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spray — despite unsubstantiated reports that are the flammability of aerosols larger than 50 g of contents
received every five years or so, suggesting that the weight. An illustration of the Closed Drum Tester is
momentary, tiny fire on certain charring cigarette given in Figure 17. (See Page 486 for exact test
papers can cause sprays to ignite. As a result, the appli- method.) A complete description of the tester is pro-
cability of the flame projection test results in the real vided in the CSAfA Aerosol Guide (Seventh Edition, April
world would seem to be limited to the spraying of oven 1981), but briefly, it consists of a 55 (U.S.) gallon or 200
gas stove or hot water heater pilot lights. In one case, an liter steel drum, laid on its side, with two 6"x6"
insecticide containing 50% hydrocarbon propellent was (15Ox 150mm) windows and either one (CSMA) or
claimed to have ignited the area under a gas-fired refri- three (LC.C., Switzerland, etc.) 1.00" (25.4mm)
gerator when the spray contacted the pilot light. No diameter ports in the solid end, as shown in the draw-
reports have been seen regarding combustion from gas- ing. The single port used in the CSMA and ASTM
fired floor furnaces or electrical resistance wire heaters. procedures is located at the top of the solid end.
The flame projection test remains as the most
The other end is hinged to the drum body, or better,
popular assay for aerosol flammability, despite its many
a sheet of either 0.0022 " (0.05 mm) polyethylene or
shortcomings of both a technical and pragmatic nature.
0.0005" (0.013 mm) nylon film is stretched over the
It is certainly to be preferred over other individual flam-
drum body and held in place with a very large rubber
mability tests, and also offers the development chemist
band or circular tension spring. A l " (25 mm) diameter
the flexibility of adjusting products to pass the test by
candle set in the center of the bottom is lit — with a long
various alterations of formultion and valve design.
taper, through a port, if the end is plastic covered.
Immediately start spraying the 7O0F (210C) test can
U.S.A. Closed Drum Test
through the top port. Record spray time at full actua-
This test is of little importance today, so coverage is tion until the LEL is reached and a large scale burning
correspondingly brief. It was developed concurrently and pressure "whoosh" take place. In the U.S.A. pro-
with the Flame Projection Test in 1951 and made a part cedure, the test may be terminated at 60 s if no result is
of the I.C.C. regulations during the following year. It is obtained. In the Swiss method at least 20 g must be
still in the latest interstate shipping tariff, but is applied sprayed into the drum without effect, if the dispenser is
only to those institutional or industrial products be- to be considered non-flammable. The interpretive
tween 35 to 50 cu. in. (573.6 to 819.4 ml) for which parameters for the smaller Japanese Closed Drum test
there is no consumer counterpart product. Such prod- have already been mentioned.
ucts are extremely uncommon. A few other countries
Even though the test has practically no regulatory
use the test; for instance, it is called the "barrel test" in
significance any more, aerosol chemists still use it to
the Swiss Official Methods manual and is used to assess
assess the flammability of certain products, particularly
those where large amounts of the formulation are
released at any one time. Examples include the indoor
fogger, where the can is latched open and sprayed to
emptiness, undercoating products and so forth. Some
laboratories prefer to measure flammable potential of
these products in terms of the number of cubic feet (or
liters) that can be brought to a LEL by dispensing the
entire can. In such cases, the cans will be sprayed until
the drum flames and develops a pressure "whoosh",
and the weight loss will then be determined. A simple
calculation will then give the desired result.
A candle flame is probably the best ignition source,
but it has the disadvantage of removing some of the
oxygen in the drum and also pre-burning a portion of
Figure 7. Closed Drum Test Apparatus the aerosol contents. In some cases, the candle flame
55 gallon or 200 liter size drum will increase to a height of 18 " (457 mm) and touch the
top surface of the drum, and still it may be a number of

Some are particularly useful structure. It has been used with pump- action air sprays to show that. only one flash point test is run. Similar experiments can be made on a much within certain temperature ranges. the tion threshold. used for liquids boiling at over about 1750F (8O0C). The averaged result. Nichrome (or is much less reliable for liquids that are viscous. it will not work effectively on streaming sprays and a few other products types.1 m) ceiling and Cleveland testers. burner is equivalent to a candle flame. tossed the There are a large number of devices for the deter- drum several feet in the air. a flam. when electrically heated to an estimated 300O0F (16490C). A platinum wire. standardization tests on two solvents. In one memorable test. The test is applicable to most continuous spray prod- ucts. April 1981) and other publications. Testers are used in Europe and Japan that cigars. and in determine the approximate flash point) and then front of the City of New York Fire Department. they have insuflicent energy to reach the reac. on a weight basis these products are just about as flammable as the hydro- carbon/ethanol aerosol hair sprays. A complete text These activities tend to prolong the spray time and give for the method appears in 38 CFR No. and released a huge gobbet mination of flash point. or tend chromel) wires are not hot enough. As a rule. Modified Tagliabue Open Cup Flash Point Test This test is based upon an archetype patented by Charles J. which melts at 356O0F (196O0C). Edition. and then by the EPA as part of Figure 8. A micro. triplicate tests of the product under study. which resounded throughout the warehouse. All this acti- mable aerosol was sprayed into the drum until the LEL vity would probably take over a day. page 27015 a result that is both optimistic and unreliable.C. are relatively unknown in the U. Flash Point Tester . This result would not have been predicted on the basis of LEL theory. A fairly large (typically 20. A spark plug (See Page 485 for exact test method. was first used by the I. but relatively thin wires will then melt quickly (32170F or 17690C) due to the combustion reaction on the white hot surface. It is almost never attempted. Official CPSC Modified Tagliabue Open Cup the testing routine to define both "Extremely Flam. and an explosion ensued reason. in 1956 to distinguish levels of relative hazard in "flam- mable" aerosol products. In one test made with a 0. for that spark plug was then activated. 1973).A. 187. about 1960. including the Pensy-Martens of flame that extended clear to the 30' (9.5 m diameter rhodium wire. Sketches of Other ignition sources have been tested. should not be plug and a loose cap or valve cup. one initial test (to conducted in Yonkers. but only if it has sufficient energy to ignite the It is unfortunate that the official method is very LEL mixture.S. the wire survived. During 1981. 27.C. in the CSMA Aerosol Guide (Seventh pre-ignition flame develops it is best to repeat the test. NY during 1961 or so. the tester and glass testing cup are shown in Figure 8. Tagliabue in 1862. mable" and "Flammable" aerosols. This general method of ignition cannot be recommended. for example. as is the flame projection test. Like cigarettes and to skin over. It was later adopted by the FDA for use in the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA). will cause ignition.000 v) neon cumbersome and lengthy. The Tagliabue smaller scale using an aerosol can fitted with a spark Open Cup (TOC) tester.) works. and Hot wires have also been tested. Additionally. The original version modified for aerosols. If a large (Sept.additional seconds before total burning takes place. requiring triplicate light transformer is required. to get just one concentration was exceeded by a good margin'.

At one time a low-cost window tered. it would be a waste of laboratory time to The ASTM Coordinating Committee on Flash Point run a TOC flashpoint on an isobutane/ethanol hair (CCFP) developed a revised flash point definition in spray. filling it to a level of vinyl chloride.6% of temperature.60C) can be obtained when comparing volatile. the exact apparatus indicated in Figure 8. 1013 bar) at which application of an igni.90C). For instance.S. Up to about 11. corrected to a pressure of 760 mm Hg up to 10% water or 20% methylene chloride to these (101.70C). except for a few glycol type air fresheners and cleaner aerosol was formulated with about 2% other relative oddities. The addition of temperature. it gives about the tance today.A.3 kPa.4% of P-12/11 (50:50). such as CC>2. (111. For aerosol concentrates. dimethyl ether or then transferred to the flash cup. it is so is started. test should be aborted and flammability determined The flash point of an aerosol mixture bears little rela- solely on the basis of the flame projection test.2 mm) below the rim.50C). closed cup methods. the sophisticated and more reliable. flammable ingredients than the closed testers.4 mm) in the brass flash cup. CPSC is using the closed cup for pump-spray product To a degree. somehow the correct ratio of each layer should easily made to produce virtually identical large or small be transferred to the flash cup.relatively new Setaflash Tester came into vogue in the one of 20% CFC and 80% ethanol. which may still have some later used to some extent as nonflammable blends of pressure at this temperature. During the 195OsDr. suggesting been -1010F (-73. corrected to a pressure of 760 mm Hg isobutane can be rendered non flammable by the addi- (101. This is rarely encoun. flash points can be roughly predicted. The two products can position should be considered as less hazardous than hardly be compared in terms of flammable hazard. formulations does not act to change the flash point tion source causes the vapor of a specimen to ignite significantly. .A.S. The chilled formulation is CFCs and various hydrocarbons. it as non flammable under all reasonable conditions of tion of the tester are all chilled to about -250F (31. at least in the U. The substitution of one flash point tester for another The open cup testers characteristically give some. It could not be tested for TOC flash much material can volatilize off before the procedure is point because the water froze during the chilling phase. under specified conditions of test. containing sustain such ignition. In time. most industry experts feel the same vapor pressure. non flammable blends by the addition of (ideally) a sively viscous. evaluations. the flash point would have the non-flammable CFC type propellents. n-butane and 98% of a concentrate consisting almost The test interpretation is silent on the matter of how entirely of water. This was of considerable importance with but if this were not the case. For aerosol flash points. the same as an aerosol lighter for instance that a 80% CFC and 20% ethanol com. weakly flammable that it is rather easily formulated into If the aerosol formulation freezes. "the 'flash point' is the lowest -250F (-31. it may be used by the CPSC instead of level falls K " (6. is never recommended. fluid containing 100% n-butane. the The CFCs can be used to quench the flash points of term "fire point" can be defined as the lowest hydrocarbon propellents.3 kPa." In contrast. Similar blends. and differences of over 20O0F The temperature difference can often be 1O0F (5.) the TOC or TCC. becomes exces. tion of 88. terminated. tion source causes the vapor of a specimen to ignite and Winston Reed developed Propellent A. flame projections. 1013 bar) at which application of an igni. under specified conditons of test. flash cup and bath solu. for some ranges. In the tion to flammable hazard. Propellent 152a (CH3-CHF2) has a flash exactly %" (3. The aerosol unit is then punctured to release any pro. 10% isobutane with 90% P-12/11 (50:50) and patented The aerosol test container. after which the test point of below -580F (-5O0C). (Some of the TOC same results as the Tagliabue Closed Cup (TCC) test procedures include terminating the test if the liquid device. but despite this. forms crystals or becomes otherwise mixture of about P-12/11 (90:10) which has about the impossible to test as such. such as Propellent P (for paints) were pellent. Aerosol formulations with case of aerosol products that separate into two liquid flash points of -150° to 25O0F (-101 to 1210C) can be layers. testing and consumer use. For example.I0C) can be measured when comparing open cup the closed cup types are generally regarded as more with closed cup methods. It is of no impor- U. The result is always far lower than the initial 1980 which reads. Flash point differences of up to what higher results and are less sensitive to traces of 10O0F (55.70C) testing temperature.

Data from press clippings. Xylenes 75 63 Either a tiny flare from the match ignition caught the alcohol drenched hair on fire. Acetone 15 O In a second case. . These brief recitations indicate 36 common aerosol ingredients and a few mixtures. After five then in an abbreviated format. or possibly a spray strand *Due to very small butane content. Table VIII provides TOC and TCC flash points for of hair acted as the link. Mineral Seal Oil . using portions of an ethanol/CFC personal isoPropanol 60 53 deodorant from two cans he found in his boss's shop. faces. 8 " (203 mm) in diameter.S. a young short order cook attempted to Ethanol 62 55 cool himself off by liberally spraying the front of his tee. In the U. They n-Butyl Acetate 90 72 wanted to stiffen the taffeta on their costumes.Exxon) — 133 them had brought a large can of hair spray for that pur. In a final example. seconds. Some n-Hexane -1 -6 n-Heptane — 31 resulted from overheating and bursting of aerosols. and then lit a cigarette. starting at a point 8 " Surface Flammability Tests It was not until about 1975 that a large group of TABLEVUI industry experts sat down and compared the causes of Flash Points of Common Aerosol Ingredients and Mixtures consumer accidents involving flammability. gas stove or pilot light. people have been severely burned Cocoanut Oil 510 420 from both aerosol sprays and pump-action alcohol Corn Oil 590 490 sprays as a consequence of gross negligence and misuse. the the high predictability of a "flammable" vs. one of them lit a cigarette.A. Methanol 60 54 In one instance. Glycerin 350 320 whereupon the ethanol saturated tee-shirt caught fire. Propane -156 -163 Accidents resulting from ignition of an aerosol spray P-12/Propane(91:9) -70 — isoButane -117 -126 were considered to be less than 10% of the total. turers^ Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) of the Methods for testing surface flammability have been OSHA-20 format. Because of developed in various countries. Ethanol/Water(90:10) — 157 shirt. and n-Octane (Gasoline area) — 56 these might be considered as some combination of n-Nonane — 88 vapor and surface deposits. lawsuits. where a UNE/Water (20:80 Emulsion) — 124 UNE/Water (10:90 Emulsion) — 130 woman with a rather fluffy page-boy hair style applied UNE/Water ( 5:95 Emulsion) — 134 many times the ususal amount of hair spray because of Toluene 45 40 the windy conditions outside.Typical 255 170 In some cases. even large aerosol seconds onto a Formica disc. They n-Butane -101 — occurred only when the spray impinged upon a flame. and attempting to uniformly coat the surface. After they had applied most of the can to their UNE/Water (50:50 Emulsion) — 120 apparel. UNE/Water (40:60 Emulsion) — 119 we can recite a typical "hair aflame" situation. But the preponderance n-Decane — 115 involved the ignition of vapors arising from a sprayed Gasoline — -50* surface. laboratories may run it only once every year or two. He then returned to his gas-fired hot plate. as well as other literature. "non. the potential danger of creating highly flammable sur- Additional values may be gleaned from manufac. so one of isoUndecane (As Isopar H . a lit taper or long-handled match is manually moved sideways toward the disc. Substance Open Gup Closed Cup CPSC National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) results and other inputs were all surveyed. Ethylene Glycol 240 232 Propylene Glycol 225 210 ping bag. isoUndecane/Nonionic Emulsifiers — 126 (80:20) = UNE pose. with the finding that most of them related to the flammability of Flash Point ( 0 F) Tagliabue Tagliabue a sprayed surface. three young women jumped hurriedly Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) — 30 into the back seat of a car which was to take them to a Methyl isoButyl Ketone (MIBK) 62 75 Halloween masquerade party across town. either during the time of spraying or shortly Mineral Spirits 102 97 Odorless Mineral Spirits 128 119 afterward. n-Pentane -45 < -44 such as that of a match. preferred procedure was to spray the product for three flammable" result from this test.

A slot about 10J4 " (260 mm) long and Figure 9. By means of a motor and D Slot. which may be either a flash or sustained X Upward view from arrow X. (203 mm) distant and closing at about 1 " (25 mm) per second. The apparatus consists of a duraluminum (or dur- alumin) sheet. 130 mm high (Six required) beginning at the periphery of the circle. They felt the need to utilize a relatively elaborate mechanized testing device (estimated cost $1500 in 1982). The V8 H. showing method of affixing micro-jet burner to worm. Preferably three cans of the test product are vent damage equilibrated to 770F (250C). The first can is sprayed M Bearings to support worm-drive at each end N Bearings supports of 25 mm angle iron evenly upon the disc for three seconds and from a P Spacers to secure micro-burner nozzle at same plane as surface distance of about 10 " (250 mm). micro-burner is set in motion toward the disc. perhaps establish an interpreta- tion of the results that would be overly restrictive. preferably cut out and flanged below for support is positioned within the slot. about 260 mm long and 4 mm wide. the test is terminated. should ignition of the disc occur. After five seconds. If not. cut along middle axis reduction gear drive the burner is caused to move E Micro-burner F Worm-drive within the slot at 1" (25 mm) per minute. showing internals of instrument Y Detail view. In England.A. the of sheet R Flange for supporting circle. If igni- mended tion occurs. and add it to their current battery of test methods. not scientists. 200 mm diameter. 61Ox 405 x 3 mm sheet and is marked in inches or 10 mm divisions.P. B Leg.16 " (4 mm) wide is cut along the middle axis of the Legend: A Duraluminum (duralumin or aluminum) sheet. 28" long by 16" wide and V 8 " thick (710 x 405 x 3 mm) mounted horizontally upon six legs 5 V8 " (130 mm) high. The distance to the disc was determined in the event a flash or sustained flame occurred. Flammability of Surface Residues Tester 0.S. which is shown in Figure 9. If the flame could be moved inward to touch the edge of the disc without causing an ignition of the sprayed product. K Switch gear L Microswitches (two) overriding the operating switches. and the U. It is useful to actually cut the circle from the sheet. H Reduction gear and pulley drive The nozzle of the burner is maintained even with the J Forward operating switch for motor J1 Reverse operating switch for motor surface of the sheet. the British Aerosol Manufacturers Association (BAMA) developed their own version of this method during the late 1970s. G 1/8 HP or comparable electric motor motor is operated by both forward and reverse switches. and supporting it with a flange or similar arrangement. has no test for this very important aspect of flammability. Others felt the regulators might take the method. The method was approved by the CSMA Aerosol Division Flammability Committee. A micro-burner C Circle of metal. A circle 8 " (200 mm) in diameter is marked with its center 6" (150 mm) from the mid- point of one end. if made removable as recom. to pre. then the result was considered non-flammable. the flame is gear brought to the edge of the disc and kept there for ten . Some members felt that this was the business of regulators. making it removable for cleaning pur- poses. but no agreement could be reached on how to classify the results. burning. In the end nothing was done.

but one 8% Propellent A46 of the clearest recollections of this rather unusual experiment was how difficult it was to actually bring the lit match to the face. The remaining two test units are charcoal briquets in a grill or wood in a fireplace. During the 1960s researchers at Precision Valve Cor- carbon propellent. turers Association (BAMA) several years later. Viable interpretations of the data in both the 15% Propellent A46 tower and trough procedures were developed by the CSMA Aerosol Division Flammability Committee. flammable or non-flammable foams were ever pro- 9% De-ionized Water mulgated. These pro- aluminium container that holds the product.5% hydrocarbon propellent. flammability of surface sprays.g. which have O to 3. One similary tested. and as such should foams were produced from glycols and an ethoxylated be candidates for flammability studies. degree of flammability of the foam surface. and there is really very little that is left. (Fourth Edition.seconds. cedures are described fully on Page 486 of this hand- No particular furor has been raised by these methods book. In the last instances. system. the Sepro Can shave creams and similar conditions. They cannot be stearyl alcohol mixtures. anhydrous types are further illustrated by such diverse products as baby oil foams. They had the extraordinary meaningfully assessed by the methods described thus ability to last many days. cleansing Foam Flammability Test creams. simulate a shaving routine) and then touching the foam yethylated fatty alcohol) layer with a lighted match. The trough ducts. flame when the puff of foam is actually touched with a free flame. whipped creams and puffed period of time. Non-Aqueous Aerosol Sunscreen Foam During 1960 the writer indulged in a bit of histrionics to 1% Sun Screen Agent (As homomenthyl convince the Commissioners of the City of New York salicylate) Fire Department that such foams were still eminently 60% SD Alcohol 40-2 (Anhydrous) safe. since it is contained in the so-called poration developed the combination Tower and "exo-space". between the can and the inner plastic or Through Test to define foam flammability. body colognes and poison plant about the possible regulatory impact of any suggestions protectant creams (urushiol absorbants). frypan lubricants and spot-marking foams for Foam products are considered to comprise about farm or surveying operations. If ignition still does not occur. brilliantines. The fully in this area. In fact. method was adopted by the British Aerosol Manufac- are subtracted from the overall foam product category. products cannot even extrude the bulk of their hydro. 36. 75% Low-odor petroleum distillate. record the result A small number of minimum-water foams were also as negative. The demonstration consisted of spreading such a 30% Polyethylene Glycol 200 or 400 foam upon a relatively large portion of the face (to 1% Non-ionic Fatty Acid Ester (Or polyox. e. pg. even with the psychological Low-Aqueous Foam For Charcoal Ignition assistance afforded by a hand mirror. alcoholic. 1980). The tower is used to define the relative amount of shortcomings. 1 As in the case of the methods developed to assess the Kerosene. aqueous types developed by Kenneth Klausner during Nearly every hydrocarbon propelled foam product the early 1960s. The can is then discharged to the 10% full developed during the 1960s. The BAMA report does not suggest of these is listed below at left.S. quick-breaking types such as suntan lotions. No. aerosol market. and the most important reason is that no flammable vapors released by a foam during a certain one consders shave creams. no actual interpretive 1% Selected non-ionic or anionic detergent definitions for the distinction of extremely flammable. appears in the latest edition of their Code of Practice Flammable foams would include a few of the non. A typical formulation would be: will produce a very transient. No harm was done.A. The British aerosol community may have had concerns insect repellent lotions. 10% of the U. but . while the trough is used to establish the lotion-type products to be flammable. such as those for igniting level and retested. even under hot sunny far. or fleeting. When these pro. how the results might best be interpreted in terms of Other so-called flammable foams include the hydro- "Extremely Flammable" or "Flammable" criteria.

The BAMA trough type products. The rule has contacted with a match or lighter flame for ignition. it had to be actually have to be classed as "Flammable". Test packs method and submitted them to other aerosol associa- were initiated. running foam flammability tests on new produc. Despite the high (20%) anhydrous or near-anhydrous aerosol products will hydrocarbon propellent content. When he tried to light the In the first case. practically all very tight. a low. projection or the flashback test is failed. A typical report came from a customer who foamed a goodly quantity c.A. more rational hazard of an aerosol product. Flame Projection Test and Closed Drum Test. About six months later the firm A composite of flammability tests might include: began to be beseiged with an array of consumer com. but for definition as "Extremely Flammable" both the flashback and Composite Flammability Tests modified TOC flash point tests must be failed. a. A combination of tests are result than any of them would provide. plaints. in the discussion of Because of this development. "45% or more of flammable ingredients. burning the hair from the British feel that the flame projection test should be his forearm and blowing ashes from the previous fire widened to consider if the aerosol spray will sustain the onto the hearth apron and nearby floor area. The outline of one version of this last test method is also devoid of any interpretations of the data. For this approach the theory is that no individual test The final approach involves the intermingling of two can satisfactorily elucidate the possible flammable or more test methods to produce a final. Elaborations based upon one standard method. .a legal opinion was obtained that the association should aerosol flammability hazards. and setting them FEA and individual European national aerosol associa- afire in time. the surrounding vapor/air mixture ignited with a merely increasing the testing parameters.S. The Lower Explosive should they feel that official methods and definitions Limit test was also used in the case of 100% propellent would be useful in this area. The first U. Colligative use of two or more test methods. duced gallons of flammable vapors. A trace of tar. The tests are significantly impair emulsion stability. BAMA recently finalized a that the foam be colored a canary yellow. closed drum and surface residue trazine dye was added for the desired effect. and pro- b. or all case. is now being actively aqueous charcoal lighter formulation initially gave a reconsidered since. the Closed Drum might be taken by regulators and possibly tightened. The product is nocuous product into a relatively dangerous one. but strongly preferred working on test methods.S. The product was shown to a particular tions have Flammability Committees now actively marketer who wished to sell it. plus the relative rarity of dimethyl ether. run independently and the results noted. onto wet wood in a fireplace. Test and the Open Drum Test. flame extension. For example. An ex- flame once the ignition source is removed. It has achieved and iron from the dispenser that these ions could then prominence by virtue of official sanctions. activity in this area suggested dually. and if a unit amination of the can confirmed information already 90% emptied will have different properties than one demonstrated by the pre-production test pack units at 90% full. Independent use of two or more test methods. this time: that the trace of dye caused the formula to become more active and dissolve enough polyvalent tin The second case is rather common. flammable foams. but before they could age for more than tions worldwide. "whoomp" type pressure wave. stable white foam. Any recommendations they were the Flame Projection Test. It already been supplemented in Switzerland by the burned rather controllably. In the U. made and shipped. methods give flammable results. or over 250 g In one rather interesting development. As mentioned earlier. "melting" into the char. taken indivi- needed. eliciting comments for possible a few months a substantial production was ordered. improvement. per can of these ingredients". is given in the Propellent Chapter. Both the coal briquets from the surface heat. The essentials of the Rhone Poulenc Industries the use of three tests (and sometimes a fourth) to assess (France) four-test method have already been described. the method can be expanded by foam. the test methods are almost never The classical European definition of flammability: applied. The foam was marginally stable now. not publish such information.A. In this then considered flammable if either. without the CFCs. changing an in. both. if either the flame that developed later. the product is classified as "Flammable". depending upon how tion units would not have served to indicate the hazard the regulation is written.

• forth. • the appropriate aerosol association. Flam. Over O to 30 g. marks. the second a candle near the WOBK SHEET roof of the drum. placement and so TEST 3: arerage Over 2k". and despite this. U. in terms of g/1 in Japan.S. but deletions as shown by the worksheet in Table IX. Flam. so have the flammability regulations. For those countries where the aerosol industry has For those firms interested in exporting or importing matured. Some will At this time the committee was reasonably pleased recall that the ICC deleted their Open Drum Test about with the regulatory situation. FLASH. called the host substance. refinements might be contemplated. • 0 F. g in England and s in the Mark an "X" through the dot re- presenting result in each test. shows up in the protocols of testing laboratories. Over 60 to 120 g. the method still deplored the shortcomings of the individual methods. lem with static is caused by the development of tribo- SURFACE FLAMMABILITY FORMICA No U) marks. but without the need for a tions. FLASHBACK at 70°F.$v. •• discharge can vary from huge lightning bolts to such Over 20° to 10O0F. regulations and briefs filed by certain consumer groups. • electric charges. Modest additions or depending upon the flammability level of the product. (Mod.000 V in dry air. The drum test is recorded IKITIAL PRESSURE (OPTIONAL): psi-g. F. These charges are generated whenever No flane (-) Momentary flameU) two materials in direct contact are separated. • materials. If the . Residua is classified as highest level of flammability in any one test. merely by waving his or her hand in dry air. 2O0F. it is important to recognize that the have grown like a web. • Over 30 to 60 g. various flammability tests will differ from country to TABLE IX country. Aerosols are equilibrated to 770F (250C) VALVE DESCRIPTION: ________________________________________ before testing in Europe and to only 7O0F (21. state and local regula. immutable and permanently fixed adornments of what It uses either a four or five component approach. • Electrostatic Flammability Hazards PERCFNT FLAMMABLES O to k. called the donor substance. • POINT OF FLAMMABLES. prior to testing in the U. O" e Over O" to 3" • since products may simply be impounded at dockside.A. For Momentary flame(-0 number Sustained flame of U) Two or more U) • example. tends to strip elec- tXXHOK CLOTH No flat* (-) Total trons from the other. international transport inter- statistical treatment.| None Comb. act of taking off a sweater or cotton tee-shirt can create SPRAT CLASSIFICATION _ _ _ _ _ _ RESIDUE CLASSIFICATION __________ localized charges of up to 10. accordance with their test methods. the closed drum tester varies from 11 gallons (50 liters) in Japan to 40 gallons (150 Aerosol Flammability Results and liters) in England to 55 gallons (200 liters) in the U.% • (BY CALCULATION) V. Exports to other countries should be tested in TESTS Ir CALCULATIONS RESULTS TEST CKlTKRlA SPRAY CLASSIF] CATIONS Non-F.A. Kx. Over 3" to 5" e Complete documentation for any foreign country can H Ow 5» to 6" • generally be secured by writing to their embassy or to rr/vipn ORQM TEST at 70°F Total dispenser • CALCULATION: Over 120 g.S. «t 70°F. at 70°F. may be called "the system". For instance. or less • subtle changes that they can be detected only by the most sensitive instruments. would be incredibly hard to implement. Product Classification The first uses a spark plug. TOC) Over 100 to 2120F. from agency to agency. a person can generate 25 to 50 volts (V) U+) ~~ marks. to methodology and interpretation of results for the standard-setting institutions. until by now they are virtually Aerosol Division Flammability Committee about 1976. (as DO NOT FILL OUT FOLLOWING SECTION IF SPRAY IS NON-FLAMMABLE OR EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE.£ • Static electricity is a phenonmenon of nature that Over 45 to 100 w. type size.A. In the aerosol industry. RESIDUE CLASSIFICATIONS in the electronics industry and others) the greatest prob- TESTS RESULTS TEST CRITERIA None Comb. was promoted to the CSMA pretations and so forth. To fail in this area can be extremely expensive./sec. IHITIAL CELIVERI RATE: nm.£ • affects every moving substance. and the third a candle at the floor of FORMULA NU)CER: DATf: _____ the drum. The simple Spray is classified according to highest level of flammability in any one test.5 to 45 v. even though they twenty years ago. state They saw no reason for possibly upsetting the status quo. Over 2120F. • K. The effects of static IF OVER <»5v.* Over 4.A similar approach. importation rules.10C) VACDUM CHIMP: "Hg°. They aerosols. except that "Extremely Flammable" requires two such test ratings. and the products FLAME PROPAGATION at 70°F O" • labeled as per their interpretations and required TEST 1: " Over O" to 18" e TEST 2: " Over 18" to 24" • precautionary language. One of the Sustained flaae (++) ~~ One U) mark.S.*.

time when they were electrically insulated. Silk seconds afterward. the situation was potentially depending upon humidity and use conditions. Such tively or negatively charged. In some Nylon cases. such as the Phillips Chemical Polypropylene Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Company and E. the plastic actuator Human Hair and the metal can may be quite different. KeI-F The charge Q. Acetate (as rayon) operating as a high (1014 ohn) input impedance unit Polyester gain amplifier. The charge on the dispenser itself may Glass Mica not be a uniform one.Y2 digit digital Orion negatively charged. ISO Nickel. any flammable contents remaining in the can. the carbon propellents. assum- Asbestos positively charged.I. Electrical charge Q is measured in coulombs (given Hard rubber as C in the new International System of Units.000 to 200. is left with an equal charge Animal fur of opposite sign. ing it is electrically isolated. the electrical tingling of the hand might result from ex- TABLE X tended spraying. If the accrued energy was sufficient. copper and brass Standard 1000) and is a quantity of electricity. But with the For some of the absorbent powder cleaning products. blue flashes of static hot spark that resulted when the container discharged electricity will be quite visible within the garment. the output is read from Celluloid Easily becomes an attached Keithley Model 173 4. although moisture are both important aspects of conductivity. which electrical charge if the dispenser was leaking rapidly at a eliminates any build-up and thus any possible hazard. Somewhat lower voltages (ranging from about Conductivity is a key factor in static electricity con.000 V) have been recorded in the case of siderations. electrically isolated. triboeletric charge became tested at 920 V and P-152a gave a 25. since conductive materials are able to dissi. the product cloud emerges with a total charge Q (which Air I Human hands Easily becomes may be either positive or negative) and the can. Stainless steels Can become Sealing wax negatively charged. important about 1977. For example. dry powder pate more quickly a charge and also to release electrons antiperspirants and regular antiperspirants of both the more easily to a less conductive host substance. formulated from either CFC or hydro. Triboelectric Table of Common Substances When an aerosol can is sprayed or punctured. For best results. The 70% hydrocarbon and 90% CFC varieties. as powders settle and as the charge percolates with Amber difficulty into essentially non-conducting formulas. duPont de Nemours & Co. P-12 was In the aerosol field. perfumed after-bath talcum powder sprays. but this was of no marketing significance.800 V reading. For any of these voltages to accrue. gold and platinum metals Sulfur be measured with a Keithley Model 61OC electrometer. Saran multimeter. onto a conducting surface could cause the ignition of Materials differ widely in their ability to become posi. pass Aluminum through the zero point and grow into a sizable one of the Paper opposite sign. and their Polyurethane cost has limited the determination of electrical charge to Polyethylene a small number of firms. anywhere from perhaps 2 to 30 Lead positively charged. It may Silver. hydrocarbon propellents. Table X provides such a cans sometimes turned into erratic flame-throwers. comparison for a modest number of common materials. the dispenser will build up a charge of a par- Wool Can become ticular sign and then. were able to generate a profound charge is distributed over the human body. These are expensive instruments.000 V range. the charge will diminish. exceptions have been noted. a slight more serious.. The cause appears to be a spatial COTTON Reference Iron and steel redistribution of charge in the product remaining in the Wood can. 75. for instance. Inc. the cans had to be tain products. In normal consumer spraying. Liquids relative humidity.room is darkened at the time. when it was discovered that cer. was determined originally by position- Silicon ing the aerosol can within a so-called "Faraday pail'': a Teflon metal container about 8 " (200 mm) in diameter and 12 " . and the ability of materials to absorb were generally in the O to 4.

are purchased which have voltages in the 225-250 V solving for V gives: range. V =8x10^% = 114. two is used. Cx(capacitance in farads) To determine Cx.4 = 6. the equation: Cx = cmvm W = Q2 = coulombs2 2Cx 2 x farads vb is used. by lead of the Keithley.05/iF and the charge Vb is 720 V from Cx. with a range of about 11 to 22 pF.05/iF. identified as Cx. The capacitance is charge.94 pF (Picofarads) linked together for a number of chemicals or aerosol compositions. The reading of about 7 pF is typical for a 202 x 406 can containing 4 Av. electrostatic charge (Q) and sparking energy (W) can be Cx = 0. The physical and electrical schematics are negative lead is also grounded. coulombs and the capacitance of the aerosol can is 7 pF. The can is insulated from the pail.000 to 100. The pail. they form two equally charged conducting surfaces This value is then used to determine both voltage and separated by a dielectric of plastic. isolated electrically by positioning it on a block of generally in the range of 1. and the pail is likewise negative lead via a capacitance of known value. or 8. . Y _ Q (charge in coulombs) Cm. The maximum coulombs accumulating and holding a charge of electricity. Figure 10. and a typical value for Cm would be about 0. the values for voltage. so the typical capacitance should be about 7 x 1.7 ) 2 = 0. and the ground wire shown in Figure 10.4 g) fill will show an average capacitance of about 15 pF. Table XI (Page 230) lists typical data. a 202 x 509 can is 25% taller than the 202 x 406 unit.oz. Conversions to 202-diameter cans of other heights are made according to the height ratio. For comparison. Cx is determined from: To determine energy W. is connected to a To determine voltage V the equation: ground via a capacitor of certified known capacitance.0694/iF x 10. If we use the mentioned values again for Q and If Cm = 0. used in photography. solving for W gives: three batteries.05/*F x 0. Apparatus for Measuring Static Charge the can may be tested for charge development when on Aerosols sprayed or punctured. The styrofoam. For example.000 The Keithley is then used to determine Q. connected to the support base that will receive the The can and pail constitute a capacitor: a device for released aerosol product. If we assume the measured value of Q is 8 x IQ-7 or three special dry cell batteries. a Keithley reading of Vm = 100 mV W = (SxIO-.25. which is 7 x 10-12 equal to CmVm. It is also connected to the Keithley setting it on a styrofoam base. or /iF.000 pF.oz. Now that the capacitance Cx is known (or estimated). the human body has an average capaci- tance of about 75 to 300 pF.4 g) of product. in turn.75 pF. They are series connected to the aerosol can. (113. (283. The can is positioned on an elec- trically isolated support and connected to the positive (300 mm) high. but the range for this example varies widely: from about 4 to 11 pF. which varies from can to can. since developed by the aerosol is read from the electrometer. From this.100 y 72Ov Using the Cx value of 7pF. Capacitance is measured in microfarads.046 joules would relate to a Cx value of: 2 x 7 x 10-12 W= 46 millijoules (mj) C = 0. The much larger 211 x 604 can with a 10 Av.

80 0. developed by Calspan Corp.0263 to 0.0.0 (typical) 7. will not be used any further by the aerosol industry.0349 to 0.00002 to 0.021 0. there are wide variations TABLEXI Electrostatic Charge.12 . 15% ethanol and The Simco Electrostatic Locator appeared to have a lag time of about five seconds. it must be considered only charge upon puncturing.60 .697 0.560 0.00 0. jointly Keithley electrometer.196 0.A.65 31. It probably can then be used to calculate both voltage and energy.300 0.322 to 0. in + or . . (typical) 20.6 Absorbant Silica Spray 285.950 0.9.coulombs x 10'7) Energy (W.71 42. such as the Simco Electrostatic The method involves the direct connection of the test Locator. Further information cannot be given since the test The currently (1982) preferred method is the "Direct method is unpublished proprietary information in the Charge Method".350 P-152a 3. As Table XI shows. and also other experimental can. such as the Screen Test Apparatus. such as the one developed recently care of CSMA at this time. marketer. The can is punctured and the as an interim procedure. in mj) P-12 0. Other devices.375-2. the equipment is set to determine the aerosol trical relationships involved.221 to 0. This value methods as the investigations continued. one.0084 to 0.15 mj may be dangerous in production. puncturing device and insulating stand to the techniques.0741 to 0.0005 to 0. TABLE XII Variation of Electromotive Force (Voltage) When an Aerosol is Sprayed and/or Punctured Elapsed Can A Can A Can A Can B Can B Can C Time 100% Full 50% Full 15% Full 100% Full 50% Full 100% Full (seconds) Sprayed Sprayed Sprayed Sprayed Sprayed Punctured O 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 100 100 100 100 100 250 10 800 600 950 600 750 1750 15 1600 1400 1750 1250 1500 3400 20 2000 2100 2000 1650 1750 3250* 25 2300 2700 1600 1950 1950 3300 30 2400 2800 800 2300 2100 3300 35 2450 2700 50 2650 2200 3300 40 2450 2200 -600 2950 2250 3300 45 2450 1600 -900 3300 2150 3300 50 2450 800 -1050 3500 1700 3300 55 2450 -200 -1150 3450 1000 3250 60 2450 -800 -1200 3500 200 3250 65 2450 -1450 -1300 3450 -800 3250 70 2400 -1500 -1400 3400 -1200 3250 * Punctured can became empty at about 16 seconds.0 (typical) 8.S. Although the "Faraday Pail Method" of static where the measured charge should equal the calculated charge measurement is useful for indicating the elec.00005 to 0.60 52. 2 110.15 .8 Perfumed Talc No. It should be published in the by a CSMA Aerosol Division task force and proposed CSMA Aerosol Guide by 1983. unless precautions are taken. After a standardization step us. for inclusion in the CSMA Aerosol Guide. may be used.10.0056 to 0.014 P-114 0.224 P-142b 4.080-2. The product contained about 10% powder (mainly talc). ing a capacitor of known value and a flashlight battery. and a major U. 1 123.00032 Perfumed Talc No.00 0.0 286. replaced with much superior maximum coulombic charge is recorded.348 Isobutane A-31 0.700 0.027 P-12/11 (50:50) 8. Voltage and Sparking Energy for 202 x 406 Cans of Several Aerosol Products (Assume dispenser capacitance Cx = 7 picofarads. 75% A-31.0 (typical) 6.) Voltage Electrostatic Charge Sparking Aerosol Product (kV) (Q.140 0.0 (typical) 0. Flammable products developing over 4 kV or 0.4 Andperspirant P-12/11 (50:50) 95.

15OmJ Large 15 7. even for single liquid pro. some gases may not ignite until a spark of observations. . When the can was incidentally to the disposal of unwanted cans. Alternately. they usually develop opposite recognized that some flammable gases require much polarities. perhaps as high as 0.20OmJ** Medium 10 6. Sometimes they never do. or mak.08 x 10'8 4. must twice during spraying.29 xlO' 8 7. threshold situations in Table XIII and Table XIV. Aerosols take various periods of time (usually cans were tested and found to have voltage maxima in less than a minute) to achieve a steady charge state the range of 2250 to 4400 V.15OmJ Small 7 5. but change For quite a long time aerosols that developed continuously.32 x 10'8 6. should be applied to the production process to minimize tively grounded the entire surface of the sink basin to hazard development. with only a modest abili. ty to develop a charge. be at least about 0. In addition.75xlO' 8 5. Electrostatic Charge.25 mj is attained. The operator was moderately burned on both eliminate triboelectric ignition hazards is a difficult TABLEXIU Relationship of Capacitance. and UEL gas/air mixtures. has turned out to be a good one. voltage and sparkling energy is shown for of powder-containing product.720 0. safeguards running water splashing about. this type of situa- It is important to note that the capacitance Cx relates tion can be crudely illustrated in the closed drum test. Aerosols that develop 4. In a few cases.560 0.000 V or less when sprayed or punctured will almost never self-ignite from spark generation. this The relationship of capacitance Cx to electrostatic consideration may have become very important. A can charge. although it is now turing. The hard water effec. hands and slightly burned about the face.480 0. Related considerations also apply the plumbing fixtures. but to the combination of the where the sparks from smaller sparking devices (Tesla can and surrounding Faraday pail. Voltage and Sparking Energy in the Threshold Ignition Area Container Capacitance Electrostatic Voltage Sparking Size Cx (picofarads) Charge. etc.in triboelectrification results. decreases and its energy increases. was sent to a can company for test pack evaluation studies leading to a one-year war. Q (coul. **Many flammable gases will ignite when impacted by a spark with this level of energy. A higher or raising it partly outside the pail) the value of Cx will spark energy is also required to provide ignition of LEL change.8 6.15 mj (millijoule) for ignition. This rule of thumb charges and energy when sprayed. Companion pellents. Perhaps the first is preventive contents directed downward into a soapstone sink with formulation development. W Small 7 4. compared with those well ing it more remote. No really satisfactory explana. compared to punc. the polarity may reverse in this context may be called sparking energy (W). not just to the aerosol can.540 0.48 x 10'8 5.) were sometimes found to possess insufficient can is changed within the pail (such as off-centering it. the capacitance of the aerosol can within the flammable range. In one instance. After six months of storage. Precautions Against Triboelectric Ignitions ranty.20OmJ Large 15 7. energy for ignition of the gas/air mixture. By removing the surrounding metal.) V (volts) Energy. A number of approaches may be used in the control tured inside a well ventilated hood and the rather messy of static charge problems.320 0. when sprayed. That energy. polarities of over about 4000 V were considered hazar- Powder-containing aerosols often develop higher dous from a triboelectric viewpoint.58xlO. An example is shown in Table XII. the can was punc. If the position of the coils. tion has yet been advanced to account for these However.15OmJ* Medium 10 5.20OmJ *Some readily ignitable gases will burn when impacted by a spark with this level of energy. brought close to or possibly against the sink ledge a Reformulation spark leapt and ignited an explosive isobutane/air mix- ture within the sink and (to some extent) in the hood as The adjustment of formulations to reduce or well.170 0. which punctured. depending upon whether they are sprayed or less energy to ignite than do others.

the chance of reducing potential and energy plied by The Simco Company (Lansdale. PA) and the impossible task. Static Control Systems group.05 m) into n-Heptane 0. but will increase it greatly in the case of non-polar solu. And the synchronism of head release and out-feed TABLE XIV mechanisms should be looked at to prevent tilting and Minimum Ignition Energy of Various Substances jamming at the gasser.000.60 (min.business. Top cylinder seals should be checked for hydrocarbon leakage. Inc. Minimum Ignition Material Energy (millijoules) If no production or rate difficulties are anticipated. so does the probability of hazard. Also.20 Benzene 0. Surface active materials.24 the soil. Each piece of Propane 0. so that the n-Butane 0. using stainless steel Ammonium Perchlorate 6150.25 Ethane 0. so that one can pounds sometimes help.20 Can grounding starts with the grounding of all the n-Pentane 0. 3 M Company.21 associated production equipment.18 jam-up. (Billercia .5 parts with conductive materials. they may be unreliable.29 Acetone 0. is non-hazardous but a second one is.MA 01866) A larger listing involving 56 flammable gases and vapors is provided in pany and other machine suppliers now offer these alter- Electrostatic Hazards by Heinz Haase (translated by Michael WaId).) they happen to be flipped from the line as a result of a Cyclopropane 0. the gassing equipment should be checked carefully. tions.26 entire line is then grounded. When a potentially hazardous product is to be run.15 mj in four seconds or less. The exit of valve button tippers is another sensitive area that should be checked. Dead plates between live con- veyor sections should be flat and smooth.03 (min. The increase. should Calspan Corporation and Hercules Powder Company appropriate conditions arise. Inc. values to essentially safe ranges becomes a virtually Electro-Tech Systems. Rough measurements of charge development can be If a product develops a potential of 4 kV in less than made with equipment costing less than $1.25 equipment is then grounded by a double. such as non-ionic and more than usual. or may represent a significant cost environments.02 Mercury (II) Fulminate 0. wheel) and guides at the exit of the gasser may be made . it is a good idea to have it tested by an dispensers developing sparking energies of over about industry supplier or a consulting firm with the proper 0.60 tact with the metal of the production line at all times Aluminum Powder 0. but 2 to 3 % must often be added to be effec- tive. isoButane 0. and changing plastic conveyor belts to metal linkages. such as ethanol and water. Verlag nates. but four seconds after spraying or puncturing it should be when a final product is developed and thought to be considered possibly hazardous. Data are taken in air mixtures at 1 bar absolute arid 2O0C. One or two deep- n-Hexane 0. heavy copper Methanol 0.65 means the replacement of Delrin fixed can handling Nitrocellulose (13.0 Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 62.02 free. the T-t-V (through-the-valve) gasser is preferred over Lead (II) Azide 0. striving to eliminate the chance of cationic detergents. Metallic stearates and similar com- increase. They are connected to some spot Gasoline 0.) where jamming or puncturing could occur.4 % N) 62. such as a conveyor section. As these ratings equipment to obtain a fairly reliable answer.25 on the line. Weinheim and New York (1977). The addition of solids can reduce charge in the Production Precautions presence of polar liquids. PA 19446). It is more problem- Hydrogen 0. even if this Ethanol 0. As an available option. Propylene star-wheel jamming. Kartridg Pak Com- Courtesy of Julie Associates. The cans should be grounded at all times.01 (min. the starwheel (notched Chemie.25 wire connection to the piece on either side. The cans should be in con- Methane 0. Where ratings are very can do this work. unless Carbon Bisulfide 0. (Glenside.) the U-t-C (under-the-cap) variety. Consultant services are freely sup- high. The same can be said of acceptable.23 earth grounding pipes. The additives needed to reduce charge are glycol and sometimes glycerin are effective in non-polar often incompatible. driven at least 10 ft (3. will often reduce hazard. are required. The addition of water generally decreases triboelec- tric hazard.Pinehurst . conveyor rails instead of nylon.

or comparable equip. potentials up to 20 developed large secondary fires from leaking kV have been measured and sparking can be seen seals. Monitor sensitive areas with static detection standard nylon core. tured. by tle Rock.) Operation is difficult and re. Such tiles are made by Potentially dangerous aerosol products should the Winburn Tile Manufacturing Company (Lit.) and where valve area leakage is caused by such things as a missing spring and a e. cause spark-initiated fires when the can is punc- nite gas/air mixtures. such as polyesters.2 mm) film — Velostat No. dimpleless gas houses must be questioned. etc. Floors can be made of concrete reduced by machine maintenance and heightened containing a grounded copper surface grid. They can be conve. They now clip a grounding wire b. After extinguishment. or of inspection levels. but they are considered to be of value only if prove conductivity. Direct a stream of ionized air at problem areas onto such refuse drums before using them. Another firm identified a substantial charge improve conductivity. all worn or damaged in a darkened room. wheel area to "wet lubricate" moving parts and i. Note: High humidity does development on a 30 gallon (114 liter) metal not stop the generation of static or ignition of flam. ductive. such as Velostat Series 3000. critical surface areas to wet them down and im- posed. Rubber floor mats the 3M Company. on an oak pallet for easy transport. Use conductive materials to ground employees in stress cracked mounting cup. 1758. Use cottons. with a working pressure of co Electrostatic Locator.5 MPa). but also when defective crimps are produc- pensive. barrier in that area of the line. Note: Typical equipment is the Sim. charge from any punctured cans caught between plastic woolens and leather soled shoes. horizontal lance of flame that narrowly missed a niently listed as: nearby operator. Where plastic in the U-t-C gasser area and the machine moves on some other surface. 1. Working tions. always be grounded when deliberately punctured dur- . Discontinue the use of synthetic clothing for critical parts of the conveyor system to dissipate the employees. there are doubts that the aerosol can will always be in h. One company had a threesome of punctured cans ment. Apply a steam jet to the gasser heads and exit star.of conductive plastic. g. rails. Inc. The use of beryllium copper will reduce was intensified. However. Another concern had a can puncture initiate a fire used on some weighcheckers. and thus elec- trically isolated. The firm now uses Synflex Company. valve cups. polyester braid and equipment. pressure remains the same. These causes can be sensitive areas. after the gasser. The original hoses were of c. polyurethane jacketed. using a #907 Ionized Air Source from the 3M Company.13 m) contact with a conductive surface. the firm erected a clear plastic a. Wetted floors are more con- adhesive-backed 8 mil (0. otherwise defective aerosol cans. such as determination of charge on cordlike belts k. Accessories are needed for full scanning. ceramic tiles containing enough iron (III) oxide to provide a low conductivity. but it can pre. this material is also made as an should not be used. The drum was vent the accumulation of static charge. U-t-C gasser The propellent hoses were damaged and had to be replaced. j. used in the gas house to hold leaking or mable mixtures from a hot spark. hoses with an additional outer jacket made from quires special knowledge — see Simco instruc. seals were replaced and the maintenance program d. Some firms have used bronze "whiskers" along f. The purchase of very ex. Direct a mist or small stream of tap water at Additional precautionary measures have been pro. an asbestos-ceramic compound. mechanical sparking by about 98 %. High tribophoric aerosol products may not only these sparks are never sufficiently energetic to ig. non-centered. drum. AR) and other firms. relatively soft beryllium copper tools for ed (bady cocked cans. Types SS-I (The Simco 2250 psi (15. cause a brief but very hot fire surrounding the ply. After one punctured can produced a 7 ft (2. in conjunction with a low-pressure air sup.

E. Code. The first major testing of aerosol flammability switch. Since these The transition from CFC to hydrocarbon propellents flash point temperatures are usually below ambient. Aerosol con- ity aspects of single aerosol units. Stated more directly. making the was little point in investing up to millions of dollars for tank more susceptible to content ignition than might be the safe utilization of hydrocarbons. The under simulated warehouse conditions was begun by ignition of flammable powder/air mixtures is very rare the Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation (FM) in (only one small instance known). but the scope of centrate fires and warehouse storage fires account aerosol flammability extends also to considerations of about equally for the remainder. Sec 46. et al of from the National Protection Association (NFPA) Fire Phillips Petroleum Company should be of interest. Additional data can be gleaned Electrostatic Charge" by Reusser. (1980). A ity aspects are covered here in detail. hydrocarbon gas liquid types are by far the most to the kerosenes and even mineral seal oils. if a serious fire in a anticipated from the temperature of the liquid. there and tiny liquid droplets in the head space. typical. and this may not be con. Also. being perhaps 60% of the total. conclusions and recommenda. pressure-tight vessel. and finally.. a serious fire in an outside area injured a Part IV. common. These aspects have The usual cause of a concentrate fire is the ignition of become particularly important during the period from a flammable vapor/air mixture by an electric spark. and ignition from free 1979 and led to results. about 1977 on. Closed Cup (TCC) flash point of 550F (12. a The two substances most commonly involved in cooperative program with FM has been funded by aerosol concentrate fires are ethanol and relatively industry for further testing. These larger-scale flammabil. In ment to overall plant safety. but the growing industry commit. coverage of this interesing Age (March 1979) article titled "Measuring In-plant subject has been brief. Heating ethanol is not recommended except in a Of the plant and warehouse fires that have directly completely closed. flames is also very uncommon. relatively unsafe liquid compounding operation could burn down the plant.ing both mechanical and manual disposal operations. special reports such as the Aerosol Due to space limitations. AEROSOL FLAMMABILITY IN PLANTS AND WAREHOUSES To this point we have discussed only the flammabil. AL a result. consists of a Safe Handling of Aerosol Concentrates blend of mainly isoheptane and isooctane and has a typical TCC flash point of 390F (3. when the industry was forced to rely Two classes of sparks may be involved: those from the upon hydrocarbons as the predominant propellent commutator area of an electric motor or from an electric type. volatile petroleum distillates. safe manufacture and storage. tions of concern to the industry. and those generated by static electricity.90C). has acted to stirring and possible vortexing of these liquids acts to improve the manufacturing conditions under which the wet the walls of the tank and create a miasma of vapor concentrates are produced. as well as For example. The same affected the aerosol industry during the past ten years or comment applies to petroleum distillates all the way up so.80C). Chapter 56A. brought on by the fact. the BAMA Electrostatics Panel laboratory technician when she attempted to puncture a produced a manual titled General Guidelines for the Safe small number of antiperspirant aerosol units without Handling and Disposal of Powder Containing Aerosols" grounding them first. the situation is made even more critical in that the increased use of hydrocarbon gas liquids. 1977 issue. Ethanol has a Tagliabue cluded until about 1983. fairly volatile petroleum distillate used in many furniture polishes and other products. Next Page . As a rule. R. the has not had a significant effect upon the composition of mere act of striking a match near the top of a tank con- aerosol concentrates. Volume 4. taining either solvent could result in a disastrous fire.