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: Piyush Sharma : 520780168 : Apar India College : All

Submitted By : Piyush Sharma

Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 1




Submitted By : Piyush Sharma

Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 2

Q: 1 Differentiate dynamic scheduling and dynamic inventory. How would you integrate them to enhance productivity? Ans:1 A common blunder which most manufacturing companies tend to commit is in the right judgment regarding classification of various components which make up their products & more importantly , items, spare parts , maintenance products & even simple items like stationery. Some of these organizations tend to focus more on “product” & “service” items & ignore the others. this approach would tend to push their overheads up & reflect poorly in their balance sheets. ABC analysis involves classification of every single item of the company long lead time high value items as “A” , medium value, medium lead time items as “B”& low value but high volume items as “C”. after this process, many organizations tend to classify items based on total inventory values which could lead to build up of costs. Classification should purely be based on value & lead of single pieces or unit quantities like per kg. or liter etc. Dynamic scheduling:


A similar dilemma occurs when planning departments try to address pressures from marketing or finance or even purchase departments & more often even from the very manufacturing units which they are supposed to control. The most common blunder committed is to plan on a first in first out approach & later, unscientifically after under such pressures. While many tend to take shelter behind enterprise resource planning systems & fail to exploit the power & potential of ERP, best business practices demand a dynamic

Submitted By : Piyush Sharma

Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 3

g. networked systems tend to slow down & tend to drag down the efficiency of manufacturing along with. Little do they realize the loss due to ignoring the aspects of inventory values in between & more importantly. maximize at the start of the financial year & minimize towards the end of every quarter with a focus on the balance sheets. It is for this reason that planners plan for 80 to 90% of capacity keeping a cushion for such contingencies & also creating distributed slack times which could be closed without affecting overall targets. shortages caused in operations leading to unfathomable losses. Similarly such an approach is necessary when breakdowns occur & capacities are blacked out.approach –for e. if a then the system should be configured to “find” another process or activity to fit into the gap created. Dynamic control: (2) Most organization tend to treat inventory as an appendage & Emphasise just minimization of inventory at any point of time. Such approach can be automated in modern ERP systems. → System productivity: With rapid technological advancement & futuristic manufacturing equipment & process.worse. This has necessitated organization to revisit their systems & procedures as to how Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 4 . This would ensure balanced utilization of capital resources. Dynamic control involves values at every key transactional turn to optimize rather than maximize or minimize.

To reduce in –process inventories improved material control is needed. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 5 . but also the location of material in process storage and its orientation. We look at certain key aspects of system productivity. Integration and control are the keys.effective & efficient they prove to be. A detailed approach to this subject would be dealt in one of the later chapters. Apple and Strahan note “parts that comprise these inventories are typically stored in a manner that makes poor use of building space. and represents a low level of location control. In many instances. increased integration and control will occur by placing greater reliance on computing systems. As was noted previously.” In-process inventories can be reduced by doing a better job of the system. in batch manufacturing 95 percent of the manufacturing cycle a part spends as in-process inventory. Organizations today have to grapple with complex issues of excess supply & ultimately profitability. This is perhaps one area of management where we can not expect a plus & minus to balance out since excess & shortage are both negative contributors to value. For the automatic factory to become a reality all three dimensions of material control must be addressed. Proper planning of the storage and control is the key to an effective manufacturing system. As such it must be stored. provides limited accessibility to individual part numbers. Proper planning of the location control. Material control includes not only traditional inventory control.

Ans. If you have a new innovation like a catalyst for the petrochemical sector. and the skill mix will vary from project.2: List out five important management skills associated with operation Management. 2) Marketing skills:- An ability to create an appropriate identity and effectively communicate with the target market and other important communities such as the investor community. 3) Sales skills:- No matter how good the product. the chances of success are greatly increased if you have someone in your team with experience of that market sector. In essence you need to demonstrate →) management skills: 1) Market experience:- Experience particular to the market sector to reduce the learning curve. it will not sell itself.Q.2: Different skills will be different stages. Strong sales skills are an integral part of success once products are ready to go to market Financial management skills:- 4) Their Requirement to have someone with financial management skills to actively consider the financial Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 6 .

You must be realistic about what each individual can physically do. you need the knowledge to ensure that the system and process being developed are appropriate for your needs. If the one team member has great skills in sales and in marketing. then you need someone else ordeal with marketing. 5) Production & operation management skills:- If you have a product that requires to be made. Even if you decide to you use a production partner. keep a tight reign on cash and be pro active in terms of the current and future financial needs of the project. They may have sufficient capacity to do this at pre market stage. then the skills to develop an efficient. You may well support them by using a marketing agency which has experience of managing the entire marketing function – which can direct. You need to factor this in your plan and increase capacity as the project requires ensuring effectiveness. but may not be able to deal with sheer number of issues that arise at market stage. or a service delivered. appropriate and effective production system is required. but only has the time to deal with sales. You may find all the above skills within one or two individuals but you need to ensure they have the time to apply those skills and effectively address the requirements of the project.dimension of the business. Management skills are one thing capacity another. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 7 .

►Important factor for process improvement are given below Flexibility & responsiveness: ● resource pooling ● it professionalism ● common process 1 2 Demonstrate competitiveness: ► certification ► tickit-iso9000-3 ► cmm ► spice ► benchmarking ► gartner Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 8 . The reactive.3: what are the key drivers for process improvement? Ans. Quantitative decision making process are being given greater emphasis by modern global enterprises.3:Rough estimate & thumb methods have always tended to be poor reflections of the decision making ability in management.time management of mobile workforce is a challenge to any organization of today. It is becoming increasingly difficult to sell ideas without quantification or back up calculations.Q. Most managements today would consider work force management as far more difficult in comparison with other functional areas. real.

oriented documents were introduce with POSITIVE RESULTS  user friendly document  easy to follow  generated interest in the technique Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 9 . • Individual process improvement projects set up and managed like any other • Project • Process improvements defined by practitioners • Existing best practice to be incorporated in the new standards. • Cell to prove that it “added value” to the organization. poorly index documents  no ownership  comments on structure not content A) B) what was done: object.3 process improvement: research has shown that major factor that positively influences all the key drivers is the ability to: ▪ Observe ▪ Improve Process standards and metrics: • Cell established to documenting organization process. 4 Problems encountered:  process documentation not standard  large.

 review of direction was incorporated further steps introduced towards improving workforce performance:  further process documents written  concentrated on process  training opened up and in-house course established  second to be more effective  measurement  review of course  repackage  investigation online  integration with human computer interface principlesThere are above factors are responsible for success of process improvements. C) Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 10 .

very much misunderstood as restricted to technically competent supervisory management of various production process starting with production the late eighties & early nineties.Q. driven more by the “spare time” that production engineering was rechristened. which is aware & wary of the benefits accrued by managements through their efforts. This periods in the history of the modern global enterprise. While such a vast subject has relevance in this book. 1. labour productivity : This is perhaps the most difficult aspects it addresses involvement of labour force. Modern engineering industries have realized that while effort towards these archaic practices have shrunk to a great extent due to technological advancement in some organizations to less than 10% several new problems have surfaced resulting in serious doubts as to the probability of sustenance of such a highly limited approach towards achieving business goals. it would suffice to understand the following prime aspects. the production departments turned into hot beds of controversies & misconceptions mainly driven by world wide recessionary trends.4: Distinguish personnel productivity from labour Productivity. Ans. followed by industrial engineering & ending with fire fighting. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 11 . Organizations have learnt to avoid confrontation & focus on how easy they can make the workstations & environment to reduce the strain & stress levels of operators & gain both in worker confidence as well as capital productivity as an added advantage.4: Production management was & even now.

2) Reallocation of workers in tune with balancing aspects : Job rotation is considered a universal cure for monetary & therefore this is used to rotate workers synchronous with balancing of production operations. Personnel productivity: While directs workers connected with manufacture of products are pampered with incentives. indirect staff tend to get frustrated & it becomes a challenge for managements to maintain motivation levels of these employees while cash Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 12 . Every operation is scientifically evaluated & standards are set for time values & volumes expected from workers at a 100% level. 3) Evaluation of production operation operations and introduction of productivity norms : This is to ensure transparency in expectation from workers in terms of production outputs to avoid disputes & conflicts. 4) Standards for individual accountability and targets : This would serve as additional clear information to help workers & supervisors maintain self – driven targets & responsibilities.1) Balancing of operation in assembly line: This ensure uniformity in load on workers to a great extent & also balances work in process inventory. This also helps in evaluation of compensation to workers as incentives for performance in excess of such expectations. 2.

such rewards are misplaced with some undeserving employees gaining more than the meek quiet hard workers.incentives for performance are common. Team work and continuous improvement through CFT’s & quality circles. System driven follow up to help enhance effectiveness. Motivation through training in self – driven targets. Targets accountability of individuals through quantified. more often than not. resulting in shift in frustration but not elimination.      Motivation through a scientific system to help change mindset. Managements now turn to other techniques to help reverse these trends & look at non monetary approaches towards motivation of these large positive contributing employees – also to help reduce attrition. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 13 .

Formulation & implementation form an integral part of management.5: The crux of the strategic management process could be outlined as follows:       Strategy refers to the course of action desired to achieve the objectives. Implementation is a crucial task as formulation It is necessary to be very tactful the members in the formulation of strategy to Facilitate implementation. Stages in strategy formulation & implementation :         Identification of mission & objectives Environment scanning Generic strategy alternatives Strategy variation Strategic choice Allocation of resources & formulation of organizational structure Formulation of plans. programmes & administration Evaluation & control Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 14 . 1. production. policies.5: Explain the stages in strategy formulation and implementation. Strategies cover purpose such as competition sales. Ans. motivation & so on.Q.

Conventional management has been and still is the bane of the global enterprise of today. which sustained for several years until a wave if new technologies in products. resulting in widening of the gap. Retrenchment strategy is the obvious choice when the firm is not doing well in terms of sales & revenue. customized & integrated approach where no packaged rules Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 15 . firms with outstanding technical skills are those that ignore the needs for best practices. Over the years. Expansion strategy can be adopted in highly competitive & volatile industries if they are in the introduction stage of product service life cycle . & the product service has reached the stability or maturity staged of the life cycle.When companies find themselves at a dead – end as to many options to grow. manufacturing & more importantly in information technology. Ironically. they have to look beyond their enterprises. When a comprehensive approach to OPERATION MANAGEMENT took over with a totally localized. stability strategy is a better choice when the firm is doing well. experts have advocated several theories of management. most notably management by objectives or MBO. Product and service alliance: companies may got together to synergies operations seeking alliance for their products and services promotional alliance: companies come together to promote their products & service-to carry out a promotion campaign during a given period for the products and services of another company. Even companies with presence in several major countries & globally accepted products & service lag behind to various extent in management skills. particularly when the market opportunities are enormous.

Danger of copying can be avoided by performing activities innovatively quickly. HLL emerged stronger with the acquisition of brook bond. Focus a company may concentrate on a market segment & obtain full information. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 16 . It may pursue either cost leadership or differentiation strategy within that segment. If the relentlessly pursue it leads to benchmarking of strategies.such companies which pursue the same strategy to the same target market are called a strategic group of companies. which competitors cannot catch up with. thus maintaining the largest market share. manufacturing & physical distribution. Companies have to focus cost effective strategies in engineering. Mergers & take reflect the common route for companies their resources & costs. Differentiation company should demonstrate superiority of products & services. purchases. Overall cost leadership strategy when products or service are offered at the lowest price among competitors.are written. where a self styled self structured customized set up principle tok over the gap got a lot closer.

scope changes. the project managers team needs to know resources capabilities and availabilities. This is how most organizations understand a project. Ans 6: Any activity starts with a description of a mission and ends with the completion of a delivered or product. ►Creating order in chaotic system require information. materials.Q. Usual information system are not designed for projects. A project management information system also holds schedule. They need a database of time commitments. etc. To make good allocation decisions. and resources involved in the development activities that start with a problem statement and end with delivery of a complete software product. which is an organization’s primary source of nourishment.6 : Explain the importance of project management information system. manpower. time. manpower. such as cost. Need for project management is emphasized by the fact that many products fail due to poor management & consequences of failure in the project management are far more serious. Project management knowledge and practice in terms of their component processes. bringing the above definitions together project management can be defined as the practice of controlling the cost. Normal Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 17 . risk assessment and actual results. time. Project management is therefore defined as the technique or practice of controlling the use of resources.

and total allocation of resources. problems. It is not good for real what if analysis. 3. Help what if type analyses about project staffing proposed staffing changes. This is information helps them judge the portfolio of projects. Answer question of the major stakeholders-the right information at the right time. Help organizational learning by helping the members of the organization learn about project management. The first question is who is to be served. They should review the projects at each milestone and produce a go decision.information system tell managers if they are on budget. Project manager and department managers need to see each project schedule. priority and use of resources to determine the most efficient use across the organization. between team members and other stakeholders among all project managers and between project managers and upper managers. costs and projects goals. Facilitate communication among team members. 4. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 18 . 2. and specification so that they know what needs to be done next. Upper managers need to know information on all projects regarding progress. This is after the fact. task lists. • THE FOUR MAJOR SECTIONS OF A PROJECT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SCHEDLE SHOULD:- 1. Project team members need to see schedule. resource usage.

Key stakeholders are management level personnel who are critical to the success of the project. Project manager’ duties start before development and continue after delivery of the product. A good project management methodology provides a framework.effort. the first effective & result-oriented responsibility for creation. administration & maintenance of a PMIS has emerged from the team members & not from the system administrators of the company. A project is a program of non routine work bringing about a beneficial change guided by at least one well-engaged sponsor who has both adequate authorities and resources to charter the project effort has a start and an end date with disciplinary team brought together for the project. a group review meeting. Organization tend to allocate such responsibility by rotation among members with a well designed & structured data entry & Analytical format. Purpose of estimation is to define the project functional requirements not to have surprise on various fronts.Strangely enough. The goals of reviews are to improve quality by finding defects in a cost effective manner. process guidelines and techniques to greatly increase the odds of being successful and therefore provides value to the project. cost and ultimately success of the endeavor. schedule.with a scope of work that is well defined but constrained by cost. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 19 . and rework recommendations and follow up. time and quality. The group review process includes several stages: planning preparation and overview. Reasonable estimates tend to become a self fulfilling prophecy.

MB0030 MARKETING MANAGEMENT Q. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 20 .1: Explain the different marketing concepts.

The selling concept 5. The marketing philosophy of business of business assumes that an organization can best service.  Marketing concepts:Studies have revealed that different organization have different perception of marketing. The marketing concept 6. prosper and profit by identifying and satisfying the needs of its customers.Ans. And these perception have led to the formation of different concepts of marketing such as the following: 1. The twenty first century marketing professional will need to have the analytical capacity to handle increasing amounts of data.1: Marketing management is one of the key areas of management. The societal marketing concept 1. Organization today strongly believe that profit goals will be reached though satisfied customers. The exchange concept 2. The product concept 4. possess creative talents to define products and develop strategies to compete in global markets. The exchange concept:- Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 21 . The production concept 3.

They do achieve efficiency in production. Exchange covers the distribution aspect and the price mechanism involved in marketing. 2. Thus this concept holds that high production efficiency and wide distribution coverage would sell the product offered to the market. to view marketing as a mere exchange process would amount to a gross undermining of the essence of marketing. as the very name indicates. A proper scrutiny of the marketing process would readily reveal that marketing is much broader than exchange. Organization voting for this concept are impelled by a drive to produce all that they can. holds that the exchange of a product between the seller and the buyer is the central idea of marketing. Naturally. But their thinking is guided by the assumption that the steep decline in unit costs arising from the maximization of output would automatically bring them all the customers and all the profits that they need. But they do not get the best of the customer patronage. The production concept:This philosophy holds that customers favour those products with low offer price and easy aaailibiity.The exchange concept of marketing. 3. The product concept:- Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 22 . While exchange does from a significant part of marketing. they get focused on production and put all their efforts towards that aspect of the organization.

the product concept seeks to achieve the same result via product excellence. They fail to find out what the consumers actually need and what they would gladly accept. it leads to marketing myopia because the focus is on the product rather than on the customer needs. It also places the emphasis on quality assurance. time and money on research and development and bring in a variety of new products. Therefore firms following this philosophy believe that by making superior products and improving their quality overtime. Organization which follow this concept concentrate on achieving product excellence. 4. The selling concept:- Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 23 . innovative features etc. Whereas the production concept seeks to win markets and profits via high volume of production and low unit costs. they will be able to attract customers. the buyer will admire such products. They fail to find out what the product is actually made. When organizations fall in love with the product. They spend considerable energy. They get totally engrossed with the product and almost forget the consumer for whom the product is actually made. The product concept is somewhat different from the production concept. performance.This philosophy holds that customer favours quality.improved products new products and ideally designed and engineered products. They do not bother to study the market and the consumer in depth.

heavy price discounts and strong publicity and public relation are the tools used by organization that rely on this concept. Selling concept is practiced more aggressively with unsought goods. The marketing concept:- Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 24 . It assumes that customers who are coaxed into buying a product will like it and if they don’t they won’t badmouth about it or complain to consumer organizations. But marketing based on hard selling carries high risks. would not buy enough of the company’s products. therefore undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort.This philosophy holds that customer. 5. goods that buyers normally do not think of buying such as insurance. This concept maintains that a company cannot expect its product to get picked up automatically by the customers. Aggressive advertising high power personal selling. Most firms practice this concept when they have overcapacity. As more and more markets became buyers markets and the entrepreneurial problem became one of solving the shortage of customers rather than that of goods. and will forget their disappointment soon and buy it again. These assumption do not have base. One study showed that dissatisfied customers may badmouth the product to 10 or more acquaintances and bad news travels fast. the sales concept became the dominant idea guiding marketing. As a result the public often identifies marketing with hard selling and advertising. The company has to consciously push its products. encyclopedias etc. large scale sales promotion. if left alone. The organization must.

it might not be possible for the marketer to target all of them. The concept puts the customer both t at the beginning and at the end. However. The customer has to be the center of the business universe and not to the organization. unsuitability of product to certain climatic conditions or inability of the marketer to reach certain hilly or remote areas. They are target market:-A market has to define the market to which it will direct its efforts. This concept was born out of the awareness that marketing starts with the determination of consumer wants and ends with the satisfaction of those wants. delivering and communicating customers value to its chosen target markets. who has interest in the product . A buyer. It says that any business should be organized around the marketing function anticipating. income and willingness to buy can broadly be called as potential buyer. service or idea.The marketing concept holds hat the key to achieving its organizational goals consists of the company being more effective than competitors in creating. There might be geographical barriers. stimulating and meeting customers requirements. A target market is defined as a set of actual and potential buyers of a product. Thus a small portion of the potential market might become part of the target marke Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 25 . The specification and identification of market would enable the marketer to design specific marketing strategies. The marketing concept rests on four pillars. A business cannot succeed by supplying products and services that are not properly designed to serve the needs of customers.

They are stated needs. Therefore companies must go beyond just asking consumers what they want.a) Customer needs:- A company can define its market but fail to correctly understanding the customer needs. This is necessary because a company’s sales come from two groups. marketing must be embraced Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 26 . new customers and repeat customers. delight needs and secret needs. Responding only to the stated need may shortchange the customer. One estimate shows that attracting a new customers can cost five times as much as pleasing an existing one and it might cost sixteen times as much to bring the new customers to the same level of profitability as the lost customer. An anticipative marketers looks ahead into what needs customers may have in the near future. Some customers have needs of which they use words that require some interpretation. integrated marketing takes place on two levels. customer service. real needs. first the various marketing functions. the result is integrated marketing.he is going to lose the consumer in the near future. marketing research must work together. b) Integrated marketing:- when all the company’s departments work together for serving the customers. There are five types of needs. Second. unstated needs. advertising. Understanding customer needs and wants is not always simple. product management.sales force. A creative marketers discovers and produces solutions customers did not ask for but to which they enthusiastically respond. Customer retention is thus more important than customer attraction. A responsiveness marketer finds a stated need and fills it .

they must balance the often conflicting criteria of company profits. wants and interests of target markets and do deliver the desired satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that or enhances the consumers and the society’s well the other departments. External marketing is marketing directed at people out side the company c) profitability:The ultimate purpose of the marketing concept is to help organization achieve their objectives. In the case of non profit and public organizations. consumer want. “marketing is far too important to be left only to the marketing department.” To foster team work among all departments.this concept holds that the organizations task is to determine the needs. the company carries out internal marketing as well as external marketing internal marketing is the task of hiring. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 27 . According to david Packard of hewlet. The societal marketing concept calls upon marketers to build social and ethical consideration into their marketing practices. it is surviving and attracting enough funds to perform useful work.packrd. Private firms should not aim for profits as such but to achieve profits as a consequences of money by satisfying customer needs better than its competitors. satisfaction and public interest. they must also think of the customer. The societal marketing concept:. training and motivating able employees who want to serve customers well.

the researcher has to time the specific research objectives. Each steps is independent but is closely related to other steps.2: It refers to a set of sequential steps to be followed to complete the task of research.Q. define conceptualise the real problem.2: Describe the stages involved in market research process. Care has not be taken while defining the problem. Real issues may not be apparent issues may be deceptive. The are a broad frame within which research has to be conducted. To this. Therefore defining correctly the problem is the most important part of any marketing research. the researchers have to address themselves to the why aspect to the study. 1. Researchers have to identify. It is independent in the sense that each steps has a unique and decisive role. 2. Research design:- It the blue print of the research project and when implemented must bring out the information required Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 28 . Defining the problem:a) identifying and defining the problem:Problem well defined is half solved. Ans. b) Setting up specific research objectives:- Once the problem has been defined. It is inter dependent because the result of the preceding steps is the basis for the succeeding step.

There are two data sources available. Decision on data sources :- a) The researcher has to decide which data sources to use. availability and time. They are Bbservational research:- 1) Fresh data is being collected by observing the situation and the people in the situation and the people in the situation. 2) Secondary data which are collected for some other purpose.) Focus group research:Collecting information from few people who are invited to discuss the matters. 2. It calls for the following decisions. They are: Primary data or data collected for specific purpose. The decision regarding data sources depends upon the usefulness of the data and its cost. b) Decision on research approaches: there are 5 types of research approaches. It has the drawback of relevance to specific situation. 1) Secondary data has an advantage over primary data in terms of cost.for solving the identified marketing problem. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 29 .

) experimental research:Collecting information by conducting experiment In a controlled environment where one or two elements are left two operate and other factors are being controlled. 4. c) Decision regarding research instruments: there are mainly two types of research instruments.3. can be used Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 30 . beliefs. 2) mechanical devices:Mechanical devices such as galvanometer to measure interest and emotions. tastes and preferences. They are: Questionnaire:- 1) A set of questions logically arranged presented to the respondents to answer.) Survey research :Collecting information by conducting elaborate survey regarding people knowledge. eye cameras to study eye movement etc. 5.) Behavioural research:Information collected by learning the behaviour of the consumer.

he has to decide what should be the method for selecting the samples Sample size:. He has to answer who is to be surveyed. the kind of respondents and data collection methods. Sample size:. Sampling procedure:. 3. The form should be designed in such a way that the information can be collected with speed and accuracy. the researcher has to pre[are the form which contains questions to be asked to the respondents.further. The form of the questionnaire depends upon the nature of the information sought. The researcher have to appoint well trained people to collect the information from samples selected for the Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 31 .The researcher has to define the universe in which he is conducting research.d) Decision on sampling plan:- The preparation of the sampling plan calls for the following questions: 1) 2) 3) 4) sampling unit:.he has to decide what should be the size of the sample or answer the question how many people need to be surveyed. collection of information:For eliciting the required information.he has to decide what should be the size of the sample or answer the question how many people need to be surveyed.

a statement is drawn from observed data to specific conclusions. It transforms the raw data into symbols and numetals. appropriate technique of analysis should be utilized to analyzed the data. The second stage editing is office editing to evaluate completed is the process of arrangement of data in rows and columns to identify what is the number of cases in each category. They must be properly trained. The first stage is the field editing which is done to detect the glaring omission and inaccuracies. This is requires a high interpretations. e) Drawing conclusion:. This is done by a complete through scrutiny of the questionnaire. directed and motivated.research.the tabulated data has to be analyzed. It is from observation Deduction method. They are: Induction method. It is towards observation.:- Editing: It is done in two stages. 4. immediately after collection because the interviewers have fresh memory about the lapses and wrong statements. c) Tabulation: . It is a technical procedure for categorizing the starts from general to particular. b) Coding: it consist of assigning symbols and numericals to each answer. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 32 . d) Data is converting data into this method. It is a process of converting the data into information which helps in decision making by eliminating useless data and making the useful data comparable. a) Analyze the information.

5. A very useful research. The managers use those findings which are properly understood. The principle researcher has to take a careful review of the facts found in the research report. limitations.the effectiveness of the report depends upon the methods of communication and presentation of the research report. a) b)Recommendation and follow up:recommendation given in the report should be practicable and implementable. executive synopsis. appendix and bibliography. Therefore the report has to be prepared in such a manner which helps the manager in understanding data and the conclusion drawn. This process includes control. may not serve the purpose. if not presented properly. conclusions and recommendations. methodology. He must try to find out the inefficiencies in the report and make it a clear report. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 33 . It should be contain the title page. findings. The efficacy of the researcher report can be maintained by follow up activities. Presentation of the report:. quality appropriateness and acceptability. Preparation of the report: the user of the data is not the researcher him self. objectives. table of contents.

and then making a thoughtful purchases choice. then attitudes. 1) complex buying behavior:- consumers go through complex buying behavior when they are highly involved in a purchase and aware of significant differences among brands. The marketer of a high involvement product must understand the Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 34 . disc storage. Many of the product features carry no meaning: “ 16k memory”.3: consumer decision making varies with the type of buying decision. a tennis racket. Consumers are highly involved when the product is expensive. risky and highly self expressive. There are four types of buying behavior. there are great difference between buying toothpaste. a person buying a personal computer may not know what attributes to look for.Q. Typically the consumer does not know much about the product category and has much to learn. For example. and a new car. screen resolution and so on.3: Explain the different types of buying behavior Ans. a personal computer. bought infrequently. Complex and expensive purchases are likely to involve more buyer deliberation and more participants. Assael distinguished four types of consumer buying behavior based on the degree of buyer involvement and the degree of differences among brands. This buyer will pass through a learning process characterized by first developing beliefs about the product.

The high involvement is again based on the fact that the purchases is expensive. In this case. and the high standing of the company’s brands features. The consumer will first act. the buyer will shop around to learn what is available but will buy fairly quickly because brand differences are not pronounced. Here marketing communication should aim to supply beliefs Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 35 . The marketers needs to develop strategies that assist the buyer in learning about the attributes of the product class. 2) dissonance. than acquire new beliefs.reducing buying behavior:s ometimes the consumer is highly involved in a purchases but sees little difference in the brands. the consumer might experience dissonance that stems from noticing certain disquieting features of the product or hearing favorable things about other brands.gathering and evaluation behavior of high involvement consumers. The consumer will be alert to information that might justify his or her decision. infrequent and risky.information. and end up with a set of attitudes. use mainly print media and long copy to describe the brands benefits. After the purchases. The buyer may respond primarily to a good price or to purchase convenience. their relative importance. and motivate store sales personnel and the buyers acquaintances to influence the final brand choice.

Consumer do not form a strong attitude towards a brand select it because it is familiar. If they keep reaching for the same brand. Marketers of low Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 36 . Consumer does not search extensively for information about the brands. There is good evidence that consumers have involvement with most lowcost. Instead they are passive recipients of information as they watch television or see print ads. Consumer behavior in these cases does not pass through the normal attitude sequence. not strong brand. which may be follow by evaluation. They go to the store and reach for the brand. evaluate their characteristic. Frequently purchased products. they may not even evaluate the choice because they are not highly involved with the product. After purchases. So the buying process is brand beliefs formed by passive learning. it is out of habit not strong brand loyalty. Ad repetition creates brand familiarity rather than brand conviction. Consumer have little involvement in this product category. Consider the purchases of salt. followed by purchases behavior. and make a weighty decision on which brand to buy.and evaluation that help the consumer feel good about his or her brand choice. Habitual buying behavior:- 3) Many products are bought under condition of low consumer involvement and the absence of significant of significant brand differences. it is out of habit.

since buyers are not highly committed to any brand. The ad campaigns should go for high repetition with short duration involvement medium that is suitable for passive learning. The consumer has some beliefs. the consumer may reach for another brand out of boredom or a wish for a different taste. and evaluates it during consumption. a low involvement product. The ad copy should stress only a few key points.involvement products with few brand differences find it effective to use price and sales promotion to stimulate product trial. a number of things should be observed. But next time. Brand switching occurs for the sake of variety rather than dissatisfaction. 4) variety seeking buying behavior:some buying situation are characterized by low consumer involvement but significant brand differences. chooses a brand of cookies without much evaluation. Here consumers are often observed to do a lot of brand switching. An example occurs in purchasing cookies. In advertising. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 37 . Visual symbols and imagery are important because they can easily be remembered and associated with the brand. Advertising planning should be certain product by a symbol that is repeatedly attached to it.

Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 38 .The marketing strategy is different for the market leader and the minor brands in this product category. avoiding out of stock conditions. coupons. free samples. deals. Challenger firms will encourage variety seeking by offering lower prices. and advertising that presents reasons for trying something new. The market leader will try to encourage habitual buying behavior by dominating the self space. and sponsoring frequent reminder advertising.

preferences and usage rates are often associated are easier to measure. cities or neighborhoods. states.Q. Even when the target market is described in non demographic terms. generation.This calls for dividing the market into different geographical units such as nations. income.4:- for consumer market Two broad group of variables are used to segment consumer markets. religion. family life cycle. One reason is that consumers wants. the link back to demographic characteristic is needed in order to estimate the size of the target market and the media that should be used to reach it Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 39 . nationality and social class.4:-what are the bases segmentation? Explain. Demographic variables are the most popular bases for distinguished customer groups. Demographic segmentation:in demographic segmentation the market is divide into group on the basis of variables such as age. family size. They are consumer characteristics and consumer response or behavior. education. occupation. gender. Under consumer characteristics are three main bases for segmentation they are: 1) 2) Geographic:. race. Ans. The company can operate in one or a few geographical areas or operates in all but pay attention to local variations. regions. countries.

income does not always predict the best customers for a given product. adults and old. a market can be divided into four parts viz. c) Income :- Income segmentation is a long standing practice in such product and service categories as automobiles. hair styling cosmetics and magazines. other marketers notice an opportunity for gender segmentation. advertising policy etc. cosmetics and travel.efficiently. However. different types of products are produced. b) Gender:- Gender segmentation has long been applied in clothing. different types of ready made garments are produced for consumers of different age groups. accordingly. pricing policy. Some variables used are: a) of the demographic Age and life cycle stage:- Consumers wants and abilities change with age. A successful marketing managers should understand the age group for which the product would be most suited and determine his marketing policy. young. d) Generation:- Many researchers are now turning to generation segmentation. clothing. Each generation is profoundly influenced by Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 40 . For instance. different children. For consumer of different age groups. On the basis if age. Occasionally.

movies. buyer are classified into different groups on the basis of lifestyle or personality and vales. Many companies seek opportunities in life style segmentation. But lifestyle segmentation does not always work. clothing. c) Values:- Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 41 . a) Life style:People exhibit different life style and goods they consume express their lifestyles. reading habits etc. politics and events of that period. Psychographic segmentation:In psychographic segmentation. e) Social class:- It has a strong influence on preference in cars. home furnishings. b) Personality:Marketers have used personality variables to segment market. leisure activities. People within the same demographic group can exhibit very different psychographic profiles.times in which it grow up the music. They endow their products with brand personality that corresponds to consumer personalities. many companies design products and services for specific social classes.

i.Some marketers segment by core values. at a basic level.e. Core values go mach deeper than behavior or attitude determine. peoples choices and desire over the long term. beliefs systems that underlie consumer attitudes and behavior. Marketers who segment by values believe that by appealing to peoples inner selves. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 42 . it is possible to influence their outer selves their purchase behaviour.

MB0031 MANAGEMENT INFORMATIOIN SYSTEM Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 43 .

The managers is kept alert by providing certain information indicating and probable trends in the various aspect of business. The functional managers are informed about the targets. inducing him to take an action or a decision in the matter. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 44 . The information is available in such a from that it can be used straight away or by blending and analysis. The tracking and monitoring of the functional targets becomes easy. The impact of MIS on the functions is in its management. A disciplined information reporting system create a structured database and a knowledge base for all the people in the organization.1:. It uses a dictionary of data. saving the manages valuable time. designed for information systems use the dictionary.Since the MIS plays a very important role in the organization. entity and attributes. the management of marketing. production and personnel becomes more efficient. Ans. The MIS creates another impact in the organization which relates to the understanding of the business itself. finance. This helps in forecasting and long term perspective planning. performance and productivity. respectively. The managers attention is brought to a situation which is exceptional in nature. there is common understanding of terms and terminology bringing clarity in the communication and a similar understanding of an event in the organization.Q. With a good MIS support. it crates an impact on the organizations functions. The MIS begins with the definition if a data entity and its attributes.1:Explain the importance of MIS in the present scenario.

searching.. the drudgery of the clerical work is transferred to the computerized system. Since the goals and objectives of the MIS are the products of business goals and objectives. It will be observed that a lot of manpower is engaged in this activity in the organization. The funds of information motivates an enlightened manager to use a variety of tools of the management. A well designed system with a focus on the manager makes an impact on the managerial efficiency. This is has a direct impact Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 45 . it helps indirectly to pull the entire organization in one direction towards the corporate goals and objectives by providing the relevant information to the people in the organization. you will find that seventy per cent of the time is spent in recording. It improves the administration of the business by bringing a discipline in its operation as everybody is required to follow and use system and procedures. relieving the human mind for better work. The use of computers enables him to use the tools and techniques which are impossible to use manually. The impact is on the managerial ability to perform. It improves the decision making ability considerably.The MIS calls for a systemization of the business operations for an effective system design. processing and communicating. If you study the individuals time utilization and its application. Since the MIS works on the basic system such as transaction processing and databases. This leads to streamlining if the operation which complicates the system design. It helps him to resort to such exercises as experimentation and modeling. This process brigs a high degree of professionalism in the business operations. The ready made packages make this task simpler.

Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 46 . It creates an information based work culture in the organization.on this overhead.

Q. its development requires through understanding of the business and the manner in which it is executed. In the seventies. The off line batch processing of data bringing out reports at the end of the Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 47 . In the eighties.“ The selection of information technology is a strategic decision in MIS development”. strategic and competitive. different technologies. Further. the information system were of a stand alone type outside the mainstream of the business. the designer and the user must be knowledgeable in their respective area of functions and responsibilities. know how.The development of modern information system is a complex process. with the business focus shifting from supply management to customer service management. In short. other than the information technologies. the nature. its use was off line and was largely dependent on the user manager in the organization. type and the quality of information system has undergone an overwhelming change.2:.2:. It needs knowledge. the information systems were looked upon as a resources for information to support the decision making. The developer. As information system are being demanded for online real time usage in business management. In the nineties. are used in the business for providing input to the information systems. Explain Ans. the information technology developed multifold and the business became global. other than information technology. skills and technology in almost all the disciplines. The several systems operating in isolation as stand alone legacy systems are rejected in favour of the enterprise wide integrated information systems. Still.

one needs to have core understanding of different kinds of processing. To be a successful designer of information systems. where by the user requirements are made independent of data giving him the freedom to manipulate the data using his own methods. all around information system development is becoming an art where a lot of technology inputs are required. authority structure work groups were trained and empowered to make decisions. With such complex requirement. The organization culture also changed from centralized. bureaucratic. The business management process has changed from function management to process management.period has been rejected in favour of the on line real time systems for an access to know the current status of the business. Due to this. This is called upon the information system availability at the work place. a change in the architecture of information system is required. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 48 . The nature of business is such that a lot of initiative of the user is expected to decided his information needs at a given point of time.

transaction.In any information system application. application processing and system processing. The character of data decides the quality of information it offers to the user. Ans. transaction processing.3:.Q. These specifications and characters are used throughout the information system of a variety of applications. the method generally followed is to design modular or hierarchical steps of processing leading to an output in a report form or information having certain value specific or perceived as seen by the user. application and information for MIS.Describe processing of data. Hence in any information system significant care is taken in building the data as a first level input to the system the data is built through the data design and modeling process which provides specification and character to the data. meaning and presentation providing specific message and understanding to its viewer or user. The steps involved are data processing. If the data is taken care of properly. Let us take a simple example of a data used extensively in every application.3:. its usage will ensure quality output. Though the data is a universal entity in Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 49 . The atomic data entity is defined as a attached to an attribute which has a character. Data is the smallest atomic entity in the information system which is basic to build the information system. Data processing is handling raw data in a systematic manner to confirm to the data quality standards as determined by the designer of the information system.

nature, it still requires determination of specification, character and presentation. A date in isolation conveys the position of the day in a calendar. In the information system however, it may convey a number of things to the user. First, therefore, it needs specification. It is necessary to specify how the data will be specified, whether in the form of DD-MM-YY or MM-DD-YY or YY-MM-DD. So the data date has a specific order of positioning and presenting. It interpretation also changes beyond its generic meaning as a day in the calendar. A date on cash receipt means the cash received date. A date on a fixed deposit receipt indicates the maturity date. A date with its associated context derives its meaning for the application in information processing. Such data specification determination exercise leads the data design further. The specification of data means determining its manner of presentation its value, specific or in limits, its validity whenever possible. The character is numeric or alphabetical or both. Unless the data is defined in this manner, it cannot be used effectively. Hence to summarise, data processing to confirm its specification, character and validity. The system support the user through checks and controls by responding and communicating errors of wrong specification, errors of value, errors in validity. The designer and developer needs to have vision and understanding of the data to implement such processing in handling the data. If due attention is not given in this area of design, disastrous errors would occur during its usage in a variety of applications. A systematic approach calls for determining definition, model, character, value, and its aspects, its purpose and then making use of this knowledge

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in processing to control its acceptance for further use. To ensure the quality of information considerable effort is spent on this data control aspect. Whenever such efforts are missing, serious mistakes have occurred. Once the data is accepted in the system then its use becomes unabated and hence by instituting proper data processing methods, with due regard to data definition, character and structure, the quality of the information is protected and assured. 2.) Transaction processing :After the data has been processed, the next steps is to process transaction itself on certain lines. A transaction is processed with reference to business rules, i.e. a transaction is scrutinized for conformation to the rules, policy or guidelines before it is taken up for further processing. The rules may be directly related to the transaction or it may have some relation and association with other transactions. In case the transaction does not conform the set of specified conditions governed by the rules, the errors is displayed for user to take corrective action. The transaction is processed for adherence to business rules, correctness and consistency of data vales and for validity of transaction. It should be noted that these three aspects are applicable to all the transactions across the business management functions. ▪ such other condition that may be applicable. One can add more business rules if necessary. However, if the receipt transaction is to be processed, it will first be processed for confirmation and conformance of these rules
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before it is taken to the next stage. The rules are checked at the entry level processing after the individual data fields are checked. If any one rule is not possible, the receipt transaction is rejected. The persons designing transaction processing system must have or acquire the knowledge of business rules for introducing them in the transaction processing system. In the absence of this knowledge or by not incorporating them, the transaction would be accepted for further usage violating the business rules. The next check in transaction processing is to confirm internal consistency, correctness and completeness of the data. In our example of receipt transaction, a consistency should be confirmed between the quantity sent, the quantity received, the quantity accepted, and the quantity rejected. Another example is of the goods receipt transaction which is in order by all dimensions but needs to be authorized by the higher authority for excess delivery. Unless such check is imposed all the excess delivery transaction would get rejected. Though the transaction is invalid on the basis of the internal consideration it is made valid by imposing external conditions where transaction is approved by the higher authority. It is important to note that the data at its element level may be correct but at the transaction level it may go wrong. The third check after confirming the data quality and observance of the business rules is for validity of the transaction is checked against and system processing.

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In our example. the store ledger will change. The application processing means the use of transaction data bringing out a particular status. the data finished in these stages gets posted on the affected files. it would raise purchase reminder on the supplier. Let us take an inventory application which requires the receipt and issue transactions duly validated for inventory processing. file will be updated for changes in the stock. If the below the safety level. besides the stock file updation. the inventory is updated and issues giving the net balance at the end of the processing for each item in the inventory.• Application processing:- After data and transaction processing. In the above mentioned case. This processing is carried out once the transaction is processed for its validity. For example. The inventory application is designed to bring out inventory status affected by material transactions. certain terminal files get updated. of the stock level is below reorder level. In application processing. When these two transactions are processed. Application processing is designed to process more than one type of the transaction to bring out the specific business result in one or more business functions. The application could be designed to change the number of different files holding a variety of information. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 53 . It might trigger certain actions based on the inventory status. it would raise a purchase requisition.

The application can be designed for status updation and the status triggered actions in the related field of the application. For example, if the number of work order is on hold for no material to process, then on receipt of the material the affected work orders wick be released for processing. Then the production schedules would also undergo a change. A number of such examples can illustrate that the application process can be designed for a variety or functionalities and features which are essential in running the business. The scope of application processing can be made diverse by incorporating different transactions from the same application area or associated areas. For example, the inventory and purchases application be processed together for vendor evaluation, item valuation and payable accounting. The scope of the application can be made diverse, if it is foreseen at the design stage. At this stage necessary inputs are provided in the transaction which can be used at a later date in the other applications.

Information system processing:-

The system is at a higher level, over the application processing. The system is defined as a product made up of several application set in orderly manner to produce a higher level information output different than the output of the application processing. For example, the financial system is a product of finance, sales and purchases accounting applications. Normally the system processing addresses the management issues of the

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business. In the financial system, processing is done for cash management, asset and liability management, working capita: management, etc. applications which are used for system processing are the finance transaction accounting, the fixed asset processing, the receivables and payables processing, the sales and purchases accounting. On the platform of these applications, the system is processed for the analysis of number of aspects of the finance management. It provides an insight into the funds flow, the source: and the uses of funds, profitability and productivity of the business. It throws light on growth, through the analysis of various trends. The system outputs are generally by the top management responsible for the strategic management of the business. The nature, role and the type of the system is such that its design is very complex and sensitive to the business needs. The system designer, therefore, must have a good insight into the business for which the system is being designed. The understanding of the business in terms of its orientation focus, critical success factors and knowledge of mission critical application is absolutely essential for effective system design. The basic management functions are same, i.e. finance, materials production or service, personnel and sales, etc. in all the business. Hence at the lower level transaction processing and application processing may look similar but when it comes to the system design, it is influenced by the factors mentioned above. In all business organizations, the basic application deck may be the same but its input process output would be the different. The third technology

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consideration is on communication. A wide range of technology on communication are available for choice between the electronic data interchange to fax modem data transfer. System engineering handles the total scope as covers processing design it application. The information system engineering methodologies which are capable of dealing with the data acquisition technologies, processing technologies, processing technology and architecture, networking technologies and communication. The system processing Is efficient and effective provided an appropriate choice of technologies is used and they are blended together properly to produce the necessary information output. Using the system engineering methodologies, when all the information system in the organization are covered, a stage is reached where the system are integrated for a still higher level information output required by all the levels of the management. The system so design through an integration process are called enterprise resource planning systems the business as a whole by way of functions and process management as also by providing support through the DSS. It is a total solution to meet the business information needs, irrespective of the function, process, location, for all the level of management and people. The total realistic is possible if the system design in information system processing is all real time system. The real time system are open in nature having a relational exchange with external world realities. The real time system integrated the hardware, human and database to

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application and execute the system to produce a business result.capture data. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 57 . validate transaction process.

4:. a method or a rule where by the decision alternatives can be generated. or an acceptance of the fixed deposits. an examination system to declare pass or fail. c) The managers can choose one of them. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 58 . if implemented.Q. b) The managers has a model. based on some goal or objective criterion. b) The outcome of the decision is also not known fully. If the managers operates in a known environment then It is a closed decision making system. Few examples are a product mix problem. The conditions of the closed decision making system are: a) the manager has a known set of decision alternatives and known their outcomes fully in terms value.4:. Ans. then the decision making system is termed as an open decision making system.The decision making system can be classified in a number of ways. There are two types based on the managers on the managers knowledge about the environment. tasted. If the manager operates in an environment not known to him. The knowledge of the outcome may be probabilistic one. The conditions of this system in contrast closed decision making system are: a) the managers does not known all the decision alternatives.Distinguish between closed decision making system and open decision Making system. and ranked for selection.

The MIS tries to convert every system to a closed decision making system by providing information support for the best decision the MIS gives the information support. The types of decision are based on the degree of knowledge about the outcomes or the events yet to take place.c) No method. then it is a situation of certainty. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 59 . where his aspirations or desire are met best. then the decision making is not a problem. whereby the manager knows more and more about environment and the outcomes. then it is decision making under risk. rule or model is available to study and finalise one decision among the set of decision alternatives. A good MIS achieve this. If the manager has full and precise knowledge of the event or outcome which is to occur. If the manager has full knowledge. the manager resort to that decision. d) It is difficult to decide an objective or a goal and. Deciding on the possible product diversification lines. If he has partial knowledge. test them and select one of them. are some decision making situations which fall in the category of the open decision making systems. therefore. and the plant location. he is able to generate the decision alternatives. If the managers does not have any knowledge whatsoever then it is decision making under uncertainty. the pricing of a new product.

Only high risk strategic decisions are in the hands of senior and top management. Many operational decisions are passed on to lower level in the organization.  The concept of houses.  Business dynamics and competition is changing so fast that response time to a change has to be much less than before.Use of information technology is now being experienced at home. manufacturing and services. The work and workplace location became separate. In such scenario people affected by impact have to adjust very fast to faster pace of working. in public institutions. education.5:. It has not only touched our personal life but also affected social life of everybody. transportation. Those who can not adjust suffer from work stress.Q. business organizations. It has changed the decision making hierarchy structure in the organization. family and life is slowly getting vanished because technology exposes you to work any time anywhere in single mode or in virtual Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 60 .5:- Explain the impact of IT on quality of life.  Internet and web technologies affected individuals in terms of job and the manner in which the job is executed. smartly and on time. health care. Ans. Following four main areas are seen as affected by impact of information technology:  People are empowered with information and knowledge. It is capable of giving strength to respond quickly.

 Jamming: disabling the site so that authorized viewers cannot use website. called as internet crime or cyber crime. The list of abuses is as given below Spamming: sending unsolicited mail.mode.  Information technology has given birth to new crime.  Impact on social or on society is large due to ease of access to information technology.  Sending viruses: inserting and sending viruses through internet to disable the computers and networks. The society is divided broadly into two parts: having access to technology and the other with no access enjoy its benefits. The digital divided is similar to divided known as have and have nots causing social tension. When you are in family gathering you can still pay divided attention to the family and office work. friends and colleagues will be strained and may become weak over a period of time. The result is relation with family members.  Hacking: obtain illegal access to personal. and those who so not have are left behind. commercial data. You may beisolated from family and friends. a result of widespread abuse of information technology.  Sniffing: intercepting and collecting personal or key information using software in communication network. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 61 . This means your home could be your office.

6:. customer. workflow. Then receipt processing is done to confirm the validity of dispatch by the inventory.Q. manufacturing. Transaction processing. The core business process of the organization are procurement. delivery and accounting. consultants and so on. These process would have external interface like suppliers. when a supplier sends goods.The scope of E-business is limited to executing core business process of the organization. You will observe that receipt processing is first done at locations like warehouse. contractors. distribution. creating a liability in payables and posting it into cash flow projections. The receipt. This event is processed E-way using Ebusiness system are suite. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 62 .6:. communication of receipt to manufacturing. application packages like supply chain management is best suited for planning and execution of entire business process. If enterprise definition is made wider including customer. These core processes are best run by application packages like enterprise resources planning. and “procurement” module of ERP takes over to effect seamlessly all updates and changes. suppliers and distributors. documents and packages are read by bar coding system or RFID. it is received in the warehouse. For example. work group and process control application are the backend system to main ERP enterprise management systems. selling. updating the purchases Ans. effecting material accounts and supplier accounts.Write a short note on A E.

warehouse system takes over. work group processing control. SCM is dedicated to logistic and distribution management and Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 63 . They are supported by front end and back end system and applications designed transaction processing. automated and process controlled goods movement. E-business system use internet capabilities to process an event in seamless manner covering all technical. The current E-business system scope is built through ERP dedicated to manufacturing resources management for effective use of capacity and enhancing productivity. system is used where quality of goods is checked. this event is processed by a work group. and updates the information in real time. and reads the receipt record o move the goods physically to assigned bin in rack. E-business system scope manages cross functional application system as a single business process. workflow management. Hey perform internal business operations and interface with external agencies.In this event processing. QA inspector. which includes receiver at the warehouse. automates the tasks. The ERP and now customer relation management system is a family of software solution packages dedicated to core management functions of business. It integrates cross functions seamlessly. E-communications. Having accepted the goods. confirmed and certified in stages by three agencies in the organization. commercial. E-business system lay foundation for other enterprise applications. workflow. namely Ecommerce. and warehouse manager playing their respective role in the receipt processing as specified in the workgroup application. business aspects and implications of an event. and E-collaboration.

and support. production. These functional system in Ebusiness have become more intelligent and knowledge driven as against information driven in traditional way of doing business. numerically controlled machines and robots and lastly integration of all core and support processes contributes to manufacturing excellence. CIM adds value in the manufacturing by way of simplification of processes in production and design. procurement. In marketing system. it then helps to segment market by customer for advertising. of human resource. In manufacturing system. promotion. capacity. customers demographic psychographic profile. Automation of simplified processes using process control devices. and accounting & finance. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 64 .CRM is dedicated to customer relation management for customer satisfaction. five business system are recognized as essentially concentrates on functional business information system and their integration. it helps to automate number of management process relating to resource. engineering & design. The application of it is so strong that is termed as computer integrated manufacturing or computer added manufacturing. it helps to reach customer directly and is in the position to understand customer behaviour. Traditionally. and contract. maintenance. E.

and process the same account and analyze the impact on the business performance. career planning and succession. scheduling. be it cost.In human resource management system extensive use of internet is made to automate of HR planning. training and development. budgeting capital. HR administration is a huge area of application which is wholly it enabled. The architecture of these process enables to receive inputs from other functional systems like marketing. E. and measuring financial performance. An integrated E-business system is capable of forecasting resources requirement managing resources. B. recruitment and selection is an automated one. and HR. It handles payroll. advertising. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 65 . leave planning. manufacturing. The entire chain of HR planning.Communication. document. profit or productivity. requirement analysis. sales and manpower.

catalogues. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 66 .6(B):In E. This system is useful to solve some problems. web publishing uses website and portals for storing documents. and access the databases and processing and projecting on the screen for common viewing. It provides provides facilities to store delete and search mails supporting the reference needs of the user. Video conferencing also becomes an interacting and effective communication system when it has a feature of white boarding and document world. Through these system both parties communicate on ongoing basis. Video conferencing provides capabilities of video and audio for participants situated at different locations. Voice conferencing is conducted on telephone network using speaker phones or networked PCs with internet telephone connectivity.Ans. E-communication system is a back bone of all processes whose role is to share information by messages or store information to download on access by the customer. This is done through many applications and systems. system available are voice conferencing. and communication within small groups. Most popular and widely used messaging system are E-mail & voice mail. This system is popular when one to one communication is needed. When there is need for communication in real time. video conferencing and electronic meeting. PC network is chosen for communication. participate sit in a meeting room with networked PCs and online screen projector to discuss the meeting agenda. In electronic meeting system. Another E-communication system which is a kind of offline is known ass web publishing.

Portal is a web based interface on an integrated market platform allowing customers to use application and other services. It provides secured access to all user consumer to search information analyses the situation and communicate.drawings. government organizations have large information set and document to share with the community. The communication could be online in offline mode and online in real time mode. educational bodies. and come together with the objective of improving the quality of subject of interest by sharing the experience. a user searches. selects and downloads document for self use. All E-communication systems have sufficient safeguards. and files in any format over internet. Such information is stored on documents. Internet and web technologies are used for forming different interest groups to communicates and share the information. technology or tool. navigates. documents. E-communication system are capable of sending messages. Web publishing is popular amongst research organizations. In this is system. Enterprise information portal is another tool used for information posting and communication to user or customers. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 67 . pictures and so on for sharing. These groups are popularly known as ‘user groups’ who have common interest in subject. which make them secured for use.

1 Briefly explain the project management process and principles Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 68 .MB0033 PROJECT MANAGEMENT Q.

oriented processes:  Specifying and creating the project product and related work products  Defined by the life cycle.1 Project management is composed of interacting processes organized in groups.A. 2. Project process is classified into 2 main categories:  Project management processes  Product oriented processes Project management processes:  Describing and organizing the work project  Defined by the organization. ▪ Project processes ▪ Process groups ▪ Process interactions ▪ Customization 1. Product. Project processes A project processes is a series of action to achieve a result. Process groups Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 69 .

 Initiating processes: Recognition to start and establishing commitment  Planning processes: Devising and maintaining workable scheme to accomplish the business need a  Executing processes: Co-ordinating people to carry out the plan  Controlling process: Monitoring and measuring progress and taking remedial action  Closing processes: Formalizing acceptance and bringing project to an orderly end  The process groups are linked by the result they produce. The result or the outcome of one becomes input to another often with overlaps in terms of time & content. group decision to begin the next phase of the project. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 70 .  → Inputs: client documentations converted to action plans to be acted upon  → Tools and techniques: mechanisms applied to inputs to create outputs  Output: documentables that are a result of the process  Intiating processes. Process interaction The individuals processes are linked by their inputs and outputs.

quality)  Identifying variances from the plan  Updating project plans  Taking corrective action Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 71 . scope and time may need to be redefined Core processes  Have clear dependencies  Facilitating processes  Interaction depends on the nature of the work  They are dynamic & dependent on team innovations. Controlling processes  Measuring project performance(time. Planning processes  planning has a major importance  Plans are nothing planning is everything  Panning processes are highly interdependent  If the cost is unacceptable. cost.

we need to decide which dimensions are critical and how to balance the others so as to key project objectives. The trade offs among these five dimensions are not linear.5. Each of these five dimensions can take one of three roles on any given project: Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 72 . the schedule may shorten and the cost will increase.if you add staff. ● process detail might change for other reasons. For each project. ○ Resources identification might be required for scope definition ○ Some process outputs may be predefined as constraints ● Project management team should identify and manage all the processes required Project management principles: Five dimensions that must be managed on a project:  Features  Quality  Cost  Schedule  Staff These dimensions are dependent on one another. Customization:● Larger projects may need relatively more details ○ A configuration management plan might be necessary ● Smaller projects may need relatively less details ○ Communication plan is not required if there are only 4 stakeholders.

A graphical way to depict these points to use a diagram which allows us to plot several values as an irregularly shaped polygon on a set of normalized axes. and the management. An important aspects of this model is not which of the five dimensions turn out to be drivers or constraints on any given project. The position of each point on its axis indicates the relative degree of flexibility of that dimensions for a particular project. but that the relative priorities of the dimensions be negotiated in advance by the project team. or a degree of freedom. on an arbitrary scale of zero to ten.A driver. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 73 . the customers. a constraint.

Explain the PERT model with the suitable example A. EST 12 10 22 Activity 16 4 26 EFT LFT LST So we conclude that the earliest time small project can finish in14 units of time.3:. ○ Inter dependencies between the activities are represented by arrows to show the flow of the project through its various paths in the logic diagram. The world process is now reversed Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 74 .Q.3:.Purpose ○ boxes or nodes containing essential information about the project represent activities ● critical path planning and scheduling.

►These boxes in your diagram are the critical elements and from the critical path of the logic diagram.► Look at each box in turn and identify those where the difference between the time figure in the upper and lower LH corner is EQUAL to the difference between the time figures in the UPPER and LOWER RH corners. 11 14 40 13 DIFFERENCE=0 ● Finally enter the above calculated DIFFERNCE in the MIDDLE part of the box. 11 14 3 40 Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 75 . This is the spare time or FLOAT TIME.

TERMINOLOGY Earliest time 11 3 40 14 Duration finish Earliest start time Latest finish time Latest start time Total float Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 76 . → The logic diagram analysis is now complete.→ Then calculate the times for all the boxes in the diagram. Record the data in tabular format.

Use began in the last half of the twentieth century. Six sigma can be understood at three levels: Metric:Defects per million opportunities.Q. DPMOallows Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 77 . practices and systems throughout the organization ● To achieve effectiveness in the organizational performance and fulfilling or exceeding the community expectations. Although there is no agreement on what were is no agreement on what were the essential elements of TQM. A conceptual and a philosophical context requires management and human resources commitement ● To adopt a perpetual improvement philosophy. through succinct management of all processes.3:. Six sigma:The goal of six sigma is to increase profits by eliminating variability defects and waste that underline customer loyalty.Enumerate the 3S of six sigma strategy A.A sort label for the list of prerequisites for achieving world class quality. many use the criteria of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.3:.

Methodology:DMAIC / DFSS structured problem solving roadmap and tools. also you want to be six sigma in the critical to quality characteristics and not the whole unit/ characteristics.  Shift:. Rule of thumb is to consider atleast three opportunities physical part.if the central tendency of the process is outside the specification limits and spread is well within these for form. Six sigma is a rigorous and a systematic methodology that utilizes information and statistical analysis to measure and improve a company’s operational performance. 2. Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 78 Submitted By : Piyush Sharma . This increases in performance and decreases in process return variation leads to defect reduction and vast improvement in profits. Six sigma is a methodology that provides business to take complexity of product into account. 3. we need to shift the process within these limits. practices and system by identifying and preventing defects in manufacturing and service related processes in order to anticipate and exceed expectations of all stakeholders to accomplish effectiveness. Philosophy:Reduce variation in your business and take customer focused data driven decisions. employee moral and quality. Six Sigma Strategy:Strategy of improvements through six sigma can be summed up as any one or combination of the following 3 S.

it is common knowledge that many organizations which plan their projects exceedingly well fail miserably during the implementation process. standardizing and documenting the process.if the central tendency of the process is within limits but the spread of the process is beyond the limits. Shrink:. Experience shows the company or the organizations is fundamentally good enough to handle such projects or not.If both central tendency and spread are as desired. stabilize the process by monitoring. However. shrink the process within the limits  Stabilise:. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 79 .

Teamwork was fostered in those companies some decades before the concept became fashionable. A. In that environment.Evolutionary companies always valued their people. The reasons identified for why teams don’t work have a direct relationship to the values of evolutionary companies.4:. Quick-fix revolutionary companies tend to view technology & the concept of self directed teams with an entirely different motivation. personality conflicts. as indicated by their high investment in education & training. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 80 .Q. confused objectives. Lack of vision. They are usually both seen as providing the opportunity to get rid of people & reduce costs. Revolutionary companies generally succeeded in their short team objectives.Describe the recent revolutions in project management. the behavior. Using technology to redesign processes & to enable creation of selfdirected teams is the principle elements in reengineering & downsizing. this is an obvious conclusion that should have been clear from the outset. asking people to work together for the greater good of the company is like asking turkeys to thanks giving & Christmas.4:. but the concept of using team work over an extended period failed & the long term success of those companies was put peril. In one sense. they fail. weak leadership & lack of team trust are directed opposites to or more accurately the result of lack of the evolutionary values & a clear focus in customers & processes. Self directed teams succeed If the environment or organizational values system are conducive to success: if not. Six evolution to watch:There are six distinct but linked evolutions that influence the nature of business the organizational structure.

4. it can be broadly summarized as a major changes in population numbers & balance between young & old. Demographic Evolution:Substantial changes are taking place in the composition of people across the world. This combination clearly influences the thinking of managers. Evolution of rising expectations:Rising expectations are not confined to the stronger economies or the third world but in all societies. Competitive evolution:The evolution is inextricably intertwined with the collapse of collectivism & intellectual acceptance of a market led economy or society. With some. This evolution is most powerful in modifying the structure & managerial principles while planning country specific projects.attitude of managers and employees. it is expressed in terms of quality of life or a desire in terms of quality of life. 2. Understanding the nature & effects of these evolutions helps companies anticipate & make decisions. The technology evolution:- Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 81 . These changes are likely to affect the nature work & the migration of companies across continents. 1. 3. it may be confined to lifting their heads above mere survival: with others. Though the movement differs from nation to nation.

Knowledge evolution:Enhanced by technology evolution. Any approach to project management requires congnisance of this fact. The evident truth is that we have to adapt to changes and the changes themselves provides the ability to handle its pace and work is location specific any more  Virtual knowledge teams: resources any time anywhere Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 82 . Opportunities to learn are far more than mere formal education. Six key trends in a revolutionary workplace: Automation of physical work  Elimination of traditional jobs & work structure  Empowered knowledge holders  Domination of knowledge work teams  Workplace flexibility. it is also linked to education evolution. This acts as a driver to meet rising expectations & practical experimenting to meet challenges. Making a golden cultural triangle. 6. The educational evolution:The rise in standards of evolution is obvious from the very fact that the young ones of the present know far more than those of the same age in the past generations. 5.The pace of technology changes has been unimaginable.

Various sections & subsections of this issue cover as part of organizational issue in project management. The following key aspects. cross functional teams & the most modern HR concept can yield no result unless every employee understands where he or she stands in relation to the project management processes. Coercion. personal relationships.  Organizational change.Q.a processual approach  Traits of the professional manager in changing scenario  Projectized technology based organizations in the century of changes and challenges  Project & programme management for enterprise innovation  Enterprise project management capability development objectives  Technology substitution & guidelines for development of high.Elucidate the organizational issues in project management A.5:. A processual approach to an organization is known as yield better results.This is issue assumes greater significance during implementation when a large number of participants are required to work within a complex matrix.5:. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 83 .

objective and dedication.e. this includes the customers. shareholders. b) People relationship:Any leader without followers is not a successful leader. it is this vision that comes out as their mission and objectives at the workplace. he ensures that his subordinates are provided opportunity for growth based on performance. they practice what they preach. he delegates effectively and supports it with both praise and reprimanded as a feedback for work done. dealers. c) Integrity:This quality is a must for a professional manager which can not be done away with.nario These managers lead by example i. hence the second quality of professional managers is their human relationship skills. the professional managers of the company should ensure that their Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 84 . he ensures their participation in decision making and its implementation. another related quality is that of conviction and courage to fight the obstacle and work with single minded dedication towards the goal. this managers builds up his team based on the core values of sincerity. thus. the government and the society at large. fairness and honestly are expected while dealing with people both within and outside the organization. besides they are clear about their vision both from individual and organizational point of view. his subordinates work clarity of purpose and direction. employees. highest levels of trust.

he builds up a customer orientation within the organization too. this quality philosophy should not only encompass product quality but quality as a way of organization life. of all processes in the organization. this is done by ensuring a consistent quality of hard work & sincerity. it is often observed that an organization goes to any length to satisfy the former and regularly ignores the latter. which is quite infectious and provides the entire organization. besides they are encouraged to undergo Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 85 . e) Customer orientation:Every professional manager has two sets of customer whom he must try to satisfy to the fullest possible extent namely: the external customer and the internal customer. thus. the focus would be on everything.organization functioning is so clean that it cold be transparent to any one such that ethical standards become a reality and not a myth. from the quality of stationary used right up to the quality of manpower hired in the organization. d) Quality :The watchword of every professional managers should be quality. highest levels of quality of work done. desire and problems. a continuous and constant monitoring of all such practices would ensure the quality culture in the orgnisation. f) Innovation management:The professional manager not only ensures that his performance is at peak but motivates his entire team to do the same. the professional manager ensure that the internal customers are given their due and takes care of he needs.

training. new products and new ways of doing things goes on continuously. they ensures that employee have a keenness for exploration and keep and open mind. it is useful only if it is open. an obvious corollary to this is that the organizations communication policy too should be conductive for such information sharing. I) Empowering employees:- Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 86 . and such. units or divisions and they lack a sense of identify with the organization per se.” such a work culture is very conducive since there exists a minimal resistance to change & people look at innovation as a way of life. products. this ensure that the organization is always ready to look at practices. g) Performance & creativity:Professional managers think beyond the obvious and encourage their people to do the same. h) Identification with the organization:Professional managers need to develop a sense of pride with their organizations as a whole. updating as necessary so as to have their skills & develop conducive attitudes at work. the tendency seen is most managers strongly identify with their own departments. as a good old quote goes “ the human mind is like a parachute. besides he provides objective performance appraisal criteria by work. in the sight of increased competition and ever changing strategies to develop a business orientation which in effect means every manager should be aware of the company’s plans. policies.

empowerments ensures in execution of his duties. it is essential that employees are involved in the implementation of change. empowerment is the process by which employees are encouraged to take decisions pertaining to their area of work. many managers are not even ready to delegate their authority to subordinates and end up only delegating responsibility.The professional manager should possess the ability to empower his employee down the line. but managers often hesitate to empower their subordinates as they feel insecure and show a sense of uncertainity. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 87 . J) Coping with changes :It is often said “ the only constant in this world is change. this leads to employee developing a sense of pride in their jobs. he accepts the fact that change is inevitable and is ready to implement change at the work place.” a professional manger has the ability and capacity to cope with change. to implement change successfully.

organization of today are made to think far beyond a PERT. Having adopted archaic methods for many years. Many organization fall in PM once they assume a dominant rather than a proactive or participative role. tools and support. to do it.Q.Enumerate the basic management issues in project management A. many managements are not even aware of the philosophy of PM. facilitating the necessary methods.CPM approach.6:. the purpose if these reviews is: Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 88 . Improving project performance through the PMO The project management office must create and maintain the ability for the project manager to keep focused on the client and perform high quality project managements towards him. a project review is a process where we capture information from the team experience and see the variance and deviation from the project plan.6:. it becomes equally important to climb up the ladder to the management levels so as to understand some basic issue of management can neutralize the benefits of good planning & excellent prerequisites. this kind of reviews should us to increase our productivity and improve our organizational success as well. project success rates have shot up due to the effective absorption of these new trends.Having learnt the basic of PM & the prerequisites. experience has shown that PMO or project management office is a powerful concept to change the way such managements work. this approach has resulted in the emergence of new trends in the very perception of PM.

Creating an environment for successful projects:Recent experience indicate that project work is fast becoming a majority of the work performed in modern organizations. too much project work also appears chaotic. in addition.void of order and predictability.1. project based organizations spend enormous amounts of project management training. they also question the benefits. in addition. especially for product development in high technology companies. A revitalization model describes a society moving through a series of temporary overlapping but distinct phase if change. Taming the project based organization:One of the challenges of moving to a project based organization is the time and process necessary to change behavior. Linking projects to strategy :Once the upper management team is established. few believe in the benefits of change until they actually experience them. given the experience. these projects which will achieve the organizational strategy. the model is consistent with chaos theory. a process must be developed to select those projects which will achieve the organizational strategy. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 89 . 3. these projects needs to have a consistent priority across departments. the revitalization process describes the stages an organization goes through until the majority of the members are ready for change. which says there is disorder before order. but they are often unsure of how to help. 2. executives realize that additional steps must be taken.

The next steps is to estimate the time and resources required for each project. that way the merits of each project get full consideration.What the organization should do:One of the first steps is to identify who is leading the process and who should be on the portfolio team that decides and controls resources for multiple projects. do this before limiting the discussion to capabilities within the organization. Decide on projects:The team can now prioritize remaining projects. the leader needs get an explicit commitment from all these people to participate actively in the portfolio managements process and to use the resulting portfolio plan when making decisions. What the organization can do:The next steps for the portfolio team is to gather data on all projects. constantly apply screening criteria to reduce the number of projects that will be analysed in detail. compute overall return from the portfolio and not individual project because some projects may have greater strategic value than monetary. focus first on project benefits. later include costs to determine the greatest value for the money. vision and mission. then costs. causing each and Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 90 . 4. these identify the goals of the organization and where it wants to go. then. the team begins by clarifying or developing its purpose. then identify expected resource capacity both within and outside the organization to do projects. iterate between gals and capabilities within the organization. this is a time to ask basic questions about product and project types and how they contribute to a diversified portfolio.

record projects that are fully funded in an aggressive project plan. in a separate section or another document. this information loss contributes to a decrease in final product quality. Complete the process:After completing the above steps. list projects for future consideration. it encounters the over the wall problem. as it passes through. there is information loss. it must often pass through all departments until it is ready for market. with all the transits time and with every handoff from one department to the next. Submitted By : Piyush Sharma Learning Centre : Apar India Colloge 91 . it has achieved in plan status. it lists all projects underway or under resources assigned. and often back to the previous department.every project to promise a high financial return is a sure fire way to diminish cooperation across an organization. Obviously the over the wall method is not good project management. the plan of record is both a process and tool used by some organizations at Hewlett Packard to keep track of the total list of projects. projects below the cut line of available resources or which have not yet achieved priority status are on the out-plan. also capture and communicate reasons for delaying or not funding projects. when a new product is needed. where it is passed back and forth from one departments to the next.