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Session 06: Government, Systems, GOVERNMENT vs REGIME

and Regimes
1-2 2 questions in classifying typologies
- refers to the institutional processes
- Who rules? through which collective and usually
- Who benefits from rule? binding decisions are made
- refers to any mechanism through
3. This scholar introduced the modern which ordered rule is maintained
system of checks and balances in the - central features: ability to make
government popularly known as separation collective decisions and the capacity
of powers to enforce them.
- Montesquieu - it refers to the agent of the state
- particular point in time (ex. Aquino
4. The three worlds typology is considered govt, Obama govt)
the legacy of what war?
3 core functions:
- Cold war
 make law (legislation)
5. This scholar claims that the end of the  implement law (execution)
cold war, the triumph of the liberal  interpret law (adjudication)
democratic political world system is the
end of history. Political System/ Regime

- Francis Fukuyama - is a broader term that encompasses

not only the mechanisms of a
6-10 Regime types in the modern world. government and the institutions of
- Western polyarchies the state, but also the structures and
- New democracies processes through which these
- East asian regimes interact with the larger society
- Islamic regimes - a subsystem of the larger social
- Military regimes system

11. How many waves of democratization 'system': there are interrelationships within
occured as per the theory of huntington? a complex whole

- 3 waves of democratization 'political': these interrelationships relate to

the distribution of power, wealth and
12-13 Lipjhart distinguished the two major resources in the society
types of democracy. What are those?
Political regimes: characterized
- Majority and Consensus democracies effectively by the organization of economic
14-15. Give two possible circumstances for life as they are by the governmental
military disease processes through which they operate

- economic underdevelopment - a 'system of rule' that endures

- international support despite the fact that governments
- constitution is challenged come and go
- the values of the military is different - ex. Pagpapatalsik kay Marcos,
from the broader society bumalik yung demokrasya sa
Pilipinas from Cory Aquino to the
present (diff govts that we consider
as one regime)


1. Classification is an essential aid to
the understanding of politics and
2. The purpose of classification is to the masses governed in the
facilitate evaluation rather than interests of ALL
- Decriptive understanding is • Tyranny- worst of all possible
closely tied up with normative constitutions
judgments: questions about what - It reduced citizens to the status of
is are linked to questions about slaves
what is? -> what should be?
• Monarchy & Aristocracy- preferred
DRAWBACKS but ruler should be God-like
1. There is a danger of simplification. *Tutol siya sa pagbagsak ng monarchs
- Overemphasis on similarities.
Underemphasis on differences. • Polity- lead by middle classes; perfect
- Different meanings in different rulers
context or cultures.
- Rule by the many in the interests
2. Value biases tend to intrude into the
of all
classification process.
- Most practicable of constitutions
3. Classification is necessarily state-
bound: • Aristotle criticised POPULAR RULE on
-Treating individual countries as the grounds that the masses would resent
coherent or independent entities in the wealth of the few, and too easily fall
their own right. under the sway of a DEMAGOGUE.
• Aristotle advocated a ‘mixed
constitution’ that combined the elements
• Aristotle, 4th century BCE and left the govt in the hands of the
‘middle classes’ who were neither rich
• analyzed 158 Greek City states nor poor (POLITY)
2 Questions: Aristotelian System was later developed
1. Who rules? by thinkers such as Hobbes and Bodin.

2. Who benefits from rule? The principle of sovereignty was their

particular reason.
- Purpose was to evaluate forms of
government on normative grounds in the - Basis for all stable political regimes
hope of the ‘ideal’ constitution - Most ‘high and perpetual’ power that
alone could guarantee orderly rule
- identify the ‘ideal’ form of government
Bodin: Absolutism was the most
One Few Many defensible of regimes, as it established a
Rul Tyranny Oligarch Democr sovereign who makes law but is not bound
er y acy by those laws.
All Monarc Aristocra Polity
hy cy The overriding merit of resting sovereignty
in a single individual was that it would then
be indivisible: sovereignty would be
• Tyranny|Oligarchy|Democracy expressed in a single voice that would
- Perverted forms of government in claim final authority.
which a single person, a small group, and - He argued that absolute monarchs
the masses, governed in their OWN were constrained by the existence of
interests at the EXPENSE of others higher law in the form of the will of
• Monarchy|Aristocracy|Polity-Right God or natural law.

- Preferred forms of government, Hobbes: portrayed sovereignty as a

the individual, small group, and monopoly of coercive power, implying
that the sovereign was entirely Third world: under the influence of either
unconstrained (Leviathan) first or second world

*revised by early liberals: Locke and POLITICAL DIMENSION

Montesquieu- championed the cause of
First world: liberal democratic politics
constitutional government
based on a competitive struggle for power
Locke: argued that sovereignty resided at election time
with the people, not the monarch
Second world: one-party states, ‘ruling
- Advocated a system of limited people’s’ / communist parties, people’s
government to povide protection republic
for natural rights; notably, the rights
Third world: typically authoritarian
to life, liberty, and property.
(monarch, dictators, army)
Montesquieu: proposed a system of
Since the 1970, the systems of
checks and balances in the form of a
classification has been increasingly difficult
‘separation of powers’ between the
to sustain.
executive, legislative, and judicial
institutions - Economic development of Middle
East, East Asia, BRICS (Brazil,
 separation of powers- one of the Russia, India, China, South Africa),
defining features of liberal Latin America
democratic government - Fourth world: Sub-Saharan
- Collapse of the USSR
THE THREE WORLDS TYPOLOGY - Democratization in Asia, Latin
America, and Africa
-had economic. Ideological, political, and
strategic diemonsions • Fukuyama: the end of history, triumph
of the capitalist first world
 A capitalist ‘first world’
TINA- “There is no alternative” (Margaret
 A communist ‘second world’ Thatcher-iron lady)
 A developing ‘third world’
Western Polyarchies- liberal democracies
First world: industrialized western
regimes, populations enjoying the highest Huntington: produces of the first two
level of mass affluence waves
Second world: communist regime, also  First wave: bet. 1828 & 1926 (USA,
largely industrialized, capable of satisfying France, UK)
population’s basic needs  Second wave: bet. 1943 & 1962
Third world: colonies, non-aligned who (West Germany, Italy, Japan, and
were economically dependent and suffers India)
from widespread poverty DAHL- polyarchy
IDEOLOGICAL DIMENSION [Huntington: 3 waves of
First world: capitalist principles democratization]
(desirability of private enterprise, material WESTERN POLYARCHIES
incentives, free market) Polyarchy instead of liberal democracy
1. Liberal democracy is treated as a
Second world: communist values (social
equality, collective endeavor and need for political ideal and invested with
normative implications.
centralized planning)
2. Use of a polyarchy acknowledges  A codified constitution and a bill of
that these regimes fall short on the rights
goal of democracy.
Two General Features Of Polyarchy
[Dahl and Lindbolm] Huntington: 3rd wave of
1. There is a relatively high tolerance of democratization
- Dictatorship, military, collapse of
2. The opportunity in participating in
soviet communism
politics should be sufficiently
- The central features of the
widespread to real ability.
process were the multiparty
In short: regular, consecutive, elections and introduction of
competitive elections market-based economic reforms
(transition countries)
Lijphart: majority democracies and
consensus democracies DISTINCT FROM WESTERN
Majority- organised along
parliamentary 1. Communist past can’t be
disregarded like Russia,
- Westminister model (UK, communist system endured over
Australia, Canada, Israel, India) 70 years.
2. Process of transition has unleased
Features of Majoritarian
* and generated problems from
 single-party government
 a fusion of powers between
the executive and the
assembly 1. Political-cultural consequence of
 an assembly that is either communist rule (Stalinist
unicameral or weakly totalitarianism)
bicameral 2. Shock-therapy transitions
 a two-party system (IMF/WB) from central planning to
 a single-member plurality, or free market capitalism resulted to
first-past-the-post, electoral unemployment, inflation, and
system social inequality.
 unitary and centralized 3. Weakness of state power when
government faced by centrifugal force
 an uncodified constitution and suppressed during communist
a sovereign assembly
0.89%- rate of plitical dynasties sa US
Consensus- power-sharing
75%-rate of political dynasties in PH
- Europe (France, Germany)
- Appropriate to societies that are EAST ASIAN REGIMES
divided by deep religious, (Korea, Japan, Taiwan. Hong Kong)
ideological, regional, and others - Rise of East Asia in the global
economy (19880s-present)
Features of Consensual/Pluralistic - Assumption: modernization
Tendencies: means westernization
- However, the interpretation fails
 Coalition government
to take account of the degree to
 A separation of powers between the
which polyarchical institutions
executive and the assembly
operate in an Asian context from
 An effectuve bicameral system
the way they do in Western one
 A multiparty system - Asian different from Western
 Proportional representation - CHINA: “swim to the East leap to
 Federalism or devolution the West”
EAST ASIAN REGIMES SIMILAR against an “exotic” or
CHARACTERISTICS: “repressive” East.
- Evidence that Islam is
1. Oriented more about economic compatible with a form of
goals than political ones political pluralism can be found
2. Broad support for strong
in Malaysia
government - Although a popularly elected
3. Respect leaders because of
president and parliament have
confucian stress on loyalty,
been established, all legislation is
discipline, and duty
ratified by the Council for the
Protection of the Constitution,
4. Emphasis on community and
which ensures conformity to
social cohesion, embodied in the
Islamic principles.
central role accountable* to the
- Shari’a law continues to be
strictly enforced throughout Iran
ISLAMIC REGIMES as both a legal and moral code
- The forces of revolutionary
- The rise of Islam as a political fundamentalism also asserted
force has had a pofound effect on themselves through the Taliban
politics in North Africa, the Middle regime in Afghanistan, which
East, and parts of Asia was characterized by the
- Saudi Arabia: Islamic state since imposition of strict theocratic rule
1932 and the exclusion of women from
- Iran: Islamic republic established education, the economy and
in 1979 after the Iranian public life in general
- Led by Ayatollah Khomeini Said (1978): Muslims, themselves ,
however, have often objected to the
56 Islamic states (2005) classification of any Islamic regime as
- Islam is not, however, and never ‘fundamentalist’, on the grounds that this
has been, simply a religion. perpetuates long-established western
Rather, it is a complete way of prejudices against an ‘exotic’ or ‘repressive’
life, defining correct moral, East, serving as examples of ‘orientism’
political, and economic behavior Although Islam is the official state religion
for individuals and nations alike. of Malaysia, with the Paramount ruler
- Political Islam which political and serving as both religious leader and head of
other affairs are structured state, a form of ‘guided’ democracy
according to “higher” religious operates as the dominance of the United
principles. Nevertheless, Islam Malays National Organization (UMNO),
has assumed clearly contrasting operating as a broad coalition, the Barisan
forms, ranging from Nasional, and within a multiparty
fundamentalist to pluralist framework
- The fundamentalist version of Turkey also offers an interesting example
Islam is most commonly of the relationship between Islam and
associated with Iran. democracy, as does the Arab Spring and
- Until his death in 1989, Khomeini developments in countries such as Egypt,
* Tunisia and Libya
15 senior clerics MILITARY REGIMES
- Moslems, themselves, have been - Survive through the exercise of
rejected to the classification of military power and systematic
any Islamic regime as repression
“fundamentalist”, on the ground - Military regimes belong to a broader
that this perpetuates long category of dictatorship.
established Western prejudices
Military dictatorship: most common in bolstered by a cult of personality designed
Latin America, Middle East, Africa, to manufacture charismatic authority
Southeast Asia
Ex. Col. Papadopoulos, Gen. Pinochet, Gen.
Key feature: the leading posts in the Abacha
government are filled on the basis of the
(3) the loyalty of the armed forces is
person’s position within the military chain
the decisive factor that upholds the
of command
- Normal political and constitutional
- the military leaders content themselves
arrangements are usually
with ‘pulling the strings’ behind the scenes
suspended, and institutions
through which opposition can be Ex. Brazil
expressed, such as elected
assemblies and a free press, are IN WHAT CIRCUMSTANCE DOES THE
either weakened or abolished MILITARY SEIZE POWER?

FORMS OF MILITARY REGIME Military coups appear to be associate dwith

4 key sets of circumstances:
In some military regimes, the armed forces
assume direct control of government – the 1. There is a clear link between the
classical form of this is (1) military junta incidence of military coups and
(found in Latin America): economic underdevelopment
2. The military is likely to intervene in
- This operates as a form of collective politics only when it senses that the
military government centered on a legitimacy of the existing institutions
command council of officers who and the ruling elite is challenged,
usually represent the three armed
and when it calculates that its
services: Army, Navy, Air Force
intervention is going to be successful
Junta regimes: characterized by rivalry 3. Military intervention is associated
between the services and between leading with the degree to which the values,
figures, the consequence being that formal goals, and interests of the armed
positions of power tend to change hands forces differ from those of the broder
relatively frequently regime
- Occured in Nigeria, Indonesia,
(2) Military-backed personalized Pakistan
dictatorship 4. The military’s decision to seize
- a single individual gains pre-eminence power may also be affected by
within the junta or regime, often being international considerations