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The ASCA National Model


John Carey and Carey Dimmitt School Counseling Leadership Academy July 14, 2004

► The

Leadership Models
► Great

ability to influence a group of people toward the achievement of goals.
Having a vision for the group that shapes its goals Taking responsibility to improve the capacity of the group to achieve its goals Taking responsibility to improve the groups’ structure, climate and communication Influencing other members of the group to become focused and productive

“Man” ► Behavioral Skills ► Situational Leadership ► Transactional Leadership ► Distributed Leadership
Transformational Leadership SuperLeadership

Leadership in Knowledge-Based Organizations
Corporate Leaders Council

Leadership in Knowledge-Based Organizations
Corporate Leaders Council

Industrial Model
► Standardized ► Standardized

Knowledge-Based Model
► Customized

Industrial Model
► Vertical

Knowledge-Based Model
► Distributed


Work ► Flexible Workforce
► Flat


► Hierarchical

Organizational Structure

or Networked Structure

DecisionMaking ► Individualistic Orientation ► Employees seen as expense

DecisionMaking ► Team Orientation
► Employees


seen as


► The leader begins to shift decisionmaking authority for basic tasks to members of the group or the work group as a whole. Follow orders. Directs everyone's activities. Limit communication with the leader because of negative consequences (shoot the messenger). ► Some members might begin to take on responsibilities belonging traditionally to the leader. ► The leader also encourages communication. and teamwork among group members whenever possible. Work for the leader more so than with each other. Have limited access to upper management. Adopts an open-door policy and is easily accessible to group members. Industrial Model ► Information Knowledge-Based Model ► Open based on need to know ► Emphasis on stability ► Emphasis on vertical “command structure” leadership and distributed information system ► Emphasis on change and adaptability ► Emphasis on empowered selfleadership Organizational Structure: Level 1 ► The Transformational Leadership Organizational Structure: Level 2 At level two ► The leader moves from above the workers to the center of the unit. Depend on the leader for information. 2 . an unempowered environment. leader: ► Group members: Is central to group communication and decision making. especially as the initiator of the transition to empowerment. the leader still is central to the group. ► However. leader: ► Group members: Stands between the group and higher management in the chain of command. Organizational Structure: Level 2 ► The Transformational Leadership Organizational Structure: Level 3 At level three. positions the leader above and separate from the work group. Has sole authority for decision making. but a clear distinction still exists between what the leader does and what people in the work unit do.Leadership in Knowledge-Based Organizations Corporate Leaders Council Transformational Leadership Organizational Structure: Level 1 Level one. Is set apart by title and position. cooperation. Go to the leader for decisions. ► The leader is central to most communication within the group and channels communication from upper management to the group.

► The leader still provides direction and acts as a resource. Work closely with people outside the group and. ► Group members take responsibility for and make decisions about tasks and jobs. ► Group members: Do day-to-day jobs on their own with little help from the leader. Organizational Structure: Level 5 ► Skills Associated with Transformational Leadership ► 1. The leader's primary role is to coach. ► Group members are selfdirected. ► Their scope of empowerment has widened. and facilitator Works with group members to expand empowerment to higher-level responsibilities. Let go of authority to make decisions about the work. Promotes teamwork. Shifts attention to activities and issues outside the group. Organizational Structure: Level 4 ► Transformational Leadership Organizational Structure: Level 5 At level five. help on decisions. the leader becomes a partner to group members in level four. including most responsibilities that had been their leader's. ► Not only do group members make decisions about how they do their jobs. Take on limited responsibilities formerly held by the leader. The leader: Supports and coaches group members as they take on increasingly challenging leadership-level responsibilities. Redefine and widen the scope of their jobs. Know what others in the group can do and want to do. Looks for new empowerment opportunities ► Group members: Become self-directed. ► Group members: Are empowered to make decisions on basic job tasks. often tackling issues outside the group. but they also assume many of the responsibilities and decisions formerly held by the leader. 3 . The leader: Has shifted from doer to supporter. counsel. cooperation.Organizational Structure: Level 3 ► Transformational Leadership Organizational Structure: Level 4 At level 4 ► No longer central to decision making. particularly about how people do their jobs. Take full ownership of most aspects of their jobs. Often work together collaboratively. ► They might depend on each other as much as on the leader for information. Encourages independent action by group members.. and communication among group members. with each other. Build people's skills to take over by involving them in the work. and support. Assume many responsibilities formerly held by the leader and have decision-making authority in these areas. Spends increasing time on efforts to empower group members. Let go of tasks and responsibilities that will help others develop. and support them. coach. in many cases. The leader: Shares decision-making authority. Let go of things others can do. ► The links between group members might become even stronger. Coordinates the group's efforts.

Be careful not to put down or discount ideas. develop. Reinforce good work and good attempts. Actively seek ideas and suggestions from the work group. Delegate authority to make decisions about the work. Ensure that people have goals and know how they're doing. Let people know how they're doing in meeting goals and provide the guidance and support they need to meet them. ideas. formal recognition. knowledge. and skills. Support the delegation within and outside the work group. 4 . and. Encourage initiative. Coach before the person begins the task or assumes the responsibility and along the way as needed. Skills Associated with Transformational Leadership ► 7. Provide tangible reinforcement whenever possible (for example.Skills Associated with Transformational Leadership ► 2. Skills Associated with Transformational Leadership ► 6. Share information. even if it might involve some risk. Remember to reinforce what someone does well even when his or her work has a few flaws. whenever possible. awards. Skills Associated with Transformational Leadership ► 5. while maintaining or enhancing the self-esteem of the person being coached. Meet with the group regularly to share and update information. or gifts). Use coaching sessions to guide and instruct. and skills. and empower. but that aren't seen as restrictive. Encourage the work group to take a lead role in setting goals and assessing their own performance. amount of authority. Share their insights. and constraints. Set up controls so that group members can be apprised of progress. Make sure people have the information they need to succeed in a task or responsibility or know where and how to get it. expectations. Coach to ensure success. Use verbal praise frequently. Ensure that goals are clear and understandable. knowledge. Allow people to run with an idea. tangible rewards. and risk taking. recognition letters. Skills Associated with Transformational Leadership ► 3. Delegate to challenge and develop people. Skills Associated with Transformational Leadership ► 4. Make coaching a regular part of everyone’s job. Provide a clear understanding of the responsibility. Know the kind of reinforcement that works best for each person. Delegate to challenge. Reward and recognize ideas and initiative through compliments. expertise.

reinforcing. 2001 ► Self-Leadership—skills required by all group members in order for distributed leadership ► “SuperLeadership”—skills required by designated leaders to develop group members’ Self-Leadership skill development and to empower self-leadership enactment School Counselors’ Position in School Organization Podemski and Childers.Skills Associated with Transformational Leadership ► 8. Provide support without taking over. and gaining others' commitment. but also support people through the rough spots of a new assignment instead of punishing them for mistakes or taking over. preparing for resistance. Tell people they're important and show them through actions. contribute to each other’s instructional improvement ► Whole school participates in vision. Show that you trust and respect people by encouraging them to take control of their jobs with the authority to take action. Listen to people and empathize with their problems and concerns. mission. Let go. Ask for ideas. such as coaching. and contributions to the group. and respect each individual. Skills Associated with Transformational Leadership ► 10. Understand that support is essential and know when it's needed. 1980 ► Recognized Experts in Child Development ► Training in Program Evaluation ► Emotional Intelligence and Human Relations Skills ► Interact with All Groups and Constituencies ► Confidential Information 5 . creative ideas. trust. goals development and renewal ► School Improvement Teams are active ► Staff experiment with new ideas and evaluate outcomes ► Everyone is responsible for the learning of all children SuperLeadership Theory Manz. Skills Associated with Transformational Leadership ► 9. Transformational Leadership in Schools ► Teachers Practice what you preach. Never to put people down or minimize their contributions. but also empower people to implement their ideas-. Value. Resist the temptation to take over when things go wrong.especially those that involve some risk. Know techniques for supporting others. Take every opportunity to compliment people for good work.

the district and the state.School Counselors’ Position in School Organization Podemski and Childers.” Perspective (training and vantage point) ► Access to Data ► Staff Authority (not line authority) Influence not power ► Flexible Schedule ASCA National Thank You 6 . ► Collaborating with other professionals in the school to influence system-wide changes and implement school reforms. poor students or underachieving students and their more advantaged peers. the school. ► Having an impact on students. 1980 ► Systems ASCA National Model. 2003 “School counselors serve as leaders who are engaged in system-wide change to ensure student success. They help every student gain access to rigorous academic preparation that will lead to greater opportunity and increased academic achievement. 2003 Leadership is: student success by closing the existing achievement gap whenever found among students of color. ► Promoting Leadership Questions ► Who do you consider leaders in your school? ► What is it about what they do or who they are that makes them a leader? ► What kind of organizational structure is in place in your school? ► What do you think makes someone an effective leader? Which of those qualities do you have? National Center for School Counseling Outcome Research http://www.umass.