81)2.56(3)(3)  118.8 KN

5. A spherical buoy 2 m in diameter floats half submerge in a liquid with S = 1.5. What is the weight of the lead
anchor weighing 7000 kg/m 3 will completely submerged the buoy in the liquid.
kg
 L  1.5(1000)  1500
m3
4
Vsphere R 3  4.18 m 3
3
1 4 
Vs   (1) 3   2.09 m 3  volume submerge
23 
W1  BF1   L ( Vs )
W1  1500(2.09)  3135 kg
from figure 2 :
W1  W2  BF1  BF2
BF1  1500(Vsphere )  1500(4.18)  6270 kg
W1  3135 kg
W2  7000V2
BF2  1500V2
3135  7000V2  6270  1500V2
V2  0.57 m 3
W2  3990 kg

6. A glass tube 1.5 m long and 25 mm diameter with one end closed is inserted vertically with the open end down into
a tank of water until the open end is submerged to a depth of 1.2 m. If the barometric pressure is 98 KPa, and
neglecting vapor pressure, how high will water rise in the tube. (Assume isothermal conditions for air)

fOR isothermal :
P1V1  P2 V2

V1  (0.025)2 (1.5)  0.00074 m3
4
P2  98  9.81(1.2  x )  1

V2  (0.025)2 (1.5  x )  2
4
   
98 (0.025)2 (1.5)  98  9.81(1.2  x ) (0.025)2 (1.5  x )
 4   4 
98(1.5)  98  9.81(1.2  x )(1.5  x )
147  (98  11.772  9.81x )(1.5  x )
147  (109.772  9.81x )(1.5  x )
147  164.658  109.772x  14.715x  9.81x 2
9.81x 2  124.487x  17.658  0
x 2  12.7 x  1.8  0
 12.7  12.98
x
2
x  0.14 m  14 cm
1. A brass cube 152.4 mm on a side weighs 298.2 N. We want to hold this cube in equilibrium under water by
attaching a light foam buoy to it. If the foam weighs 707.3 N/m 3, what is the minimum required volume of the
buoy?

W1  298.2 N
BF1  (0.1524) 3 (9810)  34.72 N
W2  707.3 V2  1
BF2  V2 (9810)  2
298.2  707.3 V2  34.72  V2 (9810)
298.2  34.72
V2   0.029 m 3
9810  707.3
2. A man dives into a lake and tries to lift a large rock weighing 170 kg. If the density of the granite rock is 2700
kg/m3, find the force that the man needs to apply to lift it from the bottom of the lake. Assume density of lake
water to be 1000 kg/m3.

W  2700V  170 kg
170
V  0.063 m 3
2700
BF  1000(0.063)  63 kg
W  BF  T
T  170 - 63  107 kg
3. A 1.2 m diameter steel pipe, 6 mm thick, carries oil with S = 0.822 under a head of 122 m of oil. Compute
a. The stress in the steel in KPa
b. The thickness of the steel pipe required to carry a pressure of 1724 KPa with an allowable stress
of 124 MPa
PD
S
2t
P  0.822(9.81)(122)  983.8 KPa
983.8(1.2)
S  98,379 KPa
2(0.006)
1724(1.2)
t  0.0083 m  8.3 mm
124,000(2)

Example 1
A large pipe called a penstock in hydraulic work is 1.5 m in diameter. Here it is composed of wooden staves bound
together by steel hoops each 3.23 cm 2 in area, and is used to conduct water from a reservoir to a powerhouse. If the
maximum tensile stress permitted in the hoops is 130 MPa, what is the maximum spacing between hoops under a
L L
1.5 m

## P  9.81(30.5)  299.205 KPa

D  1.5 m
On the vertical projection
F
P ; A  LD
A
F  299.205(1.5)L  448.81L KN
F
T   224.4L KN
2
Tensile Stress on the hoop
T
S ; A  3.23 cm2
A
A  0.000323 m2
S  130000 KPa
224.4L
130000 
0.000323
L  0.187 m  18.7 cm
Example 2
Compute the wall stress in a 1200 mm diameter steel pipe 6 mm thick under a pressure of 970 KPa.
Given:
D = 1.2 m
t = 0.006 m
P = 970 KPa
PD 970(1.2)
S   97,000 KPa
2t 2(0.006)
Example 3
What is the minimum allowable thickness of 600 mm diameter steel pipe under an internal pressure of 860
KPa with a working stress in the steel of 70,000KPa.
PD
S
2t
860(0.600)
70,000 
2t
t  0.004 m  4 mm
Example 4
A wood stave pipe is bound by steel rods which take the entire bursting stress. Find the proper spacing for
25 mm steel rods for a 1800 mm diameter wood stave pipe under a pressure of 590 KPa if the working
stress in the steel is 105,000 KPa.
Given
Dr = 0.025 m
D = 1.8 m
P = 590 KPa
S = 105,000 KPa
F 2T
P 
A DL
For the rods
T
S

0.0252
4
4T
105,000 
0.025
2

T  51.54 KN
2(51.54)
L   0.10 m
590(1.8)
L  10 cm
QUIZ NO. 4
Problem No. 1
The velocity of water in a 10 cm diameter pipe is 3 m/sec. At the end of the pipe is a nozzle whose velocity coefficient
is 0.98. If the pressure in the pipe is 55 KPa, what is the velocity in the jet? What is the diameter of the jet? What is the
rate of discharge? What is the head loss?
d1  0.10 m
m
v1  3
sec
C v  0.98
P1  55 KPa
Applying Bernoulli' s equation
2 2
P1 v 1 P v
  z1  2  2  z 2  HL
 2g  2g
 1 v 2  1  v2
2
v2
2

HL   2  1 2   2
 1 2g  0 . 041
 Cv  2g  (0.98)  2g
2 2 2
P1 v 1 v v
  0  0  2  0  0.041 2
 2g 2g 2g
2 2
v2
1  0.041  P1  v1
2g  2g
P v 2 
2g 1  1 
v2    2g   10.75 m
1  0.041 sec
 m3
Q  Av  (0.10)2 (3)  0.024
4 sec
 2 m 3
Q  d2 (10.75)  0.024
4 sec
d2  0.053 m  5.3 cm
 (10.75)2 
HL  0.041   0.24 m
 2g 
Problem No. 2
A centrifugal pump draws water from a well at the rate of 142 L/sec of water through a 203 mm ID suction line and a 152
mm ID discharge line. The suction gauge located on the pump centerline reads 254 mm Hg vacuum, while the discharge
gauge is 6 m above the pump centerline. If the power input to the water is 75 KW, find the reading of the discharge
gauge in KPa.
m3
Q  0.142
sec
d1  0.203 m ; A 1  0.032 m2
d2  0.152 m; A 2  0.018 m2
 2
A d
4
Q
v
A
m m
v 1  4 .4 ; v 2  7 .8
sec sec
z1  0; z 2  6 m
 101.325 
P1  -254   33.86 KPa
WP  Qh t  760 

75
ht   53.84 m
(0.142)(9.81)
P2  P1 v 2  v 1
2 2

ht    z 2  z1   HL
 2g
 v  v1
2 2
 P
P2   h t  2  z 2  z1   HL   1
 2g  
Problem No. 3 P2  414.45 KPa
A 15 KW suction pump draws water from a suction line whose diameter is 200 mm and discharges through a line whose
diameter is 150 mm. The velocity in 150 mm line is 3.6 m/sec. If the pressure at point A in the suction line is 34.5 KPa
below the atmosphere where A is 1.8 m below that of B on the 150 mm line, Determine the maximum elevation above
B to which water can be raised assuming a head loss of 3 m due to friction.

FP 15 KW
d1 0.2 m
d2 0.15 m
v2 3.6 m/sec
P1 -34.5 KPa
P2 0 KPa
HL 3 m
A1 0.03 m^2
A2 0.02 m^2
Q 0.064 m^3/sec
v1 2.025 m/sec
SW 9.81 KN/m^3
P1/SW -3.52 m
P2/SW 0.000 m
v1^2/2g 0.209 m
v2^2/2g 0.66 m
z1 0.0 m
z2 1.8 + h
ht 24.04 m
h 15.27 m

Problem No. 4
A power nozzle throws a jet of water that is 50 mm in diameter. The diameter of the base of the nozzle and of the
approach pipe is150 mm. If the power of the nozzle jet is 42 HP and the pressure head at the base of the nozzle is 54
m, compute the head lost in the nozzle.
Problem No. 5
A fire pump delivers water through a 150 mm main to a hydrant to which is connected a 75 mm hose, terminating in a
25 mm nozzle. The nozzle is 1.5 m above the hydrant and 10 m above the pump. Assuming frictional losses of 3 m from
the pump to the hydrant, 2 m in the hydrant and, and 12 m from the hydrant to the base of the nozzle, and a loss in the
nozzle of 6% of the velocity head in the jet, to what vertical height can the jet be thrown if the gage pressure at the pump
is 550KPa.

Problem No. 6
Water issues from a circular orifice under a head of 12 m. The diameter of the orifice is 10 cm. If the discharge is found
to be 75 L/sec, what is the coefficient of discharge? If the diameter at the vena cotracta is measured to be 8 cm, what is
the coefficient of contraction and what is the coefficient of velocity.

## v  2gh  theoretical velocity

m
v  2(9.81)(12)  15.34
sec
m3
Q'  0.075
sec
 m3
Q (0.10)2 (15.34)  0.12
4 sec
Q'
Cd   0.625
Q
a d' 8
Cc     0.67
A D 12
Cd  Cc(Cv )
0.625
Cv   0.93
0.67
Problem No. 7
A jet discharges from an orifice in a vertical plane under a head of 3.65 m. The diameter of the orifice is 3.75 cm and the
measured discharge is 6 L/sec. The coordinates of the centerline of the jet are 3.46 m horizontally from the vena
contracta and 0.9 m below the center of the orifice. Find the coefficient of discharge, velocity and contraction.
Problem No. 8
The inside diameters of the suction and discharge pipes of a pump are 20 cm and 15 cm, respectively. The discharge
pressure is read by a gage at a point 2 m above the centerline of the pump, and the suction pressure is read by a gage
1 m below the pump centerline. If the pressure gage reads 145 KPa and the suction gage reads a vacuum of 250 mm
Hg when diesel fuel (S = 0.82) is pumped at the rate of 30 L/sec, Find the KW power of the driving motor if overall pump
efficiency is 75%.
d1 0.20 m
d2 0.15 m
z1 -1 m
z2 2 m
P1 -33.33 Kpa
P2 145 KPa
S 0.82
SW(water) 9.81 KN/m^3
SW 8.0442 KN/m^3
Q 0.03 m^3/sec
A1 0.031 m^2
A2 0.018 m^2
v1 0.955 m/sec
v2 1.70 m/sec
P1/SW -4.14 m
P2/SW 18.03 m
v1^2/2g 0.05 m
v2^2/2g 0.15 m
HL 0.00 m
ht 25.27 m
WP 6.10 KW
e 0.75
BP 8.13 KW

Problem No. 9
A jet of water 7.6 cm in diameter discharges through a nozzle whose velocity coefficient is 0.96. If the pressure in the
pipe is 82.7 KPa and the pipe diameter is 20 cm and if it is assumed that there is no contraction of the jet, what is the
velocity at the tip of the nozzle? What is the rate of discharge?
Q  A 1v 1  A 2 v 2
4
d  2
v 1   2  v 2
2

 d1 
4
v1
2
d  v 2
  2  2
2g  d1  2g
2 2
P1 v 1 P v
  z1  2  2  z 2  HL
 2g  2g
P1 v 1
2
P v
2
 1 v 2
  z1  2  2  z 2   2  1 2
 2g  2g  Cv  2g
4
P1  d2  v 2
2
P v
2
 1 v 2
    z1  2  2  z 2   2  1 2
  d1  2g  2g  Cv  2g
v2
2  1   d   P P
4

 2  1  1   2    1 2  ( z1  z 2 )
2g  C v 
  d1   
d1 0.20 m
v 2  1  d2   P1  P2
2 4
d2 0.076 m       ( z1  z 2 )
2g  C v 2  d1   
Cv 0.96  
P1 82.7 Kpa  P1  P2 
P2 0 KPa 2    ( z1  z 2 )
 
v2
v1 1.80 m/sec
2g  1  d 4 
v2 12.467 m/sec  2   2  
SW 9.81 KN/m^3  C v  d1  
g 9.81 m/sec^2
v2 12.47 m/sec
A1 0.031 m^2
A2 0.005 m^2
Q 0.057 m^3/sec
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
APPLICATION OF BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
ExampleNo. 1
The water in a 10 m diameter, 2 m high aboveground swimming pool is to be emptied by unplugging a 3 cm diameter,
25 m long horizontal pipe attached to the bottom of the pool. Determine the maximum discharge rate of water through
the pipe.

h=2
m
2

2 2
P1 v 1 P v
  Z1  2  2  Z 2 Q  Av
 2g  2g
P1  0; v 1  0; P2  0; Z1  0; Z 2  -2 m 
Q (0.03)2 (6.23)  0.0044 m3 /sec
2
4
v2
000 0  ( 2)
2g
2
v
2 2
2g
v 2  2(9.81)( 2 )  6.23 m/sec
Example No. 2
A large tank open to the atmosphere is filled with water to a height of 5 m from the outlet tap. A tap near the bottom of
the tank is now opened and water flows out from the smooth and rounded outlet. Determine the water velocity at the
outlet.

2 2
P1 v 1 P v
  Z1  2  2  Z 2
1  2g  2g
P1  0; v 1  0; P2  0; Z 1  0; Z 2  - 5 m
2
v2
000 0  ( 5)
2g
2
v
5 2
2g
v 2  2(9.81)5  9.623 m/sec

Example No. 3
The water level of a tank on a building roof is 20 m above the ground. A hose leads from the tank bottom to the
ground. The end of the hose has a nozzle, which is pointed straight up. What is the maximum height to which the
water could rise.

2 2
P1 v 1 P v
  Z1  2  2  Z 2
 2g  2g
P1  0; P2  0; Z1  0; Z 2  h; v 2  0
2
v1
0 0  00h
2g
2
v
h 1
2g
h  max imum height
v 1  velocity at the tip of the nozzle
Example no. 4
Water flows through a horizontal pipe at the rate of 1 Gal./sec. The pipe consist of two sections of diameter 4 in. and
2 in with a smooth reducing section. The pressure difference between the two pipe sections is measured by mercury
manometer . Neglecting frictional effects, determine the differential height of mercury between the two pipe sections.
Q = 1 gal/sec = 0.0038 m3/sec
D1 = 4 in. = 0.1016 m
D2 = 2 in = 0.0508 m

1 2
x

Mercury S
= 13.6

2 2
P1 v 1 P v
  z1  2  2  z 2  HL
 2g  2g
Q  A 1v 1  A 2 v 2
Q 
v  ; A  D2
A 4
2
0.030 m v 1 (0.424) 2
v1   0.424 ;   0.009 m
 2 sec 2g 2(9.81)
( 0 .3 )
4
2
0.030 m v 2 (3.82) 2
v2   3.82 ;   0.744 m
 2 sec 2g 2(9.81)
(0.1)
4
KN
  0.8(9.81)  7.848 3
m
20
HL   2.55 m
7.848
2 2
P1 v 1 P v
  Z 1  2  2  Z 2 H L
 2g  2g
Z1  Z 2 : (Z 2 - Z1 )  0
2 2
P2 P1 v 1 v 2 200
    HL   0.009  0.744  2.55
  2g 2g 7.848
P2  174.22 KPa

Example No. 5
A 300 mm pipe is connected by a reducer to a 100 mm pipe. Points 1 and 2 are at the same elevation. The pressure
at point 1 is 200 KPa. Q = 30 L/sec flowing from 1 to 2, and the energy lost between 1 and 2 is equivalent to 20 KPa.
Compute the pressure at 2 if the liquid is oil with S = 0.80. (174.2 KPa)
P1  9.81x  9.81h  13.6(9.81)h  9.81x  P2
P2  P1  9.81h  13.6(9.81)h
P2  P1  123.606  1
from 1 to 2
P1 v 2 P v 22
 1  Z1  2   Z2
γ 2g γ 2g
Q 0.0038
v1    0.47 m/sec
A1 π
(0.1016) 2
4
Q 0.0038
v2    1.875 m/sec
A2 π
(0.0508) 2
4
v 12 (0.47) 2
  0.0113m
2g 2(9.81)
v 22 (1.875) 2
  0.18 m
2g 2(9.81)
P1 P
 0.0113  0  2  0.18  0
γ γ
P2  P1
 0.0113  0.18  0.1687
γ
P2  P1  9.81(0.1687)  1.655 KPa  2
Equating eq. 1 and eq. 2
- 123.606h  -1.655
- 1.655
h
- 123.606
h  0.0134 meters
h  0.53 inches
Example No. 6
A venturi meter having a diameter of 150 mm at the throat is installed in a 300 mm water main. In a differential gage
partly filled with mercury (the remainder of the tube being filled with water) and connected with the meter at the inlet and
at the throat, what would be the difference in level of the mercury columns if the discharge is 150 L/sec? Neglect loss of

L 1m 3 m3
Q  150 x  0.150
sec 1000L sec
S of mercury  13.6
KN
  13.6(9.81)  133.416
m3
d1  0.30m
d2  0.15m
Q  0.150 m 3 / sec
HL  0
Q
v
A
2
0.150 v1
v1   2.122 m / sec;  0.230 m
 2g
(0.30)2
4
2
0.150 v2
v2   8.488 m / sec;  3.672 m
 2g
(0.15)2
4
2 2
P1 v 1 P v
  Z1  2  2  Z 2
 2g  2g
Z1  Z 2  0
P1  P2 v 2
2 2
v
  1  3.672  0.230
 2g 2g
P1  P2
 3.442 m

P1  P2  3.442(9.81)  33.766 KPa

## P1  9.81( x )  9.81h  133.416h  9.81x  P2

P1  9.81h  133.416h  P2
P1  P2  133.416h  9.81h
P1  P2  h(133.416  9.81)
P1  P2 33.766
h 
(133.416  9.81) (133.416  9.81)
h  0.273 m
h  273 mm
Example no. 7
A mechanical engineer of an industrial plant is required to install a centrifugal pump to lift 15 L/sec of water from a
sump to a storage tank on a tower. The water is to be delivered into a 105 KPag tank and the water level in the tank is
20 m above the water level in the sump. Pump centerline is 4 m above the water level in the sump. The suction pipe is
100 mm diameter and discharge pipe is 65 mm diameter. Head loss at suction is 3 times the velocity head in the
suction line and head loss at discharge is 20 times the velocity head in the discharge pipeline. Other data are as
follows:
p = 75 %
m = 80 %
E = 220 Volts
Motor – 3-Phase
Power Factor = 0.92
Requirements:
a. Sketch of the problem
b. Total dynamic head in m
c. Water Power in KW
d. Motor power in KW
e. Line current drawn by the motor in amperes
f. Total power cost per day for 10 hours a day continuous operation and a power costs of P 5.00/KW-hr

105 KPa

20
65 mm m
100 mm

4m

Q  Av
Q
v
A
Q 0.015 m
vs    1.91
As  sec
(0.10)2
4
Q 0.015 m
vd    4.52
As  sec
(0.065)2
4
2
vs (1.91)2
  0.186 m
2g 2(9.81)
2
vd ( 4.52)2
  1.041m
2g 2(9.81)
 v s2 
hLs  3   0.56 m

 2g 
v 2 
hLd  20 d   20.83 m
 2g 
HL  0.56  20.83  21.39 m
P  P1 v 2  v 1
2 2

ht  2   Z 2  Z1  HL
 2g
at 1 to 2, datum line through point 1
105 - 0
ht   0  (20  0)  20.83
9.81
h t  52.091 m
WP  0.015(9.81)(52.091)  7.67 KW
7.67
BP   10.22 KW
0.75
10.22
MP   12.8 KW
0.75
3 EI(P.F.)
MP 
1000
3 (220)I(0.92)
12.8 
1000
I  36.44 amperes
Cost  12.8(10)(5)  P639.00

Example No. 8
Figure below shows a siphon discharging oil (sp gr 0.90). The siphon is composed of 8 cm. pipe from A to B followed
by 10 cm. pipe from B to the open discharge at C. The head losses are from 1 to 2, 0.34 m; from 2 to 3, 0.2 m; from 3
to 4;0.8 m. Compute the discharge in L/sec

4.5 m

3m

Example No. 9
The liquid in the figure has a specific gravity of 1.5. The gas pressure P A is 35 KPa and PBis -15 KPa. The orifice is
100 mm in diameter with Cd = Cv = 0.95. Determine the velocity in the jet and the discharge when h = 1.2. (9.025
m/sec; 0.071 m3/sec)

PA ·1 2 2
P1 v 1 P v
  Z1  2  2  Z 2
 2g  2g
h
PB Datum at point 1 :
Z1  0 ; Z 2  - h; v 1  0
P  P2
2
v2
·2  1  Z1  Z 2
2g 
 P  P2 
v 2  2g 1  h  theoretical velocity
  
KN
  1.5(9.81)  14.715 3
m
 35  15 
v 2  v t  2(9.81)  1.2  9.5 m/sec
 14.715 
Example no. 10
A pump draws water from reservoir A and lifts it to reservoir B as shown in the figure. The loss of head from A to 1 is 3
times the velocity head in the 150 mm pipe and the loss of head from 2 to B is 20 times the velocity head in the 100
mm pipe. Compute the horsepower output of the pump and the pressure heads at 1 and 2 when the discharge is 20
L/sec. (FP= 20.73 HP; 5.74 m ; 84.3 m)

72 m

100 mm

6m A B
I-1 I-2

150
V-1 V-2
mm pump

20 m3
Q  0.020 Water Power  0.020(9.81)(78.63)
1000 sec
Q
v Water Power  15.43 KW  20.7 HP
A
0.020
vs   1.13 m/sec At 1 to A (Point 1 on datum)

(0.150)2
4
2 2
0.020 P1 v1 P v
vd   2.55 m / sec   Z1  A  S  ZB  hLs
  2g  2g
(0.100)2
4
v 2  PA (1.13)2
hLs  3 s   0.20 m 000   6  0.20
 2g   2(9.81)
 
v 2  PA
hLd  20 d   6.63 m  5.73 meters ; PA  56.2 KPa
 2g  
 
At B to 2 (Point B on datum)
2 2
PB v d P v
HL  hLs  hLd  6.83 m   ZB  2  2  Z2  hLd
 2g  2g
PB 2.55)2
At point 1 to 2   0  0  0  78  6.63
 2(9.81)
2 2
P1 v1 P v PB
  Z1  ht  2  2  Z2  HL  84.3 meters; PB  827 KPa
 2g  2g 
v1 and v2 are negligible
P1  P2  0 gage (Atmospheric)
ht  Z2  Z1  HL
ht  72  6.83  78.63 m
Example No. 11
The diameters of the suction and discharge pipe of a fuel pump for a day tank of a gasoline engine are 150 mm and 100
mm, respectively. The discharge pressure gauge located 10 m above the pump centerline reads 320 KPa and the suction
pressure gauge which is 4 m below the pump centerline reads a vacuum of 60 KPa. Head losses due to pipe friction,
turbulence and fittings amounts to 15 m. If gasoline with a relative density S = 0.75 is pumped at the rate of 35 L/sec,
find
a. The total dynamic head developed by the pump
b. The fluid power in KW
c. The brake or shaft power delivered to the fluid for a pump efficiency of 75%
d. The brake torque if the pump speed is 1200 RPM
e. The electrical power input to the pump motor for a motor efficiency of 92%
f. The line current drawn by the motor if the motor is 3 – phase, 240 volts, and 0.9 Power Factor
g. The cost of power for 5 hours operation, if electricity costs P 1.50/KW-hr

Q 0.035 m^3/sec
S 0.75
SW(water) 9.81 KN/m^3
SW 7.3575 KN/m^3
g 9.81 m/sec^2
d1 0.150 m
d2 0.100 m
P1 -60.00 KPa
P2 320.00 KPa
z1 -4 m
z2 10 m
HL 15 m
FP 75 KW
A1 0.018 m^2
A2 0.008 m^2
v1 2.0 m/sec
v2 4.5 m/sec
v1^2/2g 0.20 m
v2^2/2g 1.01 m
P1/sw -8.15 m
P2/sw 43.49 m
ht 81.46 m
Water Power 20.98 KW
Pump
75.00 %
Efficiency
Brake Power 27.97 KW
Motor
92.00 %
Efficiency
Motor Power 30.40 KW
E (Volts) 220.00 Volts
Power Factor 0.90
Phase 3.00 Phase
N(RPM) 1200.00 RPM
Torque(N-m) 222.57 N-m
Line Current 88.65 Amperes
PowerCost 1.50 Pesos/KW-hr
Cost 228.01 Pesos

Example No. 12
A jet of liquid is directly vertically upward. At A (Nozzle tip) its diameter is 75 mm and its velocity is 10 m/sec.
Neglecting air friction, determine its diameter at a point 4 m above A.

d1 0.075 m
v1 10 m/sec
P1 0 Kpa
P2 0 KPa
g 9.81 m/sec^2
A1 0.0044 m^2
Q 0.0442 m^3/sec
SW 9.81 KN/m^3
P1/SW 0 m
P2/SW 0 m
v1^2/2g 5.097 m
z1 0 m
z2 4 m
HL 0 m
v2^2/2g 9.097 m
v2 13.36 m/sec
A2 0.0033 m^2
d2 0.065 m
d2 6.5 cm

Example No. 13
A closed vessel contains water up to a height of 2 m and over the water surface there is air having a pressure of 8.829
N/cm2 above atmospheric pressure. At the bottom of the vessel there is an orifice of diameter 15 cm. Find the rate of
flow of water from orifice if Cd = 0.6.
h 2 m
P1 88.29 Kpa
g 9.81 m/sec^2
SW 9.81 KN/m^3
P1/SW 9.0 m
d(orifice) 0.15 m
A(Orifice) 0.018 m^2
Theoretical 14.69 m/sec
Velocity
Cd 0.60
Q(m^3/sec) 0.1558 m^3/sec
Q(L/sec) 155.8 L/sec

Example No. 14
The 600 mm pipe shown in the figure conducts water from a reservoir A to a pressure turbine, which discharges
through another 600 mm pipe into tailrace B. The loss of head from A to 1 is 5 times the velocity head in the pipe and
the loss of head from 2 to B is 0.2 times the velocity head in the pipe. If the discharge is 700 L/sec , what horsepower
is being given up by the water to the turbine and what are the pressure heads at 1 and 2.(FP = 537.4 HP; 53.628 m; -
4.75 m)

## Q  700 L/sec  0.70 m 3 /sec

Q 4(0.70)
v   2.5 m/sec
A (0.6)2
v2 ( 2 .5 ) 2
  0 .3 2 m
2g 2(9.81)
hLA -1  5(0.320  1.6 m
hL2-B  0.20(0.32)  0.064 m
HL  1.6  0.064  1.664 meters
At A to B
2 2
PA v A P v
  Z A  B  B  Z B  HL  h
 2g  2g
With datum line through poin B
Z B  0; Z A  60 m
PA  PB  0 gage
v A  VB  0
h  ( Z A  Z B )  HL
h  60  1.664  58.336 meters
WP  Qh  0.70(9.81)(58.336)  400.6 KW  537 HP
At A to 1
2 2
PA v A P v
  Z A  1  1  Z1  hLA 1
 2g  2g
with datum through point A
ZA  0 ; Z1  -55.5 m
P1
000  0.32  55.5

P1
 55.5  0.32  55.18 meters

P1  55.18(9.81)  541.3 KPa
At 2 to B, with datum through point 2
Z 2  0 ; Z B  -4.5 m
2 2
P2 v 2 P v
  Z 2  B  B  Z B  hL 2B
 2g  2g
P2
 0.32  0  0  0  4.5  0.064

P2
 4.5  0.32  0.064  4.756 meters

P2  -4.756(9.81)  -46.7 KPa  46.7 KPa vacuum

## FLUID MECHANICS (PRE – FINAL S4)

March 15, 2017
Name ____________________________________
4. A piece of wood of S = 0.651 is 8 cm square and 150 cm long. How many kilograms of lead weighing 11,200
kg/m3 must be fastened at one end of the stick so that it will float upright with 30.5 cm out of water?

S  0.651
kg
 w ood  0.651(1000)  651
m3
V1  0.08(0.08)(1.5)  0.96 m 3
W1  0.96(651)  624.96 kg
W2  11,200V2
BF1  (1.5  0.305)1000  1195 kg
BF2  1000V2
W1  W2  BF1  BF2
624.96  11,200V2  1195  1000V2
1195 - 624.96
V2   0.056 m 3
10,200
W2  625.93 kg
5. A barge is loaded with 150 Metric tons of coal. The weight of the empty barge in air is 35 Metric ton. If the barge
is 5.5 m wide, 16 m long and 3 m high, what is its draft. (Depth below the water surface)

W  BF
W1  W2  Vs
(150  35)(1000)  1000(5.5)(16)h
h  2.1 m

6. A prismatic object 20 cm thick by 20 cm wide by 40 cm long is weighed in water at a depth of 50 cm and found
to weigh 50 N. What is its weight in air and its specific gravity?
W1 
W2  50 Newton
V1  (0.20)(0.20)(0.4)  0.016 m3
m1
1 
V1
m1
V1 W1
S 
1000 W1  W2
W1  m1g Newton
W1
gV1 W1

1000 W1  W2
W1 W1

9810V1 W1  W2
1 1

9810V1 W1  W2
W1  W2  9,810(0.016)
W1  156.96  50
W1  206.96 Newton
206.96
S  1.312
206.96 - 50

In a hydroelectric power plant, the water surface on the crest of the dam is at elevation 75.3 m while the water surface
just at the outlet of the head gate is at elevation 70.4 m. The head gate has 5 gates of 0.91 m x 0.91 m leading to the
penstock and are fully opened. Assume 61% as coefficient of discharge, determine
a. The quantity of water that enters the hydraulic turbine in m 3/sec
b. The KW power that the turbine will developed, assuming eturbine = 90% efficiency and the turbine is 122 m
below the entrance of the penstock
c. The brake torque for a speed N = 1800 rpm
d. The number of generator poles if f = 60 Hertz
e. The electrical power developed by the generator if electrical and windage loses amounts to 18%

## h  75.4  70.4  5 m  head producing the flow

v  2gh  theoretical velocity
Q  5(Av)  theoretical flow for 5 gates
Q'  CdQ  Actual flow
m3
Q'  0.61(5)(0.91x0.91) 2(9.81)5  25.016
sec
h t  total dynamic head
h t  122  5  127 m
BP  e Turbine Q' h t  25.016(9.81)(127)(0.90)  28,050.02 KW
2TN
BP 
60,000
T  148,810 N  m
GP  122, 024.16 KW

## FINAL EXAM (March 25, 2017)

SET 2
NAME _____________________________________

1. An object weighs 25.95 N when submerged in kerosene (S = 0.81) and weighs 26.6 N when
submerged in gasoline (S = 0.68). Determine the specific weight of the object.

KN
  6.23(9.81)  61.116
m3
2. Determine the water power and mechanical efficiency of a centrifugal pump which has an input of 3
KW. If the pump has a 203 mm diameter suction line and a 152 mm diameter discharge line and
handles 10 L/sec of water at 66°C ( =980 kg/m3;  = 9.6 KN/m3). The suction line gauge shows 102
mm Hg vacuum and the discharge gauge shows 180 KPa. The Discharge gauge is located 61 cm
above the center of the discharge pipeline and the pump inlet and discharge lines are at the same
elevation.
BP 3 KW
D1 0.203 m
D2 0.152 m
Q 0.01 m^3/sec
A1 0.032 m^2
A2 0.018 m^2
v1 0.309 m/sec
v2 0.551 m/sec
g 9.810 m/sec^2
v1^2/2g 0.005 m
v2^2/2g 0.015 m
SW 9.6 KN/m^3
P1 -13.60 Kpa
P2 180 KPa
z2 0.61 m
z1 0 m
(P2-P1)/sw 20.17 m
(v2^2-
0.01 m
v1^2)/2g
(z2-z1) 0.61 m
HL 0.00 m
Ht 20.79 m
WP 1.996 KW
em 66.52 %

3. A piece of wood of S = 0.651 is 8 cm square and 150 cm long. How many kilograms of lead
weighing 11,200 kg/m3 must be fastened at one end of the stick so that it will float upright with 30.5
cm out of water?

S  0.651
kg
 w ood  0.651(1000)  651
m3
V1  0.08(0.08)(1.5)  0.96 m 3
W1  0.96(651)  624.96 kg
W2  11,200V2
BF1  (1.5  0.305)1000  1195 kg
BF2  1000V2
W1  W2  BF1  BF2
624.96  11,200V2  1195  1000V2
1195 - 624.96
V2   0.056 m 3
10,200
W2  625.93 kg

4. At one point in a pipeline the water speed is 3 m/sec and the gage pressure is 50 KPa. Find the
gage pressure at a second point in the line, 11 m lower than the first, if the pipe diameter at the
second point is twice at the first.
FLUID MECHANICS (PRE – FINAL S2)
March 04, 2017
Name ____________________________________

1. The diameters of the suction and discharge pipe of a fuel pump for a day tank of a gasoline engine are 150 mm
and 100 mm, respectively. The discharge pressure gauge located 10 m above the pump centerline reads 320
KPa and the suction pressure gauge which is 4 m below the pump centerline reads a vacuum of 60 KPa. Head
losses due to pipe friction, turbulence and fittings amounts to 15 m. If gasoline with a relative density S = 0.75
is pumped at the rate of 35 L/sec, find

## a. The total dynamic head developed by the pump

b. The fluid power in KW
c. The brake or shaft power delivered to the fluid for a pump efficiency of 75%
d. The brake torque if the pump speed is 1200 RPM
e. The electrical power input to the pump motor for a motor efficiency of 92%
f. The line current drawn by the motor if the motor is 3 – phase, 240 volts, and 0.9 Power Factor
g. The cost of power for 5 hours operation, if electricity costs P 1.50/KW-hr

Q 0.035 m^3/sec
S 0.75
SW(water) 9.81 KN/m^3
SW 7.3575 KN/m^3
g 9.81 m/sec^2
d1 0.150 m
d2 0.100 m
P1 -60.00 KPa
P2 320.00 KPa
z1 -4 m
z2 10 m
HL 15 m
FP 75 KW
A1 0.018 m^2
A2 0.008 m^2
v1 2.0 m/sec
v2 4.5 m/sec
v1^2/2g 0.20 m
v2^2/2g 1.01 m
P1/sw -8.15 m
P2/sw 43.49 m
ht 81.46 m
Water Power 20.98 KW
Pump
75.00 %
Efficiency
Brake Power 27.97 KW
Motor
92.00 %
Efficiency
Motor Power 30.40 KW
E (Volts) 220.00 Volts
Power Factor 0.90
Phase 3.00 Phase
N(RPM) 1200.00 RPM
Torque(N-m) 222.57 N-m
Line Current 88.65 Amperes
PowerCost 1.50 Pesos/KW-hr
Cost 228.01 Pesos
2. A jet of liquid is directly vertically upward. At A (Nozzle tip) its diameter is 75 mm and its velocity is 10 m/sec.
Neglecting air friction, determine its diameter at a point 4 m above A.

d1 0.075 m
v1 10 m/sec
P1 0 Kpa
P2 0 KPa
g 9.81 m/sec^2
A1 0.0044 m^2
Q 0.0442 m^3/sec
SW 9.81 KN/m^3
P1/SW 0 m
P2/SW 0 m
v1^2/2g 5.097 m
z1 0 m
z2 4 m
HL 0 m
v2^2/2g 9.097 m
v2 13.36 m/sec
A2 0.0033 m^2
d2 0.065 m
d2 6.5 cm

3. A closed vessel contains water up to a height of 2 m and over the water surface there is air having a pressure
of 8.829 N/cm2 above atmospheric pressure. At the bottom of the vessel there is an orifice of diameter 15 cm.
Find the rate of flow of water from orifice if Cd = 0.6.

h 2 m
P1 88.29 Kpa
g 9.81 m/sec^2
SW 9.81 KN/m^3
P1/SW 9.0 m
d(orifice) 0.15 m
A(Orifice) 0.018 m^2
Theoretical
14.69 m/sec
Velocity
Cd 0.60
Q(m^3/sec) 0.1558 m^3/sec
Q(L/sec) 155.8 L/sec
Example No. 15
A Francis turbine is installed with a vertical draft tube. The pressure gauge located at the penstock leading to the turbine
casing reads 372.6 KPa and velocity of water at inlet is 6 m/sec. The discharge is 2.5 m 3/sec. The hydraulic efficiency is
85%, and the overall efficiency is 82%. The top of the draft tube is 1.5 m below the centerline of the spiral casing, while
the tailrace level is 2.5 m from the top of the draft tube. There is no velocity of whirl at the top or bottom of the draft tube
and leakage losses are negligible. Calculate,
a) the net effective head in meters (43.817 m)
b) the brake power in kw. (881.2 kw)
c) the plant output for a generator efficiency of 92%. (810.7 kw)
d) the mechanical efficiency (96.550)

GIVEN:
P1 = 372.6 KPa
v = 6 m/sec
Q = 2.5 m3/sec
eh = 0.85
e = 0.82
ZB = (1.5 + 2.5) = 4 m
at point b to 2 (datum line through point 2)
2 2
PA v A P v
  Z A  2  2  Z 2  hL A  2  h
 2g  2g
P2  0
v2  0
Z2  0
hL A  2  0 (negligible)
2
PA v A
h   ZA
 2g
372.6 ( 6 )2
h  4
9.81 2(9.81)
h  43.817 m
WP  Qh
WP  2.5(9.81)( 43.817)  1074.6 kw
BP  1074.6(0.82)  881.2 KW
PLANT OUTPUT  881.2(0.92)  810.7 KW
e  em eh e v
0.82  em (0.85)(1)
0.82
em   0.965  96.5%
0.85

Example no. 16
A 4 m3/hr pump delivers water to a pressure tank. At the start, the gauge reads 138 KPa until it reads 276 KPa and
then the pump was shut off. The volume of the tank is 160 Liters. At 276 KPa, the water occupied 2/3 of the tank
volume.
a) Determine the volume of water that can be taken out until the gauge reads 138 KPa.
b) If 1 m3/hr of water is constantly used, in how many minutes from 138 KPa will the pump run until the
P1  138  101.325  239.325 KPa
P2  276  101.325  377.325 KPa
1
V2  (0.160)  0.0533 m3
3
P1V1  P2 V2
V1  0.084 m3
Vw@138  (0.160 - 0.084)  0.076  76 Liters
2
Vw @ 276  (0.16)  0.1067  106.7 Liters
3
Vtaken out  0.1067  0.076  0.0307  30.7 Liters
4t  1t  0.0307
t  0.01023 hrs  0.614 min  36.84 sec