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VIVA VOCE

Experiments:
Section: A
1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential
difference versus current.
1) On what factors does the resistance per unit length of a wire depend?
On (i) resistivity of the material and (ii) area of cross section of the wire.
2) Is Ohm’s law universal?
No.
3) What are Non-Ohmic resistances?
These are the circuit elements which do not follow Ohm’s law. E.g. are p-n junction
diode, sugar solution.
4) Which has higher resistance; a thin wire or a thick wire of the same material having the
same length?
Thin wire.
5) How is conductivity connected with resistivity of a material?
They are reciprocal of each other.
6) Why does the resistivity of semiconductors decreases with rise in temperature?
Because some covalent bonds breaks with rise in temperature giving rise to increase in
the number of charge carriers in the form of electron and holes.
7) What is the direction of conventional current?
The direction of flow of positive charge.
8) Is electric current a vector or scalar? Why?
It is a scalar quantity because it does not follow the vector law of addition.
9) What is the resistance of an ideal ammeter?
Zero.
10) What is the resistance of an ideal voltmeter?
Infinite.
11) What do you mean by temperature coefficient of resistance of a material?
It is defined as the increase in resistance of a given conductor of that material per unit
resistance per degree rise in temperature.
12) What material is used for preparing standarad resistance coils?
manganin (alloy of 84% Cu, 12% Mn and 4% Ni) or constanton( 60%Cu and 40% Ni).

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13) Why do we prefer maganin for standard resistor?
Because its resistivity is high and temperature coefficient of resistivity is extremely
small.
14) It is usually said that current in an electric circuit be passed only while taking an
observation. Why?
So that temperature of resistance wire remain unchanged. If current is passed
continuously then due to heating effect of current the temperature of the wire rises. As
a result resistance rises and current falls.
15) What is the composition of constantan?
60% Cu and 40% Ni.
16) Would you prefer a thin connecting wire or a thick wire?
A thick connecting so that the resistance is small.
2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific
resistance of its material.
3. To verify the laws of combination series of resistances using a metre bridge.
4. To verify the laws of combination parallel of resistances using a metre bridge.
17) In experiment 1 you determined resistance of a wire using Ohm’s law. Which method
is better?
Using Metre bridge. Because it is a Null method.
18) Describe principle of Metre Bridge.
It works on Wheatstone bridge, an electric network of four resistors which forms the
sides of quadrilateral, a cell in one diagonal and a galvanometer in the other diagonal.
𝑃 𝑅
In a balance condition 𝑄 = 𝑆

19) What is another name of metre bridge?


Slide wire bridge.
20) Why Meter Bridge is called so?
Because it contains a 1 m long wire and is based on a Wheatstone bridge.
21) If you interchange the position of cell and galvanometer in a metre bridge arrangement
or Wheatstone bridge, will there be a change in balance point?
No.
22) What is the condition of maximum sensitivity of Wheatstone bridge?
All the resistors should be of the same order of magnitude.
23) Why should the balance point be obtained in the middle of the meter bridge wire?
Because in that condition all the four resistance are of nearly same magnitude and the
bridge will be most sensitive.

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24) Would you like to press the jockey gently (lightly) or too hard? Why?
The jockey is pressed lightly/gently. If pressed too hard it may affect the uniformity of
bridge wire.
25) Is metre bridge method suitable for measuring low resistance of the order of 0.001 Ω ?
Why?
No, because resistance of copper strips and end resistance (where bridge wire has been
soldered with copper stripes) cannot be neglected as compared to the unknown low
resistance.
26) Can metre bridge method measure unknown of the order of 1 kΩ or even more? Why?
No, because now current flowing will be very small and galvanometer will not be able
to show null point.
27) What is a Laclanche cell?
It is a cell having carbon rod as anode and zinc rod as cathode. Saturated solution of
NH4 Cl is the electrolyte where as MnO2 mixed with charcoal acts as a depolarizer.
28) What is the value of emf of a Leclanche cell?
1.46V
29) Can a Leclanche cell be used to supply steady current continuously for an hour?
No, because depolarization action is poor.
30) What is a Daniel Cell?
It is primary cell with copper vessel as anode and zinc road as the cathode. Dilute
sulphuric acid is the electrolyte.
31) What is the value of emf of a Daniel cell?
1.12V
32) What is a dry cell?
It is a portable version of Leclanche cell in which both electrolyte and depolarizer are
in the form of a paste.
33) Is it really dry?
No, dry cell is not completely dry. If completely dry, the cell becomes useless.
34) What is a galvanometer?
It is a sensitive device used to detect/measure electric current, even of the order of few
micro ampere.
35) What is the difference between a galvanometer and an ammeter?
An ammeter is basically a galvanometer, whose measuring range is comparatively
much higher.

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36) What do you mean by resistivity of a conductor?
It is defined as the resistance offered by a conductor of unit length and unit cross section
area of that material.
37) What is specific resistance?
Resistivity is also called specific resistance.
38) A resistance wire is stretched so as to double its length. What is its new resistivity?
Resistivity remains same as it does not depend on the dimensions of conductor.
39) What is reciprocal of resistance?
Electric conductance.
40) Define conductivity of a material.
Reciprocal of resistivity of a material is called its electrical conductivity.
41) What will be the equivalent resistance of n resistor, each of R when connected in
parallel/series?
𝑅
In parallel 𝑛 and in series 𝑛𝑅.

42) Name two parameters which determine the resistivity of a material?


(i) Its number density of free electrons,
(ii) The relaxation time.
43) Why should we get the null point in the middle of the metre bridge wire?
The metre bridge is most sensitive when the four resistances forming the wheatstone
bridge are equal. This is possible only if the balance point is somewhere near the middle
of the wire.
5. To compare the emf of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
44) What do you mean by emf of the cell?
It is the potential difference between its terminals when the cell is in an open circuit
condition, i.e. when no current is being drawn from it.
45) Is emf a force or energy to be supplied?
It is energy being supplied.
46) Are chemical reactions taking place in a primary cell reversible?
No (chemical reactions are reversible in secondary cell-it can be charged)
47) What do you mean by sensitivity of a potentiometer?
Its ability to measure very small voltages.
48) Can you use voltmeter for measuring emf of a cell? Why?
No, because for showing deflection voltmeter has to draw some current however small
it may be.

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49) What is the working principle of a potentiometer?
When constant current is passed through a uniform wire, the potential drop along the
wire is directly proportional to tits length and can be balanced precisely against an
unknown voltage.
50) Why do we use thick metallic strips for joining different wires of potentiometer?
So that resistance of strips is extremely small and may be neglected.
51) Name the quantity defined as potential drop per unit length.
Potential gradient.
52) On what factors does the value of potential gradient along a wire depend?
Resistance per unit length and the current flowing through the wire.
53) Which will be more sensitive a four wire potentiometer or a ten wire potentiometer?
Why?
A ten wire potentiometer, because for the same emf applied the potential gradient will
be lesser in the case of ten wire potentiometer.
54) Define internal resistance of a cell.
It is the resistance to flow of current in the circuit offered by the electrolyte of the cell.
55) On what factors does the internal resistance of cell depend?
It is directly proportional to separation between the electrodes of the cell.
It is inversely proportional to the area of the electrodes in contact with the electrolyte.
It is inversely proportional to the specific conductivity of the electrolyte
It increases with the increase in the magnitude of current drawn from the cell.
56) Name the best suited material for potentiometer wire. Why?
Manganin, because it has low temperature coefficient of resistivity.
57) What may be the causes of one sided deflection in the galvanometer used in
potentiometer experiment?
The emf of the cell connected in main circuit may not be more than the emf of the
primary cells whose emfs are to be compared.
The positive ends of all cells are not connected to the same end of the wire.
58) What remedial action would you take in such condition? (refer previous Question)
Firstly check the electrical connections and rectify the mistakes, if any. If the problem
persists, increase the current flowing in potentiometer circuit by reducing the resistance
from the rheostat. It will increase the fall in potential across the potentiometer wire. If
this fall in potential is more than ∈1 /∈2 , the problem will be solved.

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59) Why should the emf of auxiliary battery be greater than that of either cell?
If emf of auxiliary battery be ∈ then maximum possible value of potential difference
across the ends of potentiometer will be ∈. As ∈ is less than ∈1 𝑜𝑟 ∈2 , we shall not be
able to obtain a balance point with the cell whose emf is more than ∈.
60) How can we reduce the potential gradient for the potentiometer?
By connecting a high resistance in series of potentiometer r by taking a long
potentiometer wire.
61) Can we use potentiometer to find the internal resistance of a secondary cell? Explain.
No. The internal resistance of a secondary cell is of the order of 10−2 Ω and that is the
order of magnitude of contact resistances also.
62) Why do we shunt galvanometer till we reach near null point and then we remove the
shunt?
This is done to protect the galvanometer from getting damaged due to excessive current
which may flow through it near end points.
63) Can terminal potential difference of a cell be more than its emf? If yes, how?
Yes. When current is being supplied to a cell instead of drawing from it. (as at the time
of charging of a secondary cell)
64) Would you prefer balance point on the first wire or on the last wire and why?
On the last wire so that length may be measured precisely and percentage error in
measurement is least.
65) Does internal resistance of a given cell remain constant throughout?
No. as a cell is being discharged its internal resistance goes on increasing.
6. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its
figure of merit.
7. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an
voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
8. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an
ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.
66) Why is it known as half deflection method?
Because in this method we reduce the deflection from θ to θ /2 by adjusting the value
of shunt resistance.
67) Explain the principle of this method.
The value of shunt resistance needed to reduce galvanometer deflection half depends
on the value of galvanometer resistance.
68) How do you covert a galvanometer into an ammeter?
By connecting a suitable low resistance in parallel (shunt) to the galvanometer.

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69) How do you convert a galvanometer into a voltmeter?
By connecting a high resistance in series to the coil of a galvanometer.
70) Can a moving coil galvanometer be used for measuring ac? Why?
No. In moving coil galvanometer deflection θ α current (I) and in case of ac the average
value over the cycle is zero. Therefore no deflection is recorded by a moving coil
galvanometer.
71) What is meant by figure of merit of a galvanometer?
It is the amount of current required to produce a deflection of one division and is given
𝐸
by 𝑘 = (𝑅+𝐺)𝜃

72) What is current sensitivity of a galvanometer?


𝜃
It is defined a deflection produced by unit current i.e., current sensibility= 𝐼 .

73) How is current sensitivity related to figure of merit?


1
The two are reciprocal of each other i .e, 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝑘.

74) What is voltage sensitivity?


θ
Deflection per unit voltage i.e., 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 = V.

75) How current and voltage sensitivity related with each other?
𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 =
𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑖𝑙
76) Why an ammeter should have low resistance?
So that, when connected in the circuit it does not significantly alter the value of current.
77) Why is ammeter connected in series in a circuit?
Because in series same current flows through all circuit elements and hence in series
the current to be measured passes through it.
78) Why voltmeter has high resistance?
So that it draws very small current and does not alter significantly the potential
difference between the points it is connected across.

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Section: B
9. To find the focal length of a concave mirror by plotting graphs between u and v
10. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v.
11. To find the focal length of a convex mirror using a convex lens.
79) Differentiate between Regular and irregular reflection.
When a parallel beam of light is incident on a smooth surface it causes regular reflection
and the reflected beam will be parallel. In irregular reflection, if a parallel beam of light
is incident on a rough surface, the reflected light spreads in different directions.
Irregular reflection will not form clear and sharp image.
80) What is the relation between focal length and radius of curvature of a spherical mirror?
𝑅
𝑓=
2
81) Is this relation true for all cases?
No, the relation is true for the mirrors having less curvature.
82) What is Parallex?
Parallex is the relative or apparent shift in the position of the two objects (placed at
different distances from the eye) due to sideways shift in the position of the observer’s
eye.
83) What is the cause of parallax?
It occurs when two points seen by the eye are at different distances from the eye.
84) Differentiate between Real and virtual image.
Real image is formed due to actual intersection of reflected/refracted rays while the
virtual image is formed when reflected/refracted rays appear to meet.
Real image is always inverted whereas virtual image is erect.
Real image can be obtained on screen while virtual image cannot be obtained on screen.
85) What do you mean by index error or bench error?
The difference between the correct distance of the tip of the pin from the pole of a
mirror and the distance that we measure by reading the positions of the mirror and the
pin on the bench scale with the help of the index arks is called index error.
86) What is the formula for index correction?
index correction=real distance –observed distance.
87) What is spherical aberration?
It is the defect of a spherical mirror of large aperture due to which it is unable to make
a point image of a point object.
88) Is index correction added/subtracted from the observed distance?
Added.

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89) What is the magnification produced by a plane mirror?
Unity.
90) What is the focal length of the plane mirror?
Infinity
91) What is the nature of the graph between u and v?
Rectangular hyperbola
92) What is the nature of the graph between 1/u and1/ v ?
Straight line.
93) Can you find rough focal length of a convex mirror?
No
94) Which of the convex lens (thick or thin) has a larger focal length?
Thin convex lens.
95) What will be the effect on the focal length of a lens when immersed in water?
Focal length increases.
96) What do you mean by conjugate foci for a convex lens?
These are two points situated on the principal axis of a convex lens such that if the
object is situated at any one of these points, its real image will be formed at the other
point.
97) What is the minimum distance between an object and its real image formed by a convex
lens?
4f
98) Which method are you employing to determine focal length of convex mirror?
By using a convex lens.
12. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph
between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex lens and plane mirror.
99) Define Prism.
A prism is a piece of a transparent refracting material bound by two plane refracting
surfaces inclined to each other at an angle.
100) Define angle of minimum deviation?
The minimum angle through which a ray incident on the prism is deviated on passing
through the prism is called the angle of minimum deviation.
101) Does the refractive index change with the colour of light?
Yes, refractive index decreases with increase in wavelength and vice versa. Thus 𝜇𝑣 >
𝜇𝑟 .

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102) What is the SI unit of refractive index?
Refractive index is a unit less quantity.
103) Does the angle of minimum deviation depend on the angle of incidence and angle of
prism?
Yes. The angle of minimum deviation depends on the value of angle of prism as well
as the angle of incidence. 𝐷𝑚 = 2𝑖 − 𝐴
104) Is angle of deviation from a small angled prism independent of the angle of incidence?
Yes.
105) State factors on which the angle of deviation depends.
Angle of prism, nature of material of the prism, angle of incidence and colour of light
used i.e. wavelength of light.
106) What is special about the path of refracted ray of light when a prism is set in minimum
deviation position?
The refracted ray travels parallel to the base.
107) On what factors does refractive index depend?
Nature of material, colour or wavelength of light.
14. To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse
bias.
15. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break
down voltage.
108) How do semiconductor differ from metals?
In metals conduction band overlaps with the valance band. In semiconductor there is a
small energy gap between conduction band and valence band.
109) What is the electrical conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor at absolute zero
temperature?
Zero
110) Define elemental and compound semi-conductors.
The semiconductors like silicon and germanium are elements, therefore they are known
as elemental semi-conductors on the other hand many compounds e.g. 𝐺𝑎𝐴𝑠, 𝐻𝑔𝑙2 and
many more are known as compound semiconductor.
111) Can you tell the order of magnitude of forward and reverse current.
Forward current is in milliamperes whereas reverse current is in microamperes.
112) What is knee voltage?
The forward characteristics of a p-n junction diode shows a rise in forward current only
beyond a certain forward voltage. This value of forward voltage is called knee voltage.

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113) What is cut in or offset voltage of a p-n junction diode?
It is same as the knee voltage.
114) How does conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor change with rise in temperature?
Conductivity rises with rise in temperature.
115) Generally what is the degree of doping?
Few parts of impurity atoms per million atoms of pure semiconducting material.
116) Which dopant is to be used to prepare a n-type semiconductor and why?
A pentavalent element e.g. P, As, Sb etc.. It is because now each impurity atom can
provide an extra electron which may conduct.
117) Which dopant is to be used to prepare a p-type semiconductor and why?
A trivalent element e.g. B, Al, Ga, In etc.. It is because now each impurity atom tends
to accept an electron i.e. one hole is produced which can conduct.
118) What is depletion layer (region)?
Depletion layer is a thin layer on either side of junction consisting of immobile ion
cores devoid of their electrons or holes.
119) How is depletion layer formed?
When p-n junction is prepared, due to migration of electrons and holes across the
junction, the n-region of junction has its electrons neutralized by holes from the p-
region and vice versa. As a result depletion layer is formed.
120) What is barrier potential of a p-n junction?
As a result of formation of depletion layer, potential on n-side of junction becomes
higher or +ve and on p-side lower or –ve. Thus, a potential difference is created which
opposes further migration of electrons/ holes across the junction. It is known as the
barrier potential of the junction.
121) What is approximate value of barrier potential?
About 0.2 V for germanium and 0.7 V for silicon.
122) Why a p-n junction is called diode?
Because it behaves like a two electrode device.
123) What is the main use of p-n junction diode?
As a rectifier to convert alternating voltage to unidirectional output voltage.
124) What is a Zener diode?
It is a special type of diode designed by C. Zener to operate in reverse bias in the
breakdown region.
125) What is the main use of Zener Diode?
As a voltage regulator in dc circuits.

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126) Can a zener diode acts as under voltage regulator?
No, it can act only an over voltage regulator.
127) Name any other type of breakdown of p-n junction apart from zener breakdown.
Avalanche breakdown. Zener breakdown occurs in any narrow junctions and avalanche
breakdown occurs in wider junctions.
128) What is a junction transistor?
A junction transistor is a semiconductor device consisting of two p-n junction joined
back to back.
129) Which segment of transistor is most heavily doped and why?
The emitter so that it may emit a large number of electrons/holes when forward biased.
130) Emitter and collector sections of a transistor are alike? Are their functions alike?
No, the emitter and collector sections are made of same type of intrinsic semiconductor,
but they are not alike. The emitter section is heavily doped, narrow and longer. This
provides a larger number of charge carriers. The collector section is lightly doped, broad
and shorter. It provides an easy passage to the free charge carriers from emitter.
131) Which are the three characteristics generally plotted for a transistor?
Input characteristics, output characteristics and transfer characteristics.
132) In which configuration do you prefer to operate a transistor and why?
In CE configuration because current gain and voltage gain are quite high in this
configuration.
133) What is the main use of a transistor?
It acts as an amplifier.
134) What is the phase difference between input and output of CE transistor?
π radians. Input and output are out of phase.
135) Which junction transistor do you prefer for faster action and why?
For faster action n-p-n transistor is preferred over p-np junction transistor because
mobility of majority charge carriers (electrons) in n-p-n junction transistor is more than
the mobility of holes.
136) What is transistor biasing rule?
To bias a transistor in its active region, emitter is forward biased and collector is reverse
biased.
137) If two p-n junction diodes joined back to back will it work as p-n-p or n-p-n transistor?
No, on joining two p-n junction diodes the improvised transistor will have a base region
of large thickness and doping level. This formation cannot function like a transistor
because the base has to be thin and lightly doped.

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Activities:
1. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse
and a power source.
138) Why three pin sockets and plugs preferred over two pin ones?
Three pin sockets and plugs can have earth connections for safety.
139) Which material is preferred to prepare fuse wire?
The material of fuse wire should have a high resistivity but low melting point.
140) Does the rating of fuse wire depend on its length?
No
141) Generally what is the colour of outer coating of the earth wire?
Green.
142) On what voltage our household electric circuit work?
220V AC
143) How many wires are used in house hold electric circuit?
Three – live (red), neutral (Black) and earth (Green) wire.
144) Though same current flows through the electric line wires and the bulb filament, yet
only the filament glows. Why?
The bulb filament has much higher resistance than the electric line wires and 𝐻 = 𝐼 2 𝑅𝑡
2. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
Same as Exp 1.
3. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.
Same as Exp 5.
4. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a capacitor from
mixed collection of such items.
5. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor. (ii) distinguish between npn and
pnp type transistors. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and
an LED. (iv) check wether a given electronic component (e.g. diode, transistor or IC)
is in working order.
145) What is an AVO meter?
A multimeter is also called an AVO meter. A- ampere, V-volt and O-ohms
146) What is a carbon resistor?
A carbon resistor is a simple, cheap and small sized resistor commonly used in
electronic circuits.
147) Which band indicates the decimal multiplier in a carbon resistor colour coding?
The third band.

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148) What do you mean by tolerance of a carbon resistor?
Tolerance means maximum permissible percentage fluctuation in value of its
resistance.
149) If there is no fourth band present on a carbon resistor, then what does it signify?
Tolerance = 20%
150) Does a capacitor conduct with dc? Why?
No, because the dielectric present between the plates of a capacitor offers an
extraordinarily high resistance.
151) Why is the direction of arrowhead in n-p-n transistor from base to emitter?
It shows the direction of conventional current.
152) What is the difference between a p-n junction diode and a LED?
LED is prepared from some suitable compound semiconductor for which forbidden
energy gap lies between 1.8 eV and 3.0 eV when it operates in forward bias, it emits
light of particular colour which depends on the value of forbidden energy gap. An
ordinary p-n junction diode emit no light.
153) What is the biasing rule for transistor?
To bias a transistor in its active region, emitter is forward biased and collector is
reversed biased.
154) Which junction transistor do you prefer for faster action and why?
n-p-n because mobility of majority charge carriers (electrons) is more than mobility
of holes.
155) What material is used for preparing LED?
A compound semiconductor lie gallium Arsenide-Phosphide.
156) What is an IC?
An IC (integrated circuit) is an entire electronic circuit consisting of many passive
components like resistors and capacitors and active components like transistors on a
single block (or chip) of a semiconductor material, generally silicon.
157) What are Active Devices?
An active device is any type of circuit component with the ability to electrically control
electron flow (electricity controlling electricity). In order for a circuit to be properly
called electronic, it must contain at least one active device. Active devices include, but
are not limited to, vacuum tubes, transistors.
158) What are Passive Devices?
Components incapable of controlling current by means of another electrical signal are
called passive devices. Resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers.

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