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As an indicator of the inrush current¶s level serves the magnitude of its first peak.INRUSH CURRENT DEFINITION OF INRUSH CURRENT A momentary input current surge. Hotswap controllers or other forms of protection are often used to limit inrush current. The level of the inrush current depends on the design of a transformer and its circuit. To this goal the remanence . The inrush current is highly asymmetric. lower the available supply voltage to other circuits. Then the procedure of calculation of the inrush current was developed.Therefore the obvious goal is to limit the level and the duration of the inrush current . measured during the initial turn-on of the power supply. The first peak of an inrush current may exceed many times the value of a transformer¶s nominal current . This current reduces to a lower steady-state current once the input capacitors charge. but ± to the authors¶ best knowledge ± not to the extent presented in this paper. Since the inrush current might be seriously disturbing (sometimes even devastating)phenomenon its extreme value should be assessed for a given transformer. because uncontrolled inrush can damage components. It also depends on the instant (the phase of a source¶s voltage) the transformer is switched on as well as the value of the remanence flux just before switching on. This relation is recognized in the literature of the subject . and cause system errors RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INRUSH CURRENT AND A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER The transient magnetizing current of a transformer flowing after connecting the transformer with AC source is called the inrush current . Thus for some transformer the investigated relation was measured using some specially designed apparatus of the measuring set. It results from saturation of a core of the transformer caused by excessive growth of a magnetic flux in one direction only. This paper deals with the relation between the level of the inrush current and the phases of disconnecting a single phase transformer from AC source and then connecting it to the same source.

) The voltage that appears in the secondary is caused by the change in the shared magnetic field. This property is called Mutual Inductance. A device which utilizes mutual inductance to alter the voltage or current output is called a transformer. transformers work on A. flux of the examined transformer¶s core in a function of switching off phase of a230 V AC voltage was determined. . Like inductance.C. Exploiting that knowledge and the well known relation between the voltage and the flux the magnitude of first peak of the inrush current for a set of pairs of switching off ± switching on phases of the flux of the examined transformer¶s core in a function of switching off phase of a230 V AC voltage was determined.Mutual Inductance DEFINITION A measure of the relation between the change of current flow in one circuit to the electric potential generated in another by mutual induction. The inductor that creates the magnetic field is called the primary coil. since the voltage and current change continuously. power. each time the current through the primary changes. we can actually transfer voltage and current from one inductor to another. we need to know which materials form the path for magnetic flux. Air core coils have low inductance. Transformers are designed to have the greatest mutual inductance possible by winding both coils on the same core. Cores of iron or other magnetic materials are better 'conductors' of magnetic flux. A mathematical model of the magnetizing characteristics of the examined transformer within the magnetic flux range widely enough has been established. and the inductor that picks up the magnetic field is called the secondary coil. Thus. mutual inductance is measured in henries RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MUTUAL INDUCTANCE AND A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER If we accidentally or purposefully put two inductors close together. (In calculations for inductance.

It is measured in units of tesla. or magnetic flux lines. v is the velocity of the charge.FLUX DENSITY DEFINITION: A vector quantity measuring the strength and direction of the magnetic field around a magnet or an electric current. and × is the vector product. passing through a specific area. Magnetic flux density is equal to magnetic field strength times the magnetic permeability in the region in which the field exists. Also called magnetic flux. RELATION BETWEEN FLUX DENSITY AND A SINGLE . Magnetic flux density also can be understood as the density of magnetic lines of force. Electric charges moving through a magnetic field are subject to a force described by the equation (F = qv × B) where q is the amount of electric charge. B is the magnetic flux density at the position of the charge. magnetic induction.

This technique is most practical for digital beamforming antennas where the matrix operation can be readily implemented RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MUTUAL COUPLING AND A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER .MUTUAL COUPLING DEFINITION A technique to compensate for mutual coupling in a small array is developed and experimentally verified. This. the compensation consists of a matrix multiplication performed on the received-signal vector. in effect. restores the signals as received by the isolated elements in the absence of mutual coupling. Mathematically.