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J A C

© Serials Publications

TRANSFER CAPABILITY CALCULATION USING

MATLAB

CHANDRASEKHAR P. K4.

ABSTRACT

The Available Transfer Capability (ATC) of a transmission system is a measure

of unutilized capability of the system at a given time and depends on a number

of factors such as the system generation dispatch, system load level, load

distribution in the network, power transfers between areas, network topology,

and the limits imposed on the transmission network due to thermal, voltage and

stability considerations. This paper describes a method for determining the

ATC between any two areas in a transmission system (multiarea) under a given

set of system operating conditions. The method used here provides ATC between

the two areas in a transmission system on the basis of voltage magnitude limits

at the buses and static voltage stability limits. In addition, the method can be

used to compute ATC between two areas based on including thermal limits

also. The proposed method is illustrated using two IEEE test systems.

Index Terms: Available Transfer Capability (ATC), Total Transfer Capability

(TTC), Tie Lines.

1. INTRODUCTION

The computation of ATC is very important in the deregulated power system

because Electric utilities would be required to post information on ATC’s of

their transmission networks so that such information will help power marketers,

sellers and buyers in planning, operation and reserving the transmission services

[1]. Utilities would have to determine adequately their ATC’s to ensure that

system reliability is maintained while serving a wide range of transmission

transactions. ATC between and within areas of the interconnected power system

and ATC for critical transmission paths between these areas would be

continuously updated and changes in scheduled power transfers between the

areas are posted.

1,2,3,4 Department of Electrical and Electronics, The National Institute of Engineering - Mysore.

E-mail: 1drapn3009@yahoo.co.in, 2pradeep3080@gmail.com, 3chidanand_r@rediffmail.com,

4

pk_mce@yahoo.co.in

28 T. ANANTHAPADMANABHA, H. PRADEEPA, R. CHIDANANDAPPA AND…

Power system transfer capability indicates how much inter area power

transfers can be increased without compromising system security. Transfer

capability computations play a role in both the planning and operation of the

power system with regard to system security. One benefit of interconnected

power systems is the potential for increased reliability.

In an interconnected system, the loss of generation in one area can be

replaced by generation from other areas. Thus, several systems interconnected

can survive contingencies that the individual systems could not. Transfer

capability computations are useful for evaluating the ability of the interconnected

system to remain secure following generation and transmission outages.

Determining the adequacy of the transmission system in allowing external

generation to replace internal generation is a typical application for transfer

capability computations. For this purpose, a model of the network reflecting

the anticipated conditions is assumed. Several generators within one area are

selected as sinks. The power injected to the network at these locations is

systematically reduced or eliminated to reflect the planned or unplanned loss

of the units. For each generation outage scenario, several external generators

are selected as potential sources.

The choice of sources and the participation of each source depend upon

the assumption concerning the time frame of the response. The purpose of the

transfer capability computation is to determine the quantity of lost generation

that can be replaced by the potential reserves and the limiting constraints in

each circumstance. In addition to varying the assumptions regarding the

generation sources and sinks to reflect different outages and reserve locations,

the computations are often repeated assuming different loading conditions or

increasing loads and coincident branch element outages.

Transfer capability is the measure of the ability of interconnected electric

systems to reliably move or transfer power from one area to another over all

transmission lines (or paths) between those areas under specified system

conditions [3]. The units of transfer capability are in terms of electric power,

generally expressed in megawatts (MW). In this context, “area” may be an

individual electric system, power pool, control area, sub region, or NERC

Region, or a portion of any of these. Transfer capability is also directional in

nature. That is, the transfer capability from Area A to Area B is not generally

equal to the transfer capability from Area B to Area A [3].

Available Transfer Capability (ATC) is a measure of the transfer capability

remaining in the physical transmission network for further commercial activity

over and above already committed uses [3]. Total Transfer Capability (TTC) is

defined as the amount of electric power that can be transferred over the

interconnected transmission network in a reliable manner while meeting all of

a specific set of defined pre and post-contingency system conditions [3].

The system-limiting factors that limit a power system’s ATC are many.

Among them are the line current limits, voltage magnitude limit, generator

reactive power limit, and voltage collapse limit, etc.

VOLTAGE STABILITY CONSTRAINED AVAILABLE TRANSFER CAPABILITY CALCULATION… 29

The line current limit usually is a line’s thermal limit. Too much current

flow in a line may cause a line to droop or damage nearby connected

equipments. DC power flow has been widely used to calculate thermal limit

with great speed.

But DC power flow can not deal with other limiting factors. The bus voltage

magnitudes also need to be kept within reasonable limits. Voltage over-limit

may cause damage to system equipments, and reduce the power quality to the

customers. Low voltage sometimes is also an indication that the system is near

a voltage collapse. Both high voltage and low voltage are regulated by system

circuit breakers and pose limits to the power transfer.

Generators have reactive power output limits. After a limit is reached, a

generator will not be able to regulate its bus voltage. It is degraded from a PV

bus into a PQ bus. This may cause voltage collapse or system instability [6].

The voltage collapse is the upper physical limit that a power system can

function properly. Beyond this point, no mathematical solution exists. This

situation usually happens after a bus voltage has a significant drop or when a

generator’s var limit is reached.

The limitations on power system performance that we consider in this paper

are transmission voltage magnitudes and voltage collapse. All these limits can

be handled in an AC load flow power system model.

Static voltage instability is mainly associated with reactive power imbalance.

Reactive power support that the bus receives from the systems can limit loadability

of that bus. If the reactive power support reaches the limit, the system will

approach the maximum loading point or voltage collapse point [7].

In static voltage stability, slowly developing changes in the power system

occur that eventually lead to a shortage of reactive power and declining voltage.

This phenomenon can be seen from the plot of the voltage at receiving end

versus the power transferred. The plots are popularly referred to as P-V curve

or “Nose” curve. As the power transfer increases, the voltage at the receiving

end decreases. Eventually, the critical (nose) point, the point at which the system

reactive power is out of use, is reached where any further increase in active

power transfer will lead to very rapid decrease in voltage magnitude. Before

reaching the critical point, the large voltage drop due to heavy reactive power

losses can be observed. The maximum load that can be increased prior to the

point at which the system reactive power is out of use is called static voltage

stability margin or loading margin of the system [8].

In static voltage stability study, mainly two analysis techniques, namely

Continuation Power Flow and Optimization technique (or direct) methods are

used [8].

30 T. ANANTHAPADMANABHA, H. PRADEEPA, R. CHIDANANDAPPA AND…

Continuation Power Flow presents a way to plot complete PV curves by

automatically changing the value of Loading Factor (LF or ë). It involves

predictor and corrector steps to guarantee a well behaved numerical solution

of the related equations. PV curves are currently in use at some utilities for

determining proximity to collapse so that operator can take timely preventive

measures to avoid voltage collapse. The CPF method uses the successive power

flow solution to fully compute the voltage profiles up to collapse point to

determine the loading margin. Tangent vector which is a byproduct of the CPF

process can also be used as an index to identify the weakest bus of the system.

Mathematically, the CPF procedure can be summarized in two steps, namely

predictor and corrector steps. A third step known as parameterization is

introduced to avoid some convergence problem.

Optimization technique provides a more accurate solution and it is able to

handle power system constraints in a simple way. However, it gives only the

solution at the optimal point, which may not be useful in the operation of an

intermediate loading point, between base case and collapse point.

The basic idea in the ATC calculations is to determine for a given set of system

conditions (generation dispatch, load level, network topology, and its limits),

the maximum amount of power that a transmission system can transfer, in

addition to the already committed transmission services, when power is injected

at one location and the same amount of power is extracted at the same time at

another location without the violation of transmission constraints. This additional

amount of power is referred to in this paper as the ATC between the two locations

in the network.

Injecting power at one location in the network and extracting it at another

location affects system flow patterns. As the injected power increases between

the two locations, some transmission elements or interfaces become limiting,

and therefore no more additional power can be transferred between the two

locations. If there is one transmission path between the two locations, the ATC

between them will be equal to the ATC for the path and is given by the

difference between the flow limit on the limiting element or the interface and

the flow on the element or interface before the injection of power (base case).

If there is more than one transmission path between the two locations, the ATC

between them is equal to the sum of ATC’s for all transmission paths between

the two locations. In this case, the ATC for a certain path between the two

locations is given by the difference between the flows on the path after and

before the injection of power.

VOLTAGE STABILITY CONSTRAINED AVAILABLE TRANSFER CAPABILITY CALCULATION… 31

The simulation process used in this paper is illustrated using the flow chart

given below. The ATC is limited by the voltage magnitude at the buses and the

static voltage stability limit. Thermal limit checking is not accounted in this

ATC computation and is assumed to be infinity.

As the flowchart shows, a transfer case is selected first. The variables,

which are going to be used for the simulation, are chosen. For example, after

identifying the tie lines connecting the two areas, the power of the generator of

an area and the load of another area is increased so that power is transferred

from an area to another. The branch flow of the line or lines connecting the

two areas will then be recorded. If the power flow solution of the transfer case

cannot be converged, the simulation will be stopped, go back a few steps, and

continue running again with smaller steps, just to increase the accuracy of the

simulation. The reason for running the simulation in a bigger step comparing

to the second stage is to reduce the time consumption. The ATC is then the

total power flow increased between the two areas before the system plunge

into instability.

For a given system state, the ATC from one area (Area 1) to another area

(Area 2) and ATC’s for selected transmission paths between them will be

calculated using following procedure:

1. Establish a base case power flow using AC power flow in which the

system load is supplied without violating any transmission limits.

2. Identify the tie lines between the two areas.

3. Obtain from the base case, power flows in these selected tie lines or

transmission paths between the two areas.

4. Check for presence of loads at the receiving ends of these tie lines.

5. If so, increase the load in larger steps.

6. Again obtain the power flows in these tie lines between the two areas by

running AC power flow.

7. Repeat step 5 until system conditions are violated.

8. Now go back one step and decrease the load by one step.

9. Now by increasing the load in smaller steps run the power flow until

system conditions are violated and obtain the power flows in tie lines.

10. The difference between the flows computed in steps 9 and 3 on a

particular transmission path or tie line would give the required ATC for

that path or tie line.

11. The sum of ATC’s computed for tie lines between two areas will give the

ATC between those two areas.

32 T. ANANTHAPADMANABHA, H. PRADEEPA, R. CHIDANANDAPPA AND…

variables to be changed

Check if Bus

Yes

voltages are stable

No

Step back and increase

variables in smaller steps

voltages are stable

No

ATC

End

Fig. 1: Flow Chart for The Simulation

Fig. 1: Flow chart for the simulation

The above procedure can he used to compute ATC’s of multiple-area

systems as a function of time. Hourly or daily ATC’s can be calculated as the

power system goes through its moment by moment changes.

The methods described in the preceding sections for computing the ATC of a

transmission system are illustrated using two IEEE bus systems as shown in

figures 2 and 5. That is using IEEE 30 bus system and IEEE 118 bus system

[10] and [11].

ATC’s were computed between three areas using power flow program in

MATLAB. The ATC’s of the transmission lines and the ATC’s between the

areas for the IEEE 30 Bus Test system shown in figure 2 are as given in the

following tables I and II. The maximum power that can be transferred between

the two areas 1 and 2 without any violations of transmission constraints was

found to be 23.15 MW and between areas 1 and 3 and 2 and 3 the ATC values

VOLTAGE STABILITY CONSTRAINED AVAILABLE TRANSFER CAPABILITY CALCULATION… 33

indicates that the ATC is in reverse direction.

Figure 3 shows the PV curves of receiving end load buses of tie lines of

IEEE 30 bus test system with only voltage collapse limit applied. Figure 4

shows the PV curves of receiving end load buses of tie lines of IEEE 30 bus

test system with both voltage limit and voltage collapse limit applied.

Similarly the ATC’s between the areas for the IEEE 118 Bus Test system

shown in figure 5 are as given in table III. The maximum power that can be

transferred between the two areas 1 and 2 without any violations of transmission

constraints is found to be 19.09 MW and between areas 1 and 3 and 2 and 3

the ATC values are found to be –21.97 MW and –345.29 MW respectively.

34 T. ANANTHAPADMANABHA, H. PRADEEPA, R. CHIDANANDAPPA AND…

Bus Test System with Only Voltage Collapse Limit

Bus Test System with Both Voltage Limit and Voltage Collapse Limit

VOLTAGE STABILITY CONSTRAINED AVAILABLE TRANSFER CAPABILITY CALCULATION… 35

Table I

Branch No. Bus No. to Bus No. ATC (MW)

1 1 2 41.39

2 1 3 22.40

3 2 4 15.20

4 3 4 22.04

5 2 5 7.90

6 2 6 17.40

7 4 6 13.78

8 5 7 7.75

9 6 7 –7.70

10 6 8 1.39

11 6 9 20.14

12 6 10 11.51

13 9 11 0.00

14 9 10 20.14

15 4 12 23.15

16 12 13 0.00

17 12 14 1.32

18 12 15 5.43

19 12 16 4.18

20 14 15 1.31

21 16 17 4.11

22 15 18 4.41

Contd…

36 T. ANANTHAPADMANABHA, H. PRADEEPA, R. CHIDANANDAPPA AND…

23 18 19 4.33

24 19 20 4.30

25 10 20 7.87

26 10 17 8.04

27 10 21 2.23

28 10 22 3.46

29 21 22 2.20

30 15 23 2.23

31 22 24 3.46

32 23 24 2.20

33 24 25 –6.59

34 25 26 0.00

35 25 27 –6.78

36 28 27 6.86

37 27 29 0.00

38 27 30 0.00

39 29 30 0.00

40 8 28 1.38

41 6 28 5.48

Table II

Area No. to Area No. ATC (MW)

1 2 23.15

1 3 38.52

2 3 –13.71

Table III

Area No. to Area No. ATC (MW)

1 2 19.09

1 3 –21.97

2 3 –345.29

5. CONCLUSION

In this paper a simple, efficient and practical method for determining the ATC

between any two areas in the transmission system has been proposed and the

ATC’s for transmission paths between two buses and ATC’s between two areas

interconnected by tie lines are calculated. The results obtained from the

application of the above method of ATC assessment to the two IEEE test systems

demonstrated that ATC was limited mainly due to the violation of voltage

magnitudes at the buses.

REFERENCES

[1] G. Hamoud, “Assessment of Available Transfer Capability of Transmission Systems”, IEEE

Transactions on Power System, 15, No. 1, February 2000.

[2] Ian Dobson, Hans Glavitsch, Chen-Ching Liu, Uasio Tamura and Khoi Vu, “Voltage Collapse in

Power Systems”, 8755-3996/92 1992 IEEE.

[3] North American Electric Reliability Council, “Available Transfer Capability Definitions and

Determination”, NERC June 1996.

VOLTAGE STABILITY CONSTRAINED AVAILABLE TRANSFER CAPABILITY CALCULATION… 37

[4] G.C. Ejebe, J. Tong, J.G. Waight, J.G. Frame, X. Wang, W.F. Tinney, “Available Transfer

Capability Calculations”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 13, No. 4, November 1998.

[5] Dr. Nigel T. Hawkins, “Voltage Collapse and its Avoidance”, IEE, Savoy Place, London WC2R

0BL, UK.

[6] Ronghai Wang, Robert H. Lasseter, Jiangping Meng, Fernando L. Alvarado, “Fast Determination

of Simultaneous Available Transfer Capability (ATC)”.

[7] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGrawHil, 1994.

[8] Arthit Sode-Yome and N. Mithulananthan, “Static Voltage Stability Study Using MATLAB

Symbolic and Optimization Toolboxes”.

[9] Ian Dobson, Scott Greene, Rajesh Rajaraman, Christopher L. DeMarco, Fernando L. Alvarado,

Mevludin Glavic, Jianfeng Zhang, Ray Zimmerman, “Electric Power Tansfer Capability: Concepts,

Applications, Sensitivity and Uncertainty,” PSERC Publication 01-34 November 2001.

[10] www.ee.washington.edu/research/pstca.

[11] www.pserc.cornell.edu/matpower.

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