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USAIMEO 2

n
Problem 1: Show that there exists infinetely many n such that: 2n − 1 divides 22 − 1.

Problem 2: Show that there exists infinitely many pairwise dissimilar acute triangles △ABC such that sin A, sin B,
sin C are all rational numbers.

Problem 3: In △ABC let P be a point on BC, and let ω be the circle with diameter AP . Let X be the reflection
of the orthocenter across the side BC, and let E and F be the intersections of the tangents from X to ω. Show
that as P varies on BC, E and F vary on a fixed circle.
Qn−1
Problem 4: Let a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . an be positive integers, not necessarily distinct. Define fn (x) = k=1 (x − k) For each
n, find a constant c, as small as you can, such that there always exists two indices m and n that satisfy:
P100 1
| i=2 [ i! (fi (am ) − fi (an ))]| < c

Problem 5: A teleporting wizard starts on the point (2017, 101) and can teleport to other Cartesian coordinates
with only 1 of 4 moves: (x, y) → (x + y, y), (x, y) → (x − y, y) when x > y, (x, y) → (x, x + y), and
(x, y) → (x, y − x) when y > x.

(a) Let P (x) be any polynomial with integer coefficients that passes through (0, 0). Show that for all such P (x),
there exists a unique point on the curve where the wizard can land on.

(b) For each P (x), let S be this unique point. Find the equation of the graph that contains all potential S.

Problem 6: In a triangle △ABC let ω be the circle with diameter AD, where D is the foot of the altitude from A
to BC. This circle intersects the sides AB and AC at the points E and F , respectively. Show that the tangents at
E and F to ω concur on the A-median of △ABC.

Problem 7: Prove, for all positive real numbers a, b, c, such that a + b + c = 2,

a2 +b+c b2 +c+a c2 +a+b 1


2017a+b + 2017b+c + 2017c+a > 2009

Problem 8: Find all ordered pairs of primes (p, q) such that:

pq | pq + q p + 1

Problem 9: In △ABC let D, E, and F be the tangency points of the incircle on BC, CA, and AB, respectively. Let
Q be the second intersection of the incircle and the circle with diameter AD, and let P be the second intersection
point of line AQ with the incircle. Let M be the midpoint of BC, X be the intersection of P Q and EF , and Z be
the second intersection of the circle with diameter AP and the incircle. The line parallel to BC through P meets
line M Q at R, and L is the foot of the perpendicular from R to line P Q. Show that L, X, Z, D lie on a circle.