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Salt Lake, Utah

Salt
Saturday, June 5, 2010

We think regional

Salt Origin and Properties (Characteristics)

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Saturday, June 5, 2010

Why Study Salt ?
• •
In oil industry; (salt tectonics) Structural trap for HC and influencing reservoir distribution • A seal to fluid migration • An effective conductor of heat

•Others;
Economic source

Saturday, June 5, 2010

2010 . etc) •Gravity •Magnetic and Magnetotellurics •Seismic (2D-3D model) Saturday. Resistivity.Recognition of Salt Bodies •Geophysical logs (GR. June 5.

Global Distribution of Salt Basins Saturday. June 5. 2010 .

It is significant in almost every part of the world but not as much in SEA. June 5. 2010 . world Where?salt basin around the There are four main settings for Saturday.

unlike the dark-gray basins.Cratonic Basins These include epicontinental basins and regions of diffuse intracontinental extension. June 5. Saturday. Black basins lack significant salt tectonics. 2010 .

June 5. Saturday.Synrift basin These include both mature rifts and failed rifts. 2010 .

June 5. 2010 .Post-Rift Basin Margin Saturday.

and intermontane basins. 2010 . June 5. Saturday. foredeeps.Continental Collision Zones and Foreland Basin These include active continental margins.

Lets piece it together 120 of these basins have been affected by salt tectonics Saturday. June 5. 2010 .

2010 .")*+-/! "#$%$&'!()#*+! 4+5$56!5/26! 7)85! .! "$0+#+&1/2! 2)/3$&'! 96#+&'6:!)(! 6:+!.)-&3/#.<!! Saturday.-).-#3+&! . June 5.-&'./&*.)3.Salt Tectonic Mechanism !"#$%$&'$()*'+%.!3#/'!/2)&'! 6:+!+3'+5!)(!6:+!5/26! .

Salt Tectonics Mechanism 1) Buoyancy .enough yield strength .sink into a less dense 2) Differential loading a) Gravitational b) Displacement c) Thermal gradient Saturday. June 5. 2010 .

2010 . June 5.Salt Tectonics Mechanism a) Gravitational . Saturday. produced by a combination of the weight of rocks overlying the salt and the gravitational body forces within the salt.

results from the forced displacement of one boundary of a rock body relative to another. 2010 .b) Displacement. volume changes caused by changes in temperature . c) Thermal gradient. Saturday. June 5.

June 5. ! Salt will move only if driving forces exceed the resistance to flow Kwanza Basin. 2010 . 1) strength of the burden 2) boundary drag along the edges of the salt body. Angola Saturday.Two factors resist salt flows.

and shouldered The roof may be removed by erosion Salt may be emplaced into its overburden in the hanging wall of a thrust fault Saturday. 2010 .Diapir Growth Process • • • • Overburden may be extended Flaps of overburden may be lifted. June 5. rotated.

Recognition of Salt Body Saturday. 2010 . June 5.

Salt Dome Potential Oil Trap Saturday. 2010 . June 5.

Gamma Ray Saturday. 2010 . June 5.

clean sandstones. June 5. dolomite and limestone have low gamma ray values. 2010 . Low Radioactivity ! Saturday. anhydrite. coal.Gamma Ray Halite.

June 5. 2010 .Resistivity Saturday.

Resistivity
• Soluble in drilling fluids and
give rise to enlarged boreholes

• Resistivity varies depends
whether or not containing water

High Resistivity

Saturday, June 5, 2010

Telluric Current Survey
• electric currents preferentially flow around and over
the top of salt dome rather than through it.

The image above presents the results of a telluric current survey of the Haynesville Salt Dome, Texas, USA.

Saturday, June 5, 2010

Gravitational Survey

Saturday, June 5, 2010

2010 .Gravitational Survey • Soluble in drilling fluids and give rise to enlarged boreholes Resistivity varies depends whether or not containing water • Negative Anomaly Saturday. June 5.

June 5.Persian Gulf Many salt dome oil traps at the coastal region of the Iranian side of the Persian Gulf is discovered by gravity survey. Iran Saturday. 2010 .

” BHP Billiton in Sander Geophysical Saturday. there is hardly ever a direct link between a single exploration method and the discovery of hydrocarbons. wells are seldom targeted using only one exploration method. June 5. 2010 . Seismic surveys are almost always included. As a consequence.“In the case of petroleum exploration.

2010 . prone area are characterized by small amplitude & negative magnetic anomalies.Recognition of Salt Bodies: Magnetic •Salt •Salt are slightly diamagnetic but virtually zero or non-magnetic. June 5. Saturday.

June 5.Magnetic Signature Magnetic data is used as an accurate indicator of salt depth. Saturday. 2010 . salt boundary and salt wall dip angle.

June 5. Saturday.Guess what is the picture depicting ? Trying to see through the salt is like trying to see through the textured glass of a bathroom window. 2010 .

2D-3D Seismic • • Very hard to map the salt boundaries and subsalt horizons. If salt interface is not smooth enough. 2010 . simple 2D radial seismic lines are not sufficient to image salt dome overhangs or salt dome under the salt. Saturday. June 5. • Conventional seismic provides poor imaging in a strong dipping fields.

Saturday. 2010 . June 5.WHY??? Significant velocity perturbations within the salt distort the wave field in such a way that an accurate velocity model and thus good images of base salt or sub salt reflections are difficult to obtain.

2010 Improved Seismic Improved Seismic Technology Technology . June 5.2D Seismic Ghost Reflection Conventional Conventional Seismic Seismic Saturday.

June 5. 2010 .3D Post-stack Time Migration 3D Pre-Stack and Post-Stack Migration 3D Post-stack Time Migration 3D Pre-stack Depth Migration 3D Pre-stack Depth Migration Saturday.

Reverse Time Migration Pre-stack Depth Migration Reverse Time Migration Poor imaging of salt flanks and sub-salt structure Saturday. 2010 Significant improvement in imaging of salt flanks and beneath the salt body . June 5.

Petroleum Geological Atlas of South Permian Basin Saturday. June 5. 2010 .CASE STUDY .

Denmark. Saturday.South Permian Basin Stretches northern Britain. Formed when sub-sea level Rotliegend Basin was flooded. across the North Sea through the Netherlands. June 5. 2010 . Germany and Poland.

June 5. 3 in 1 thingy you know! Saturday. 2010 . but 3 basins amalgamated together.South Permian Basin NOT a single basin.

Rotliegend Correlation Saturday. June 5. 2010 .

2010 . June 5.4 main cycles Z1Werra Series Z2 Stassfurt Series Z3 Leine Series Z4 Aller Series 2 rudimentary cycles Saturday.

2010 .Zechstein salt with the exception of NW Germany. Rotliegend salt. Salt diapirs – red. Salt pillow – light blue Saturday. June 5.

June 5. 2010 . Kimmeridge and Wealden (Coevorden) Gas Westphalian coal layers basal Namurian hot shales Primary Reservoir Oil The Lower Cretaceous Vlieland/Bentheim Sandstone Gas Sandstones of the Upper Rotliegend Triassic sandstones and Permian (Zechstein) carbonates Saturday.Main source rock Oil The Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale (Toarcian) Zechstein.

Saturday. June 5. 2010 .

2010 Tcf (5800 bcm) . June 5.Oil and Gas Fields in Permian and Triassic Rocks Permian Rotliegend Sediments Upper Permian Zechstein Triassic Sediment Permian Rotliegend Sediments Initial cumulative gas reserves – 200 Saturday.

5 x 10 Saturday.up to 17 Tcf of 9 barrels of oil.Upper Permian Zechstein Initial cumulative reserves . gas and 1. 2010 . June 5.

20 8 barrels of oil. 2010 .Tertiary Sediment Initial cumulative gas reserves . and 3 x 10 Tcf of gas Saturday. June 5.

2010 .Salt Case Study . June 5.Gulf of Mexico Saturday.

June 5. 2010 .Gulf of Mexico (GOM) • Offshore .000 miles of pipeline on the Gulf seafloor.over 500 mushroom-shaped geological structures formed • over 4. Saturday.000 oil and gas platforms • 33.

2010 .Gulf of Mexico Saturday. June 5.

SPR – GOM • • The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) . 2010 . • = 34 days of oil @ current US consumption levels . June 5.156E+8 m3).21 million barrels/ day.USDE The US SPR is the largest emergency supply in the world capacity to hold up to • 727 million barrels (1. Saturday.

2010 . Each cavern .SPR .dissolving the salt with water. June 5.GOM • • • • The reserves GOM 4 sites on the number of artificial caverns created IN salt domes created by drilling . capacity of 6 to 37 million barrels Saturday. 60m w x 600m d.up to 1000m below the surface.

Salt Cavern .GOM The decision to store in caverns was taken to reduce costs. Saturday. 2010 . • 10x cheaper to store oil below surface • almost NO leaks • constant natural churn of the oil due to temperature gradient in the caverns. June 5.

Natural Disasters Saturday.Challenges . June 5. 2010 .

960 / 3.559 .105 / 1.400 3.208 4.000 Depth (m) 8.313 / 1.917 / 3.511 / 1.640 ft (200 .868 9.halliburton. Halliburton has drilled hundreds of deepwater wells in Brazil.000 .128 / 3.840 -13.004 / 3.916 / 3.653 ft (0 . paraffin.1.350 10.000 .509 / 4.025 / 2.6.3.414 / 5.000 Drift Sequence Transitional Sequence Rift Sequence Bedrock 12.671 / 1.908 / 1.885 15.877 / 3.799 / 853 4.000 Drift Sequence Transitional Sequence Rift Sequence Bedrock 10.404 / 1.165 / 4. paraffin.625 / 800 7.999 m) 6.485 / 1.220 9. 57 2.000 4. Reserves that exist above the salt are referred to as post-salt. and the pace of offshore development is growing.3.Espírito Santo • 800km long .463 Shell / Petrobras / Esso Petrobras Petrobras / Repsol YPF Shell / Petrobras / Esso Petrobras Petrobras 15. This map is not to be used for navigational purposes. along with the tremendous opportunities are a host of new.222 / 6.000 Source: Illustration adapted from ANP data Santos Basin Representative Cross Section 0 800 1. June 5. Most of the discoveries in Brazil have been made in the post-salt geological layer of the Campos Basin. 55 58 Representative Cross Section 56 Post-salt Brazil’s post-salt reservoirs are generally found in sandstone formations.21.998 .330 / 2.003 22.473 2. and the Espírito Santo.000 .com for an in-depth look at how Halliburton is driving deepwater success in Brazil.358 / 3.127 / 953 5.562 ft (2.225 11. 2010 Atlantic Ocean Representative Salt Cross Section Post-salt Salt Pre-salt Water Depth 0 .200 8. but may also exist in carbonates.507 16.500 ft (2.727 10.338 Operator/Partner(s) Petrobras Petrobras Petrobras Petrobras Petrobras Petrobras Shell / Petrobras / Esso Shell / Petrobras / Esso Petrobras / Chevron Petrobras MD (ft/m) 12. those existing below the salt are defined as pre-salt.600 2.496 4.2.000 4.632 10.544 7.278 ft (500 . the Campos.951 / 1. Success in these giant fields requires rapid prospect identification.884 3. long horizontal wells • Improve productivity with hydraulic fracturing in tight gas sands • Achieve high-rate gas well completions FLOW ASSURANCE • Increase production by keeping wells free of scaling.927 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Field Name Jubarte Jubarte (Pre-salt) Mangangá Marlim Marlim Leste Marlim Sul Nautilus Ostra Papa-Terra Pirambu Year Discovered 2001 2008 2006 1985 1987 1987 2005 2002 2003 2003 Water Depth (ft/m) 4.999 m) 9.811 / 4.410 / 2. and increase production in these important plays.499 m) 1.963 / 1.553 / 5.998 DEEPWATER BRAZIL 2001 2009 2008 2007 2006 2007 2009 2008 5.141 Shell / Chevron / Petrobras Esso / Hess / Petrobras Petrobras / Shell / Galp Energia Petrobras / Petrogal Petrobras Petrobras / BG / Repsol YPF SA BG / Petrobras Petrobras / BG / Repsol YPF SA 8.000 8.509 6.com Call 55.181 / 1.251 3.663 / 5.200km wide.099 / 1.157 18. complex challenges that must be addressed.819 11.760 / 5. Reserves in Brazil are characterized by their location relative to the salt deposits.279 .836 / 2.000 Source: Illustration adapted from ANP data 26 29 27 32 25 28 40 46 41 37 49 53 47 Espirito Santo Basin 36 42 22 Campos dos Goytacazes 39 24 50 Legend Macae SANTOS BASIN CAMPOS BASIN ESPIRITO SANTO BASIN PRE-SALT 23 52 51 31 35 SALT BLOCKS SECTORS 43 44 30 45 Araruama Rio de Janeiro Angra dos Reis 38 33 34 48 54 Campos Basin • Range .993 CAMPOS 22 23 24 25 26 27 Abalone Albacora Albacora Leste Argonauta Baleia Anã Baleia Azul 2001 1984 1986 2001 2003 2004 6.200 Depth (m) 4.400 7.199 m) 654 .119 4.000 6.833 / 1.049 10. including most of the pre-salt wells drilled to date.560 / 3. improve efficiencies.800 / 1.139 7.828 12.3974.715 19. Halliburton’s reliable service capabilities and proven deepwater technologies are helping speed development.087 10.9.999 m) 3.922 / 1.000 8.950 13.641 .600 6.751 / 5.140 2. Current and future discoveries depend on a broad scope of technologies and capabilities as well as an experienced service company with reliable and proven technology to achieve economical and operational success.375 4.223 7.647 4.017 / 2. where heavy oil predominates.120 ft (3.234 4. Although the pre-salt potential is great.1.000 Depth (m) to Santa Catarina State 14 16 13 18 15 21 17 6.246 4.800 Drift Sequence Transitional Sequence Rift Sequence Basalt Bedrock 19 20 Source: Illustration adapted from ANP data 149.017 10.294 / 2. and hydrate Halliburton Answers The potential of Brazil’s deepwater assets is huge.558 ft (1. © Hart Energy Publishing Linhares CHALLENGE SUMMARY Exploration offshore Brazil is centered on three basins: the Santos.620 12.178 / 4. Visit www.327 9.390 / 1.Case Study Brazil • 170 miles off the coast of Brazil DEEPWATER BRAZIL Proven Technology • Experience • Global Reach www.924 961 / 293 3.000 10. high-performance fluids • Mitigate risk and improve production by managing reservoir with intelligent completions and multilaterals • Enhance production by fracing deep.000 m) thick.021 / 2. and hydrate Pre-salt Brazil’s pre-salt reserves are found in carbonate formations and can be buried below as much as 6.747 / 3.000 m) of salt.565 / 3.836 / 2. the ability to properly evaluate the reservoir’s potential and to efficiently drill the well.0000 for assistance with your next Brazil deepwater project.500 7. Representative Cross Section 0 2. RESERVOIR • Improve exploration success rate using volume interpretation and visualization • Increase recovery factor WELL ENGINEERING • Increase drilling tool reliability in ultra-deep wells in hard formation environments • Boost productivity with optimal well placement • Alleviate environmental risks using synthetic-based.halliburton.581 / 3.773 17.999 m) Field Name SANTOS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Atlanta Azulão Bem-te-vi Caramba Carapiá Carioca Corcovado Guará Year Discovered Water Depth (ft/m) Operator/Partner(s) MD (ft/m) 21 Field Name Uruguá Year Discovered 2005 Water Depth (ft/m) 4.225 / 2.000 square kms Saturday. A salt layer overlies parts of each basin and can vary from 656 ft (200 m) to 6.000 4.718 18. RESERVOIR • Improve facies definition using seismic data • Evaluate reservoir for internal characterization • Reinject water and/or gas for secondary recovery • Predict reservoir compaction behavior as it is depleted WELL ENGINEERING • Improve performance in deviated wells in the salt zone • Increase ROP in the carbonate reservoirs • Place well in most productive reservoir interval • Maximize recovery using hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells • Manage reservoir with intelligent completions and multilaterals • Insure well integrity in reservoirs with high content of H2S and CO2 FLOW ASSURANCE • Increase production by keeping wells free of scaling.088 / 1.839 ft (2.800 5.367 Operator/Partner(s) Petrobras MD (ft/m) 16.

000 km sq (Santos Basin) areas (Tupi Area) well • “best” of the pre-salt • Exxon drilled the only dry • Petrobras claims 100% success rate Saturday. 2010 .Brazil • Presalt cluster .Santos Basin .area of 15. June 5.

June 5. 2010 .up to 2000 m Saturday.

2010 .Tupi Area Saturday. June 5.

5000m below the ocean floor 5-7 billion barrels 15 100 $100m each 200.000m 4.000bpd 2010 $50bn and $100bn to produce Petrobras . June 5. 2010 2.000m .Tupi oilfields profile Salt Thickness Reservoir Depth Reserves Wells Drilled so Far Wells Required Well Costs Production On Stream Total Field Development Operator Saturday.

W. June 5.PLIOCENE BASE SA LT MIOCENE -CRETACEOUS S Original Salt Layer BASEMENT Frontier: New Geology (ultra-deep drilling) Saturday.D. Seafloor SALT SALT PLEISTOCENE .Dr KK We have to prepare for more deeper and challenging discovery Frontier: New Geography (ultra-deep water) Established Plays 6-10.• • Easy Oil-Extraction Days are over! . 2010 .000 FT.

Saturday.Why Subsalt reservoirs are so Prolific? • • • Salt enhances retention capacity of reservoir beneath salt Large reserves are trapped by less faulted structural closures Reservoir generate high flow rate due to high permeability of younger sediment. June 5. 2010 .

2010 .Economic Significance of Salt to Hydrocarbon Saturday. June 5.

Region benefit from Hydrocarbons in Salt Setting North Sea Gulf of Mexico West Africa Brazil Saturday. 2010 . June 5.

Brazil Growing Economy Through Oil and Gas Production Trend Latin America Oil Production in 2008 Saturday. June 5. 2010 .

4 US$174 b will be spent to develop facilities (w/i 5 yrs) Brazil is raining with foreign investors! e. June 5.g Shell. George Soros .>30 mbbl Saturday.Trend shift 2008 Proven Oil Reserves in Latin (135 bbl) America 1998 Proven Oil Reserves in Latin America (117 bbl) Others Brazil 9 9 Mexico 9 Venuzuela 73 Mexico 18 Brazil 6 Others 11 Venezuela 65 BP & Fitch Rating Startling Facts! = 10th largest company in the world Proven oil reserves increase from 14. Exxon. Repsol. 2010 .

June 5. 2010 .Remember him and his theory? Alfred Wengener Saturday.

2010 These countries share the same geology 150 Ma What exist in Brazil. what does this do to West African Continent? Findings in Brazil Brought light to West African Countries • • Saturday.So. . June 5. must exist in these countries.

Recent Geophysical and Geochemistry Study Saturday. June 5. 2010 .

2010 . June 5.8 Ma Saturday.• Interest in Gabon Grew! • Angola and Brazil shares the same subsalt Interest Reserves estimated 600 Ma Similar Geology 4.

2010 . June 5.Challenges of Sub-salt Hydrocarbon Exploration Saturday.

Cost WD = -5.Investment and Technology • The Capital and Investment on technology is only justified when the reserves discovered is large enough. 2010 .700' -5000 -6000 -7000 -8000 -9000 -10000 -11000 -12000 -13000 -14000 -15000 -16000 -17000 -18000 -19000 -20000 -21000 -22000 -23000 -24000 -25000 -26000 -27000 -28000 Tupi Oil fields Require Eliminate Intra-salt Casing String 6000ft Eliminate Second Casing String US$ 5 billion dollars by 2013 to be in Production Depth Actual Cost Cost $MM Plan Cost Total Depth 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Saturday. Well Depth vs. June 5.

Depth . June 5.Imaging Improvement • Sub-salt seismic imagery needs to be improved for quality and accuracy Initial Imaging Recent improvements We are talking of prospects more than 15000 Saturday. 2010 ft! .

2010 .Drilling • many spectrum of challenges when drilling and making completions Drilling Fluid Lost of Circulation Well Control Stuck Pipe sources from: Saturday. June 5.

More challenges Enter the drillers nightmare!!!!! Very narrow drilling window Green Canyon Block 699-1 ST2. 2010 . June 5. GOM Saturday.

June 5.And Host of Other Challenges that we have to Deal with in the Future! Saturday. 2010 .