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Waste Management in

Smart Cities

CASE
SOLUTION

EMPOWERING SMART CITIES FOR ECONOMIC,


ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
- A case study by Microsoft
TEAM – RADIOACTIVE, IIM ROHTAK
Waste Management
in India
1400
Exhibit 1: Population Growth in India between 1911 to 2011
Source: Provisional Population Totals-India, 2011
2.5
o ne of the major
problem that we
are facing today is
related to solid
waste management in major
cities. Current systems in

Exponential Growth Rate (Annual, %)


1200
2 India can’t cope up with the
waste generated by the
Population (in millions)

1000
rapidly growing
1.5
800 population. Waste
generation depends on
600
1 factors like population
density, economic status,
400
level of commercial activity,
0.5
culture and the city. Various
200
statistics shows how crucial
0 0
this problem of waste
1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 generation is. For example:
India generates 133760 tons
Population Annual Exponential Growth Rate (%)
of solid waste per day but
only 25884 tons per day is treated, because of poor waste management infrastructure.

Exhibit 2: Per Capita Waste Generation Data (in Kg/Capita/Day) “Mega City is a
Source: Census of India 2011, CPCB Report 2011
0.35 0.36 Recent
0.54 Phenomenon. With
globalization of the
0.41

economy, many
0.26
0.44
people have
0.52

Ahmedabad Hyderabad Bangalore Chennai


migrated to the
Kolkata Delhi Mumbai cities”

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Exhibit 3: State-level statistics of MSW generation
in India (2009–2012). Source: Central Pollution Control
Board, Govt. of India, 2012.Process

“UP, Maharashtra,
WB and
Tamilnadu are the
SW generation (MT per day)
most affected
0 - 3841
States”
3842-7682

7682-11522

11523-15363

15364-19604

Exhibit 4: Average (% by weight) composition of solid


waste in Indian metro cities
Source: Shaarholy et.al (doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2007.02.008)
4% 1%
“95% of the 2%
2%

compostable 4% 41%

waste is in the 6%

wet form”
40%

compostable inert paper plastic glass metals textile leather

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Exhibit 5: Predicted Population growth and Waste Generation (Urban India)
Source: Amepu (See http:// swmindia.blogspot.in/)
700 180

160
600

140
500
120

Total Solid Waste


Population

400 100

300 80

60
200
40

100
20

0 0
2001 2011 2021 2031 2036 2041

Population (in millions) Total waste ('000 tonnes / year)

The population in urban area is expected to increase 3 of the waste management problem. Our approach to
times by 2041 due to which the total solid waste solve this problem of waste management comprises of
generated will increase by 20 times. After a deep 3 steps: Waste Segregation, Waste Collection, and
analysis, we have found out that waste segregation Developing the Waste-Chain.
and waste collection are the two most important part

STEP 1: WASTE SEGREGATION DRIVE – SEGREGATION WHILE COLLECTION


The plan is to implement a system that separates solid, the metal detection system. This system is used to
wet and metal waste. Due to an unplanned collection detect metallic waste. After this, the object falls into
of waste, there is an aggregation of different type of the capacitive sensing module. This module
waste materials which makes it difficult to segregate distinguishes between wet and dry waste. After the
the waste effectively to be recycled and processed for identification of waste, a circular base which holds
reuse. The system that we propose is a flap based. The containers for dry, wet and metallic waste is rotated.
equipment will effectively determine the type of waste The collapsible flap is lowered once the container
and based on the type of waste, drops the waste into corresponding to the type of garbage is positioned
different compartments- one for each of the three under it. The waste falls into the container, and the
categories. flap is raised. The waste in the containers now can be
collected separately and sent for further processing.
System: Waste is pushed through a flap into the
proposed system. An IR proximity sensor detects this The design for the model can be found in exhibit 6 and
and starts the entire system. The waste then falls on Exhibit 7

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Exhibit 6: Flow Chart of the Segregation
Process

3. If Moisture is more
than threshold, then 4. Segregation is done
1. Magnets detect 2. Capacitive Censors
base rotates (using at the collection stage
metal waste Measure Moisture
hydraulic actuators) to itself
wet bin

The entry point of our solution in the supply chain which makes the segregation process at the plant
would be in the garbage disposal vans. We suggest more effective, and hence the waste can be reused and
that the vans be equipped with these apparatuses so recycled.
that they segregate waste at the collection point itself

4. Wet Waste Bin 3. Capacitive


Sensors 2. Metal
5. Dry Waste Bin Waste Bin

1. Metal
Detector

Exhibit 7: Truck equipped with segregation device

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STEP 2: WASTE COLLECTION OPTIMIZATION
The basic problem here is that the officials collecting of it, the device will send out a signal. The garbage
the waste from the bins collect either too slow or too bins will have three such devices indicating the
fast. They sometimes collect the waste from the bin amount of space the garbage has filled. One device
either when the bin is almost empty or when waste is will be fixed at a height 40% of the height of the bin,
overflowing on to the road. another at 60% of the height of the bin, and the third at
90% the height of the bin. With this, the garbage
To solve this problem, we will be using proximity
collector can simply see the status of the bin on his
sensors that measure the level of garbage in the waste
tablet-(Provided by the organization) and collect
bin. A proximity sensor is a device that is like the one
waste from the full bins.
found on a smart phone. If there is an obstacle in front
GPS
A unique code identifies the bins sent out by the
sensor based on the locality and bin number to the
tablet. We are guarding against theft by putting in a
90% Proximity
failsafe into the sensor so that the device only works
Sensor
on government networks. The bins will be planted
near an electric pole or transformer so that a small
60% Proximity
Sensor power connection can be established to the bin to
power the sensor and the antenna – this can also be
achieved by planting solar panels on top of the electric
40% Proximity pole and connecting these panels to the sensors.
Sensor

Exhibit 8: Dustbin with sensors

STEP 3: INTELLIGENT WASTE CHAIN

The location (latitude-longitude) of the waste bins and wastebaskets in the vicinity. This database with the
toilets will be collected during installation and help of GPS will give the user the required waste
garbage collection. The data along with the unique bin basket destination and hence, they can freely drop
code specified in the Waste Collection Optimization their waste in the bin as any good citizen must do
will help in bin identification for the garbage collector. instead of littering on the road or publicly urinating
Also, whenever a citizen is in search of a restroom or a on the walls.
waste basket, he/she can simply search in Bing for

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Exhibit 9: Intelligent Waste Chain equipped with IOT

Exhibit 10: Interactive Dashboard with data analysis