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Sergei Silvestrov

– Typeset by FoilTEX –

Algebra course FMA190/FMA190F 2011, Spring term 2011, Sergei Silvestrov lectures

Maximal ideals

An ideal M in a ring R is said to be maximal if M ∕= R and for every ideal N such that M ⊆ N ⊆ R,

either N = M or N = R.

The quotient ring ℤ[x]/(x) is not a field. Furthermore, the ideal I of polynomials with even constant

terms lies strictly between the ideal (x) and ℤ[x], that is,

(x) ⊊ I ⊊ ℤ[x]

Let M be an ideal in a commutative ring R with unity 1 ∕= 0.

Then M is maximal if and only if the factor ring R/M is a field.

Corollary 1. The following conditions on a commutative ring R with unity 1 ∕= 0 are equivalent.

1. R is a field.

2. R has no proper nontrivial ideals.

3. 0 is a maximal ideal in R.

Proof. R is isomorphic to R/0 and is a field if and only if 0 is maximal. But clearly 0 is maximal if

and only if R has no proper nontrivial ideals.

– Typeset by FoilTEX – 1

Algebra course FMA190/FMA190F 2011, Spring term 2011, Sergei Silvestrov lectures

Prime ideals

An ideal P ∕= R is said to be prime if for all a, b ∈ R ab ∈ P implies a ∈ P or b ∈ P.

Example 3. The zero ideal in any integral domain is prime since ab = 0 if and only if a = 0 or b = 0.

Example 4. If p is a prime integer, then the ideal pℤ is prime since ab ∈ pℤ means that p divides

ab, then p divides a or p divides b, which means that a ∈ pℤ or b ∈ pℤ.

In a commutative ring R with unity 1 ∕= 0 an ideal P is prime if and only if the factor ring R/P is an

integral domain.

Proof. R/P is a commutative ring with unity 1 + P and zero element 0 + P = P by Theorem ??.

If P is prime, then 1 + P ∕= P since P ∕= R. Furthermore, R/P has no zero divisors since

(a + P)(b + P) = P ⇒ ab + P = P

⇒ ab ∈ P

⇒ a ∈ P or b ∈ P

⇒ a + P = P or b + P = P.

Conversely, if R/P is an integral domain, then 1 + P ∕= 0 + P, whence 1 ∈

/ P. Therefore,

P ∕= R. Since R/P has no zero divisors,

ab ∈ P ⇒ ab + P = P

⇒ (a + P)(b + P) = P

⇒ a + P = P or b + P = P

⇒ a ∈ P or b ∈ P.

Therefore, P is prime.

Corollary 2. (Th 6.16, Sec 6.3, p 157) If R is a commutative ring with unity 1 ∕= 0, then every

maximal ideal M in R is prime.

– Typeset by FoilTEX – 2

Algebra course FMA190/FMA190F 2011, Spring term 2011, Sergei Silvestrov lectures

Prime fields

Theorem 3. If F is a field, then either it is of prime characteristic p and contains a subfield isomorp-

hic to ℤ p or it is of characteristic 0 and contains a subfield isomorphic to ℚ.

Proof. Consider the ring homomorphism ϕ : ℤ → F defined by ϕ(n) = n ⋅ 1. The kernel Ker(ϕ)

must be an ideal in ℤ. All ideals in ℤ are of the form mℤ for some m ∈ ℤ.

If m = 0, then ϕ is one-to-one, and so there is an isomorphic copy of ℤ that is a subring of F .

Its field of quotients is ℚ and is a minimal field containing the above mentioned subring. So F must

contain a subfield isomorphic to ℚ and has characteristic 0.

If m ∕= 0, the First Isomorphism Theorem gives ℤm = ℤ/mℤ is isomorphic to ϕ[ℤ] ⊆ F . Since

F is a field, ϕ[ℤ] is a domain, and so m is a prime p. Now

ϕ[ℤ] = {0, 1, 2 ⋅ 1, . . . , (p − 1) ⋅ 1}

– Typeset by FoilTEX – 3

Algebra course FMA190/FMA190F 2011, Spring term 2011, Sergei Silvestrov lectures

Principal ideals

Definition 4. Let R be a commutative ring with unity 1 ∕= 0. The ideal { ra : r ∈ R } is called the

principal ideal generated by a ∈ R and is denoted by ⟨a⟩. An ideal N is called principal if there

exist a ∈ R such that N = ⟨a⟩.

Theorem 5. The maximal ideals in F[x] are the ideals ⟨ f (x)⟩ generated by irreducible polynomials

f (x).

– Typeset by FoilTEX – 4

Algebra course FMA190/FMA190F 2011, Spring term 2011, Sergei Silvestrov lectures

We would like to prove the following: let F be a field and let f (x) be a nonconstant polynomial

in F[x]. There exist a field E containing both F and a zero α of f (x).

Sketch of proof. 1. Choose an irreducible factor p(x) of f (x) in F[x] (nothing to do if p(x) does

not exist).

2. By Theorem 5, the ideal ⟨p(x)⟩ is maximal. By Theorem 1, the factor ring E = F[x]/⟨p(x)⟩ is

a field.

3. Find an isomorphism between F and a subfield in E .

4. Put α = x + ⟨p(x)⟩ ∈ E . Prove that ϕα ( f (x)) = 0. That is, α is a zero of f (x) in E .

– Typeset by FoilTEX – 5

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