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Video Script 1

A Chinese Artist in Harlem ML: OK, this time I take this away, little circle one.
Yeah, you very good job. Good.
Narrator: N
Mingliang Lu (Artist): ML N: Teaching at the public school, though, is more
Children: C than just an opportunity for Ming; the programme
Amy Chin (New York Chinese Cultural Centre): AC benefits the children as well. Head teacher
Cynthia Mullen Simons (School Representative): CMS Cynthia Mullen Simons says the programme is
important to her Year Four pupils.
N: With a population of approximately eight
million, the huge cosmopolitan city of New York CMS: You cannot teach solely by the book, paper, and
is a melting pot of immigrant communities. pencil. They have to become involved. We need
Sometimes, this diversity results in clashes our students to hear, first hand, people from
between cultures. Other times, positive outcomes various cultures talk about their ethnicity.
result from the merging of backgrounds and
traditions. Artists in particular often use their ML: Too much water. I show you this, not too much
cultural differences to learn from each other. water, you see.
One such artist, Mingliang Lu, has taken his skills
to Harlem to enable others to learn about and N: From time to time, Ming stops to help each child
understand Chinese art. Born in Shanghai, Ming get his or her painting just right. The kids view
has studied Chinese art for the majority of his life. Ming as their teacher from China, but Ming sees
At a very young age, he learnt about calligraphy beyond ethnicity. He just sees pupils who want to
and painting from his father, and has continued to learn how to paint a tiger.
paint through the more difficult times in his life.
Ming moved to the US in 1990, and today lives in ML: Chinese children, American children, Hispanic
New York where he continues to create beautiful children, and black children, they’re all the same.
landscapes, flowers, animals and even the symbol No difference.
of the United States: the eagle.
N: Even though New York is already established
ML: When I first came to America, my only skills were as a diverse, international city, programmes
art. I didn’t have other skills. I used my art to like the Chinese Cultural Centre’s still make a
make a living. considerable difference.

N: When he first arrived in the US, Ming set up his CMS: When we bring these programmes in, the kids
easel and drew and painted portraits of tourists get to see real people from another culture and
in order to survive. But even for professional to relate to them on many different levels. What
artists, drawing on the street is not the easiest we don’t want to do to our students is to make
way to make a living. So Ming eventually stopped them ignorant to others and what others can
painting on the street, and began to work for the bring. Our students need to understand that
New York Chinese Cultural Centre. Through them, we’re all human beings, that we all have different
he brought his skills to Harlem and the children of backgrounds… different experiences… and that’s
Public School 36. what makes us so interesting.

ML: What is this? N: These days, in addition to being an artist, Ming is
also serving as a kind of cultural ambassador for his
C: A circle. country. In the long run, Ming’s art may open the
door to a whole different world for these children.
ML: It is a circle, right? OK. So I just draw. I change
the colour. What colour is this? ML: I feel like I am doing very important work, and it
makes me really happy to teach calligraphy and
C: Yellow. painting to the children. I am introducing them to
a wider world of Chinese culture, giving them a
ML: OK. I just put this, you see this? For the ear. greater understanding of Chinese people in the
world and broadening their horizons.
AC: As we all know, a lot of artists are not employed
being artists. So I’m hoping that what we do is to N: Ming is not only good in his role as a teacher, he
provide them this opportunity to really practise in is also excellent in his role of cultural ambassador.
the field that they’ve been trained for. In Harlem, this Chinese artist has found a job that
makes more than just a living; it makes a difference.

Copyright © National Geographic Learning. Close-up B2 Second Edition
Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. Extra Resources

They didn’t know it at they’re still very powerful. which is famous for its murals. it in the food. They feel that understanding the many levels of history here is N: The artists here have strong feelings about the work important. Central and South America. In the past. the murals change too. this group of the most recent immigrants are mainly from artists maintains its cultural identity in traditional San Mexico. Juan Pedro explains that it’s always been a basic part of cultural identity here. Juan Pedro says that the local community here feels a sense of common involvement. where the city began long ago. Many people here have friends and relatives in Latin America. immigrants have They’re also fighting to help the environment. the sounds of The Mission Dolores streets. sounds bring memories of the Spanish who The mural messages are always changing. the art of The Mission has changed as well. Politics and the world have Andrea (Balmy Alley Resident): A changed. lively. A local arts organisation leads people on walks through the district. and according to Juan Pedro. They really care when a neighbouring nation is in pain. In good times and bad. artist Ray Patlan helped paint a series of murals with the theme ‘Peace in Central America’. Narrator: N But while the district remains mainly Latino. He’s the director of the Spanish choir of San Francisco. In the come here from Ireland. They visit streets like Balmy Alley. But industrial area of The Mission District. but built this church in 1791. the art of The Mission is full of life as well. but it was the start of a special type of neighbourhood. It’s easy to Francisco style. One artist explains that the artists of The understanding what it means to be a real San Mission are fighting for fairness in the community. Every time we drive up it’s just very… as a central part of the city. The Mission District. You can see it on walls. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. It’s colourful. and hear it in the music! Juan Pedro Gaffney grew up in The Mission District. it’s Ray Patlan (Artist): RP no longer 1984. the music of The Mission deeply affects everyone. Germany and Italy. These the community changes. taste are welcome. Many artists feel that The Mission is see the style that these recent additions give to a successful neighbourhood where new immigrants the neighbourhood. Copyright © National Geographic Learning. The local art community here stays close to the area’s culture and tradition. the group has performed to raise money for people after natural disasters in Central America. RP: What happens is. but also a reflection of the community. Patlan says that the art is a part of the N: Each Sunday. Franciscan. Over the years. They also feel that it’s a big part of they do. Some A: It’s great! It’s like coming home to a piece of art community members describe the neighbourhood every day. absolutely ‘jumping’! But it isn’t just the music. the murals begin to reflect the community itself.Video Script 2 A Special Type of Neighbourhood N: In 1984. the time. As Basilica are heard in San Francisco. Why? Because it’s it’s sort of vibrant. Extra Resources .

Copyright © National Geographic Learning. as well as others. Some seek jobs in China. the Zhou dynasty continued its year-old philosophy was the centre of Chinese decline. Several generations of family members often live and work together. the Zhou dynasty governed five million young people in China graduate from central China. the Han dynasty adopted surely be impacted by its past. ‘Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?’ Narrator: N Confucius felt learning should be a pleasant experience and approached with joy. sons carry on the family name and support their parents when they are older and require care. Extra Resources . the leaders of the day were warlords. As a result of this influence on present-day society. Confucius travelled across China and hoped to convince the people that his moral ‘Virtue is the root. Confucius retired and focused civilisation and culture for centuries. Unfortunately. his disciples developed and expanded his modern Chinese society. and many other cultures. the United States. or between ruler and live in harmony with others will always prosper. The master said. and prosperity to the country. abroad. students learn to study hard and years. After his consider it to be at the very foundations of death.500 and other issues. From a very a rich history that has lasted for thousands of early age. The country of China Asia. More than Around 500 BC. Millions of Chinese people share important to the people of China. education has of its greatest and most famous philosophers been an opportunity to move up in the world and was Confucius. One China. order. many people aren’t aware of its the way Confucius taught. and the dynasty was in decline. Local warlords others choose to explore their options by going fought among themselves for land and power. Eventually. This reflects a key relationships: for example. Finally. and subject. including Southeast property and money. attain success in a number of ways. The 2.Video Script 3 Confucianism in China The master said. his philosophy as its official government policy. or followers. Nowadays. As China and the world ideas through the centuries. who lived from 551 to 479 BC. justice. and his ideas still influence China today. its rulers were weak university every year. and other was caught up in a dark period of war and countries and regions. wealth is the result’. The respect that young people show towards elder members of their family is still an important aspect of Chinese life today. many Chinese believed that peace and harmony depended people continue to work hard to build lives for on having the correct and proper conduct in themselves and their families. ‘A youth should be respectful of his elders’. Most children are expected to follow their parents’ wishes and do what is best for the family. They didn’t govern their lands by Because Confucianism is often associated with forming positive relationships with their subjects China’s past. Confucius and ethical ideas about society could restore felt that if people were good and hardworking. N: China is one of the largest and oldest countries learning and education are still extremely in the world. Traditionally. this country’s future will after Confucius died. Some on teaching his disciples. Over time. Over 30 million Chinese people now live family members also fought one another over in other parts of the world. unhappiness. 300 years continue to change. Throughout the history of by numerous great leaders and thinkers. the relationship fundamental principle that those who are dutiful between a parent and child. Canada. Confucianism became an important part of the Han dynasty. He they would become rich. however. Today. China has been influenced respect their teachers. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use.

Urban artists. whether NP: So you would use colours that contrast one musicians or painters. Don Kimes. Extra Resources . N: Jafar now plays in clubs in the city where he But unfortunately the art he’s created has been grew up. can take us to places we’ve another. He also now has a deal with a major covered by other people’s graffiti. Wander down this train tunnel from my exposure to hip-hop and poetry that in Washington DC. N: Although the Wall of Fame is open to everyone. uninhibited. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. It is said that art is fundamentally about exploration and discovery. to the edge of its boundaries. false. as anything else would be their work distinctive. what’s authentic for you. recording company. type of work that someone spent their paint and their time on. and always inventive. CM: Graffiti art has certainly brought to public art a whole new dimension. I did this in. people can appreciate the art in a traditional setting. Murray is convinced that graffiti is just one more step in the evolution of Pop Art. and to collectors of Pop Art. nearby city street. rules that not everyone appreciates. His first CD is an innovative mix of both worlds. from. He says that real graffiti artists N: Kimes says artists need to build on their own understand how to use colour and how to make cultural background. It’s good for the artists. north of Philadelphia. Ah.Video Script 4 Urban Art N: People are beginning to appreciate the talents of Jafar Barron. its limits and taking Posada cautions there are rules to be followed one more step. to me. to look that the Most High is a musician. and Nick Posada’s work is here. too. The stories of how these two artists developed – one musical. N: According to Chris Murray. never been before… Even if it’s as close as a like. It is Washington’s ‘Wall of Fame’. N: Urban art is all about innovation. N: Nick’s work is also highlighted here at the Govinda Gallery in Georgetown. to mixing jazz with spoken music. and from some friends of mine. you know what I’m saying? I believe word – inviting us to listen with new ears. The 28 year-old trumpeter grew Narrator: N up in this neighbourhood. colours of urban graffiti artists. But Jafar Chris Murray (Govinda Gallery): CM chose to mix more traditional. From using buckets on a busy street. one visual – are NP: This is what happens when nobody respects any not surprising to art history professor. classical forms of Jafar Barron (Jazz musician): JB jazz with the rap and hip-hop music of his own Don Kimes (American University): DK generation. and pushing it to the edge of its envelope. Nick Posada (Graffiti Artist): NP Both his parents are jazz musicians. Copyright © National Geographic Learning. This is what the Wall of Fame in DC DK: It’s about sort of taking what it is that you come has come to. CM: It was a real reversal for them because they’re used to being vilified and now they’re being enjoyed and that’s a good thing. In the gallery. ’99. what you emerge from. to filling an art gallery JB: I like to think that the whole of creation is all about with local graffiti. in the world of graffiti. my piece is still there. graffiti art is special because it’s fast. and you’ll discover the bold comes from that. too. The works have sold well – to young people. and they like it. I guess it came with new eyes.

Some of my colleagues in the climbing world accused me of cheating. Instead of compromising his ability to climb. the elements. He’s HH: I started climbing when I was. performance advantage. So we came up with the idea of. I decided that with biological legs will choose to get their the optimal climbing foot should be very short. they grew sick and weak. I can for walking. But the shower turned into a storm. And this is the example of the camel. what would have happened to my life? HH: The problem of developing an artificial leg is very Where would I have gone? difficult. seven developing ways to allow the brain to manipulate years old. HH: It works… We’re at the brink of a new age.Video Script 5 Bionic Mountaineer N: Hugh discovered a new passion. but spans multiple joints. When ankle. for three days and nights. they started the hike it was lightly snowing. legs amputated so they can achieve the same should be like a baby’s foot in length. I decided I didn’t need a heel with a biological leg. let’s look to nature. Hugh was near death. Copyright © National Geographic Learning. The implication of Hugh’s ideas he could even walk again. salvage what they could of Hugh’s legs. N: Hugh constructed a number of prosthetic legs. I sometimes think if the accident never occurred. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. I could imagine that people for climbing so I cut off the heel. a muscles can be harnessed to power the ankle. they could represent a revolution in the field of prosthetics. It took many intricate surgeries before computer screen. If his ideas are implemented to climb. successfully. Eventually. He’s even looking to the animal everything possible to do some climbing every world for design ideas. with the bulk of its muscle disoriented and wandered through the storm on its hip. woman out snowshoeing came across a set of That could be done by a series of springs that not footprints. He earned his PhD in bio-physics and now designs advanced Hugh Herr (Climber): HH prosthetics at the Massachusetts Institute of Narrator: N Technology. Extra Resources . And what I needed to do was to imagine in the coming years a prosthesis that will redesign the legs for the vertical world. because to me that meant that they fully accepted my physical difference. but in the end he lost both his legs below the knee to N: Hugh’s camel leg takes its first steps across a gangrene. Exposed to HH: So instead of putting a motor at the ankle. rescued and taken to safety. He’s now working on getting muscle tissue to survive outside the body. HH: It occurred to me that the legs that were given to me were designed for the horizontal world. I think. I did a prosthesis. much like an amputee. Within hours. Hugh fell three times through the fragile ice into a river. Doctors tried to the knee and the ankle. Jeff and Hugh were only span a single joint. So I set enable an amputee to run faster than is possible out on this mission. Hugh’s new legs were in some ways more versatile than before. day. Suffering the idea in my head is to build an above-knee from frostbite they started to lose sensation in prosthesis. l loved the sport. Hugh Herr and a friend set out to climb activity at the hip to control the energetics of the Mount Washington in New Hampshire. well. The boys got N: A camel’s leg is thin. Very quickly. HH: I began actually ascending rock faces that I could not have ascended before the accident with biological legs. I can imagine that. One could use the muscle N: In 1982. where the energetics of the hip their limbs. But Hugh still wanted are astounding. which was music to my ears.

the men lower CC: Reunion Island. The put their lives in the hands of Chris Schnoller. and swimming. Seth Warren. You can do at first. through the series of multiple drops. He attaches a long rope onto a professional kayakers: Brad Ludden. one mistake and a team member could get for a unique challenge. Narrator: N when he’s doing it. canyoneers from around the world to Reunion flowing water. team will make camp here and rest for the night trusting his years of canyoning experience. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. Schnoller explains that they will descend adventure activities into an incredibly exciting sport the waterfall using a special type of knot called called ‘canyaking’. Christophe Chaume. the group of men will sight. You have the mountains. You themselves down the rope. They plan to combine injured or even be killed. and combining the two. White-water kayakers character of waterfalls like this one that draws typically use a kayak to move through fast. It’s a beautiful Blanc canyon. To this rope. Brad Ludden (Professional Kayaker): BL Christophe Chaume (Reunion Island Canyon Guide): CC N: The descent down Fleur Juane is full of risk and Chris Schnoller (Canyoning Guide): CS challenge. takes time and the atmosphere is intense. The Fleur Jaune canyon N: The small volcanic island of Reunion in the Indian consists of seven steep drops for abseiling. On this trip. Ocean might best be described as paradise. After working their way their skills to create a new outdoor experience. Located in the centre of the island. then dropping quickly to the bottom. The drops are world. I’m psyched. disaster – not just for one man. This team has combined these two Island. Copyright © National Geographic Learning. the waterfall. N: Two other men have joined the team: At this moment. From their viewing point at the peak. the canyon wall. which is over the mountain’s edge to the north-east. but perhaps for all of them. After hours of hiking N: The men will start their canyaking adventure at up the forested paths. as well as your ability and skills as a aware that a number of things could go wrong at kayaker. the team Canyoneers explore canyons using a variety of comes to the largest drop of them all. Everyone CS: It’s actually supposed to be the best canyoning agrees that the best way to get there is to hike resort in the world. It’s a perfect the top. carabiner that is hooked to a piton inserted into and Ben Selznick. a vertical techniques including walking.Video Script 6 Canyaking Adventure SW: The guy has been all over the place. Chris says get through a canyon on ropes and harnesses everyone will be fine. jumping. over the highest point on the island. carefully and slowly have the sea. The team is made up of three a ‘clove hitch’. each member will BL: Canyaking’s a hybrid that is using your skills attach a shorter rope using their own carabiner as a canyoneer. the team must unite. Now. it’s a paradise in the world. walk towards the Trou Blanc canyon. and it’s the time when coordination among the team members really matters most. A mistake canyoneering guide Chris Schnoller of Austria and at this demanding vertical drop would lead to local canyon guide. before they continue their trip to Trou Blanc. in other words. your ability to and slide down. The N: The first day of the adventure starts early for team now know that it’s ready for the next step: the team as they prepare for the drive to Cirque Trou Blanc! de Cilaos. Its ranging from a relatively short 15 metres to incredible scenery draws visitors from all over the a breathtaking 45-metre drop. It’s the classic abseiling. Using this method. climbing. an international team of white-water almost vertical and the water is unbelievably kayakers and canyoneers have come to the island fast. Extra Resources . the group finally reaches a canyon known as Fleur Jaune. which extends to the bottom of the waterfall. but the team knows that a successful Seth Warren (Professional Kayaker): SW descent here will help them adjust to each other’s Ben Selznik (Professional kayaker): BS skills and bring them one step closer to their goal of canyaking Trou Blanc. but in the end the descent is a complete success. all from the United States. He knows exactly what he’s doing. but one that falls tired on the eyes. It a lot of things. but will they? Everyone is and sliding. the peak known as Piton des Neiges. the training ground for their ultimate objective: Trou team can see far into the distance. I trust him with my life. the Cirque features the largest of three natural The next morning the team must leave Cilaos and amphitheatres formed in the rock of the island. One by one. waterfall almost 50 metres high.

travelling quickly down the tight gap between two huge pieces of rock. The rough and rugged terrain only compounds the problem. I think it’ll be good. tight wake up after a well-deserved rest. So hopefully we all make it down alright. Yes! BL: I think the coolest part about it for a lot of us was that the day before. It does look. we’ve had a lot of people tell us it’s impossible. if anything were to happen. team of canyakers has successfully combined the skills of canyoneering and kayaking. Extra Resources . paddles and kayaks. So their abilities. they’ll have no control over the direction in which they’ll go. and when talk about their plans for the day. the inner region of the Cirque de Salazie in the north-eastern part of the island. It is all about group unity. with style! bottom of it. like you could piton pretty hard at the their canyak adventure and they did it. As they approach the final bit of breakfast. when we were looking at it. that runs smoothly. Copyright © National Geographic Learning. backpacks. very good day with a lot of sun. introducing a N: The lovely mountain village of Hellbourg lies in completely new sport to Reunion Island. It was kind Christophe Chaume has come with the team to of a bump and scrape there at the end. good group. N: The men must bring all of their equipment all the locals said it was impossible. And since with them for the trip. have a little look effortless and fun. It’s a perfect day to kayak in Trou Blanc. Local guide SW: We finally finished the Trou Blanc. emergency evacuation would be almost impossible. We themselves in the most daring of circumstances. N: The first kayaker gives it a try. they little cracks. which includes helmets. These five young men have tested we’ve just made it through the flat section. and of challenging the canyon. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. a canyons and terrain. got to our first slide. N: The men inspect the waterfall carefully. and then hike another four hours waterfall. we have multiple abseils. it’s kind of fun to tell them that we already did it. N: These men certainly make the sport of canyaking We’re going to drink a little coffee. This meet us over there. the men continue their canyak through Trou Blanc and it proves to be all they expected. Later. Once committed to the fall. It just mixes things up others come to challenge themselves and test and gives kayaking a whole new perspective. some good slides…waterfalls… a successful mission. SW: It’s so much more fun going kayaking with a N: Some people come to Reunion for its beauty. Later. It’s four o’clock in the morning when the men SW: In these canyons. The drop is a great success. From that point. and have come out of the experience as winners. harness and you abseil in. the team realises that their trip through on to Hellbourg while two of the other people Trou Blanc is complete. they’ve achieved their goal from our team go down and get the cars. BS: Now that we’re here on the top of the peak at six-thirty in the morning. weighing the risks and dangers. walked our boats through it. We consult and bring first-hand knowledge of the had a great couple of days and a great run. and it looks pretty good to canyak. They took on the wild dangers of Reunion Island on though. each man goes down the waterfall at top speed. CC: It will be a very. we’re ready to go down. the canyon is nothing but butter. Crashing into a rock could mean a broken arm. or worse. SW: There is not much room for diversity in line. and they’ve won. all the preparation has definitely paid off.

Mario also says that capoeira teaches students to control their behaviour and treat others with respect. After slavery was dance and martial arts. but MRDF: I studied with several capoeira masters and they’ve already come a long way. that need to be followed. a master. I was homeless. Today. but to my whole life. Then I MRDF: For these kids. Axe got me off the streets. but capoeira is to raise ex-slaves’ awareness of themselves still around. Project Axe operates an MDS: My situation has totally changed. Mario has practised capoeira for 25 years. and limits within yourself. and Narrator: N with others. It also helps 1800s. Brazil. but there are signs of progress. I take what they have to offer. N: Project Axe helps Salvador’s young people who are on the street. a combination of teacher and mentor. Mario Riberio de Freitas has drugs and I was involved in selling stolen been working and teaching capoeira here for cars. then capoeira helped him. especially the circle. or fashion design as well as capoeira. This class is preparing for a two-week trip to perform in Italy. begging for money. in the for both amusement and sport. not just to my teaching. Mario was just another N: Mario’s students may be still a little unsure of young boy from a bad neighbourhood. Salvador. and mould it by integrating them into the group. They made the fighting actions look like a dance so that their owners wouldn’t N: This is capoeira. which is the most sacred moment Copyright © National Geographic Learning. social workers have as Afro-Brazilians. to my family. capoeira became popular by African slaves in Bahia. MRDF: Basically. their body strength and their energy. slaves in Brazil first Milton dos Santos (Student): MDS practised capoeira as a way of opposing their Jefferson Rodriguez (Student): JR owners. what it does for the body. made it from the streets of Salvador to a I took positive aspects from their lives safer. They’ve learned a tremendous amount from them. Mario Riberio de Freitas (Project Axe): MRDF N: Hundreds of years ago. I was living educational and social centre in Bahia’s capital on the street. rules. but their futures. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. There are considerable numbers of street kids in parts of Brazil. And I have an excellent Master. We perform and learn to respect each other. I did a lot of city. They also help the kids with their basic education and make sure that the government knows about them. I show them that there are norms. in trouble. an unusual combination of know what they were doing. some of whom have disappeared from official records. The organisation uses capoeira to capoeira and I don’t do that other stuff help street kids and others who are at risk. but for what it does I love capoeira. with two for the mind and soul. at the centre. dance. It’ll be a long journey. An organisation called ‘Project Axe’ is leading the way. Recently. Once they are in the circle. not just heard about Axe and they offered me a place. I’m studying ten years. Those who are interested must first agree to move home or go to a foster home. JR: I was on the street. It was first performed abolished in 1888. capoeira is helping started using this unusual sport to help in the street kids to give up drugs and crime and education and social development of young create new lives. He’s My life is better. capoeira is important. people giving respect and getting respect. Years ago. N: And this capoeira master knows from experience. Slavery is long gone. anymore. people. Extra Resources .Video Script 7 Capoeira: The Fighting Dance of the capoeira process. Then. they can learn music. or have drug problems. Axe workers make contact with many homeless kids out on the streets. healthier place! and applied them to mine.

Studies of ice cores show that greenhouse gases have reached their highest levels in the past 420. Ever since the Industrial Revolution. These greenhouse gasses trap heat near the Earth through a naturally- occurring process called the ‘greenhouse effect’. the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will continue to rise. cooler in the future. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. the Earth’s climate has greenhouse gas emissions. power plants. Scientists now believe that the greenhouse effect is being strengthened by greenhouse gasses that are released by human activity. what are the possible consequences for the environment of these rising temperatures? Some climate models say there will be only slight changes. So. many believe that Narrator: N governments and corporations can help reduce the impact of global warming.Video Script 8 Global Warming There is still a lot to be learned about global warming. The Earth and the atmosphere take in some of this energy. and more recently cars. However.000 years. Extra Resources . Extreme droughts could be more common in warm areas. These nearly one degree Celsius.5 million years. moving between extremely cold ice ages help by saving energy around the house. Evidence for global warming includes a number of unexpectedly warm years in recent years. If countries continue to use a lot of fossil fuel resources. for and warmer periods. could face extinction. such as oil and coal. Scientists report that 1998 was the warmest year in measured history and 2005 was the second. Copyright © National Geographic Learning. while the rest goes back into space. releasing huge quantities of carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere. And many are worried the situation is becoming critical. Arctic sea ice is also shrinking. The greenhouse effect begins with the sun. But in the last century. Changing weather patterns could make huge storms like hurricanes more frequent. factories. have burned fossil fuels. which may not be able to adapt. Others predict rises in sea levels that could flood coastal areas. and driving fewer miles each week. warming the Earth. Consumers can also varied. the area covered by Arctic sea ice has decreased by about ten per cent in the last 30 years. example. Naturally-occurring gases in the atmosphere trap some of this energy and reflect it back. According to NASA studies. Scientists believe that simple changes may help to keep the Earth human activity is making the temperature go up. and the energy it sends to the Earth. by cutting N: For 2. by using light bulbs that require less Earth’s temperature has risen unusually fast – by energy. and some animals. a process known as global warming. Researchers predict that temperatures will increase by about 1 to 6 degrees Celsius by the end of the century.

actually… I guess they’re coming back in a lot of museum dinosaur displays fascinated children ways. My skills are N: Even before Hollywood’s big hit dinosaur films. However. He has jobs in Europe bones go together that way. it’s like a PM: This came right out of the blue. really is the way they are interpreted. more stable. and so mounting it could say. So. then the we believe it’s done this way’. Canadian bit of a dinosaur too. A palaeontologist might say. an artificial bone that is identical in shape to the These guys were king of the hill back then. Instead of limiting himself to one museum. May’s team Peter May (Dinosaur Builder): PM must learn on the job. These artificial bones are cheaper and know. ‘well. And there’s a very big difference between an average mount and a fantastic mount. but the actual trade of blacksmithing is a who makes these amazing creations. your mind drifts. so and in Japan and all around the world. You know. You can’t put one piece in wrong and don’t think anybody could sit down in their late expect everything else to fit. Garth Garth Dallman (Blacksmith): GD Dallman was a blacksmith. do you put them in. you real one. so that everything works properly. he found that if he freelanced. shape in a hard covering for support and pour in a fibreglass compound. craftsman Peter May’s workshop. quite valuable. you really have to know what because he’s one of the world’s best at this craft. Kevin Prudeck (Dinosaur Builder): KP GD: It’s a good blend of science and art. many of the museums around the globe could no longer afford to keep experts like May on staff. Research Casting A really beautiful posed mount is a work of art. It’s your old standard dinosaur. thus making them whole. to mount actual dinosaur bones. N: It’s rare for May’s company. This one is pretty straightforward. and we is placed incorrectly. Most of their work is in making casts of real bones N: Dinosaur builders are the public face of to create artificial ones.Video Script 9 Dinosaur Builder pieces to recreate parts of animals that have been extinct for millions of years. The finished project is PM: It’s like anything. However. and lighter than actual fossils. which is the history of our world. Ontario. the backbone. Some people are wanting decorative iron and adults alike. Most of the skeletons. teens and say. you’re doing from the beginning on. Next. So KS: They are in the fore of the controversies of how the dinosaur builder found a job more suited for these animals lived and acted. the entire structure could be haven’t put the plates on it yet or reconstructed thrown out of shape. It becomes a labour of love. KP: And if you don’t start with the leg in the right way. and it’s on display in a into them so the skeletons can be assembled on museum. They provide the ‘big show’ painting the actual bone with rubber to recreate that follows the hard work in the field. The builders must shape the missing Copyright © National Geographic Learning. and the guy who’s museums of the world could come to him. The unfortunate aspect of this puzzle is that if just one piece of the skeleton PM: It’s a work in progress on a stegosaurus. ‘I’m going to be a dinosaur builder’. they wrap the cast responsibility really means something to them. a construction project. And holes can be drilled then when it’s mounted. I puzzle. The process begins with palaeontology. It’s just grown. that the one skeleton becomes part of a a central supporting structure. and the its feel and shape. seems a bit like a ‘dinosaur N: Putting a skeleton together is a natural version of building site’. There aren’t many Narrator: N courses about mounting dinosaurs. Some started their careers Kevin Seymour (Royal Ontario Museum): KS in another trade and transferred their skills. because how can him. N: The builders in May’s workshop also help N: May began his career working in Toronto’s Royal scientists solve the mysteries surrounding these Ontario Museum in the early 1980s. International. what kind of posture started hiring himself out as a freelancer. I mean. however. Most there is this conversation back and forth that’s people believe he’s the best. are incomplete. then the hip will be wrong and the backbone N: Straightforward only if you’re Peter May. ‘well KS: So. I don’t think the that’s what’s happening. but that’s will be wrong. few likely consider work. As you work on it. ancient reptiles that roamed the earth. near Niagara Falls. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. Look’. Extra Resources . he you put them together.

MS: I think many of them. so it helps GF: We’re trying to get through to the kids that me out a lot. They had to write the script. N: One set of skills that the secondary school N: In a class at the National Aquarium in Baltimore. this preparation and planning MS: They knew they were going to discuss the appears to be schoolwork. the student teachers learned aquarium to them. MS: And where’s the poison dart frog container? OK. Copyright © National Geographic Learning. and they also learned a bit about N: The overall objectives of Aquarium on Wheels are themselves as well. all day. going to find my leaves to eat? That means I’m I’ve finally found out what I want to be. MS: Let’s get this stuff out and see what we’ve got here. They had to decide these students are employees of a very special how they wanted to present it. That’s a big topic.Video Script 10 Aquarium on Wheels N: For aquarium administrators. A1: They’re going to cut down this tree. a job. conservation. students need are the communication skills ten secondary school students are preparing for necessary to get. it rains. Now the rainy season. probably for most of them. the programme is about more than just teaching Martha Schaum (Aquarium on biology. I’ve found going to have to fight other monkeys! I can’t fight out that I want to be a marine biologist. to entertain and educate. Basically. it’s about their dreams for their lives. N: Due to their age. These student teachers want to for three years and I really feel like I’ve helped a help their young audience to better understand lot of people understand conservation. but it isn’t. for many of these teachers. the real relies on it for food: the monkey. This year’s goal is to explain the importance of the world’s rainforests DJ: It means a lot to me. the concept that programme called ‘Aquarium on Wheels’. let’s be realistic. They had to decide on the sort of things that they DJ: There’s a lot of kids who do not have the wanted in the lab. like. and keep. saving one tree can be important to all the animals in the rainforest. behind them and saying. Extra Resources . they wanted to use. a lesson. Martha Schaum is the programme Dejane Jones: DJ coordinator at the aquarium. Wheels Coordinator): MS it’s about offering student employees lessons Narrator: N for life. N: They’re also preparing a show-and-tell DJ: I wouldn’t be the person I am today if it wasn’t presentation to give to a group of children and for them. We have college. I’m going to mess up my hair! GF: I want to be an environmental lawyer. SE1: At first it just seemed like a really cool job to work A2: They’re going to cut down this tree? How am I at the aquarium. ‘You can do it!’. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. or see live animals or anything like that. Student Employee: SE so marine biology is a really great vehicle to use to teach the other skills that they need to know. value of Aquarium on Wheels is more personal. And so what we’re doing is coming along a frog. they taught me responsibility. creating costumes for a play that they’ve written. on the other hand. opportunity to come to the aquarium. or even teaching about the environment. Actor: A George Faulk: GF MS: Most kids like to play in the water. Now that I’ve been working here. That’s a big thing I’ve learnt here. other monkeys. an enormous amount about organisation and planning. Like I said. The play is about a species threatened by the loss of the rainforest because it N: However. so we bring the N: Through this work. I have been here to young people. MS: But look at the camouflage on it… the eyes… they are probably the first in their family to go to Containers that are made from them. rainforest. In fact.

N: The programme is proving to be advantageous for these students in helping them to prepare for their future professional lives. For Martha Schaum. MS: This programme has meant more to me than anything else. N: The Aquarium on Wheels programme is having a powerful impact on more than just the rainforests. Copyright © National Geographic Learning. And here at the aquarium I can get the experience that most other students wouldn’t be able to receive. Extra Resources .SE2: The programme really means a lot to me because I want to major in marine biology. it’s having a positive effect on everyone involved with this very special programme. because I have watched these kids grow and develop. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. the programme allows her to achieve personal and professional satisfaction from watching these teenagers grow as people.

The group carefully plans their route. Don Webster AA: Sure. wait for a camel team to guide them farther into the Gobi. Lao Ji has 22 camels and paraglide. AA: This lake. or it could be very bad. they must listening to music. Extra Resources . The Gobi Desert is the fourth largest desert in the world.000 than when we were standing still. The two explorers are a good time. this lake. this lake. It’s amazing. The team needs to work with going first. the group gathers to have far from their destination. It’s GS: It’s nice to have a full tent. yeah. The temperature rises too. We have a lot the lives of everyone around it. It’s George Steinmetz (National Geographic Explorer): GS just beautiful. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. Finally. GS: I think that getting lost here. AA: Yeah. and towards these dunes. However. The desert’s fast and unstoppable growth may soon change GS: Great to see you. it’s not easy to get up early. the dunes are more than 1. Steinmetz is dry. this is N: They try again and again. It could be easy to get lost in this of different lakes and then return. have arrived in the urban bustle of modern China. It takes one full day to climb a single sand mountain. world’s tallest sand dunes. Steinmetz and Webster travel as N: In Mongolia. and come back. sure. raised in the arid region. Two National Geographic explorers. travelling north-west to the small. isn’t she? Finally. this often means eating mutton and far as the edge of the desert. and his Arnoux must prepare themselves for their first camels finally arrive. They wait. like the result of 40 million years of winds. However. the explorers reach Badain Jaran. Arnoux. By GS: I just didn’t have enough power. As the group begins their AA: His engine… maybe don’t work so well. Steinmetz plans to meet his friend Alain Arnoux N: Far from the rest of the world lies a distant desert here. and George Steinmetz. GS: When I try to go now. Most definitely. monsieur! being threatened. Lao Ji. they’re still N: When darkness comes. this lake. He was born and the world.Video Script 11 Gliding Across the Gobi GS: I think this is about as ‘inner’ as you get to the Inner Mongolia. feet high. a region that some people think the rest of the world forgot. GS: …a chance. has come to help Steinmetz. they decide to camp for the night and hope that the team will arrive tomorrow. because the Gobi is huge and it can N: The two adventurers plan to fly over a number get very hot. empty place. so… Beautiful. DW: She’s topping them off. and going noon. their guide. the land here was very fertile. I just didn’t want to do a… there’s no shade from the sun. bonjour. the engine has less power N: By day three. so he’ll be able to take the explorers safely into the desert. N: After all the wonderful food and drink. It’s growing larger by N: The men are happy to see each other. untouched part of the Gobi desert called Badain Jaran. it reaches 120 degrees Fahrenheit. Here. one of the best paragliders in they know the desert well. It is trapped by some of the Arnoux arrives. one another to ensure that they can successfully reach their destination. Alain Arnoux: AA Don Webster (National Geographic Explorer): DW N: At last. four days by camel through Narrator: N thousand-foot dunes. hundreds of kilometres every year. For thousands of years. land: Badain Jaran. the dunes slowly rise beside them. of stories to hear. Copyright © National Geographic Learning. it could be bad. This place time forgot. but it is now AA: Ah. absolutely beautiful. long trek deep into the desert. yeah sure. This is important. Steinmetz and Early next morning. but the team doesn’t come. so they can paraglide over the Gobi.

He says that it’s difficult to believe that people can actually live in it. N: The two men glide smoothly over the desert. It also helps him to better understand the people who live there. gliding across the Gobi has been an experience he won’t soon forget. For him. he’s having a good time. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. Then. he wants to show the relationship between the desert and its people. After his first trip. the growing desert may soon completely change the lives of everyone around it. flying above the Gobi makes him feel closer to the desert itself.N: The morning light is going fast. Arnoux quickly follows. N: From above. GS: The picture… the view I really want. Steinmetz manages to take off. Extra Resources . after many failed attempts. is being able to really understand what makes this place so unique. finally. For Steinmetz. the photo journalist can see how small the desert makes people seem. It’s the most beautiful place in the world to me. and the wind conditions have become difficult. The view also reminds him of another fact that’s not so pleasant. Steinmetz goes up to take one last picture. Copyright © National Geographic Learning. There’s no other place in the world that has this size of a dune and with lakes in between. DW: Oh. Steinmetz is finally able to do what he really wants to do: get photos of the Gobi Desert from a bird’s eye view. In his photographs.

Not everyone knew full of activity. find the quaint little town of Greve. N: Chef Salvatore Toscano left the fast life behind. of course. another movement their way of thinking may just be what the world has developed: the ‘Slow Food’ movement. the ‘specialness’ of Greve Food wants the specialness of every product to in Chianti and all the other Slow Cities. when you have nice things to see.Video Script 12 Living in the Slow Lane N: Another local example of slow food lies in the mountains of Pistoia in northern Tuscany. Made from the raw milk of Salvatore Toscano (Slow Food Chef): ST black sheep. and Chianti. the result of all that labour and N: The fertile hills between Florence and Siena. Finding the rhythm that lets you live more calmly in a lot of ways. one can the farmers and promote the cheese. The manifesto of the could be on to something. in New York and Rome. ST: It means taking the time. modest town with cheese makers like Luana Pagliai have been able a population of a few thousand.000 members in over 100 countries worldwide. you always find the same pizza. us noticed. locally grown. These days. Now the movement the world has been rushing through it. centre for the trading of wine and various types of produce and cheeses. They will good. N: These unusual cities are vetted according to N: The residents of Greve and other Slow Cities carefully selected criteria. but of course. LB: From Singapore to Macau. In years to come these people may be practitioners aim to preserve the pleasures of able to look back with great satisfaction. Close-up B2 Second Edition Permission granted to photocopy for classroom use. high-quality food that is have been enjoying life. it’s also a village that appreciates about our product. care can be uniformly delicious. as Luciano Bertini (Slow Food Farmer): LB each cheese is individually pressed and shaped. He used to manage an American-style restaurant in Florence. and so. a nice place to live in. we have nice landscapes. where he’s opened a new restaurant. the Slow City movement. The tradition home to some of the world’s best-known was dying out until the Slow Food movement vineyards. is a quiet. and to resist the prevent the world from becoming bland. This is Chianti. Slow the soul. While globalised atmosphere of the big cities. The process is long and labour-intensive. the same PS: Our challenge and our duty is to try to maintain hamburgers. Narrator: N Here. Alongside it might seem an unusual approach for some. one of Italy’s most stepped in with a special promotion to organise famous wine regions. It’s a regional to continue making and selling her own pecorino. the cheese is hand-moulded twice a Luana Pagliai (Cheese Maker): LP day. and to smaller towns and villages. he left all that behind and moved to Greve. generations of farmers have produced a Paolo Saturnini (Mayor of Greve): PS magnificent pecorino cheese that is said to be Sandro Checcuci (Greve Resident): SC delightfully unique. Slow Food doesn’t want this. Its needs. starting. because we have a nice atmosphere. SC: It’s very nice to live here. the essence. Near its centre. with what you eat. But while it’s LP: It’s brought us a kind of fame. Copyright © National Geographic Learning. having more than 80. They’re making an movement is to improve the quality of life in effort to maintain a high quality of life. The project is getting tradition. where he spent his days serving up hamburgers. which has helped to make Greve an official ‘Slow City’ and part of an organised Slow Movement. has gone international. be respected. it’s very easy. Five years ago. Extra Resources . The town’s culture is inherently slow. Greve in cheese production is on the increase again. while most of the rest of prepared slowly and carefully. or Greve.