You are on page 1of 4

IJIRST –International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology| Volume 4 | Issue 4 | September 2017

ISSN (online): 2349-6010

Vibration Analysis on Tractor Bonnet


Karthik. A Nagoor Babu Shaik
Assistant Professor Student
Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering
Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha University, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha University,
Chennai. India Chennai. India

G. Sai Praveen A. Raja Shekar Reddy


Student Student
Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering
Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha University, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha University,
Chennai. India Chennai. India

Abstract
The use of tractors is indispensable and essential to the agriculture. However, despite being economical machines, tractors could
fail in their comes, resulting in the looks of vibrations in several elements of their structure. Several studies show that the daily
exposure to high levels of vibration, these area unit a risk issue for the health of the total organic structure. Visible of that, the aim
of this study was to judge the vibration levels in tractor by variable the fabric of the tractor body material and to do and cut back
the vibration levels. The main supply of vibration in agricultural tractors is that the engine. Engine vibration results from the
combustion method itself and also the mass spatial property in engine rotating components. The vibration is transmitted from the
engine to the tractor hood. The target of this study is to record and analyze the vibration patterns on the hood beneath completely
different operational engine speeds (500 - 1500 rpm).Several tractors parts don't have the flexibility to soak up noises, vibrations
and harshness. Noise is associate unpleasant sound created by vibratory objects, vibration may be a fast movement of a solid object
front and back across its position. Vibration analysis between the 2 forms of engine hoods showed that the steel sheet was so
terribly stiff, in distinction to the forged iron hood, that higher absorbed the mechanical vibration thanks to the redoubled damping.
Engine vibration results from cylinder firing, impacts thanks to piston clearances (piston slaps), fuel injection system pressure,
highrise of force per unit area throughout combustion and also the impacts of water and exhaust valves.
Keywords: Vibration, Analysis, Different, Materials, Tractor, Bonnet
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION

Tractor Bonnet
The accelerometer was fixed at different points of the tractors, collecting their overall structural vibration. For the conditions that
were conducted this study, it can be concluded that the tractor vibrations tend to increase according to the addition of the use of
time of the tractors. The engine is a great source of vibration as noted in both tractors, as soon the vibration in steer wheel control
system is a concern, due to the fact that is a place where the operator maintain constant contact, however the vibrations levels in
tractor with cabin were lower than tractors without cabin. As a result of this process the vibrating hood produces noise that it is
heard by the driver. Noise is transferred directly from vibrating components or by the wind, turbulence, and air leaks to the drive.
The bonnet of the tractor is taken into consideration to check the vibrations and the material of the bonnet is altered in order to
reduce the vibrations in the vehicle which increases the life span of the vehicle and its parts and it also reduce the disturbance to
the person using the vehicle and also reduce the health problems to the driving person. The engine hood is the main component of
the front view of a tractor. It is used to cover the tractor engine, the radiator, and other sensitive components. Its shape is made as
aerodynamic as possible. It is also used to decorate the tractor and add a luxurious look to it.
Vibrations
Vibration is a mechanical wonder whereby motions happen around a harmony point. The word originates from Latin vibrationem
("shaking, wielding"). The motions might be intermittent, for example, the movement of a pendulum—or irregular, for example,
the development of a tire on a rock street.
Vibration can be alluring: for instance, the movement of a tuning fork, the reed in a woodwind instrument or harmonica, a cell
phone, or the cone of an amplifier.
Much of the time, in any case, vibration is undesirable, squandering vitality and making undesirable sound. For instance, the
vibrational movements of motors, electric engines, or any mechanical gadget in operation are commonly undesirable. Such
vibrations could be brought about by lopsided characteristics in the turning parts, uneven rubbing, or the cross section of rigging
teeth. Watchful plans generally limit undesirable vibrations.

All rights reserved by www.ijirst.org 45


Vibration Analysis on Tractor Bonnet
(IJIRST/ Volume 4 / Issue 4 / 009)

The investigations of sound and vibration are firmly related. Sound, or weight waves, are created by vibrating structures (e.g.
vocal strings); these weight waves can likewise incite the vibration of structures (e.g. ear drum). Henceforth, endeavors to lessen
commotion are frequently identified with issues of vibration.

II. VIBRATION ANALYSIS

Vibration investigation is utilized to distinguish blames in pivoting hardware (Fans, Motors, Pumps, and Gearboxes and so on, for
example, Unbalance, Misalignment, moving component bearing shortcomings and reverberation conditions.
Vibration examination can utilize the units of Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration shown as a Time Waveform, yet most
ordinarily the range is utilized, gotten from a Fast Fourier Transform of the TWF. The vibration range gives vital recurrence data
that can pinpoint the defective segment.
The essentials of vibration examination can be comprehended by concentrate the straightforward Mass-spring-damper model.
Without a doubt, even a perplexing structure, for example, a vehicle body can be displayed as a "summation" of straightforward
mass–spring–damper models. The mass–spring–damper model is a case of a straightforward consonant oscillator. The arithmetic
used to depict its conduct is indistinguishable to other basic symphonious oscillators.
For the most part for littler installations and lower recurrence runs, the creator focuses on an apparatus plan that is free of
resonances in the test recurrence run. This turns out to be more troublesome as the DUT gets bigger and as the test recurrence
increments. In these cases multi-point control methodologies can moderate a portion of the resonances that might be available later
on. Gadgets particularly intended to follow or record vibrations are called vibroscopes.

III. MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Cast Iron
Solid metal is a gathering of iron-carbon compounds with a carbon content more prominent than 2%.Its value gets from its generally
low softening temperature. The compound constituents influence its shading when broken: white cast press has carbide polluting
influences which enable splits to go straight through, dim cast press has graphite pieces which redirect a passing split and start
innumerable new breaks as the material breaks, and pliable cast press has round graphite "knobs" which prevent the break from
further advancing.
Carbon (C) running from 1.8–4 wt%, and silicon (Si) 1–3 wt% are the primary alloying components of cast iron. Press
combinations with less carbon substance are known as steel. While this in fact makes the Fe–C–Si framework ternary, the standard
of cast iron hardening can be comprehended from the less complex parallel iron–carbon stage graph. Since the structures of most
cast irons are around the eutectic point (least fluid point) of the iron–carbon framework, the liquefying temperatures normally run
from 1,150 to 1,200 °C (2,100 to 2,190 °F), which is around 300 °C (540 °F) lower than the dissolving purpose of unadulterated
iron.
Solid metal has a tendency to be fragile, with the exception of pliant cast irons. With its generally low softening point, great
smoothness, castability, amazing machinability, imperviousness to twisting and wear resistance, cast irons have turned into a
designing material with an extensive variety of uses and are utilized as a part of channels, machines and car industry parts, for
example, chamber heads , barrel pieces furthermore, gearbox cases (declining use). It is impervious to annihilation and debilitating
by oxidation.
Mild Steel
Mellow (steel containing a little rate of carbon, solid and intense however not promptly tempered), otherwise called plain-carbon
steel and Low carbon steel. It is currently the most widely recognized type of steel since its cost is moderately low while it gives
material properties that are adequate for some applications. Mellow steel contains around 0.05–0.25% carbon making it pliable
and bendable. Gentle steel has a generally low elasticity, yet it is shabby and simple to frame; surface hardness can be expanded
through carburizing.
It is frequently utilized when vast amounts of steel are required, for instance as auxiliary steel. The thickness of mellow steel is
around 7.85 g/cm3 (7850 kg/m3 or 0.284 lb/in) and the Young's modulus is 200 GPa (29,000,000 psi).
Low-carbon steels experience the ill effects of yield-point runout where the material has two yield focuses. The principal yield
point (or upper yield point) is higher than the second and the yield drops significantly after the upper yield point. In the event that
a low-carbon steel is just worried to some point between the upper and lower yield point than the surface create Luder groups.
Low-carbon steels contain less carbon than different steels and are less demanding to icy frame, making them less demanding to
deal with.
Types
Hot Rolled
Utilizes: Hot moved items like Hot rolling is a factory procedure which includes rolling the steel at a high temperature (regularly
at a temperature more than 1700° F), which is over the steel's recrystallization temperature. At the point when steel is over the
recrystallization temperature, it can be molded and framed effectively, and the steel can be made in considerably bigger sizes. Hot

All rights reserved by www.ijirst.org 46


Vibration Analysis on Tractor Bonnet
(IJIRST/ Volume 4 / Issue 4 / 009)

moved steel is normally less expensive than frosty moved steel because of the way that it is regularly fabricated with no deferrals
all the while, and along these lines the warming of the steel is not required (as it is with cool rolled). At the point when the steel
chills it will contract marginally along these lines giving less control on the size and state of the completed item when contrasted
with icy rolled. hot moved steel bars are utilized as a part of the welding and development exchanges to make railroad tracks and
I-pillars, for instance. Hot moved steel is utilized as a part of circumstances where exact shapes and resistances are not required
Cold Rolled
Chilly moved steel is basically hot moved steel that has had additionally handling. The steel is handled further in chilly decrease
factories, where the material is cooled (at room temperature) trailed by toughening and additionally tempers rolling. This procedure
will deliver steel with nearer dimensional resistances and a more extensive scope of surface completions. The term Cold Rolled is
erroneously utilized on all items, when really the item name alludes to the moving of level moved sheet and loop items.
Every single icy item give an unrivaled surface complete, and are prevalent in resilience, concentricity, and straightness when
contrasted with hot rolled.
Chilly completed bars are regularly harder to work with than hot moved because of the expanded carbon content. In any case,
this can't be said in regards to icy moved sheet and hot moved sheet. With these two items, the icy moved item has low carbon
substance and it is normally strengthened, making it milder than hot moved sheet.
Utilizes: Any venture where resiliences, surface condition, concentricity, and straightness are the main considerations.

IV. TESTING

NVH Testing
NVH (noise, vibration and harshness) performance directly affects a customer's perception of vehicles. It directly impacts vehicle's
sales, durability, warranty costs and customer driving comfort. A good vehicle NVH design needs to start from a well thought
NVH development process, and to follow system engineering principles. It needs to balance many different attributes such as
vehicle dynamics, vehicle brand image, vehicle market position, target customer groups. It needs to be designed based on the above
parameters, plus having a NVH further reserve to make sure the vehicle still meets its engineering targets when it is delivered to
market. Engineering considerations on target cascading, separation of structural modes, separation of different sound and vibration
transmission paths, vehicle hardware design principles for NVH, and finally NVH vehicle level deliveries are all of great interest
to automotive industries
NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) is one of the most important indicators of riding comfort. With the rapid development
and fierce competition of the automotive industry, customer’s requirement on NVH is increasing. Steering wheel vibrations not
only seriously affect NVH performance, but also have negative impact on the stability and safety. Control of the steering wheel
vibrations is critical to improve vehicle performance.
DEWESoft
DEWESoft is measurement software which can acquire data from much different measurement hardware and enables the user to
do processing, storage and analysis in a simple way. The main idea of DEWESoft is to have two modes of operation: Acquisition
and Analysis. The main difference is that Acquisition part works with a real hardware while Analysis works with stored file. But
same math processing and visualization can be applied either during measurement or also on stored files. Therefore the parts of
the manual describing the Measurement are valid also for analysis transform.
Acceleration
Accelerometer is a Piezo-electric accelerometer and it is considered as the standard vibration transducer for machine vibration
measurement. Data capture regarding the vibration emitted by a machine, or other body, begins with the sensor. The accelerometers
shown in Fig consist of a piezoelectric crystal which has a mass attached to one of its surfaces. When the mass is subjected to a
vibration signal, the mass converts the vibration (acceleration) to a force, this then being converted to an electrical signal. This is
the basis of the “accelerometer”. The accelerometer output may then be processed to provide the instantaneous vibration and
displacement signals.
Low Impedance. Ceramic Shear accelerometers designed similar to the quartz-based K-SHEAR line. Rugged, hermetic,
lightweight with low sensitivity to base strain, thermal transients and transverse accelerations. These units are ideal for single to
multi-channel modal.

V. WORKING CONDITIONS

Working
 First we have to take the vibration readings of the tractor bonnet at different points.
 Then we have to take the readings for the materials that are fabricated in the same shape as that of the bonnet.
 The readings are to be taken at five different points of the specified material.
 We have to take the readings of both the materials taken.

All rights reserved by www.ijirst.org 47


Vibration Analysis on Tractor Bonnet
(IJIRST/ Volume 4 / Issue 4 / 009)

 The graphs that are obtained are to be saved for further verification.
 Now we have to compare the amount of vibration obtained for both the material and then we have to consider the best material
for the amount of vibration obtained.

VI. ANALYSIS

 Alumunium
 Stainless Steel
These are the most suitable materials when compared to that of the Cast iron because they are economically available and produces
less amount of vibrations.

VII. RESULT

Comparison

VIII. CONCLUSION

The vibration levels are calculated at different RPM’s.


The amount of vibration at low RPM’s is more for the present material of the bonnet compared to that of the other material taken.
But at higher RPM’s, the vibration level are gradually increasing for the material taken compared to that of the bonnet material.
The present material that is being used now is better compared to the materials taken.

REFERENCES
[1] Celen I. H. and Arin S. (2003) ‘Noise Levels of Agricultural Tractors’ Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 19, pp.1706-1711.
[2] Deulgaonkar V.R, Kallurkar S.P, and Mattani A. G. (2012) ‘Review and Diagnostics of noise and vibrations in automobiles’ International Journal of Modern
Engineering Research, Vol. 1 (2), pp. 242-246.
[3] Ford Customer Service Division (2004) ‘NVH principles and diagnosis’. Student Reference Book (Course Code 30S03T0), pp. 73-79.
[4] IoannisGravalos, Spyros Loutridis, The odorosGialamas, AugoustinosAugousti, DimitriosKateris, PanagiotisXyradakis, and ZisisTsiropoulos (2014)
‘Vibrational behaviour of tractor engine hood’ Fine Mechanics and Optics, Vol. 59, pp. 39-45.
[5] Sujatha C. (1989) ‘Vibration and Acoustics-measurement and signal analysis’ Tata McGraw hill publication, First edition.
[6] Takashi Miyakita, Atsushi Ueda, Makoto Futatsuka, Tsukasa Inaoka, Megumi Nagano, and Wasaku Koyama (2004) ‘Noise exposure and hearing
conservation for farmers of rural Japanese communities’ Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 277, pp. 633-641.
[7] Vinay V Nesaragi, Maruthi B.H, Chandru B T, and Dileep Kumar (2014) ‘Design and noise, vibration, harshness analysis of engine bonnet of the car’ Int.
Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4 (7), pp. 05-11.
[8] Volkswagen of America, Inc. (2005) ‘Noise, Vibration, and Harshness’. Self-Study Program (Course Number 861503), pp. 3-5.
[9] V. G. Arude and K. M. Paralikar, Studies on noise pollution in cotton ginneries, Journal of Agricultural Engineering, Vol. 41(3): July-September, 2004.
[10] V. G. Arude, T.S. Manojkumar, and S. K. Shukla. Evaluation of Vibrations of Ginning and Pressing Machinery in Cotton Ginneries. Journal of Agricultural
Engineering Vol. 46(3): July-September, 2009.

All rights reserved by www.ijirst.org 48