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What do they test?

In this kind of question you are given a list of people, organisations or places.You have to match
them to information about them in the text.

What do you need to do?


• Scan the text to find all the places where the names of people, organisations or places are
mentioned.
• Read the parts of the text surrounding the names and try to match the text to the information
in the questions.
• These types of questions are NOT in order, so be prepared to read various parts of the text.

TIP Read the instructions carefully: you can often use letters more than once.

Activity 12.1: Guided practice


Underline or circle all the places in the following reading where these names are
mentioned. The first one [Francis Collins) has been done for you as an example. Note
that there is no answer for this part of the Activity in the Answer Key. However, there is
discussion below the reading.

A Francis Collins
B Andrew von Eschenbach
C Eric Lander
D Steve Elledge and Greg Hannon
E Harold Varmus and Bruce Stillman
F Elian Zerhouni
64 IELTS Preparation and Practice Reading & Writing - Academic

Cancer Genome Atlas Pilot Launched


Kevin Davies

Researchers from the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Human Genome
Research Institute (NHGRI) have launched a three-year, US$100 million pilot program for the
Human Cancer Genome Project. Highlighted by the landmark completion of the human genome
project two and a half years ago, researchers have completed the genome catalogues of more
than 300 organisms, including, this year, first drafts of the dog and chimpanzee genomes. But
the complete inventory of human genes does not by itself provide a huge advance in scientists'
understanding of the molecular biology of cancer. Many senior US researchers have publicly
posited launching a more ambitious cancer genome project.
Earlier this year, Broad Institute director Eric Lander floated the idea of a nine-year, US$1.3
billion cancer genome project, backed by former NIH director Harold Varmus and others.
Lander suggested surveying 250 genome samples from each of 250 tumour types, producing
a comprehensive catalogue of cancer-causing mutations. In a press conference in Washington
DC to mark the launch of the project, NHGRI director Francis Collins noted that the first call
for the human genome project, in 1986, was made by a cancer biologist, Renato Dulbecco.
But while 'more than 300 genes contribute to the diabolical transformation of normal cells into
cancer cells', a complete inventory of the genetic aberrations in cancer was urgently needed.
Collins said the unique collaboration between the NCI and the NHGRI would 'go beyond
and behind the frontlines to create the first list of genomic insurgents that lead to cancer'. The
project will be called The Cancer Genome Atlas - TCGA for short. The abbreviation, made up
of the four letters of the genetic code, was no accident, said Collins. Collins said the TCGA
pilot project would unite the 'powerful resources and experience of the [NCI], with the genome
attitude of the [NHGRI]. Together, we've committed to investing $100 million over the next
three years to construct a powerful network bf researchers, technology and resources to tackle
the cancer problem like never before.' 'This is an audacious project,' said Collins. 'We could
not have undertaken this project until now. The biomedical research .projects are aligned, the
time is right.' Andrew von Eschenbach, director of the NCI, said the TCGA pilot project would
help make cancer a chronic manageable condition. 'Mapping the cancer genome will be an
important step in the understanding of the genetic component of the cancer process and the
genetic susceptibility of people who are threatened by cancer.'
Not all cancer researchers support the idea of the HCGP. Two distinguished cancer
biologists, Steve Elledge and Greg Hannon, recently criticised the project on the grounds that
it would fail to meet its goals, and siphon money away from more fruitful investigator-driven
research. Similar objections to the human genome project were raised two decades ago. Those
complaints were rebutted by Nobel laureate Harold Varmus and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
director Bruce Stillman. 'The cancer research community now needs a much better description
of the genetic damage that drives human cancers,' Varmus and Stillman wrote in a letter to
Science. 'This will form the basis for all future studies of cancer in the laboratory and the clinic
and will provide immediate benefit for molecular diagnosis of human cancers.'
Part 1 Academic Reading: Unit 12 Matching Features Questions 65

Collins acknowledged that there has been some anxiety about the total cost of the TCGA.
'We have no idea' of the ultimate cost, he admitted, adding that lessons learned in the coming
three years will determine the cost of expanding the project from two or three tumours to 50 or
more. 'Having a pilot project is a strong inspiration for the development of new technologies
and the optimisation of existing ones,' said Collins. NIH Dlrectori Elian Zerhouni added that
major initiatives such as .TCGA are 'not designed to consume mon(3y but to provicj(3 new
opportunities, new hypotheses that researchers will use. Even in tight budget times, we intend
to make sure that balance [with investigator-driven funding] is preseNed.'

Now, look at the information in the passage before and after the names to find the
opinions of each person.

TIP When you're trying to find someone's opinion, keep an eye out for speech
verbs such as ·said', 'claimed', ·suggested' and so on.

You should have found the following opinions:

Eric Lander
• suggested surveying 250 genome samples from each of 250 tumour types, producing
a comprehensive catalogue of cancer-causing mutations.

Francis Collins
• a complete inventory of the genetic aberrations in cancer was urgently needed.
• would ·go beyond and behind the frontlines to create the first list of genomic insurgents
that lead to cancer'.
• We could not have undertaken this project until now.
• ·we have no idea· of the ultimate cost.

Andrew van Eschenbach


• would help make cancer a chronic manageable condition.

Steve Elledge and Greg Hannon


• would fail to meet its goals, and siphon money away from more fruitful investigator­
driven research.
06 lELTS Preparation and Practice Reading & Writing - Academic

Harold Varmus and Bruce Stillman


• The cancer research community now needs a much better description of the genetic
damage that drives human cancers.·
• This will form the basis for all future studies of cancer in the laboratory and the clinic
and will provide immediate benefit for molecular diagnosis of human cancers.·

Elian Zerhouni
• Even in tight budget times, we intend to make sure that balance [with investigator­
driven funding] is preserved.

Here is the list of names again, along with a series of statements. Match each opinion
to the person who expressed it. All of the answers can be found in the extracts above.
NB: Any letter can be used more than once.

A Francis Collins
B Andrew von Eschenbach
C Eric Lander
D Steve Elledge and Greg Hannon
E Harold Varmus and Bruce Stillman
F Elian Zerhouni

1. The project will have benefits now and in the future.

2. The project would not have been feasible in the past.

3. Scientists should create a database of genetic material from different kinds of


tumours.

4. It may be possible for people to live with cancer.

5. The project may cost more than expected.

6. The project will divert funds from other research.

7. The economic climate should not dictate funding.


Part 1 Academic Reading: Unit 12 Matching Features Questions 67

Activity 12.2: Exam-style practice


This time you will only be given the reading and the questions as you would in the exam.
Suggested time: 12 minutes
Match each company with the information given about them.
NB: Any letter may be used more than once.
A Google
B Apple
C Twitter
D Facebook

1. . .. is planning to make it easier for users to keep information private.


2. . . . said that it had been collecting information by accident.
3. . .. is being forced to pay a considerable financial penalty.
4. . .. is required to be regularly monitored by an outside organisation.
5. . . . argued that security breaches had no serious effects.
6. . .. must Let its users know what information it is collecting.

7. . .. has been accused of facilitating online crime.


8. ... must keep the data it has collected until otherwise notified.

Who Owns Your Personal Data?


Kris Sangani

Attracting users to social networking sites and cloud computing sites is all about building trust.
However, if recent news is anything to go by, consumers would be right to consider that the
trust they have put into the internet companies that run these services has been betrayed.
In recent months, it seems that not a day has gone by without another revelation that the
private and personal data, the currency of these websites, has been compromised, misused or
surreptitiously collected without the owner of the data's permission.
Between 2006 and th$ oeginning of 201 O,' search engine giant Google started a project to
map and digitally photograph every road in every major city in more than 30 countries for its
product Google Streetview. This soon became a hate symbol among privacy and civil rights
advocates, who claimed that Google were pushing the envelope on what type of information you
could collect and publish on the Internet. But images, it appears, is not all that the Streetview
cars .collected. It now turns out that Google collected over 600 gigabytes of data from users of
public and unprotected Wi-Fi access routers ;... which included Web pages visited and emails.
68 IELTS Preparation and Practice Reading & Writing - Academic

All this only came to light when German data privacy regulators investigated Google's
Streetview project - and Google had to admit to collecting the data - although the company
claimed they were not aware of their own data collection activities until the request was
received and that none of this data was used in Google's search engine or other services.
Google has said it will not destroy the data until permitted by regulators.
Even consumer tech companies such as Apple cannot escape criticism from the eagle-eyed
German regulators. Apple must immediately 'make clear' what data it collects from users of
its products and for what purposes, Germany's justice minister was quoted as saying by Der
Spiegel magazine. 'Users of iPhones and other GPS devices must be aware of what kind of
information is being collected,' Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger told the German weekly.
The minister's criticism was aimed at changes Apple has made in its privacy policy whereby
the company can collect data on the geographic location of its users - albeit anonymously.
Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger said she expected Apple to 'open its databases to German
data protection authorities' and clarify what data it was collecting and how long it was saving
the data. T he justice minister said it would be 'unthinkable' for Apple to create personality- or
user-based profiles. 'Apple has the obligation to propedy implement the transparency so often
promised by [CEO] Steve Jobs,' she said.
Microblogging service Twitter recently agreed to a settlement with the US Federal Trade
Commission over charges it put its customers' privacy at risk by failing to safeguard their
personal information. T his agreement stems from a series of attacks last year on Twitter, the
service that lets people send short messages to groups of followers. Lapses in Twitter's security
allowed hackers to send out fake tweets pretending to be from US President Barack Obama
and Fox News. Hackers also managed to take administrative control of Twitter and gain access
to private tweets, or messages. Between January and May 2009, hackers were 'able to view
non-public user information, gain access to direct messages and protected tweets, and reset
any user's password' and send tweets from any user account, according to the original FTC
complaint. Twitter acknowledged 45 accounts were accessed by hackers in January last year
and 10 in April 2009 'for short periods of time' . Twitter claims the January attack resulted in
'unauthorised joke tweets' from nine accounts. But the company also admitted that the hackers
may also have accessed data such as email addresses and phone numbers. In April, when
another incident occurred, Twitter claims to have cut off the hacker's administrative access
within 18 minutes of the attack and quickly informed affected users. Under the terms of the
settlement, Twitter will be barred for 20 years from 'misleading consumers about the extent to
which it maintains and protects the security; privacy, and confidentiality of non-public consumer
information'. Twitter must also establish a comprehensive security program that 'will be
assessed by a third party every year for ten years', according to the FTC.
But most criticism surrounding data privacy is currently reserved for Facebook, which
has faced the wrath of a consumer backlash when millions of users suddenly found their
private details exposed and searchable on Google, Bing and Yahoo. Facebook, whose
privacy policies have come under attack both at home and abroad, now faces a stiff fine from
Germany's Hamburg Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information for storing
non-users' personal data without their permission. T he issue came to the fore in recent months
Part 1 Academic Reading: Unit 12 Matching Features Questions 69

amid criticisms that Facebook's confusing privacy settings were making it possible for Internet
stalkers, cyber criminals and even nosy neighbours to gain a wealth of information about its
users without their knowledge or permission. Facebook has now started to roll out changes
that would give users more powerful tools to prevent personal information being accessed by
others. For instance, Facebook will allow users to block all third parties from accessing their
information without their explicit permission. It will also make less information available in its
user directory and reduce the number of settings required to make all information private from
nearly 50 to less than 15.
The back tracking by internet companies on how they use our private data has
demonstrated that they cannot take our trust for granted. If social networking becomes
increasingly important to companies such as Google, Apple and Microsoft, they will have to be
careful not to violate their users' trust in the future.

When you have finished, check your answers in the Answer Key in Appendix 1.