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RUVUMA RIVER AND SOUTHERN COAST BASIN

RUVUMA BASIN ANNUAL HYDROLOGICAL REPORT

(NOVEMBER 2012 – OCTOBER 2013)

Ruvuma River and Southern Coast Basin,

P.O. Box 141,

Mtwara.

Tell/Fax: 023-23333652

ruvumabasin@gmail.com December 2013


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This Annual hydrological report explains thoroughly the basin water situation and status
of monitoring stations for the period of November 2013 to October 2013.

The main objective of this Annual hydrological Report is to give description on Rainfall
data, Water level data in some of the rivers, Water quality data and River flow data
especially discharges of some springs in the basin and groundwater data. Likewise
temporal and spatial coverage of monitoring stations are explained thoroughly. Rainfall,
Water quality, Discharge data and Water level data incorporated in this report are
compared with the former data collected.

On top of that, the report describes the climate of the basin (rainfall and temperature),
runoff distribution, groundwater occurrence and water quality. Measures taken to control
water pollution and catchments degradation are given more emphasis due to the role they
play in water quality.

The Basin received average rain in November 2012 to the mid of May 2013 where by
resulted to urban flood in the eastern part (Mtwara Municipality), likewise runoff behave
the same and groundwater level. While a rainfall sensation was too early for the whole
basin, Water quality was not differing significantly with the previous water quality data.

Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..................................................................................................i

Table of Contents.................................................................................................................ii

1.0 General Introduction.................................................................................................1

1.1 Purpose and Objectives of the Report...................................................................1


1.2 Location of the Basin............................................................................................1
1.3 Physiography.........................................................................................................1
1.3.1 Topography:...................................................................................................1
1.3.2 Geomorphology.............................................................................................1
1.3.3 Drainage Pattern............................................................................................2
1.3.4 Land Use/Cover............................................................................................2
1.3.5 Soils...............................................................................................................2
1.4 Geology.................................................................................................................2
1.5 Social-economic Characteristics of the Basin.......................................................2
2.0 HYDROLOGICAL DATA.......................................................................................1

2.1 Rainfall and Other climatic Data..........................................................................1


2.2 River gauging Stations and Sediment Data...........................................................3
2.3 Water Quality Data................................................................................................5
2.4 Groundwater Monitoring Station..........................................................................6
2.5.2 Spatial Coverage of Monitoring/Borehole Stations.......................................7
3.0 HYDROLOGY OF THE BASIN.............................................................................8

3.1 Climate:.................................................................................................................8
3.2 Runoff Distribution.............................................................................................11
3.3 Groundwater Occurrence....................................................................................12
3.4 Water Quality......................................................................................................13
4.0 GENERAL REMARKS AND WAY FORWARD..................................................15

Annex 1:.............................................................................................................................16

Annex 2:.............................................................................................................................17

List of Figures
Figure 1: Catchments in the Ruvuma River and Southern Coast Basin............................................................3
Figure 2: Some of Water quality monitoring stations......................................................................................6
Figure 3: Spatial distribution of Boreholes drilled in the Basin........................................................................7
Figure 4; (a) Comparison of annual rainfall 2012/2032 versus long term average rainfall (MAR) and its
percentage.......................................................................................................................................................9
Figure 4: (b) Totally Monthly Rainfall for a various Stations in 2012/2013...................................................10
Figure 5: Basin Mean Annual Rainfall from 1960 to 1990.............................................................................10
Figure 6: (a) Comparison of Minimum Flow in Ruvuma at Mhiga (1Q.7)......................................................11
Figure 6: (b) Behavior of water level Ruvuma River at Marumba 2010/2011 and 2012/2013......................12

List of Tables

Table 1: Status of Weather Station…………………………………………………………………………………………………………4


Table 2: Standard Rainfall Station……………………………………………………………………………………………………….…5
Table 3: Status of Hydrometric Station…………………………………………………………………………………………………..6
Table 4: Water Quality Monitoring Station……………………………………………………………………………….……………8
Table 5: Groundwater Quality Monitoring Station………………………………………………………………………….……..9
Table 6: Comparison of Annual Rainfall 2011/2012 and Long Term Average Annual Rainfall………………10
Table 7: Runoff of Major River………………………………………………………………………………………………………………12
1.0 General Introduction
1.1 Purpose and Objectives of the Report
The main purpose of this Annual hydrological report is to give a brief description
on Rainfall data, River flows and Water levels in lakes /reservoirs, water quality
data and rivers.

The objective of this year’s annual hydrological report is to continue giving the
description on Basin hydrology that explains the water resources status in the
Basin. The report gives detailed rainfall data, river flows and water quality data,
ground water data and river discharges in the Basin for the period of November
2012 t o October 2013.

1.2 Location of the Basin


Ruvuma River and Southern Coast Basin occupies southeastern part of Tanzania
of Ruvuma, Mtwara and Lindi Regions, whereby it lies between 34E and 41E
Longitude and 8S and 12S Latitude.

The mean annual runoff (MAR) of the Ruvuma river to the sea is about 26,000
million cubic meters (MCM)/year. However large abstraction and use of Ruvuma
water resource requires understanding and agreement between the two riparian
states.

Ruvuma River and Southern Coast Basin has the area of about 105,570 km 2 with
the population of about 3,512,397 according to 2012 census). The growth rates in
the Basin differ from one region to another as follows: Ruvuma 2.1%, Mtwara
1.2% and Lindi 0.9%.

1.3 Physiography
The headwater catchments lie on an altitude between 305 – 710 m above mean
sea level and drops almost gradually before entering the coastal plains.

1.3.1 Topography:
The topography of Ruvuma Basin and Southern Coast Basin rises gradually from
East Coast line of Indian Ocean to the western side to Makonde Plateaus and
Rondo Platea (800m -900m above sea level). From Makonde and Rondo Plateau
it drops a bit down (Masasi and Nachingwea Districts) and starts to rise again
towards Tunduru, Namtumbo and Songea Districts where it reaches its maximum
height (1500m – 2000m above sea level) in Mbinga District.

1.3.2 Geomorphology
African, Post African and Congo/Coast land surfaces largely occupy the basin.
Gondwanaland surface occupy a small part near Songea. Coastland surface cover
Lindi, Mtwara and Tandahimba Districts. Post African land surface covers the rest
of Tunduru, Songea and part of Mbinga Districts. The Geomorphology of the
Basin is also characterized by Makonde and Rondo Plateaus located in the eastern
side of the Basin. The Basin is also bisected by Kilimasera Mountains on the
Northern side which acts as a boundary between Ruvuma Basin and Rufiji Basin.
On the Western side the Basin comprises Matengo Mountains/ Hills which acts as
boundary between Ruvuma Basin and Lake Nyasa Basin in the West.

1.3.3 Drainage Pattern


Ruvuma River and southern coast Basin is comprised of five major independent
river systems draining into Indian Ocean. The major river systems include:
Ruvuma, Lukuledi, Mavuji, Mbwemkuru, and Matandu. A perennial river
includes Ruvuma, Lukuledi and Mavuji while Mbwemkuru and Matandu are
Seasonal. Figure 1 below shows Ruvuma River and Southern Coast Basin
catchments.

1.3.4 Land Use/Cover


Selous game reserve approximately occupies about 18,000 km 2 a large part of the
basin. The basin is comprised of the several forests and game reserves such as
Selous, Msanjesi and Lukwika/Lumesule. Also the basin is rich in gemstones and
other valuable minerals such as gold. Forested areas and mangrove places are
exploited for timber and pole production. In general, the basin is rich in natural
resources and yet very much undisturbed by man’s activity

1.3.5 Soils
Coastal: Mesozoic rocks sandstones, siltstones, conglomerates and alternating
layers of clay sand and sandstone. Makonde plateau Tertiary formations (silt, clay,
limestones, loose sand) area, Newala, Tandahimba part of Mtwara rural and Kilwa
Kipatimu. Basement: Metamorphic rocks, mostly gnessis, and granitic rocks
(Masasi, Nachingwea, Ruangwa, and Nanyumbu). Karoo: Sand clay and
conglomerates (Tunduru, part of Songea, Liwale).

1.4 Geology
Dominant rocks in the basin are Karoo and Usagaran crystalline limestone series
of Masasi. Continental and marine sand deposits are found parallel to the
coast/shoreline while Neogene deposits are wide spread.

1.5 Social-economic Characteristics of the Basin


There are two main economic activities in the Basin which are agriculture and
fisheries. The main food crops are maize, sweet potatoes, and cassava. On the
other side the cash crops are cashew nuts, mangos and coconuts.
Fisheries take place in all large water bodies such as the Indian Ocean, Lakes and
Rivers. Other economic activities existing in the Basin are, livestock keeping,
mining, small scale trades and to some extent tourism.

Generally the standard of living of the people in the basin is poor regardless of the
above economic activities undertaken.

Figure 1: Catchments in the Ruvuma River and Southern Coast Basin


2.0 HYDROLOGICAL DATA
2.1 Rainfall and Other climatic Data
The Basin has poor networks of rainfall stations whereby most of them installed
this year. In total there are 9 and 4 rainfall stations and 4 meteorological stations
in the Basin which are operational refer Table 1.

Table 1: Status of Weather stations


S/N Station Station Data Missing Average Status
Name Code Recorded Data Rainfall

1 Tandahimba 1998- 2004- 864.6 Operational


Met. Station 2003, 2011 2010-
2013

2 Kilwa Kivinje 1999- 1971- Shifted to


Met. Station 2009, 1998, Kilwa masoko
1968-1971 2010- Met station
2012

3 Kilwa 2013 Cover Operational


Masoko Kilwa
(Mtanga kivinje
Shuleni Met Met
Station) Station

3 Liwale Met. 1970- 1000.6 Operational


Station 1972,
2002-2013

4 Kiuma Met 2013 Operational


Satation
Table 2: Standard Rainfall stations
S/N Station Name Station Data Data Long term Status
Code Recorded Missing Annual
Average
Rainfall

1 Mtwara Maji 2002- 2008 910.7 Operational


Deport 2007,
2009-
2012,2013

2 Songea Maji 1Q/R06 2002- 1022.3 Operational


Deport 2012,2013

3 Tunduru Maji 2000-2011 2012 Operational


Deport

4 Kikwetu Sisal 1968-1972 847.4 Abandoned

5 Masasi Maji Installed


Yard

6 Mbekenyera Installed
Sec. School
Ruangwa

7 Tunduru – Installed
Maliasil

8 Mbangamao Installed
Sec School
Mbinga

9 Kipatimu 1971-1975 926.3 -

10 Masasi area 1969-1975 808.6 -


Com.

11 Matekwe 1972-1974 847.6 -

12 Mitonono 1972-1973 1137.7 -

13 Myangala 1970-1972 953 Abandoned

14 Nachinwea 1973-1974 887.1 -


2nd

15 Matemanga 1972-1974 -
16 Kilwa Masoko 1967-1975 891.8 -

17 Muhiga 1976-2000 Operational

18 Msanjesi 2000-2012 Operational

2.2 River gauging Stations and Sediment Data

The basin has 22 river gauging stations, whereby most of them installed this
year 2012/2013 and few stations has gauge staff only, others has gauge staff
and data loggers (refer Table 3: below).

Table 3: (a) Status of hydrometric stations in Ruvuma River and Southern Coast
Basin
Station Record Missing
S/N Station Name Code Period Years Remarks

1 Ruvuma –Marumba 1Q15 1976-1990 1977-1980 Operational

2 Miesi-Mikele 1Q17 1971-1990 1991-2010 Operational

3 Mbangala-Mahinyo 1Q12 1971-1990 1991-2012 Operational


hills

4 Muhuwesi- 1Q4 1960-1990 1991-2012 Operation


Muhuwesi

5 Lumesule-Ruanda 1Q6A 1968-1989 1990-2010 Operation

6 Nyangao- Nyangao 1N2A 1961-1995, 1996-2010 Operational


2011-2012

7 Lukuledi-Mkwaya 1L4 1959-1974 1975-2012 Operation

8 Lukuledi-Nanganga 1N3A 1977-1983 1984-2012 Operation

9 Mbwemkuru – IM2A Shifted from


darajani (DSM Mbwemkuru at
Road) Myangala
Operation

10 Mavuji –Mchakama 1M8A - - Shifted from


Mavuji at
Mbiliwia
Operation
11 Matandu-darajani 1L1A New station
(DSM Raod) Operational

12 Ziga –Miguruwe 1L3A 1974-1984 1985-2012 Operational

13 Matandu-Miguruwe 1L5A Shifted from


Matandu at
Mtanga
Operational

14 Mbwemkuru- 1M5A 1969-1991 1992-2012 Operational


Mitonono

15 Mbesa-Mbesa 1Q8 1972-1982 1983-2012 Operational

16 Likonde-Ligowonga 1Q10 1971-1981 1982-2012 Operational

17 Ruvuma –Litapwasi 1Q16 Operational

18 Ruvuma –Mhiga 1Q7 1971-1991 1992-2012 Operational

19 Msinjewe - Chiungo Operational

20 Mbwemkuru-Nahoro 1M6A Shifted from


Mbwemkuru at
Singira

Operational

21 Msanjesi - Maundi 1Q13 Operational

22 Msanjesi - Chiungo 1Q13A Operational

23 Mbemkuru- - 1968-1970 Abandoned


Myangala

24 Mbwemkuru-Singira - 1968-1991 Abandoned

25 Mavuji-Mbiliwia - 1971-1991 Abandoned

26 Msinjewe-Mataro - 1971-1983 Abandoned

27 Matandu- - 1974-1975 Abandoned


Kimbumburukutu

Figure 2; Distribution of Hydrometeorological Stations


2.3 Water Quality Data
The basin has twenty four water quality monitoring stations, whereby sixteen are
surface water and eight are groundwater. And normally most of them were located on
the river gauging stations and ground water observation bore hole. Furthermore we
monitored quarterly but due to inadequate fund, few sites were monitored according
to the needs such as suspect of pollution. Moreover the basin has succeeded to
demarcate water source located at Mokonde plateau Mbwinji, Mwena and Nahinga
Water Sources with about 16.85 kilometers square but not yet gazette.

Table 4: Water Quality Monitoring Stations


SURFACE WATER QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS
S/n Sources Location District Status
1 Mavuji river Mavuji bridge Kilwa Operational
2 Liwale River Liwale Town Liwale Operational
Mbesa river
3 Mbesa Mbesa Bridge Tunduru Operational
Likonde river
4 Mtakuja Likonde Bridge Namtumbo Operational
Ruvuma
5 River Mkenda Village Songea Rural Operational
Ruvuma
6 River Lizabon Down Stream Songea Urban Operational
Ruvuma
7 River Kitaya Mtwara Rural Operational
Lumeme
8 River Tingi Bridge Mbinga Operational
Lunyere
9 River Songea Pori Mbinga Operational
Ruvuma
10 River Matogoro Source Songea Urban Operational
Muhuwesi
11 River Muhuwesi Bridge Tunduru Operational
12 Springs Mbwinji Springs Ndanda Operational
13 River Mbwemkuru Bridge Lindi Rural Operation
14 River Matandu Bridge Kilwa Operational
16 Springs Chipwapwa Lindi Rural Operational
GROUND WATER QUALITY
MONITORING STATIONS
17 B/HOLE Magumichila Masasi Operational
Storage/Tank
18 (B/H) Mkumbashamba Nachingwea Operational
B/Hole
19 Matyatya Matyatya Ruangwa Town Ruangwa Operational
B/HOLE No.
20 240 Kitunda Lindi urban Operational
21 B/Hole Kilwa Masoko Kilwa Operational
22 Artetian well Mitema Newala Operational
23 B/HOLE Mtawanya Mtwara Urban Operational
24 B/Hole Mkumbashamba Nachingwea Operational

Figure 3: Water quality monitoring stations


2.4 Groundwater Monitoring Station
Still in Ruvuma River and Southern Coast Basin has no groundwater monitoring
network established. We are continuing to utilize data from existing production
boreholes belonging to our Basin stakeholders. Therefore among the stakeholder’s
production borehole the basin has selected four (4) boreholes for monitoring
groundwater as shown in Table 5 below.

Table 5: Groundwater monitoring borehole data


S/N Station Name Static Water Level (m) Yield (m3/hr) Status

1 Mtawanya 3.3-9 72 Working

2 Mchuchu Bore Hole missing missing Working

3 Mitema 0.00 90 Working

4 Kitunda Bore Hole 10 33.2 Working


2.5.2 Spatial Coverage of Monitoring/Borehole Stations
The basin groundwater monitoring network merely distributed in area with high level
abstraction of ground water followed with area of low abstraction in general as shown
in Figure 3 below.

Figure 4: Spatial distribution of Boreholes drilled in the Basin

.
3.0 HYDROLOGY OF THE BASIN
3.1 Climate:
Temperature:

The Ruvuma Basin registers highest temperature of 32 oC is recorded in December


while lowest temperature of 20 oC is recorded in July. The mean temperature in the
coast area is 26oC and that of the hinterland is 24oC. Annual and daily variations in
temperature are small.

Rainfall:

Rainfall pattern is unimodal such that the dry season is from June to November and
the wet or rainy season is for rest of the year. The mean annual rainfall ranges from
800 to 1400 mm in the Rondo, Makonde plateau and the Matengo highlands while
elsewhere annual rainfall ranges between 800 – 1000 mm.

Rainfall annual variation is very high. The annual precipitation may rise up to 2000
mm once in twenty years and may fall to 500 mm in places where the mean annual
rainfall is 1000 mm per year. Annual rainfall as low as 200 mm have been recorded at
Mtwara and Lindi. In 1990, about 500 mm were recorded at Nyangao within 24 hours
which resulted into extensive landslides from the escarpments of Makonde and Rondo
plateaus causing severe floods.

This hydrological year, the amount of rainfall rained is within the average at the
eastern part (coastal area) whereby resulted to urban flood at Mtwara Municipal in
January 2013 and the western area (Ruvuma Region) receive average rainfall. While
the sensation of rainfall was too early at the mid of April to May which resulted to
decrease amount of water especially at the upper of Ruvuma River and early dry of
seasonal river on the eastern part where most of it found Table 6; and Figure 3;

Table 6: Comparison of 2011/2012-2012/2013 Annual Rainfall against Long term


Average Rainfall (MAR)

Station Name 2012/2013 2011/2012 Long Term Percentage Percentage


Annual Annual Annual
Rainfall Rainfall Rainfall 2011/12 2012/13
(MAR)
2001-2013

Mtwara Maji 1051.8 898.2 854.83 98.7 123.0


Deport

Songea Maji 905.9 612.5 1013.34 60 89.4


Deport

Tunduru Maji 949.7 1199.3 852.67 143.2 111.4


Deport

Msanjesi at 879.3 879.3 788.45 109.2 111.5


Maundi

Liwale 859.8 863.1 1143.87 86.3 85.6


Met.Station

Tandahimba 856.4 856.2 863.82 98.9 99.1


Met.Station

Figure 5; (a) Comparison of annual rainfall 2012-2013 versus long term


average rainfall (MAR) and its percentage.
Figure 5: (b) Totally Monthly Rainfall for a various Stations in 2012/2013

3.2 Runoff Distribution


The flows of the rivers in the basin follow closely the rainfall pattern. The mean
annual runoff at the Ruvuma river mouth is 26,000 million cubic meters (MCM). In
Ruvuma Region the mean annual runoff varies from 400-600 MCMyear in the
western part of the region to about 200 MCM/year in the eastern part along the
coast. Many of the other river channels in the Basin dry during dry seasons.

Table 7 describe run-off/river flow of the major river during the early months of the
rain season November to January 2012/2013, it s explain the behavior of the the
river where the amount of water increase folowing the rainy season due to run-off and
decrease as rain season end up and other dry up completely during the dry seasons
especially in the eastern part of the Basin (Mtwara nad Lindi)
Table 7: (a) Runoff for Major Rivers in Ruvuma Basin

s/n River MCM mm l/s/km2

1. Matandu at Matandu 1L3 Darajani 113.3 10.1 0.32

2. Mbwemkuru at Mnyangara 1M4 627.6 41.2 1.30

3. Lukuledi at Mtua 1N4 118.5 28.4 0.90

S/n River Discharge Water Discharge per


Level (m) Day m3/Day
m3/Sec

4 Lukuledi at Mkwaya 0.621 0.4 53,654.40

5 Mavuji at Mchakama 0.226 0.6 19,526.4

6 Matandu at Miguruwe 1.206 0.6 104,198.4

7 Mbwinji Springs 0.221 - 19,094.4

8 Ruvuma at Kitaya 5.282 - 456,364.8

Figure 6: (a) Behavior of water level Ruvuma River at Marumba 2011-2013


3.6 Groundwater Occurrence
Groundwater potential

Generally the groundwater level is expected to be affected by the amount of rainfall


received for the hydrological year
Currently the water Level recorded in Mtawanya well field ( November 2012 to No
October 2013 -production wells) ranges between 3.3m to 9m bgl which is normal in
some of the boreholes, but in some boreholes show a slight drop of 0.1m to 0.5 long
pumping in those boreholes.
In Mitema well field- Kitangari Newala the water level remained constant (ranges
from 0.00m to 1.0m) in some other wells if they are no pumping some well overflows.
Generally Water levels of Boreholes in Basement areas has not raised at its normal
levels at this reporting period due average rainfall received this year in the eastern part
of the Basin.. The expected boreholes to be affected will be those ones in Masasi
district (Magumuchila Well field), Nanyumbu (Mangaka) and Nachingwea (Mkumba
shamba)

Though the basin has no observation boreholes; the information collected from drilled
productive boreholes, geophysical and hydro geological investigations during the
hydrological year November 2012 to October 2013) the average depths, discharges
and water levels of boreholes drilled in Karoo sediments area respectively 120 m, 15
m3/hr and 20 m.
In basement rock areas the averages of the same data above are 60 m, 5 m3/hr and 15
m. While in the Makonde sediment since are plateau areas the depths and water levels
are exceptionally high. Data collected from drilled boreholes during the reporting
period shows that the average depth, discharge and water level are 150 m, 4 m3/hr and
40 m respectively.
In the coastal sedimentary rocks areas water levels are very shallow although the
depths and discharges are not very different from that of karoo. The average depth,
discharges and water level in coastal sediments are 60 m, 7 m3/hr and 5 m
respectively.

Groundwater recharge:

Groundwater recharge is very high in the sedimentary deposits of the coast zone while
in the less permeable Mozambican belt the recharge is mainly in the faulted and
fissured zones. No recharge pattern mechanism or annual rates of recharge have been
established.
3.7 Water Quality
Water Quality results in the basin for this hydrological year does not differ
significantly with the previous water quality data reported in the last Hydrological
report. In general the water quality monitored in this year was good except some
parameters exceed the standards as shown colored in Table 8.

Water quality monitored parameters, results and standards are clearly indicated on
appendix 2. Generally, water quality is good as per laboratory results shown on
appendix2. With the exception of Mitema artesian well at Newala, Mbesa spring at
Tunduru and a borehole at Ligugu in Liwale whose pH values are 5.14, 5.3 and 5.7
respectively the rest of the monitored sites comply with the TZS and WHO. Total
Dissolved Solids (TDS) were observed to be within the required standards, the only
exception was a borehole at Chiola village in Nachingwea district which was 1093
mg/l and exceeded TZS of 1000 mg/l which may be due to the presence of salts.

On the other hand, a number of sources monitored exceeded the required standards for
salinity which is 0.3‰. The sources include; Mbwemkuru River 0.4, Water from the
tap at Nachingwea 0.9, Kiranjeranje artesian well at Kilwa 0.8, Mkumbashamba
storage tank at Nachingwea 0.8, borehole at Nabuya (Namihu) in Liwale district 0.7
and Kitunda boreholes no. 240 & 242 0.8‰. These concentrations make the water
slightly saline to saline in the mentioned sources and this is due to the nature and
geological composition at the sampling areas.

In addition to that, turbidity was measured to be within the standards except for
Ruvuma River at Lizaboni downstream and Majengo downstream which went above
the standards by 67 and 80% respectively. At Lunyere River, turbidity also exceeded
TZ standards by 96% and it should be noted that Lunyere River’s water flows to
Ruvuma River. High turbidity in the the two rivers is likely to be caused by enormous
mining, deforestation and farming activities taking place along the two rivers Ruvuma
and Lunyere. Likewise total hardness lies within the standards for the monitored sites
except for water sampled from the tap at Nachingwea district which was 824 mg/l
compared to the standard of 600 mg/l.

Moreover, other parameters as indicated in appendix 2 like Electrical Conductivity


(EC), chlorides, total alkalinity, nitrates, fluorides and metals of Magnesium, Calcium,
Potassium and Sodium were within the recommended ranges of Tanzanian and WHO
standards. In some areas like Matyatya borehole in Ruangwa district at Lindi region
sulphates exceeded the standard of 600mg/l by 20 units while Ruvuma River at
Songea rural and urban iron and manganese were assessed to be 1.76 and 11mg/l and
1.7 and 4.5mg/l respectively.

Table 8 Water Quality Monitoring stations with parameter above the WHO STD
SN Name of the water Parameters
Sources
pH TDS Slinit Turbid Hardnes Sulp
( y ity s h
m % mg/l a
g/ t
l) e

1 Mitema artesian Well – 5.14


Newala District

2 Mbesa spring at Tunduru 5.3


District

3 Ligugu Bore hole – 5.7


Liwale District

4 Mbwemkuru River 0.4

5 Nachingwea Borehole 0.9

6 Kiranjeranje Borehole – 0.8


Kilwa

7 Mkumbashamba 0.8
Borehole
Nachingwea

8 Nabuyu borehole - 0.7


Liwale

9 Kitunda borehole – Lindi 0.8


MC

10 Matyamatya Borehole - 824 620


Ruangwa

11 Ruvuma River –Lizabon 80


– Songea MC

12 Ruvuma River Majengo 67


Songea MC

13 Lunyere River Mbinga 96

14 Chiola - Ruangwa 1093


4.0 GENERAL REMARKS AND WAY FORWARD
The Management Water Resources is the backbone of life; therefore its
implementation has to consider all stakeholders located inside and outside the basin
boundary.

Proper documentation of data and regular evaluation of the hydrometric stations will
be given special emphasis in order to come up with hydrological report which reflects
the actual hydrological status of the basin. The basin will start with collecting data
from the newly constructed and rehabilitated hydrometric stations followed by taking
current meter measurements which will then be used to update rating curves of
stations. On so doing gaps in hydrometric data will be filled.

Lastly but not least, currently there is an ongoing Project on the Trans-boundary
Water Resources Management (TWRM) especially in the implementation of Trans-
boundary Water Resources Management (The ongoing project is Shared Water
Courses project on Ruvuma River Basin which involves Mozambique and Tanzania)
Apart from of Activities undertaken by the project it is expected to construct a total
five (5) Groundwater monitoring wells along Ruvuma River Basin
Annex 1:
(a) Monthly Rainfall from November 2012 to October 2013

Station Annual
Name NOV. DEC. JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT. Rainfall
Songea Maji
Deport 56.20 242.50 267.80 80.00 193.30 64.00 2.10 0 0 0 0 0 905.9

Msanjesi at
Maundi 54.2 451 113 99.7 140 21.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 879.3

Mtwara Maji
Deport 16.5 35.2 633 167 133 50.6 0 0 0 0 12.1 4.4 1051.8

Tunduru
Maji Deport 36.0 115.7 326.6 190.7 157 83.3 16.1 0 0 0 0 24.3 949.7

Liwale
Met.Station 15.6 82.4 165.2 111.2 313.2 73.8 1.6 0 0 0 0 96.8 859.8
Tandahimba
Met.Station 69.1 92.6 265 6.4 267 70.5 63.6 4.7 2.3 0 2.1 13.6 856.2

(b) Annual Rainfall for 6


stations

Mtwara Songea Tunduru Msanjesi Liwale Tandahimba


Maji Maji Maji at Met.Station Met.Station
Deport Deport Deport Maundi
YEARS
2001 995.5 332.7
2002 1370.6 953.9 822.7 1125.7

2003 541.7 1415.0 749.0 1216.8 1170.6

2004 1151.0 700.9 1219.9 779.1

2005 810.5 1310.2 799.8 781.4

2006 1035.1 1366.9 780.2 1076.2 737.5

2007 629.6 1160.5 861.6 778.5 603.7

2008 804.2 1223.9 959.1 691.3

2009 632.6 1360.9 769.1 591.6

2010 1118.1 1127.1 670.1 1389.8

2011 928.7 703.1 911.6 526.3

2012 898.2 612.5 945.7 879.3 868.0 856.2

2013 1051.8 905.9 955.3 670.6 859.8 856.4


Long Term 854.83 1013.34 852.70 788.45 1143.87 863.82
Average Annual
Rainfall
Annex 2:
Water Quality Data

Parameters
Physical Chemical

Total Alk. CaCO3 Mg/l


Total Hard. (Mg/l)
Turbidity NTU
EC µs/cm

Salinity %

NO3 Mg/l
TDS Mg/l

SO4 Mg/l

Na+ Mg/l
Cl- Mg/l
Mn Mg/l
Mg Mg/l
Ca Mg/l

K+ Mg/l
Fe Mg/l

F- Mg/l
pH
6.5 - 8.5 6.5 - 9.2

0 - 1.0
0 - 30

0-0.5

0-8.0
2000

600

300

100

600

800

500
Tanzania Standards

0 - 15

0-0.3

0-0.1

0-1.5
0-30
500

500

200

150

400

250

500
WHO Standards

Date Lab No. Source Sampling Site District


12/12/201 106/201 0.0 0.3
1 1 Artetian well Kilanjelanje Kilwa 7.9 1590 766 0.8 0.2 28 9 0 0 124 294 0 5
12/12/201 107/201 0.0 0.1
1 1 Mavuji river Mavuji bridge Kilwa 8.2 250 116 0.1 6 37 6 0 2 31.9 40 0 8
12/12/201 108/201 0.0 0.0
1 1 B/Hole Kilwa Masoko Kilwa 7.1 690 325 0.3 0.3 45 5 0 42 121 8 5 3
12/12/201 109/201 0.0 0.3
1 1 S/Well Njinjo Kilwa 7.1 725 342 0.3 6.1 95 4 0 33 118 80 0 3
12/12/201 110/201 0.0 0.0
1 1 Liwale River Liwale Town Liwale 7.2 523 245 0.2 11 51 6 0 3 133 16 0 2
12/12/201 Nambunja 0.1
1 111/2011 B/Hole HP Village Liwale 6.2 334 156 0.2 41 34 7 0 8 70.9 28 0 0
12/12/201 112/201 0.0
1 1 B/Hole HP Ligugu Valley Liwale 5.7 355 166 0.2 0 46 5 0 1 88.6 12 0 0
12/12/201 113/201 0.1 0.1
1 1 B/Hole HP Namihu Village Liwale 6 533 251 0.2 5.9 79 2 1 3 286 54 0 6
12/12/201 114/201 Nabuya 0.0
1 1 B/Hole HP (Namihu) Liwale 6.6 1434 691 0.7 1.6 261 5 0 2 308 142 0 0.3

12/12/201 115/201 Storage/Tan Mkumbashamb Nachingwe 0.0 0.2


1 1 k (B/H) a a 6.7 1696 821 0.8 2 265 3 0 12 344 126 0 3
12/12/201 116/201 Nachingwe 109 0.0 0.5
1 1 B/Hole HP Chiola Village a 7.3 2150 3 1.1 0.7 345 1 0 90 353 180 0 6

12/12/201 117/201 B/Hole Matyatya 0.0 62 0.8


1 1 Matyatya Ruangwa Town Ruangwa 7 1725 839 0.8 2 205 4 0 0 88.6 166 0 2
12/12/201 118/201 B/HOLE No. 0.0
1 1 240 Kitunda Lindi urban 6.9 1695 820 0.8 1 315 1 0 65 277 202 0 0.2
12/12/201 119/201 B/Hole 0.3 0.2
1 1 No.242 Kitunda Lindi urban 6.7 1682 812 0.8 3 326 7 0 37 272 220 0 4
12/12/201 120/201 0.0
1 1 Spring Mbesa Mission Tunduru 5.3 45.5 20.6 0 0.4 13 2 0 1 16.3 6 0 0

12/12/201 121/201 Mbesa river 0.1 0.0


1 1 Mbesa Mbesa Bridge Tunduru 6.2 194 90.2 0.1 14 38 3 0 3 9.9 50 0 5

12/12/201 122/201 Likonde river 0.0


1 1 Mtakuja Likonde Bridge Namtumbo 6.4 91.5 42.1 0 8.8 14 0.3 0 3 8.5 22 0 9
12/12/201 123/201 Ruvuma Songea 1.7
1 1 River Mkenda Village Rural 6.6 74.5 34.2 0 333 14 6 2 20 7.8 20 6 0

12/12/201 124/201 Ruvuma Lizabon Down Songea 0.1


1 1 River Stream Urban 6.5 479 226 0.2 90 63 11 5 17 41.1 76 3 8
12/12/201 125/201 Ruvuma Majengo Songea 0.4
1 1 River Upstream Urban 7 90.4 41.6 0 151 14 2 0 8 12.1 22 1 0
12/12/201 126/201 Lumeme 0.4
1 1 River Tingi Bridge Mbinga 7.2 46.4 21.1 0 29 9 9 0 7 7.1 10 1 0
12/12/201 127/201 Lunyere 0.8
1 1 River Songea Pori Mbinga 7.6 8.64 3.5 0 750 2 9 0 3 9.9 2 16 0

12/12/201 128/201 Mihomba Mihomba 0.3


1 1 River Village Bridge Mbinga 7.2 36.8 16.7 0 50 8 6 0 2 6.4 10 0 0

12/12/201 129/201 Ruvuma Matogoro Songea 0.2


1 1 River Source Urban 7.3 30.1 13.5 0 10 9 3 0 2 8.5 6 0 0
12/12/201 130/201 Muhuwesi Muhuwesi 183. 0.5 0.1
1 1 River Bridge Tunduru 6.9 9 85.8 0.1 92 34 8 0 7 22.7 32 1 1

Mahuta
Mahuta 6.4 0.1 11. 118.
13/08/012 171/012 Spring Intake Mahuta 4 434 212 0.2 7 81 14 2 0.06 0.2 1 8 20 0.4 0.22 47 2
Mkunya
Mkunya 6.1 0.2 30. 149. 18.
13/08/012 172/012 Spring Intake Newala 3 536 262 0.2 2 177 20.8 4 0.02 0.3 1 5 6 1.7 0.3 8 0
5.1 0.1 31. 5.4 30.
14/08/012 173/012 Atesion Well Mitema Kitangali 4 241 111.1 0.1 6 4 3.6 4 0.03 0.5 2 64.4 8 0 0.21 9 0
Mbwinji
6.9 7.3
14/08/012 174/012 Mbwinji Intake Intake Nangoo 3 135.4 62.2 0.1 0.1 54 8 8.3 0.04 0.4 0 40.6 16 0.4 0.33 6 1
Mbwinji
Mbwinji 6.4 8.8 34.6 12.
14/08/012 175/012 Spring Intake Nangoo 1 124.8 57 0.1 2 27 2.8 4.9 0.04 0.4 2 5 6 0.5 0.33 9 1
Mbwinji
0.4 31. 14.
14/08/012 176/012 Njale Spring Intake Nangoo 6 145.8 66.9 0.1 7 8 3.2 5.8 0.02 0.4 2 38.6 8 0.1 0.4 3 0
Liwale
6.7 0.2 23. 120. 17.
15/08/012 177/012 Liwale river Intake Liwale 6 505 234 0.2 3 167 28 2 0.08 0.1 0 8 42 0.1 0.33 9 0
At DWE’S
7.3 0.1 383. 90.
16/08/012 178/012 Tap Water Yard Nachingwea 7 1919 912 0.9 9 824 134 119 0.04 0.3 11 1 328 0 0.59 2 0
Nyangao
7.8 0.5 53. 9.4
16/08/012 179/012 Nyangao river At Bridge Nyangao 1 156.4 71.1 0.1 5 9 9.2 7.5 0.31 0 1 40.7 22 0 0.22 3 1

Chipwapwa
Chipwapwa 6.2 134. 69. 22.
16/08/012 180/012 Spring Intake Chipwapwa 8 294 6 0.1 0.5 4 9.6 11 0.14 0.3 8 70.5 14 0 0.27 1 2

Mavuji river Mavuji


7.7 25. 18. 31.7
17/08/012 181/012 Mavuji river At Bridge Village 6 282 133 0.1 2 123 19 2 0.16 0.2 2 8 92 0.3 0.34 0 0

Mbwemkuru Mbwemkuru
7.7 1.6 42. 122. 20.
17/08/012 182/012 river At Bridge Mbwemkuru 8 914 441 0.4 4 376 80 7 0.02 0.1 39 1 258 0 0.74 9 2

Lukuledi Lukuledi Mkwaya


7.2 23. 21. 50.
17/08/012 183/012 river At Bridge Village 2 494 239 0.2 4 119 12 3 0.2 0.4 11 111.9 98 0.5 0.25 9 2