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nternat
ionalJournalofM i
ner
als,Met
all
urgyand Mat
eri
als 
Vol
um e 
1 7,Num ber 
5,Oct
ober 
2010,Page 
587 
D0l
:1 
0.1
 007/
sl 
261
 3-
01 
0.0361.
1 

Preci
pit
ati
on 
and 
stabi
lit
y of 
reversed 
aust
eni
te 
in 
9Ni
 st
eel
 

Yue—
hui
  馏 ,Qi
ng-
wu 
Cai
,Di
 Tan
g,andHui
—bi
n Wu
 
Re
sea
rch
 Ins
ti
tut
e ofMe
tal

urgi
cal
 
Eng
ine
eing
r ,Uni
ver
sit
y ofSc
ienc
e a
nd 
Tec
hno
log
y Be
iji
ng,
Bei
ji
ng 
10008
3,Chi
na 

Rec
eived:
23 
Oct
ober
 20
09;
revi
sed:1
7 Nove
mbe
r 2
009;
acc
ept
ed:26
 Nove
mbe
r 200
9) 

Abs
tract
:A 
new 
met
h od 
was
 us
ed 
to 
ana
lyze 
the
 fa
ctor
s a
ffect
ing 
the 
pre
cipi
tat
ion 
of 
reve
rsed 
aus
teni
te 
dur
ing 
tempe
ing The
r  sampl
es  .

we
re 
kept
 at
 var
ious
 temper
ing 
temper
atur
es 
for
 10 
min 
and 
thei
r l
engt
h c
hanges
 we
re 
recor
ded Then,t
he 
preci
pi
.t
ati
on 
ofr
ever
sed 
aus
teni
te 
whi
ch 
led 
to 
the 
lengt
h r
educt
ion 
was 
shown 
by 
h er
t mal
 expansi
on 
cur
ves The 
res
ult
s s
how 
. hat
t  the
 ef
fect
s ofpr
oces
s par
amet
ers
 on 
h e 
t pre.
 
ci
pit
ati
on 
of 
reve
s ed 
r aus
teni
te 
can 
be 
det
em i
r ned 
mor
e accur
atel
y by 
hi
t s
 met
h od 
ha
t n 
by 
X—r
ay 
dif
fract
ion W he
n t
he 
quenchi
ng 
and 
. tem—
 
per
ing 
process
 is
 adopt
ed,bot
h t
he 
lower
 quenchi
ng 
tempe
rat
ure
 n d 
a higher
 temper
ing 
tempe
rat
ure 
ca
n pr
omot
e he
t  
preci
pit
ati
on 
ofre
ver
sed 
n st
a enite 
during tempering;an d when h e quenc
t hi
n g,lamell
ari
zing,and t
emper i
ng process is
 used n
,itercr
itical
 quenching i
s consider ed 
benefi
cial
 to 
he
t  preci
pitat
ion of 
rever
sed ns
a teni
te 
in he 
t subs
equent 
tempering 
because of 
Ni  
segr
egati
on during holdi
ng at 
he
t  nt
i er
er i
tical 

em pe
rat
ure.
 

Ke
ywords:cr
yoge
nic 
equi
pment
;low 
car
bon 
steel
;rever
sed 
aus
teni
te;pr
eci
pit
ati
on;st
abi
lit
y;t
her
m al
 expans
ion 
measur
ement
 

1.I
ntroduct
ion  t
ion and growt
h of 
rever
sed aus
teni
te dur
ing t
emper
ing at
 
hi
gh t
em per
atur
es.Theref
ore.t
h e efect
s of process
 pa—
 
9N i
 st
eel
 is
 known 
as 
a cr
yogeni
c s
truct
ural
 m at
eri
al 
used  r
amet
ers,especi
all
y t
h e quenchi
ng t
emper
atur
e a
n d i
nter
- 

n l
iquef
ied 
nat
ural
 ga
s(LNG)t
anks
 and 
pipe
li
nes
 be
caus
e  cr
iti
cal
 quenchi
ng 
tem per
ature,on 
h e 
t format
ion 
of 
aust
eni
te 
of 
its
 excel
lent
 cr
yogeni
c t
oughnes
s and m oder
ate st
rengt
h  cannot
 be obs
erved accur
atel
y.I
n t
his
 paper
,thr
ough t
h e 
at一196。C.9Ni
 st
eel
s ar
e gener
all
y proces
sed 
by 
quenchi
ng  anal
ysi
s of 
thermal
 expansi
on 
cnrves
 of 
h e 
t sam pl
es duri
ng 


nd t
empe
ing (
r QT)
,doubl
e nor
mal
izi
ng a
nd t
emper
ing  t
emper
ing,a 
study 
on 
the 
preci
piat
t i
on 
of 
reversed 
aust
eni
te 


NNT)
,or
 di
rec
t que
nchi
ng 
and 
tempe
ing(
r DQT)
.It
 i
s be
-  was
 conduct
ed 

ieved 
that
 he 
t excel
lent
 cr
yogeni
c t
oughness
 is
 der
ived 
from 
Adva
n ced or
ient
ati
on m eas
urem ent
 techni
ques,s
uch as
 

he aust
eni
te 
whi
ch 
trans
forms 
rom  
f m art
ens
ite duri
ng 
tem —
 

lec
ron bac
t k s
cat
ter
 di
fra
f c
tion (
EBSD)
,are
 abl
e t
o 
per
ing.M ost
 res
ear
chers
 bel
ieve 
h at
t  h e 
t amount
 of 
rever
sed 
di
st
inguis
h t
he 
face
 cent
ered c
ubic(
fcc
)from 
he
t  bod
y ce
n— 
aus
teni
te and i
ts s
tabi
lit
y,t
o a gr
eat
 ext
ent
,afect
 h e cr
t yo。
 

ere
d cubi
c(bcc)matri
x i
n st
eel[
9—1
 
2].I
n he
t  
pre
sent
 s
ud
t y, 
geni
e t
oughnes
s of
 9Ni
 st
eel[
1—5
].Mor
eove
r,s
tud
ies
 show  t
his
 tec
hni
que was
 appl
ied t
o r
eveal
 the di
str
ibut
ion of 
re—
 
hat
t  9Ni
 st
eel
 treat
ed by 
quenchi
ng,l
amel
lari
zing (
quench—
  ve
rse
d a
ust
eni
te
 in 
the
 QT 
and 
QLT 
tr
eat
ed 
9Ni
 s
tee
l,nd 
a n 


ng f
rom i
nte
rcr
it
ical
 te
mpe
raat
re
),a
nd t
empe
ing(
r QLT)
  e
lec
ro—
t probe
 mi
cro.
na
a l
yze
r(EPMA)wa
s al
so 
used
 to
 in—
 
exhi
bit
s beUer
 tough
n ess
 than 
h at
t  by ot
her 
heat
 reat
t m ent
s,  ves
tigat
e t
he segr
egat
ion 
of 
Ni i
n t
he s
teel
 af
ter 
quenchi
ng 


nd 
it 
is 
cons
ide
red 
tha
t at
ter
 QLT 
is 
proce
sse
d,t
he 
homo—
  rom di
f fferent
 int
ercri
tical
 temper
atures t
o st
u dy t
h e efect
 
geneous 
dist
ribut
ion 
of 
revers
ed 
aus
teni
te 
in 
the 
m at
rix i
s an  of 
lam el
lari
zing t
reat
m ent
 on t
h e preci
piat
t i
on of 
revers
ed 

ndi
spens
abl
e f
act
or 
for
 be
Rer
 t
oughnes
s『6—
8].
  aus
teni
te.
 

Ge
ner
all
y,X-
ray 
dif
fra
ctome
try(
XRD)i
s us
ed 
to 
meas
-  2.Experi
m ent
al 
Hu
e t
he 
amount
 of 
revers
ed 
aust
eni
te,but
 it
 can 
wor
k onl
y at
 

oom  
tem per
ature.A s
 a r
esul
t,i
t cannot
 ref
lect
 the nucl
ea-
  vacuum—
mel
ted 1
 00.
mil
l t
hick s
1abS wi
th a chemi
cal
 

Cor
res
pondi
ng 
aut
hor
:Yue
—hui
 Ya
ng  E—
mai
l:hb
yangyu
ehui
@ya
hoo.
ca 
@Uni
ver
siy 
t ofSci
enc
e a
nd 
Tec
hnol
ogy 
Bei
ji
ng 
and
 Spr
inge
r-Ver
lag
 Be
rli
n He
ide
lbe
rg 
201
0  垒S
pri
nge
r 
588  /nt

  Mi
ner.Met
alLM aWr
.,VoL1 
7,No.
5,Oct2010 

compos
iti
on f
wt%)of
 0.
036 C,0.
1 
0 Si
,0.
70 
M n,9.
02 Ni
,  e
lect
ron 
probe
 mi
cro-
anal
yze
r(EPMA)
 
0.
096 M o,0.
0068 P,and 0.
005 S w er
e used i
n t
his
 st
udy,
 

hen 
he sl
t abs
 were 
rol
led t
o pl
ates
 wi
h 
t h e 
t thi
cknes
s of 
15  3.Res
ult
s and 
dis
cus
sion 

ri
a n.The 0
【—吖 s
tar
ting 
tempe
ratur
e  c1
)and 
he
t  C
【— 
1,矗n—
  3.
1.Inf
luence 
of 
quenchi
ng 
tem perature 

shing t
emperat
ure
  c 3
) of
 this s
tee
l meas
ure
d by a 
DIL850A 
dil
atom eter
 w er
e 640 
and 
725。C.r
espect
ivel
y.  功 e amou
nt of r
ever
sed aus
teni
te i
n st
eel
 treat
ed by 
quenchi
ng at
 var
ious
 temperat
r es
u  and t
emper
ing at
 600。C 
The heat仃eat
ment
 pr
ocess
es were
 as
 fol
lows:f11
 the 

s present
ed 
n 
i Fi
g.1.I
t can 
be 
seen 
thatt
he 
vol
um e 
ract
f ion 

ampl
es 
wer
e aust
eni
tized 
at 
750,800,850,900 
and 
1 000。C 
of 
revers
ed 
aus
teni
te 
ncreas
i es 
wit
h he i
t ncreas
e of 
quench-
 

or 1
 h,r
espect
ivel
y,a
n d 
quenc
hed 
by 
wat
er,t
hen 
temper
ed 

ng t
emperat
ure f
irs
tly, and reaches
 a pea
k  at
 900。C 

t 600。
C f
or 
1 h,a
nd 
cool
ed 
by 
wat
er;(
2)a
te
f r
 aus
teni
ti
zing
 

7.09vo1
%),
the
n d
ecr
eas
es 
gre
atl
y. 

or 1
 h 
at 
800。C.t
h e 
sampl
es 
were 
quenched 
by 
wat
er,t
hen 

emper
ed 
o r 1
f  h 
at 
540,570,630,650,and 
670。C,respec—
  Fi
g.2 s
how s
 h e SEM  
t micr
ogr
aphs 
oft
h e sampl
es t
em—
 


ive
ly,a
nd 
cool
ed 
by 
wat
er;(
3)t
he 
sampl
es 
que
nche
d rom 
f per
ed 
at 
600。
C.I
t can 
be 
seen 
h at
t  aus
teni
te 
part
icl
es,i
n h e 

800。C 
wer
e r
eheat
ed 
to 
650,670 and 
700。
C f
or 1
 h,r
espec-
  s
hape of 
mor
e or l
ess el
ongat
ed gl
obul
es,appear 
predomi
- 


ivel
y。and quenched.t
hen t
em per
ed 
at 570。C f
or 1
 h,and  nant
ly at
 m art
ens
ite packet
 boundar
ies
 an d pr
ior
 aus
teni
te 

cool
ed 
by 
wat
er.The 
sam pl
es af
ter
 rea
t ted 
by 
he
t  l
att
er 
two  r ai
g n bou
n dar
ies. I
t al
so s
hows t
hat
 th e m i
crost
ruct
ure 

pr
ocess
es wer
e i
mm ersed i
nto l
iqui
d N2
 f
o r 10.
20 mi
n t
o  coar
ses
 m ar
kedl
y when 
h e 
t aust
eni
tizi
ng 
temperat
ure 
is 
over 

exam i
ne 
h e 
t therm al
 st
abi
lit
y ofr
ever
sed 
aus
teni
te.
  900 ̄C 

Expansi
on 
curves
 of 
h e s
t ampl
es duri
ng t
emper
ing 
wer
e  Fi
g.1
 cannot
 il
lus
rat
t e h e 
t eff
ect
s of 
quenchi
ng 
tem pera-
 —v
o∞8   o.
I H0

al
so 
recorded 
by 
h e 
t DIL850A 
dil
atomet
er.The s
ampl
es 
cut
  t
ure 
on 
h e 
t preci
pit
ati
on 
of 
reversed 
aus
teni
te,becaus
e s
om e 

of 
rom  
f h e bul
t ks whi
ch were
 que
nched at
 di
fer
ent
 tem .
  a
ust
eni
te obt
ained dur
ing t
em per
ing m ay ret
rns
a or
f m  t
o 

per
atur
es 
w er
e heat
ed 
to 
h e 
t tem peri
ng 
tem pera
tur
e n d 
a hel
d  m art
ens
ite
 in cool
ing becaus
e of
 it
s l
ow er
 st
abi
li
ty.s
o er
ro.
 

or 1
f  0 
min,t
he expansi
on 
curves
 were 
recorded 
by 
the
 di
la-
  neous
 concl
usi
ons
 m ay 
be 
obt
ained.Theref
ore,t
h e t
her
m al
 


om et
er 
aut
om at
ical
ly.
  expansi
on cur
ves
 of t
he sampl
es t
em per
ed at
 600。C ar
e 

hown 
in Fi
g.3(
a1.I
t ca
n be s
een 
that
 he 
t int
ermedi
ate sec.
 
Sa
mpl
es 
for
 sc
anni
ng e
lec
ron 
t mic
ros
copy(
SEM)we
re  t
ions
 of 
he cur
t ves
 whi
ch repr
esent
 temper
ing can be ap—
 
mechani
cal
ly ground a
n d 
pol
ished,t
h en 
etched 
wit
h 7vo1
%  proxi
m at
ed as a s
rai
t ght
 li
ne,a
n d i
t i
s downwa
r d sl
opi
ng 
na
tal(
HNO3
 7 
mL+C2
HsOH 
93 
me)
.  becaus
e of 
the 
preci
pit
ati
on 
of 
rever
sed 
aust
eni
te.Li
near 
re.
 

The 
am ou
nt 
of 
aust
eni
te 
of 
h e 
t sam pl
es 
was
 measured 
by  gressi
on 
is 
obser
ved 
and 
h e 
t slopes
 of 
thes
e st
rai
ght
 li
nes
 re 

X-
ray
 di
ffr
act
ion(
Xmg)us
ing 
Cu  r
adi
ati
on.The
 sa
m—  o
bta
ine
d.Fi
g.3C
o)s
hows
 the
 re
lat
ions
hip 
bew ee
t n he
t  
ab—
 
pl
es w er
e pre
par
ed by m echani
cal
 pol
ishi
ng a
n d anot
her  sol
ute 
val
ue of 
h e 
t slopes
 and 
quenchi
ng 
temperat
ure.It
 can 

pol
ishi
ng f
or 1-
2 mi
n  wi
h  a f
t les
h sol
uti
on of 3vo1
%  be
 seen t
h at
 the val
ue decr
eases
 dram at
ical
ly wi
h  t
t he i
n. 
crease 
of 
quenchi
ng 
temper
atur
e. 
HF+28vo1% H202+69vo1
% H2 0 [ 1
 
3].The  ave
rage int
e— 
gr
ated i
nte
nsi
ie
t s
 of pe
aks(200)
 ̄,(220)
 ( 200 ,and( 2
 1
 1
)a 
were wei
ghte
d,t
he n he
t  
volume f
racti
on of aus
teni
te( 
was
 cal
cul
ated 
by 

墨 
f1
 AI
  戗
+1 
AI ,
 
黑 
whe
re i
s 
the
 int
era
g t
ed 
int
ens
it
y obt
ai
ned
 rom(
f 200)
v 
nd 


220)
r 
peks
a ,a
nd如 i
s 
tha
t obt
ai
ned 
rom (
f 20O and(
211
) 

. 
暮 
pea
k s.
 

Sa
m pl
es f
or EBSD wer
e el
ect
rol
yti
cal
ly pol
ished wi
h  a 

sol
uti
on of 
80 m L C2
HsOH a
n d 20 
m L HC1
04.The s
ca
n- 
ni
ng 
tes
ts wer
e car
ried 
out
,by 
h e s
t tep 
of0.
5 gr
rl,u
n der 
n 

SU PRA55 
aut
o-em i
ssi
on 
scanni
ng 
elect
ron 
microscope.
 
Que
nchi
ng 
tempe
rat
ure/。
C 

Sam pl
es f
or t
he dis
tri
but
ion a
n al
ysi
s of Ni
 wer
e m e—
  Fi
g.1. Inf
luence 
of 
que
nchi
ng 
temperat
ure 
on 
the 
am ount
 of
 
chani
cal
ly 
r ound 
g n d 
a pol
ished,t
hen 
treat
ed 
by 
a JXA一8 
100  reve
rse
d aus
teni
te 
formed 
in 
tem per
ing.
 
且  增 et
 a1
.,Preci
pRat
ion 
and 
stabi
lit
y of
 reve
rsed 
aus
teni
te 
in 
9N i
 st
eel
  591 
口Q∞_
l0 o.

  0 口。 
一0日_
l  §  0 > 

_
【o \Q I
uo苗It
耐 
m ar
tensi
te. whi
ch 1
eads t
o t
he i
ncr
ease of i
ts s
tabi
li
ty 
4  2   O   8  6  4   2  O 
骞T


14 1
51.Onc
e t
he 
tempe
rat
ure
 rea
ches
 670。
C,t
he 
amount
 of
 
aust
eni
te 
is 
too 
lit
tle 
to 
be 
detect
ed.
 

Expansi
on curves
 of 
h e sampl
t es t
empered at
 540,570,
 
600.a
n d 
630。C 
are
 li
sted 
n Fi
i g.6.I
t show s
 that
 the
 sl
opes
 
of 
the i
nter
m edi
ate s
ect
ions
 of 
h e curves 
t rise s
lowl
y when 

he t
emper
ing 
tem perat
ure 
is bel
ow 
570。C,w hi
ch i
ndi
cat
es 

hat
 the 
preci
pit
ati
on 
of 
rever
sed 
aus
teni
te i
s di
 ̄ cul
t at
 thi
s 

emperat
ure.Above 570。C,i
t i
ncr
eases
 si
gni
icant
f ly,and 

he val
ue r
eaches
 0.
00272 at
 600。C.whi
ch i
s t
w o t
im es
 
540  560  580  600  620  640 
hi
gher 
tha
n h at
t  obr
ained at
 570。C.I
t i
s i
nconsi
stent
 to t
he 
Temper
ing 
temperat
ure/。C 

esul
t of 
Fig.5 r
he r
t eversed aus
teni
te 
for
med 
at 
570。C 
and 
Fi
g.5. Inf
lue
nce 
of 
tem peri
ng 
tem perat
ure 
on 
the
 am ount
 of
 
60
0。C 
is 
simi
lar
),s
ugge
sti
ng 
tha
t he
t  
res
ult
s me
asur
ed 
wih 


evers
ed 
aus
teni
te.
 
X RD are
 not
 the
 act
u al
 am ount
 of t
he r
ever
sed aus
teni
te 

orm ed duri
ng t
emper
ing.Accordi
ng t
o Fi
gs.5
 and 6,t
he 
X RD .The 
tw o 
lines
 ar
e t
he dat
a m easur
ed 
bef
ore 
and 
aft
er 
conel
usi
on t
hat
 the rever
sed aus
teni
te f
orm ed at
 600。C i
s 

mm ers
ion i
nto l
iqui
d N2
,res
pect
ivel
y.I
t can be seen t
hat
 
∞o艺  
not
 st
abl
e enough 
can 
be 
obt
ained.
 

he r
eversed aus
teni
te 
cannot
 be 
obt
ained 
after 
temper
ing at
 

540。
C. W i
m  t
h e i
ncreas
e of t
em per
ing t
em per
ature. t
he  3.
3.Inf
luence 
of 
lam el
lari
zing 
treatm ent 

vol
um e 
fract
ion of 
rever
sed 
aus
teni
te i
ncr
eases
 and 
reaches
 
Fi
g.7
 shows
 the
 SEM 
imag
es 
oft
he 
QLT 
re
t a
ted
 sa
mpl
es 

a peak at
 630。C.t
hen decr
eases
 gr
eat
ly.The decreas
e i
s  I
t s
how s
 that
 the
 di
str
ibut
ion 
of 
rever
sed 
aust
eni
te i
s di
ffer
- 
caus
ed 
by 
the 
m art
ens
ite仃ansf
ormat
ion 
of 
the 
unst
abl
e aus.
  e
nt 
rom 
f the
 re
sul
ts 
of 
the
 QT 
proc
ess
.Fi
g.8
 pr
ese
nts
 he
t  

eni
te 
in 
cool
ing.The
 tw o 
lines
 are
 near
 to each 
other
 bel
ow  EBSD m i
crographs.11
1e 
revers
ed aus
teni
te i
s di
spl
ayed i
n 
600。
C. I
t can be concl
uded t
hat
 the r
ever
sed aust
eni
te  r
ed. t
h e  bcc  m at
rix  i
s  def
aul
ted  i
n  whi
te, and  t
h e 

orm ed at
 thi
s t
em perat
ure has a hi
gher
 st
abi
li
ty.Above  s
ub.
boundar
y wi
th 
the 
n gl
a es 
of 
1 
0。and 
5。ar
e di
spl
ayed 
as 
600。
C,t
he 
w o l
t ines
 m ove 
aw ay 
rom  
f each 
oth er 
r adual
g ly,
  r
ed 1
ines
 and 
blue 1
n es.r
i espect
ivel
y.I
t s
hows
 that
 mos
t of 

ugges
ting t
ha
t h e s
t tabi
lit
y of 
rever
sed aust
eni
te begi
ns t
o  he
t  
reve
rse
d a
ust
eni
te 
in 
QT ̄ea
ted 
ste
el 
is 
dis
tri
but
ed 
alo
ng 
decreas
e bef
ore t
he am ount
 reaches
 it
s pea
k .As
 the t
em .
  t
he aust
eni
te grai
n bou
n dar
y and t
he ma ̄ens
ite packet
 

per
atur
e r
eaches
 650。C t
he 
w o 
t lines
 becom e 
close 
to each  boundar
y.but
 the
 rever
sed aust
eni
te i
s u
nior
f l
Yl al
ong al
l 

ot
her 
agai
n.Thi
s i
s because 
m os
t of 
the 
aus
teni
te i
s l
ocat
ed  ki
nds
 of
 bo
nd
u a
rie
s i
n QLT 
re
t a
ted 
stee
l,es
peci
all
y a
long 
al
ong 
the 
m ar
tensi
te 
1at
h boundari
es 
after
 cool
ing,as
 shown  t
he mart
ens
ite 
lat
h boundar
y.I
t ca
n be 
also 
seen 
rom 
f Fig.8 
m at
 m os
t of 
the 
rever
sed 
aust
eni
te 
aDpears
 in 
som e 
areas
 in—
 

n Fi
g.4(
e).An
 ext
ra 
compr
ess
ive
 sres
t s i
s a
ppl
ied 
by 
he
t  
m ar
tensi
te 
lat
h t
o t
his
 par
t of 
aust
eni
te 
when 
it 
ra
t n sf
orms
 to  t
ens
ive
ly 
aft
er 
the
 QLT 
proc
ess
. 

O.
010 

0.
008 

0.
004 

0.
002 

0.
000 

Tem per
ing 
time/s  Temper
ing 
temperature/。C 

Fi
g.6. Expans
ion cur
ves
 of 
the
 sampl
es 
tempered at
 di
fer
ent
 temperat
u res(
a)and 
rel
ati
ons
hip 
bet
ween t
emper
ing 
temperat
ure 
and 
the
 sl
ope
 of
 expansi
on 
curves(
b).
 
Ett.
  ,
辔 et
 aL,Preci
pit
ati
on 
and 
stabi
lit
y of
 revers
ed 
aust
eni
te 
in 
9Ni
 st
eel
  593 

a ∞h
D己   o u0口 再JI
 § 一0 > 

Il  、丑&簋 一
 0  蠢  U 
_
【0 \  一I
10苗Tl
对  t
his
 tem per
atu
re.A l
though 
Fi
g.9 l
ist
s t
he am ount
 of 
rever
sed aus
teni
te m eas
ured  had s ̄on ger di
ffus
ion
 abi
li
y 
t a
t 
m os
t oft
h e aust
eni
te f
or
m ed 
ati
 nt
ercr
iti
cal
 temper
atur
e re—
 
wi

h XRD.
It 
can 
be 
see
n t
hat
 he
t  
reve
rse
d a
ust
eni
te 
in 
QLT 

reat
ed s
teel
 decreases
 wi
h  t
t he i
ncrease of i
nter
cri
tical
  ransf
t orm ed t
o m art
ens
ite i
n cool
ing,t
he f
lesh m ar
tens
ite 
was
 enri
ched i
n C,N i
,andM n m oret
h an t
h epr
im arym art
— 
que
nchi
ng 
tempe
rat
ure
,and 
it
 is
 l
ess
 t
han 
tha
t t
rea
ted 
by 
QT 
ensi
te obt
ai
n ed af
ter
 the f
irst
 quenchi
ng.A s
 a r
esul
t,t
he 
when t
h e i
ntercr
iti
cal
 tem perat
ure r
eaches 700。C.I
t i
s be—
 
resh 
f mar
tens
ite 
had 
a l
ower 
A  and 
rans
t for
med 
to 
aus
ten-
 

ieved 
that
 t
he decr
ease of 
reversed aus
teni
te.as
 shown i
n 

tedur
ingt
h e 
subsequentt
emper
ing.M or
eover,t
he 
aust
eni
te 
Fi
g.9.i
s al
so 
caused 
by 
h e 
t reduct
ion 
of 
it
s st
abi
lit
y because 
st
abi
lizi
ng el
em ent
s whi
ch gat
hered i
n t
he fr
esh m ar
tensi
te 

t f
orm s
 rapi
dly 
in 
temper
ing.It
 m ea
ns 
h at
t  a s
hor
ter
 ti
m e i
s 
coul
d be segr
egat
ed i
nto 
rever
sed aust
eni
te t
hrough 
a shor
t 

equi
red 
or
f  
temper
ing
 whe
n QLT i
s a
dopt
ed.The
 expa
n- 
di
stance 
dif
fusi
on,whi
ch coul
d al
so 
promot
e t
he g
r owt
h of 
si
on 
curves
 are 
shown 
in 
Fig.10.I
t s
hows
 that
 h e 
t slopes
 of 
revers
ed 
aus
teni
te.
 

he 
cur
ves
 in
 QLT 
proce
ssng 
i are
 hi
gher
 ha
t n 
tha
t i
n QT 
process
ing.
  To conf
irm 
thi
s hypot
hes
is.t
he di
str
ibut
ion of 
Ni i
n t
he 

st
eel
 quenched at
 di
ffer
ent
 temperat
ures was det
ect
ed by 

el
ecron pr
t obe
 mi
croa
nal
ysi
s(EPMA)
.The
 res
ult
s a
re 

how
n  
in 
Fig.11.I
t can 
be 
seen 
that
 the 
dis
tri
but
ion 
ofN i
 n 


he m at
rix i
s m or
e uni
or
f m  i
n t
he sampl
es quenched at
 
800。C.Af
ter
 anot
her
 quenchi
ng 
at 
630。C,weak 
seg
r egat
ion 
of 
Ni can be exhi
bit
ed.W i
th t
he i
ncr
eas
e of 
the s
econd 
quenchi
ng t
emper
ature,t
he seg
r egat
ion becom es more
 ob。
 
vi
ous.It
 is
 bel
ieved t
h at
 m or
e aust
eni
te can be obt
ained 
dur
ing 
subs
equent
 temper
ing i
n t
he a
rea 
where 
h e 
t Ni 
con‘
 

ent
 is
 hi
gher.whi
ch 
may 
also 
be t
he r
eas
on 
why 
h e 
t dis
tri
— 
but
ion of 
revers
ed aust
eni
te i
n t
he mat
rix i
s nonuni
or
f m i
n 
Int
ercri
tical
 tem perature/。C  OLT 
treat
ed 
steel
s,as
 shown 
in 
Fig.8.
 

F ・
9・  Re
Ial
ion 
h  be
  e
n t
h a
m0un
 0f
 ev
  d
 au 
ten
ite
  4
. Cone1
usi
Ons
 
and 
int
ereri
tical
 tem perat
ure.
  ’
  … 一…  


1)A 
lower
 que
nchi
ng 
tempe
rat
re
u  
can 
promot
e t
he 
pre
‘ 
ci
piat
t i
on of 
rever
sed aust
eni
te duri
ng t
he s
ubsequent
 ter
n- 
per
ing,because t
h e f
iner
 aus
teni
te g
r ai
ns and m ar
tensi
te 
packet
s provi
de 
m ore 
nucl
eat
ion 
sit
es 
or
f  
reversed 
aus
teni
te.
 
A hi
gher 
tem per
ing 
tem perat
ure can al
so pr
om ot
e t
h e 
pre‘
 
ci
Fli
at
t i
on 
of 
rever
sed 
aust
eni
te,because 
aust
eni
te 
st
abi
li
zing 


leme
nts
 ha
ve 
a hi

ghe
r di
ff
usi
viy a
t t hi
h 
g t
empe
ing
r  te
m— 
perat
ure 


2)Dur
ing
 hol
ding 
at 
int
ercr
it
ical
 t
empe
rat
ure,Ni
 ca
n be
 

eg
r egat
ed 
int
o aus
teni
te 
rapi
dly 
because 
of 
it
s hi
gher 
dif
u—
f  

ivi
ty.A l
h ough aust
t eni
te t
ra
n sf
cI1
Tns
 to m ar
tensi
te i
n cool
- 
Tem per
ingt
im e/s
 

ng,a l
ow er 
Acl
 is
 obt
ained due 
to hi
gh Ni
 cont
ent
 in 
the 
Fi
g.10. Expans
ion cur
ves
 of
 the 
sampl
es 
treat
ed 
by 
QT and  les
f h mar
tensi
te.s
o i
t can t
rans
for
ill
 to aust
eni
te pr
ior
 in 
QLT 
proces
ses.
  t
em per
ing pr
ocessi
ng.As a r
esul
t,t
he preci
pit
ati
on of 
re‘
 

h e hypot
T h esi
s i
s pr
opos
ed 
to expl
ain 
why t
he r
ever
sed  ve
rse
d a
ust
eni
te 
in QLT 
re
t at
ed s
tee
l i
s ea
sie
r t
han 
that
 in 
aus
teni
te 
can 
gene
rat
e mo
re 
eas
ily
 whe
n QLT i
s a
dopt
ed.
  QT 
rea
t ted 
stee
l,s
o he
t  
reve
rse
d a
ust
eni
te 
wit
h a
 hi
ghe
r s
ta—
 
W hen 
the s
teel
 was
 hel
d at
 al
l i
nter
cri
ti
cal
 temper
atr e,t
u he  bi
1i
y 
t c
n 
a be
 obt
aine
d wi
th 
a s
hote
r r
 te
mpe
ing
r  ti
me.At
 the
 
aus
teni
te st
abi
lizi
ng el
em ent
s,s
uch 
as 
C,N i
,and 
M n,were  s
am e t
im e,t
he seg
r egat
ion of 
Ni m ay al
so l
ead t
o t
h e r
e。 


egr egat
ed i
nto 
aus
teni
te phase by di
ffusi
on 
because at
om s
  ver
sed 
aust
eni
te gat
her
ing 
in 
som e
 ar
eas.
 
594  Int
.  Mi
ner
.M et
aU.M at
er.
,VoL17,No.
5,Oct2010 

sJ  暑 一
Z J0甚 菪 00 
善 \o_ 
d量 ∞T
1  ,
; ≥ \0 a霉 ∞; 

Scanni
ng di
stance/r
ain  Scanni
ng 
dis
tance/nⅡn 


 
矗 
置 
艺 

 事 \
  l
u ∞暑   事 \o g  皇w
 
莒 

旨 
8 

Scanni
ng 
dist
ance/mm  Scanni
ngdist
ance/1
Th'
TI 

F .11. Di
stri
but
ion 
of 
Ni 
in 
the
 mat
rix quench-
 


ng at:(
a)800。
C;C
a)800。
C+ 630。C;(
c)800。C+ 
650。C;(d)800。C+670。
C;(
e)g00。C+700。C.
 

S 

Scanningdi
stance/r
ain 

A,1
6(1
985
),No.
12,
P.22
37.
 
Ref
erences
 

4】 M .Le
i andY.
Y.Guo.For
mat
ion 
ofpr
eci
pit
ati
on 
aus
teni
tei
n 

C.
K.Syn,B.Ful
tz,a
nd 
J.W .M or
is,M e
r cha
nical
 st
abi
lit
y of  9% Ni
 st
eel
 an d i
ts f
unc
tion at
 cr
yogeni
c t
empe
rat
ure,Act
a 


etai
ned aus
teni
te i
n t
emper
ed 9Ni
 st
eel
,M et
aIL Tr
ans
.A,
  Me
tal
L Si
n.,
25(
198
9),
No,
1,P.
13.
 
9(
197
8),
No.
11,
P.1
635.
  【
5]  N .Nakada,J.Syanf,T.Tsuchi
yama,e
t a1
.,I
mpr
ovement
 of
 


2]  C.
K.Syn,S.J
in,a
nd 
J.W .M or
ris
,M echa
nical
 sabi
t li
y 
t ofr
e—  s
tre
ngt
h—duc
til
iy 
t bal
nc
a e 
by 
coppe
r addi
ti
on i
n 9%Ni
 st
eel
s,
 

ained aus
teni
te i
n t
emper
ed 9Ni
 st
eel
,Met
al1
. Trans.A,
  Mat
er.
Sci
.En
g.A,
374(
200
4),
P.1
 
37.
 

(197
6),
No.
12,
P.1
827
.  [
6]  F.
T.Zhang,J
.X.Song,a
n d 
H.Ci
,M Os
sba
uer
 st
udy 
oft
rns
a —
 


3]  B.Ful
tz,J
.I.1
(jn 
Y.H.
  m,
  a ,Tl
le s
abi
t li
y 
t ofpr
eci
pi-
  f
orma
tion 
of 
ret
urn 
aust
eni
te 
ofNi
9 s
teel
,Act
a Met
all
,Si
n.,
 


ated 
aus
teni
te 
and 
the
 toughnes
s of9Ni
 st
eel
,M et
al1
.Tr
ans.
  22
(19
86)
,No.
4,P.
b16
9. 
H  愕 et
 aL,Preci
pit
ati
on 
and 
stabi
lit
y of
 revers
ed 
aus
teni
te 
in 
9Ni
 st
eel
  595 

F.
T,Zha
ng,J
.Y.W ang,a
n d Y.
Y.Guo,On 
the 
rel
aions
t hip  nes
s of
 TRI
P—as
sis
ted  mul
tiphas
e  s
teel
s, Act
a M at
er.
, 

bet
wee
n re
tur
n aus
teni
te 
n d 
a toughness
 f0r
 Ni
9 s
teel
 at
 cr
yo-
  5
6(2
0o8
),P.
3900.
 

eni
c 
te
mpe
rat
ure
s,Ac
ta 
Met
al1
.Si
n.,
20(
198
4),
No.
6,p.
405.
  【
12] Q.
Liu,
D.Ta
ng,
H.T.
Jing
a ,e
t 
a1.
,Re
sea
rch 
and
 de
vel
opme
nt 

8]  Y.
H.Ya
n g,Q.
W .Cai
,H.
B.W u,ef
 aL,For
mat
ion 
ofr
ever
sed  of 
780M Pa
 col
d r
oll
ing 
TRI
P—ai
ded 
stee1
./nt
.  Mi
ner.M et
- 

aus
teni
te a
n d i
ts 
eff
ect
 on c
ryoge
nic 
tough
n es
s of 
9Ni
 st
eel
  al
1.Mat
er.
,16
(20
09)
,No
.4,
P.39
9. 
dur
ing t
w o-
phase
 re
gion he
t  t
a reat
ment
,Act
a M et
al1
.Si
n.,
  【
13]R.Ra
uti
oaho
 and
 P.Ka
rja
lai
nen
,St
res
s r
espo
nse
 of
 ba
rk-
 
45
(20
09)
,No.
3,P.
270.
  ha
usennoi
sea
n d 
coer
civef
orcei
n 9Ni
 st
eel

  Magn M agn.
.  


9】  R.Petrov,L.Kestens,A.W asi
lkowska,et
 a/
.,M i
crost
ruct
ure  Mat
er.
,68
(19
87)
,P.
321
. 
n d 
a text
ure
 of
 a 
light
ly 
def
orme
d TRI
P..
ass
ist
ed 
steel
 char
ac.

  【
14】T.
Kake
shi
a 
t nd
a  
K.Sh
imi
zu,
Efe
cs 
t o
fhyd
ros
at
t ic
 pr
ess
ure
 

eri
zed 
by 
mea
ns 
oft
h e髓 SD 
tec
ni
h que
,Mat
er.& t 
Eng.A,
  o
n ma
rte
nsi
ti
c ra
tnsf
orma
ti
ons
,Mat
er.T
ram.
JIM,
38(
199
7),
 

47(
2007
),P.
285.
  No.
8,P.
668.
 

[1
0】 B.Verli
nden,P.Bocher
,E.Gi
raul
t,et
 a1
.,Aus
teni
te 
text
ure  [
15]I
.Y.
Pys
hmi
nt
sev
,M.
De 
Mey
er,
B.C.
De 
Coo
man,
et 
a1.
,Th
e 
n d bai
a nit
e/aust
eni
te 
orient
at
ion 
rel
ations
hips
 in TRI
P st
ee1
.  I
nflue
nceoft
h e 
sres
t s s
at
t e 
ont
hepl
st
a ici
tyoft
rans
for
ill
ati
on 

Sc
ript
a Ma
ter
.,45(
2001
),p.
906.
  i
nduced pl
st
a ic
ity-
aided s
teel
, M et
al1
. Mat
er. Trans. A,
 


11 G.La
】 cro
ix,
T.Pa
rdoe
n,a
ndP.
J.J
acq
ues
,The
 f
rac
tur
e t
oug
h-  3
3(2
002
),p,
1659
.