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ACTIVITY-BASED STRATEGIES Activity-based teaching implies an active learning on the part of the learner. All of the strategies require the learner to do more than listen and study. Learners engaged in these strategies are involved in creating and storing up knowledge for themselves. There is a great deal of research pointing to greater knowledge retention and a high level of performance when these types of active learning strategies are used (Prince, 2004). COOPERATIVE LEARNING Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other's learning. It is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it. It is based on the premise that learners work together and are responsible for not only their own learning but also for the learning of other group members (Lindauer & Petrie, 1997).It involves structuring small groups of learners (usually groups of four or five) who work together toward achieving shared learning goals. Cooperative efforts result in participants striving for mutual benefit so that all group members: y gain from each other's efforts (Your success benefits me and my success benefits you.) y recognize that all group members share a common fate (We all sink or swim together here.) y know that one's performance is mutually caused by oneself and one's team members (We cannot do it without you.) y feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member is recognized for achievement (We all congratulate you on your accomplishment!) Advantages of Cooperative Learning y group members learn to function as part of a team y working in a group for any length of time can teach or enhance social and communication skills y it can help to address individual learning needs and learning styles (Huff, 1997) y critical thinking is promoted (Zafuto, 1997) Disadvantages of Cooperative Learning y if it is used in class time, you won t be able to cover all the content y some learners would prefer working individually rather than in groups (King & Behnke, 2005) 5 Elements of Cooperative Learning 1. Positive Interdependence (sink or swim together) y Each group member's efforts are required and indispensable for group success

y Each group member has a unique contribution to make to the joint effort because of
his or her resources and/or role and task responsibilities 2. Face-to-Face Interaction (promote each other's success) y Orally explaining how to solve problems y Teaching one's knowledge to other y Checking for understanding y Discussing concepts being learned y Connecting present with past learning 3. Individual & Group Accountability (no hitchhiking! no social loafing) y Keeping the size of the group small. The smaller the size of the group, the greater the individual accountability may be. y Giving an individual test to each student. y Randomly examining students orally by calling on one student to present his or her group's work to the teacher (in the presence of the group) or to the entire class. y Observing each group and recording the frequency with which each membercontributes to the group's work. y Assigning one student in each group the role of checker. The checker asks other group members to explain the reasoning and rationale underlying group answers. y Having students teach what they learned to someone else. 4. Interpersonal & Small-Group Skills y Social skills must be taught: o Leadership o Decision-making o Trust-building o Communication o Conflict-management skills 5. Group Processing y Group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationships y Describe what member actions are helpful and not helpful y Make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change Types of Cooperative Learning Groups: Formal Groups To complete a specific learning task consisting of concepts or skills Informal Groups To enhance understanding of a specific unit of information; to make connections to prior learning Base Groups To provide encouragement and to monitor progress throughout the learning experience


4. Surgery is being considered. social competence. 1997). Case studies can be used successfully to apply principles discussed in class. 3. 2004) y An effective way to learn something is to try to teach it to someone else. An individual grade can then be assigned to each portion of the project. 1991. for most people. Each student s effort and performance can be rated and then averaged. mathematics. y As learners within a group disagree with each other. y As learners listen to each other. Fidelity is the degree to which the simulation accurately mimics the real world situation that is supposed to represent (Role playing: return demo on bed bath on a manikin or cardio pulmonary resuscitation)  Simulation game: A game that represents real-life situations in which learners compete according to a set of rules in order to win or achieve an objective. Outcome measures of achievement are knowledge gain and retention.   SIMULATIONS Simulations are controlled representations of reality. It produces higher achievement levels than do individualistic or competitive learning approaches. both sexes. problem solving. They also can be a lot of fun. and to safely exposed learners to real world situations they will encounter in the future Grading in Cooperative Learning Goal: To maximize learning while minimizing unfairness. law. they seek to reduce cognitive dissonance and therefore end up synthesizing divergent ideas. usually long term Four types of simulations:  Simulation exercise: A controlled representation of a piece of reality that learners can manipulate to better understand the corresponding real simulation. Other outcomes found are increased self-esteem. Are categorized by their degree of fidelity. but Ms. This teaching method is effective in helping people gain in interpersonal and therapeutic relationships and in teaching them how to handle interpersonal conflicts it enables them to step into the shoes of others and gain some insight into the perspective of other people. War games were used in ancient China and India and more recently in eighteenth-century Germany. educational administration. . Holden says i just can t seem to make a decision about this operation ) Case study: An analysis of an incident or situation in which characters and relationships are described. Ms. Focus either on content or on process learning. Its effectiveness has been found in all ages and levels of education. 2. 4. factual or hypothetical events transpire. they work to make sense of what each is saying and then they build on these ideas. The amount of weight given to the group grade can vary depending on the other grade components. 1. who is at home. Content games focus on teaching or reinforcing factual information An advantage of using simulation games to teach facts and application of information is that gaming is. (Wildman and Reeves. and problems need to be resolved or solved. (Ms.GROUP 2 Length of existence One class to many weeks No more than one class. Stockdale & Williams. y Behavioral theory would support the fact that there is group reinforcement present when rewards are available for students assisting each other to achieve learning outcomes. 2. Effects have been equally good for learners at all ability levels. all nationalities studied. Cooperative learning has been found to be a cost-effective strategy. Provide opportunities for self and peer evaluations. Why is Cooperative Learning so effective? (Nastasi & Clements. Chess a simulation game is thought to have been developed about 800 B. Holden is a 62 year old women who has been hospitalized for a week with gastrointestinal bleeding. and medicine all began to use various simulation formats. thus adding to their cognitive schemata. to encourage independent study and critical thinking. Holden is reluctant to undergo surgery because she is concerned about the care of 87-year-old mother. Contract with each group as to which portions of the work will be done by each individual. and perhaps for only a few minutes during a class The length of the learning experience. Assign a group grade for the project. Students can be given rating forms for themselves and their peers. Research on Cooperative Learning 1. reading. it increases also interaction among learners and allows even quiet and reserved class members to participate in a relatively low risk situation (Crossword puzzle: review for growth and development) Role-playing: a form of drama in which learners spontaneously act out roles in an interaction involving problems or challenges in human relations. The more recent use of simulations in education began in the 1960s when business. 6. and decreased anxiety in learning. Give bonus points to each group member if each person s individual grade surpasses their grades on previous projects or exams. 5.ACTIVITY-BASED STRATEGIES NURSING STRAT --. improved attitude toward learning. They are exercises that learners engage into learn about the real world without the risks of the real world. and all economic groups. fun.C. 3. and procedural tasks. Simulations have been a teaching strategy for centuries.

The brainstorming solutions component involves the students immersing themselves in the problem by reviewing as many things as possible about the ideas. Dewey talked about it when he talked about engagement . and because of advances in cognitive science and technology. 7. it might involve. Can be used to evaluate learning and competence. requiring the learner to acquire critical knowledge. It can be applied to the teaching of psychomotor skills. you should take a backseat and talk relatively little Debriefing. Planning. To develop human interaction abilities 3.  Nurses or nursing student learn to make decisions by making decisions. view problems from many perspectives. 1997). 4. not just by learning the theory of decision making.  Learners get a chance to apply principles and theories they have heard or read about and to see how and when principles and theories work. Description Problem-based Learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy that is used to promote active learning. library research. We knew about it. Are intended to help learners practice decision-making and problem-solving skills 2. because it is at this point that the group must defend their solution based on their data. Key components in Problem-Based Learning The Problem-based Learning model involves the use of real problems to create an active. In the data collection component students are encouraged to use their imagination as they collect data by searching in places they would not normally search. 1998). 1993) The data collection component is designed around the answers to the What do we know? questions and involves different methods of research.The modern history of problem-based learning begins in the early 1970s at the medical school at McMaster University in Canada (Rhem. those that are complex and sometimes have multiple responses. It is important that the whole group come to a consensus before choosing a final solution. Are usually worked out by groups of learners. PBL is characterized by the use of real world and ill-structured problems.during the actual progress of simulation. Since 3. the learners are presented with or identify their own problem that drives their inquiry and learning process. problem solving skills. Constructive attitude can lead to more productive and acceptable behaviour. Learn psychomotor skills in safe and controlled setting apply principles and theories they have heard or read about and to see how and when these principles and theories work. This is where students need to access the selected solution based on the data that they have gathered. Decision making skills can be fostered by simulation. As John Cavanaugh. Dewey had it right on the abstract level. interviewing strategies. It can bring that understanding to life as situations are acted out 5. Then there is the evaluating and selecting of the solution component. providing . listen carefully and be open to new ideas. History of Problem-Based Learning It could be that problem-based learning stems all the way back to Socrates and the question-and-answer dialectical approach. and share ideas.  People who work through a simulation exercise or game or role playing situation may discover factors about certain people and situations that they never before realized and will change their attitude in the future. while learners investigate authentic problems.GROUP 2 Purpose and uses of simulations: 1. For example.begins with choosing or developing an appropriate simulation that will meet learning objectives. The final component is product assessment. Role of the Educator Three Facets: 1. This is left up to the discretion of the teacher/tutor. Can be used to achieve many learning objectives. self-directed strategies. Facilitating. It is also an avenue for attitude change. survey techniques.  Written simulations can be developed in a simulation format to test the application of knowledge. 10. Implementing the solution is vital and reflects the cohesiveness of the group. y What do we know? y What do we need to know? y What should we do? (Stepien and Gallagher. 8. After introducing the activity. Instead of the teacher simply assigning readings. vice-provost for academic Programs and Planning at Delaware University puts it: It s like discoverybased learning in the 1960 is also called the final discussion Should occur immediately following the simulation when the information is fresh in everyone s mind. For example. 6. 2. a person with a mental health problem may have been receiving counselling on how to handle interpersonal conflicts and may be making progress in understanding interpersonal theory. that s all. lectures or walking students through a solution. student-centered learning environment. and team participation skills. keep a list of ideas. Many times the tutors will decide to let the students develop their own assessment. The key components of the process are: y Problem formulation y Data collection y Brainstorming solutions y Evaluating and selecting solutions y Implementing the solution These components give the students direction and provide them with a format for completing the written part of the final product (Seifert & Simmons. 9. we didn t do it. It may also require the students to rearrange the order of the parts. and Internet research techniques. We do the details better now. Problem Formulation is a strategy composed of three questions that give students a format for beginning the problem-solving process.ACTIVITY-BASED STRATEGIES NURSING STRAT --.

new knowledge to develop a solution. This means that members be responsible to each other and the group. 2003) Problem-based learning fosters a community of learning through collaborative and engaging group interaction. Diane McGraw is an associate professor of educational computing. Inquiry is at the heart of PBL. providing a leaner-controlled instruction. and promoting cooperative and collaborative learning. saying that learning is enhanced when it is introduced through an experience in an appropriate context. and complex tasks in a PBL environment. Presenting Complex/Real-Life Situations: The problems used for PBL are often real-life situations where the students need to analyze them critically through reference/case studies and research work. Research also suggested that question prompts or concept maps could be used as aids to prompt reflective learning. The inquiryoriented method facilitates reflective thinking by asking reflective questions while the explanation-oriented method directs learners to reflect on important concepts.GROUP 2 the implementation of PBL in the 1970s it has been used in various undergraduate and graduate programs around the world. She has found through research that there was a program called Fostering a Community of Learners (FCL) in which learners collaborate. PBL also brings cognitive challenges. Reflecting on the problem helps learners to generate concepts and abstractions and enhance the transfer of learning to new problems. These problems may not have simple or straight forward solutions. This program consisted of five critical pieces that work together. All members of the learning community must take responsibility for their accomplishments in PBL. In PBL learners depend on each other to accomplish their tasks. and identify as part of the group. Therefore. Research suggests that various elements in the learning environment can prompt reflective thinking. scaffolding tools are important in prompting reflective thinking during PBL. analysis and synthesis to create new knowledge and learning. may be a more difficult task to grasp. participating in social interactions. it is not mandatory for the students to get the correct answer as there may not be one concrete answer or solution to the problem. For example. the focus lies on the process of finding the solution by working in a group and exploring various possibilities through analytical research work. Application in and effects on classrooms and similar settings A problem-based learning environment provides learners with an instructional mechanism that can increase their higher-order thinking skills while exploring authentic and ill-structured problems. One of the major features of project-based learning is the all important community of inquiry. Using Prior Learning: PBL allows students to use their prior learning for analyzing and finding solution for the problem placed before them. to decide important facts in problem situations. These features of the task help students think reflectively because students have to investigate the problem in order to gather appropriate information to solve the problem. research. Role of the Instructor: In PBL the instructor steps back from his/her traditional role of feeding information about the new content to the students. Instead. elementary and secondary schools have adopted PBL. the students can make assumptions and develop strategies for problem solving. design and online learning at Kansas State University. Another important element prompting reflective thinking is the type of instructional method used. This kind of approach has been adopted to support researches. that does not mean that the instructor has any less importance as compared to his/her conventional role. Instead. neither they might have one possible solution and can be solved through different strategies and approaches. Problem-based Learning provides the instructional mechanisms for prompting learner reflective thinking. By recalling what they have already learnt. The elements that make the learning environment active and student-centered include allowing students to have enough wait-time to think before answering. Finding these strategies would require a thinking of higher order which would involve evaluation. It requires a lot of preparation to guide the students properly by providing information resources. (1999) found that both an inquiry-oriented and an explanationoriented instructional method were effective in PBL environment. share and reflect on topics that involve them in deep disciplinary content. According to researches a conflict between new information and previous learning may enhance the learning process. Ill-structured. key factors that encourage students to reflect upon learning in a PBL environment seem to focus on the use of ill-structured and authentic tasks. authentic. and scaffolding tools. and they are: Active. the type of instructional methods. and to generate hypotheses for the solutions. be mutually respectful. Additionally. supportive and active learning environments. students must be challenged to clarify the causes of the problem. he/she becomes a facilitator or guide in the process of finding solutions to the research problem. However. Creating flexible and active learning environments is also important in prompting reflective thinking during PBL. Virtanen et al. Andrusyszyn & Daive (1997) and Kinchin & Hay (2000) reported on the effectiveness of journal writing. To appropriately solve a problem in a PBL environment. for instance are known to promote reflective thinking. However. y y Distinctive Features of PBL Learning through Problem Solving: PBL introduces the student to the topic or course content through the process of problem solving as opposed to the traditional method where the student is introduced to the content first and is then supposed to apply it for problem solving. purposeful learning A learning setting that pays attention to multiple zones of proximal development y The legitimization of difference y A community of discourse y A community of practice (McGraw. Finally. it is important that students reflect on their understanding of an issue. . Community. Collaborative Approach: While solving a problem. however. and receiving coaching from peers and teachers.ACTIVITY-BASED STRATEGIES NURSING STRAT --. and how their new knowledge can be used to address the situation. these same five pieces can be found in problem-based learning.

ACTIVITY-BASED STRATEGIES NURSING STRAT --. y Although PBL tends to hone the analytical skills of the students through presenting them with real-life situations. Learning. goes beyond bookish knowledge and helps the students face and see through practical problems. creating an environment in which the students learn to see various approaches to solve one problem through group interactions. According to researches. self learning packets. Introduction and instructions I have left first until the last The introduction and instructions would of course come first in the module. what procedures to use in handling in assignments or scheduling skill test and what the roles of the educator and the learner are This is the part where the educator is selling the module Capturing the interest of the learners The use of humor and a lively conversational tone is used at this part . it is also found that often. Some teachers might not find this change of role very comfortable. This. All of a sudden. y PBL demands a collaborative approach towards problem solving. PBL is more likely to motivate and excite the students to learn. It might be too much to expect from them to decide their course of action. if they are told to analyze a given topic and determine their learning objectives all by themselves. VanAtta. Disadvantages of Problem Based Learning y While getting introduced to a new topic or course content. thus. y Students are habituated to classroom sessions with the instructors taking the center stage and transferring knowledge through lectures and notes. suggesting research and analysis strategies etc. Adults are motivated to learn material for which they see relevance 2. learning is enhanced when new information is presented through a meaningful context and comes in conflict with the existing knowledge. However. 1986) Uses Used to teach entire courses in academic settings and in graduate as well as undergraduate learners Used as bridge courses for LPNs and RNs returning to school for higher degrees Plans in developing a module It takes weeks to months More time is allotted for making SLMs that are on CD-ROMs Components of Self-Learning Modules: 1. but it is found out to be helpful if this part is written after all the instructional materials for the module has already been designed This portion includes instructions for the learner on how to work through the module. PBL demands a unique relation between the students and the teacher.GROUP 2 reading/reference list. they do not have sound theoretical knowledge on the subject matter. y Redefining the role of the tutor/instructor. This makes the team responsible for each other and not just for one s own self. online(e-:earning) or CD-ROMs Adult learners are motivated on their own. Adults prior experience is a resource for further learning. The instructor might also need to make himself/herself available in person or through email/telephone whenever the students require him/her during the research period. it is essential to generate a proper problem/situation/question. making learning more interesting. allows the students to partially determine their course of action with the help of the tutor. y As PBL deals with researching and solving problems. PBL ensures deeper understanding. in turn. so most probably the target learners are adults Self-directed learning is based on the following principles: 1. If an appropriate problem is not raised it is likely that the students would go out of track and completely miss the actual objective behind the entire course. PBL enhances the problem solving skills of the students as opposed to providing only theoretical knowledge. and individualized learning activity packages The idea of using SLMs began in the 1960s A self-contained unit or package materials for use by an individual For learners who are motivated to learn on their own usually adults Examples of SLMs include the use of hard copies(hand outs). wherein they need to play an active role in analyzing things for a given assignment. Advantages of Problem Based Learning y Being more students centric. engaging and activity based. where to locate the resources. therefore. 3. the self-evaluation guides. the students might not be in the best position to determine what is important for them and what is not. Adults are problem focused and readily learn material they can use to solve problems (Herrick. it is not mandatory for the instructor to be with the students always. especially for subjects in which they do not have any prior exposure. & Carlson 1998. they might get confused or lost. y Tutors/Instructors are expected to change their conventional modes of classroom teaching and prepare himself/herself to become a guide/facilitator of the students by providing them research and analysis guidance. without which the proper learning objectives cannot be determined. how is use the pretest. Jenkins. y By presenting the students with real-life situations. SELF-LEARNING MODULES Self-Learning Modules Also called self-directed modules. self-paced learning modules. y Allowing the students to use prior knowledge to solve a new problem.

6. or four-legged easel. handouts.g. Behavioral objectives This is the first step in the developmental process is writing the objectives or what are the goals that you want for the learner to attain or the primary purpose of the said module Pretest At this part of the module the educator has already identified the basic contents that he wants to include This includes some questions that assess knowledge or the content of the module itself If the pretest reveals mastery of certain units by the learner. Watching a video or slide presentations 6. Essay questions 4. Reading textbook chapters.GROUP 2 2. Answering study questions and getting feed back 5. Participating in group discussions Self evaluations This should accompany every unit These guides are short quizzes based on the objective that enable learners to check their progress The answer to the self-evaluation guides should be at the end of the module for faster feedback Performance of less than mastery level means that the learner must go back into the unit and repeat the appropriate learning activities Post test This is done while making self-evaluation tests questions This is usually at the last part of the module This is a written examination May consists of 1. typically supported on a tripod paper sheets is typically fixed to the upper edge. Using a computer program 7. Case analysis questions In the academic setting the learner usually receives a grade If the learner has not achieve mastery in the posttest he is subjected to repeat portions of the module and the learner must repeat the posttest A second post test is should always be ready Pilot testing At this portion the module is already complete ready for use but before use for large scale or for the intended purposes it is first subjected to pilot testing 1-2 people test the module first to over go flaws and snags of the module as well as to determine the amount of time the learner will complete the module After the pilot testing the module is further improved and used for it s said purposes Advantages: Ability to learn independently at one s own pace and time Promote active learning Provide immediate feedback on performances Educators are freed from the repetition of the same material every year Educators are given opportunities for creativity Modules make it possible for a curriculum to be standardized Reduces travel time Reduce the cost of in-service education Disadvantages: Some learners may miss learning with other people Some learners may miss the interactions May further lead to procrastination Learners may be less honest Modules take many hours to design and test Examples of Self-Learning Modules: SRA Books (Skills and Reading Activity Books) School Manuals (e. Reviewing diagrams. 4. he should be informed that he might be skipping that part of the module If the educator wants the learner to do self-evaluation and receive instant feedback.ACTIVITY-BASED STRATEGIES NURSING STRAT --. Matching type 3. The paper is flipped from one side of the top of the triangle box to the other. etc. speeches. RS1 Manual. Imagine a book that you would open at 270° angle and then lay on a table. Some of these are: y stand-alone flip chart: resembles a big isosceles triangle box that usually sits on a table. charts or pictures 3. articles or pamphlets 2.) CD ROMs Interactive CDs with instructions. Computer Manual. 5. A pad of Although most commonly supported on a tripod. Practicing psychomotor skills in a laboratory 8. Attending short lectures. symposiums and forums or even demonstrations 4. the educator includes the answers at the end of the module Learners need to know what level of performance constitutes mastery of the content (80-100%) Learning activities At this stage the educator has a really good idea on where he wants the learner to go but the educator still has to decide how is he going to help the learner to get there Adding various learning styles may help Activities may include: 1. flip charts come in various forms. Multiple choices 2. Such charts are commonly used for presentations. . pretest and evaluations E-learning websites 3. FLIP CHART A flip chart is a stationary item resembling a whiteboard.

making it possible for the presenter to see the same thing the audience is seeing. y Flipcharts are low-tech--no bulbs. y Some markers will bleed through the paper and mark the next sheet. y They are word-oriented (unless the presenter can draw). y You can set up a flipchart just about anywhere. Some flip charts may have a reduced version of the page that faces the audience printed on the back of the preceding page. Red seems bright. Flip charts are used in many different settings such as: y in any type of presentation where the papers pads are pre-filled with information on a given topic y for capturing information in meetings and brainstorming sessions y in classrooms and teaching institutions of any kind y to record relevant information in manufacturing plants y a creative drawing board for Art students y a palette for artists in life-drawing classes y for strategy coaching for sports teams y for teaching Advantages of Flipcharts A flipchart is just a big notepad set on an easel. but it's harder to read. y Flipcharts work great when you're soliciting ideas and feedback from the audience. Text is usually hand written with marker pens and may include figures or charts(recently scientists have developed a self writting system). y Recently. y Avoid long lists. you actually flip up two pages. The advantage of these more recent forms of stands is that it is easier to transport the flip chart from one location to another. A flipchart can be very effective when used in the right way. y Flipcharts work great in small groups (less than 50 people). They always work right. The disability action group "Armless" has stated that this is a significant step forward for disabilities groups to have conferences like normal people. A sheet can be flipped over by the presenter to continue to a new page. One solution is to staple two pages together at the bottom so you actually write on two pages at once. scientists have developed a digital self writing flip chart which writes word for word everything it is instructed to record. Tips for Using Flipcharts y The larger the group.GROUP 2 y metallic tripod (or easel) stand: usually has 3 or 4 metallic legs that are linked together at one extremity. y People tend to write too much information on a page. y Make sure you have fresh markers. no on-off switch. People have more trouble seeing the bottom. Definitely avoid yellow. y They shouldn't be used in groups larger than 50 people. . metallic mount on wheels: usually has a flat base to support the paper pad and is mounted on one or two legs that then have a set of wheels. the larger you need to write--and. Disadvantages of Flipcharts y They can't be reused. Others have teaching notes printed on the back. This is the most common type of flip chart stand. Some advantages: y You can develop charts and lists as you go. consequently. This system is known as the POGO system. which contrast strongly on the white background. y You don't need an electrical outlet or a screen. When you flip up a page. They can be difficult to read from a distance. Avoid that. named after the childrens bouncy toy madeb famous in the 1970's. Also being released into public sale is a flipchart which is self heighteneing. the less information you can cram onto a single page. A support board is attached to two of these legs to support the large paper pad. y Write only on the top two-thirds. y Use black or blue markers.ACTIVITY-BASED STRATEGIES NURSING STRAT --. y You can write on the chart as you speak. y It's difficult to use color effectively.