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1

Introduction to Physics

Objective Questions

4. Which of the following is a correct representation of scientific notation? A 3.142 × 10–1.5 C 314.2 × 103 B 31.42 × 10–2 D 3.142 × 101900 5. A tank is needed to hold 125 m3 of water. Which tank is most suitable? A 3.5 m × 4.5 m × 6.0 m tank B 3.8 m × 2.8 m × 11.5 m tank C 4.0 m × 4.2 m × 7.2 m tank D 4.3 m × 3.6 m × 8.6 m tank 6. Which of the following is consistent but not accurate? A C

8. Which graph supports the hypothesis that y is directly proportional to x? A y

1. Which physical quantity has the correct S.I. unit? Physical quantity A B C D Time Mass Length Temperature S.I. unit Hour Newton Metre Celsius

B

0 y

x

C

0 y

x

2. Which of the following is not a base quantity? A Time B Force C Electric current D Length 3. 500 kilometres is equivalent to A 5 × 104 metres B 5 × 105 metres C 5 × 106 metres D 5 × 107 metres

B

D

0 y x

D 7. Error in measurement due to wrong positioning of the eye is known as A parallax error. C zero error. B technical error. D biological error.

0

x

Subjective Questions

(a) Arrange the data in the form of a table. (b) State the responding variable. R 600 cm

[3 marks] [1 mark]

**1. Table 1 shows 3 measurements of various lengths. Measurement Reading P 1600 mm Q 0.02 m
**

Table 1

**(c) Calculate the average temperature from 6 am to 12 noon. [2 marks]
**

Written Practical

(a) Convert all the measurements into metres and write the answer in scientific notation. (i) P. (ii) Q. (iii) R. [3 marks] (b) If the measurements are for that of the thickness of a book, the height of a boy and the height of a building, which of the measurements are most likely to correspond to each of the items? (i) P. (ii) Q. (iii) R. [3 marks] 2. A student carried out an experiment to determine the temperature of a garden starting from 6 o’clock in the morning. He took the temperature at intervals of one hour and, starting from 6 am, the temperatures measured are 25.5°C, 26.5°C, 27.0°C, 28.0°C, 29.0°C, 29.5°C, 31.5°C.

1. A student carried out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the temperature of a solid when heated and its mass m. The student used the same immersion heater to heat up the different masses of the solid for the same length of time. The initial temperature, θ0, of the solid which is constant and the final temperature, θ, of the solid after being heated are recorded. 1 The result of the experiment is shown as a graph of θ against –– m in Diagram 1. (a) Extend the graph until it intersects the θ-axis. This gives the initial temperature, θ0, of the solid. Write the value of θ0. [2 marks] 1 (b) State the relationship between θ and –– . [1 mark] m (c) The specific heat capacity, c, of the solid is given by the 4 equation c = 3.6 × 10 where k is the gradient of the graph. –––––––– k

© Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

TC – 22

velocity 8.0 m s–1 C 1. P 5m Q What is the resultant force? A 0N B 1 N to the right C 1 N to the left D 13 N What is the average velocity of the crane if it starts from P and travels to Q and back to P in 10 seconds? A 0 m s–1 D 1. m Show on the graph how you determine the gradient. The diagram shows a velocity-time graph for the motion of a car.1 0. D The iron ball and paper clip will reach the base around the same time but the piece of paper will reach the base last. B All the three objects will remain in their respective positions. 6. of the heated solid if the final temperature.3 0.0 m s–1 3. [3 marks] (e) State one precaution that should be taken during this experiment. TC – 23 . The diagram shows 4 forces acting on a block. C help the long-jumper to balance his body.5 m s E 2. volume and mass B Speed. A bus travels at a speed of 80 kilometres per hour.4 0. The momentum of the car is constant from A O to P C Q to R B P to Q D O to R 5. followed by the paper clip and then the piece of paper. Q P R S Which relationship between the forces P. Which of the following pairs is correct? Scalar quantity A B C D Mass Distance Displacement Velocity Vector quantity Weight Speed Distance Acceleration O P Q R t A Area. The work done to stretch a spring to an extension of 4 cm is 80 J. What is the distance travelled by the bus in 1 hour 15 minutes? A 80 km D 115 km B 92 km E 120 km C 100 km 4. m. B increase the stopping time of the long-jumper. velocity and acceleration C Velocity. acceleration and force D Time.5 m s-1 –1 B 0. is 34 oC. [3 marks] (ii) Calculate the value of the specific heat capacity. c. of the solid. A crane moves to and fro along a 5 m steel railing. [2 marks] (i) (d) Determine the mass.6 Diagram 1 Chapter 2 Forces and Motion v Objective Questions 1. Bhd. 10. What is the spring constant of the spring? A 800 N cm–1 D 1600 N cm–1 –1 B 1000 N cm E 2400 N cm–1 C 1200 N cm–1 © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. The diagram shows a speedboat decelerating as it is approaching a jetty. θ. R and S acting on the boat is correct? A P>R C Q>S B P<R D Q<S 7.5 0. 9. 3N 4N 4N 2N Paper Iron Paper ball clip Vacuum 2.θ / °C 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 0 1 –– / kg–1 m 1 Calculate the gradient of the graph θ against –– . an iron ball and a paper clip being released at the same time in a vacuum cylinder.2 0. C The iron ball will reach the base first. The loose sand is to A increase the impulsive force. [1 mark] 0. A long-jumper lands on a pit filled with loose sand. mass. Which of the following lists of physical quantities consists of only vectors? Which observation is correct? A All the three objects will reach the base at the same time. Show on the graph how you determine the value of m. The diagram shows a piece of paper. Q.

Its length becomes 12 cm. A swimmer swims to and fro twice and covers a total distance of 200 m. the stone will reach the ground first.0 cm. (a) What is the magnitude of his displacement when he completes the swim? [1 mark] (b) (i) Calculate the average speed of the swimmer. Bhd. F/N 25 20 15 10 5 x / cm Diagram 3 (a) What is the extension of the spring when the load is 20 N? [1 mark] (b) Mark the x-axis of the graph for values of x corresponding to the values of F = 5 N. 8. The readings of the spring balance are shown in Diagrams 2. F = 0 N. Diagram 3 shows the F-x graph of the experiment. The total time taken by the swimmer is 1 minute. Nail Elastic band FN x cm Spring balance Nail Diagram 1 At the beginning. to the spring and its extension. The experiment is repeated by displacing the elastic band with a displacement.0 cm and 10. of an elastic band. 1. [2 marks] (ii) However when the same experiment is carried out on Earth. [2 marks] (c) The relationship of F and x can be represented by the equation F = kx. An experiment is carried out © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. x is measured. 4. A spring with an original length of 10 cm is used to hang a load of 20 N. [2 marks] Written Practical Diagram 1 (c) Diagram 1 shows the displacement-time graph of the swimmer during the first 10 seconds.0 cm Diagram 2 TC – 24 . and the displacement. Find the value of k with correct units. 15 N. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 2.Subjective Questions 1. x.0 cm. 20 N and 25 N. 3. 10 N. Explain the observation. (i) What is the distance covered by the swimmer during this time? [1 mark] (ii) What is his average velocity during this time? [2 marks] 2. [2 marks] (ii) Calculate the average velocity of the swimmer. An astronaut weighs 750 N on Earth where the acceleration of free fall is 10 m s-2. The length of a swimming pool is 50 m. A student carries out an experiment to find out the relationship between the change in pulling force.0 cm. [1 mark] s/m 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 t/s by attaching different loads. x.0 cm. when x = 0 cm. The arrangement of the apparatus for the experiment is shown in Diagram 1. (a) (i) What is the mass of the astronaut? [2 marks] (ii) How much will he weigh on Mars where the acceleration of free fall is 4 m s-2? [2 marks] (b) Another astronaut carries out an experiment on the surface of the Moon by dropping a piece of paper and a stone from the same height at the same time as shown in Diagram 2. Diagram 2 (i) Explain the observation. F. 5 and 6. equal to 2. [2 marks] 3. 6. He observed that both the paper and the stone reach the ground at the same time. 4. F.

F. © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. [1 mark] (e) From your graph. In which of the following examples is the greatest pressure exerted? A A book resting on a table. Car F Piston P Piston Q 1.0 cm Diagram 5 Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure B C D Objective Questions A barefooted man standing on a concrete floor. How much greater is the pressure of the gas supply compared to atmospheric pressure? A 10 cm of water B 20 cm of water C 25 cm of water D 35 cm of water Which comparison is true? A The force F must be greater than the weight of the car in order to lift it. from the diagrams and tabulate your results for. [1 mark] (ii) responding variable. determine the pulling force required to result in a displacement of 7. [2 marks] 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 8. state the: (i) manipulated variable.0 cm 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 10. A pineapple resting on a plate.0 cm (b) Take the reading of the spring balance. x and F.04 m2 Gas supply 20 cm 10 cm Water 45 cm What is the pressure exerted by the stool on the floor? A 200 N m–2 B 800 N m–2 C 1200 N m–2 D 1600 N m–2 E 2000 N m–2 2. [1 mark] 6. The diagram shows a simplified hydraulic pump used to lift a car.0 cm Diagram 3 Diagram 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 (a) Based on the aim and procedure of the experiment. 4.0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 4. [5 marks] Diagram 4 (d) Based on your graph. Base area = 0. state the relationship between F and x.0 cm. B The force F can be smaller than the weight of the car and still lift the car. A knife cutting an apple. The diagram shows the water levels in a water manometer used to measure the pressure of gas supply. D The car cannot be lifted at all because the cross-sectional area of piston P is smaller than that of piston Q. [1 mark] (iii) fixed variable.04 m2. Bhd. TC – 25 . 3. An 8 kg stool has a base area of 0. C The pressure on piston P must be the same as the pressure on piston Q in order to lift the car. [5 marks] (c) Plot a graph of F against x.

(a) A force. Bhd. 2. 8. The diagram shows a spinning ball moving in a curve. D Bernoulli’s principle. [2 marks] (ii) What is the pressure exerted by the oil on piston Q? [1 mark] (iii) Calculate the force exerted by the oil on piston Q. A downward force. F. When a partial vacuum is created in the cup. F = 300 N. in N cm-2. Hot water 9. B Archimedes’ principle. the suction cup needs to be separated from it. B The egg is denser than liquid Q. Explain your answer. Diagram 2 shows a hydraulic press used to crush metal cans. TC – 26 . The diagram shows an egg which floats in liquid P but sinks in liquid Q. 10. D The buoyant force that acts on the egg is more in liquid P than in liquid Q. the glass can be lifted. Explain how this can be done. [2 marks] (b) State the physics principle that is involved in the calculation in (a). The pressure of the air in the ball increases. The fact that a hot air balloon rises to the sky can be explained using A Newton’s third law. [1 mark] © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. (i) Calculate the pressure. (a) Explain why the glass can be lifted when a partial vacuum is created in the cup. exerted by piston P on the oil. This phenomenon can be explained using A equilibrium of forces. C The egg is less dense than liquid P. Which of the following shape will result in a lifting effect when attached to a moving object? A B C Which object has the highest density? Which of the following does not explain what happens in the ball? Subjective Questions 1. Liquid P Liquid Q Spinning ball Which of the following inference is not correct? A Liquid P is denser than liquid Q. [2 marks] Diagram 2 The cross-sectional area of piston P and Q are 15 cm2 and 45 cm2 respectively. F Metal support Piston P Piston Q Super milk Suction cup Rubber seal Partial vacuum To vacuum pump Glass Oil Diagram 1 Initially. The average speed of the air molecules in the ball increases. is applied on piston P to result in an upward force on piston Q to crush the metal can. the suction cup is placed on the glass and air is removed from the cup by a vacuum pump.5. The diagram shows four objects floating on the surface of a liquid. The rate of molecules in the ball hitting its wall increases. [2 marks] (d) State one modification that can be done to the suction cup so that it can lift a heavier piece of glass. [2 marks] (b) What is the function of the rubber seal attached to the brim of the suction cup? [1 mark] (c) When the glass is lifted to a certain location. D Bernoulli’s principle. is applied on piston P. 6. Egg A B P Q C D R S A B C D 7. S P Q R Direction of movement of ball Hot air rises up. Diagram 1 shows a crane lifting a piece of glass with the help of a suction cup. C Pascal’s principle. A dented ping pong ball can be returned to its spherical shape when placed in hot water. C Pascal’s principle. B Archimedes’ principle.

A test-tube with a marble in it is placed in liquid P and then in liquid Q. [3 marks] (ii) The pressure of a liquid is given by the formula P = hρg. [1 mark] (c) If the density of liquid P is 1000 kg m–3. [4 marks] Temperature P Q R S Time Chapter 4 Heat coffee. where ρ is the density of the liquid and g is the gravitational acceleration. (i) State the relationship between P and h.5 kW heater contains 0. of the graph. At which part of the curve would the wax be a mixture of solid and liquid? A PQ B QR C RS 7. When the thermometer is placed into a cup of What is the approximate temperature of the coffee? A 30°C B 33°C C 40°C D 50°C E 67°C 5.5 kg of water at boiling point. its temperature will normally A rise. Why do people feel cool if they do not dry their sweat and stand under a moving fan? A The sweat is cooled by the fan and in turn cools down the body. k. D remain unchanged.4 0. D the water starts to boil. [2 marks] (b) (i) Determine the gradient. B rise then fall.2 0. its temperature rises. D using a liquid with lower boiling point.3. The sensitivity of a liquid-in-glass thermometer can be increased by A using a transparent liquid. What is the minimum mass of hot water needed to melt the ice? (Specific latent heat of fusion of ice is 336 000 J kg–1. [1 mark] (ii) Determine the value of P when h is equal to 0.26 m. Diagram 1 shows a graph of how the pressure. P / N m–2 5000 4000 3000 2. Specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J kg–1 oC–1. If the water is left boiling. C more water is added.5 cm 4. D The sweat prevents heat from getting into the body. B some cubes of ice is placed in the water. 4.1 0. The graph shows how the temperature of some wax changes as it cools from the liquid state to solid state. (g = 10 m s–2) Determine the density of the liquid used in kg m–3. how long will it take to boil all the water away? (Specific latent heat of vaporisation of water is 2 × 106 J kg-1) A 200 s D 500 s B 250 s E 750 s C 400 s © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. C The sweat evaporates and causes the cooling of the body. An electric kettle with a 2. Written Practical 1. h for a liquid. [2 marks] (iii) Determine the value of h when P is equal to 1600 N m–2.5 h/m Liquid P Liquid Q Diagram 1 Diagram 3 (a) (i) Which of the two liquids has a higher density? [1 mark] [3 marks] (ii) Explain your answer in (a)(i). 3. If heat is removed from an object. Bhd. Hot water at 100 oC is added to 200 g of ice at 0 oC. C fall. P of a liquid column varies with depth. (b) State the physical principle used in the above explanation.0 cm 2000 1000 0 0. B The sweat is a good conductor of heat and transfer the heat away from the body. When water is heated. Diagram 3 shows the floating position of the test tube in both the liquids.3 0. 6. 2. TC – 27 . B using a thin-walled bulb. C using a longer tube. Steam 6 cm Coffee 3 cm Ice 1 cm Objective Questions 1.) A 71 g D 200 g B 84 g E 210 g C 160 g 8. A mercury-in-glass thermometer is marked with the mercury level of melting ice and steam respectively. Its temperature will stop rising when A some salt is added to the water. what is the density of liquid Q? [2 marks] (a) Based on the graph. the mercury level is marked and the diagram shows the markings of the three levels mentioned.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 t / minute Diagram 1 (a) Based on the graph. what happens to the average speed of the air molecules? [1 mark] (ii) Explain your answer in (a)(i). Which material is a liquid at 500 oC? Material A B C D P Q R S Melting point / oC 850 –100 56 250 Boiling point / o C 1380 –28 235 1250 10. θ / °C 80 60 Diagram 1 (i) Which thermometer can measure a larger range of temperature? Explain your answer. liquid or gas? [1 mark] (b) What is meant by specific heat capacity of a substance? [1 mark] (c) How much energy is required to heat 50 g of P from –200°C to –198°C? [3 marks] 3. will P be a solid. Assuming the volume of the tyre is constant. θ against time.9. the temperature of the air in the tyre rises to 37 oC. Substance P Melting point / oC –210 Boiling point / oC –195 Table 1 Specific heat capacity of liquid P / J kg–1 oC–1 1400 40 20 (a) At the temperature of –211°C. [2 marks] (ii) Which thermometer is more sensitive? Explain your answer. (i) What is the melting point of P? [2 marks] [2 marks] (ii) What is the boiling point of P? (iii) What is the temperature of P when t = 15 minutes? [2 marks] (b) (i) Determine the gradient of the graph for t = 10 minutes to t = 15 minutes. [3 marks] 12 cm3 Diagram 2 © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. P (b) If the initial pressure of the air is 100 kPa. what is the pressure of the air in the tyre? A 153 kPa B 203 kPa C 217 kPa D 288 kPa E 443 kPa (a) (i) When the volume of the air trapped in the syringe decreases. Bhd. [2 marks] 2. After a journey. (a) Why is mercury a suitable liquid to be used in a liquid-inglass thermometer? [1 mark] (b) Diagram 1 shows two mercury-in-glass thermometers P and Q which are identical except that the bulb of P is much smaller than that of Q. Table 1 shows some properties of a substance. determine the amount of heat per oC of increase in temperature required when heating P from t = 10 minutes to t = 15 minutes. [1 mark] Written Practical Q 1. Diagram 1 shows a graph of temperature. P. The piston is slowly pushed inward until the volume of the air trapped in the syringe becomes 12 cm3. [1 mark] Subjective Questions 1. A syringe with its nozzle sealed has an initial volume of 20 cm3 of air trapped in it. The table gives the melting points and boiling points of 4 materials. [2 marks] (c) State the law used in (b). calculate its pressure when its volume decreases. t of a substance P which is obtained from an experiment. TC – 28 . [3 marks] 20 cm3 (ii) If the power supplied to heat up P is 300 W. The temperature of the air remains unchanged. The air pressure of a tyre is 210 kPa at a temperature of 27 oC.

0 m D 7. The diagram shows a boy having his eyes tested. Bhd. The human eye has a converging lens system that produces an image at the back of the eye.5 m 60° 60° 60° Light ray 10 cm 20 cm B 60° D 60° 60° Plane mirror Boy Chart 60° What is the focal length of the convex lens? A 10 cm C 20 cm B 15 cm D 30 cm 60° 60° How far away from the boy is the image of the chart? A 3. upright and magnified. A mirror is tilted at an angle of 10o to a table top. diminished and inverted.Chapter 5 Light Objective Questions 1. When the eye views a distant object. diminished and inverted.) A C 60° 60° 60° 7. magnified and inverted. A chart with letters on it is placed behind him and he sees it through a mirror. He carries out an experiment to determine the images formed by these mirrors.5 m 2. B virtual. the image produced at the back of the eye is A real. C real.5 m B 4. Which of the following shows the correct direction for light rays emerging from a prism? (The critical angle of the prism is 42o. Light ray Mirror 30° 10° 6. f A B C D 10 cm 15 cm 20 cm 25 cm Object distance.5 m 3. u 8 cm 20 cm 40 cm 60 cm Image Magnified Diminished Magnified Magnified P Q Observer Plywood R 8. inverted and magnified. C O F Concave mirror Diagram 1 [3 marks] TC – 29 © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Which of the following concerning convex lenses is correct? Focal length. inverted and diminished. magnified and upright. C Virtual. a convex lens and a plane mirror. The diagram shows a light ray travelling from air into a glass prism. Which optical instrument produces a real image? A A magnifying glass B A camera C An astronomical telescope D A compound microscope 10. What are the characteristics of the image formed if an object is placed 6 cm from the centre of the mirror? A Virtual. D virtual. . upright and diminished. A boy has a convex and a concave mirror. Mirror S What is the angle of reflection? A 10° B 30° C 40° D 60° 4.5 m E 8. The diagram shows the arrangement of a light source. Light ray 72° Prism 65° 9. B Real. (a) Complete the following diagrams to show the reflected rays and the images formed. Light source Convex lens Plane mirror Which LED’s image can be seen? A P C R B Q D S 2. D Real. A piece of plywood prevents the observer from seeing the LED directly. The diagram shows four lighted LED in front of a mirror. A concave mirror has a focal length of 12 cm. 1.0 m C 5. A ray of light is directed at an angle of 30o to the surface of the mirror. What is the critical angle of the glass? A 42° B 43° C 47° D 52° (i) Subjective Questions 1. 5.

[2 marks] (ii) convex mirror in (a)(ii). (i) what happens to the linear magnification when the image distance increases. where u is the object distance. Q P 30° (d) State one precaution that should be taken during the experiment.5 1. for situation II. v is the v image distance and m is the linear magnification. Bhd. if the refractive index of the glass is 1. [2 marks] (c) (i) Extend the graph to intersect the v-axis and determine the value of v at the axis.0 2. [1 mark] (ii) determine the image distance.0 1. x. f. In the ‘rising coin trick’. Show on the graph how you determine v. [2 marks] (b) Explain why the ray PQ does not leave the glass rod at Q.5. v. of a convex lens. Hence. Situation I Situation II 20 15 10 5 0 m 0.5 2. determine the object distance when the magnification. [2 marks] © Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. [2 marks] (ii) Determine the gradient of the graph. a coin is placed in a cup and the eye of an observer is positioned in such a way that: Situation I: The coin cannot be seen when the cup is empty. determine the focal length of the lens.5 Diagram 1 (a) Based on the graph. TC – 30 . A student carries out an experiment to determine the focal length. [1 mark] R x N Curved glass rod Light Diagram 5 (a) The angle of incidence of the ray entering the glass rod is 30o. u F C v / cm 35 O 30 Diagram 2 [3 marks] 25 (b) State three characteristics of each of the images formed by the (i) concave mirror in (a)(i). to show the image of the coin as seen by the observer. [2 marks] Coin Coin Diagram 3 Diagram 4 (b) From your answer in (a)(ii). Calculate the angle of refraction.5. [1 mark] (b) Draw a ray diagram. [2 marks] 2. m = 1. The graph of v against m shows the result of the experiment. Situation II: The coin can be seen when the cup is filled with water. [3 marks] 3. m = 1.5.(ii) Convex mirror Written Practical 1. [2 marks] (iii) The focal length of the convex lens can be determined by taking the average value of the values determined in (c)(i) and (c)(ii). Diagram 5 shows a ray of light entering a curved glass rod and PQR shows its path. m = –– . when the linear magnification. [2 marks] (a) Draw a suitable line to show why the coin in situation I cannot be seen.

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