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, President of CS Structural Engineers Inc., 413-4, Togok2-Dong, Seoul, Korea Tel : 82-2-574-2355, Fax : 82-2-578-8786, Web site : http://www.cs.co.kr, E-Mail : firstname.lastname@example.org 1. INTRODUCTION 2. STRUCTURAL PLAN 3. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 4. MEMBER DESIGN
Chonju stadium has 42,000 seats with 260mⅹ160m. All aspects are designed in accordance with FIFA standards. The roof of stadium covers 20,000㎡ that is 87.5% of Stadium area(FIFA requires 60% of Stadium area). The roof structure is comprised of two major structural systems. One is the cablestayed truss structure and the other is open-dome structure. A prismatic steel truss(inner ring truss) acts as primary support system to the roof, which is suspended at 28 positions around stadium by φ65.1~84.9 mm front stay cables. The 28 front and back stay cables are suspended by four 63.0m-high masts located at corner of stadium. The ring truss (inner ring) and the perimeter truss (outer ring) supported by A-shaped column make the roof behave as a dome. A system of steel rod bracing in the plane of the roof transfers stability and in-plane forces back to the A-shaped columns. 1. INTRODUCTION Holding of 2002 World Cup Games gives both Korea and Japan the opportunity to build a lot of large-scaled stadia, and each of it is designed uniquely. The complicated analysis and design processes are applied in order to satisfy the roof-ratio suggested by FIFA. The structural system of Chonju Stadium has particular meaning (Fig. 1). To mention it in detail, the mast signifies the prayer for a peace and a year of plenty in the region, the tensioned cable means the kayakeum(a twelve sprung Korean harp) of Chonju and the arc of the roof presents a hapjoogsun(Korean traditional fan which can be folded). The detailed analyses and designs are performed based on the above concept so that the system of the roof is structurally reasonable and suitable for the construction and the maintenance.
Architectural Firm of this design is Pos-A.C. Seoul Korea. The Structural firm is C·S structural engineers Inc. associated with Pos-Midas Engineering Co. Ltd. in Seoul. The main contractor is Sung-Won Construction Co. Ltd. associated with Dong-Bu Construction Co. Ltd. and Ssang-Yong Construction Co. Ltd.
Figure 1. Chonju World Cup Stadium
Figure 2. Plan of the roof structure
2. STRUCTURAL PLAN 2.1 Structural outline Chonju stadium has about 42,000 seats and the roof surrounds 20,000m2. The roof is again divided into four roofs such as a fan shape and each part is bound with ring truss, branch beam and floor stay cable continued in the four corners as in shown Fig. 2. The large mast is established by using the dead space in the four corners of the stand, and then roof truss is tensioned. Inside of the stadium can be efficient and free with the aid of these systems. Because a cable can not resist compression stress, an initial tension stress remained at all cases of external force is introduced in the roof-suspending cables with the truss-like triangular shape. Geometric non-linearity of the cable members is carefully considered in the analysis phase. To guarantee the stability of the roof structure, it is very important that the structure should behave as a diaphragm. To satisfy this requirement, round-sectioned tubes and tension rods are braced between the main trusses. The tension rods, however, can not resist compression stress like a cable. Initial tension stress is also applied to them.
3 Strength of rods Diameter Tension test Modulus of Sign SM490 B (KS D 3515) SM490 TMC (KS D 3515) SM490 B (KS D 3515) Yield strength(fy) 3. 2.3tonf/cm2. Welded sections Thick(mm) ~ 40 41 ~ 90 91 ~ (2) Steel tubes SPS 490 (Fy=3.2 100.7 2. CrossMetallic Minimum Breaking cableconstruction Diameter(mm) Area (mm2) Load (metric tonf) 6×WS(36) + 7×7CFRC 65.3. Table 2. Detailed properties of cables are shown in Table 2.2 Structural Members Structural members of this project are designed using domestic products as much as possible.2 Detailed properties of the used cables Wire rope Nominal Approx.8 5586 745. Table 2.3 High-strength steel rods (roof brace) High-strength steel rods are used as the tension members that are not too much long. Details of this joint are elaborately determined so that the hinged joint would not be broken away by earthquake forces.3 4994 671. and all of them can be offered by domestic producers. KS D 3566) The wire ropes used are selected in accordance with the ASTM A603-88.3 tonf/cm2 3.3 tonf/cm2 220.127.116.11. This is also advantageous in the construction phase.1 Welded sections and tubes (1) Welded sections Table 2. The minimum elastic modulus of the pre-stretched single rope of A-grade coating is 14.9 3963 529.2. and the strengths of rods are varied in two ways according to their use as shown in Table 2. and an Agrade coating is assigned upon them. 2.060kgf/mm2.0 tonf/cm2 .0 8×WS(36) 84.Base parts of the mast are designed to have hinged joint in all directions in order not to transfer the excessive moments to the foundation structure.8 +(8×7+1×19)CFRC 95.1 2198 303.
20 830 12 ROA (%) min. 610 980 Yield Elongation strength Percentage (%) (N/ mm2) min.4 Sockets and Fittings (1) Cable joints On the cable joints and on the joints with complicated details. Figure 3. SCW550 or ASTM A148 80-50. Weighted load on Main Truss Figure 7.2. Lateral load on Main Truss Figure 8. Suspension Figure 4. (2) Rod joints Use same material as high-strength rod. 460 min. the material for sockets and fittings used for them is cast steel. Diaphragm . 19×104 19×104 2. Arch Figure 6. 45 45 elasticity (N/ mm2) min. Valley Cable Truss Figure 5.(mm) 19~146 19~146 Tension strength (N/ mm2) min. It is selected according to the KSD4106.
3. diaphragm effect. which in return. and these tension forces are transferred to the base through the mast (Fig. A large-scaled model is analyzed to check the general behavior of the entire structure. Thus. One is the suspension system in which the cables suspend the ring truss. produces not only the lateral force but also the up-lift force on the roof structure. The design of each structural member is performed after checking all of the results in the above simulations. Because Chonju stadium has irregular shape. is connected to the main trusses.1 Gravity system A primary concept is that gravity loads of the ring truss and the main trusses are resisted by tension forces of the cables. 3. Wind load. Thus. 3). 2. All anticipated forces during the life cycle of the structure can be resisted by two structural systems.2.2 Lateral system As stated above. Another is the dome-like system composed of the perimeter truss and the ring truss. is fortified by bracing rods between the main trusses (Fig. Structural analysis 3. . Gravity loads of the main trusses are resisted in part by the front stay cable assisted by the ring truss and the perimeter truss.3. it is very difficult to ascertain the coordinates of the structure. the front guy is designed to resist this force by tension stress in cooperation with the ring truss and the sub-front guy cable below the main truss (Fig. 8. 4). the input of the nodal coordinates in FEM modeling is made by reading one of the resulting files from the 3-D CAD program. 6 and Fig. MIDAS-GEN module. 2.3 Structural system of the roof The roof-suspending structure is composed of two primal structural concepts.). A lot of FEM models are simulated to reflect the accurate configurations of each part of the structure . 7). not only the consumed time during input of the nodal coordinates of the structural model is reduced but also the configurational difference between the real structure and the structural model is minimized. The tension force in the front stay cable introduces compression to the branch beam. and in part by the support of the A-shaped post (Fig. which provides additional stiffness to arch action of ring truss (Fig. which is provided first by the ring truss and the perimeter truss.1 Introduction FEM analysis of the structural model is performed mainly by the commercial program. however. 5). In this way. and a string of small detailed model is analyzed to confirm safety of the structurally suspicious parts of the structure.
3. However.2.To express the dynamic modes shapes as accurately as possible. light.2 Design loads In the design of the roof structure.2 Live loads The roof live loads of 60kgf/m2 are applied in accordance with the ANSI regulation hard accessing roof.1 Dead loads The 20 percentage of the dead load. 3. is added to themselves secondary.2. finish. (1) Equivalent static lateral force procedure Static analysis is used for a regular structure. Consequently wind loads are used 150kg/㎡ in an upward and downward direction and the result by wind tunnel test is analyzed as another load cases. it is analyzed by considering the value equivalent to 10% of the dead load as seismic load in the schematic design. 3. Response spectrum analysis is used for dynamic analysis. the model for a dynamic analysis is built separately modifying the model for a static analysis.4 Seismic loads Analysis for Seismic design is divided into two parts.2.3 Wind loads Chonju City comes under Exposure Category B. As snow loads are smaller than live loads. snow loads are replaced by live loads in the load combination. . It results from that the stadium is placed at the outside of Chonju City and its surroundings are farms. as it is difficult to assume the member of a roof structure through dynamic analysis. speaker and so on. 3.2. the weight of connection and weld of the roof. but Chonju stadium is included to C. And the supplemental loads include purlin. For the detail. dynamic analysis is done using the former results. the loads written bellow are included and each load is used for the combination. 3. The system of Chonju stadium is different from the usual and only static analysis cannot be used for considering the structural characteristics. (2) Dynamic analysis Dynamic analysis is executed for reflecting the dynamic features of the irregular structures.
3.Dead load + Live load + Temperature load + Pretension .Dead load + Live load + Seismic load + Pretension .2. 3. Then maximum response of the structure is computed by combining modes. These forces are considered as extra loads since the pretension forces are acted as the loads in members except cables 3.6 Pretension forces The pretension forces in cable make the roof a active structural system forces. For the combination of modes CQC (Complete Quadratic Combination) method is applied in this design.Dead load + Live load + Wind load + Pretension . Then it is possible to . In the steel member of the roof exposed to the direct rays of the sun.Dead load + Seismic load + Temperature load + Pretension .3.4 Analysis for cables Since cables possess both material and geometrical nonlinear features.Dead load + Wind load + Temperature load + Pretension . The cable member applied in Chonju stadium is not a suspension cable but a stayed cable.5 Temperature loads Temperature loads are based on meteorological observation datum. 3.Dead load + Live load + Wind load + Temperature load + Pretension .2.1 Long-term loads .Dead load + Live load + Seismic load + Temperature load + Pretension 3.3.The response for each mode is derived based on response spectrum analysis using design spectrum by each regulation.Dead load + Live load + Pretension 3. the value +45°C is applied. The value +20°C for a temperature rise and –30°C for a temperature fall are used. 3. it is difficult to analyze the members by using usual static analysis method. Load combination Load combination methods for member design by regulation are as follows.2 Short-term loads .
s (1) Where. Effective modulus of elasticity in sagging by the self-weight is as follows. After adjusting the length of the cables. (1) Elasticity of the cables The problem about the geometrical nonlinear means that the sag resulted from the self-weight of cable members transforms the effective modulus of elasticity of cables. The procedure analyzed linearly by considering the nonlinear of the cables is as follows. (2) Analysis procedure The structural analysis and design of the cables to consider nonlinear features can be obtained by the following procedure. Among the material nonlinear and the geometrical nonlinear.analyze by substituting for linear members according to considering the former characteristics. the problem about the geometrical nonlinear must be considered as extra analysis process. It means that modulus of elasticity is altered according to more or less of the loads. sag and member forces by the self-weight take place in the cables. It will end in behaving nonlinearly. ① Compute the effective modulus of elasticity (E90) to come under 90% of modulus of elasticity (E) of the cables ② Calculate the member forces (T) corresponding to E90 for each cable ③ Obtain the pretension force correspond to E90 ④ Get Eeq resulted from step ③ for each cable . member forces increase but degree of sag decreases. : : : : : : Effective modulus of elasticity of cables Regular modulus of elasticity of cables Self-weight per unit length of cables Horizontally projected length of cables Area of cables Member forces In above form it is represented that effective modulus of elasticity is closely related with member forces in the cables. while deriving the uniformed modulus of elasticity from pre-stretching work (introduced in manufacturing cables) solves the problem about the material nonlinear. As the loads increase.
mass. In addition the efficiency of the Sub Front Guy is examined by the eigen analysis according to existence of members (Section 3. a number of models are used for accurate analysis of the structural members assumed through the static analysis in the schematic design. To estimate the effects for the seismic load.6 Analysis considering the construction courses The construction process affects the member forces directly. The standard height to erect all the roof structure is determined by the upper level of this device. As stated above. Its accurate understanding is required. The shape of members is decided by analysis as the present shape of the Rear Guy. Chonju stadium is designed by structural analysis considered the construction process. The construction courses in each step are as follows. All members of the roof are included in this model and it takes 24 hours to analyze including the dynamic analysis. which is the form using all truss elements in the roof. moment of inertia and torsional rigidity unite together truss elements. the lower part of the structure is simplified for saving the run-time and analyzing efficiently.1). The Jack down device is constructed on the top of the shore. Also the propriety of the former analysis is checked with the result of complete model.5 Dynamic analysis The model for dynamic analysis is varied with the analysis purpose: the model for checking the member of roof and a analyzing the lower part of the structure. The construction process is subdivided.5. In particular the deviation of the member forces in the same member is getting worse according to construction in the complicated structure. (a) 2nd mode (b) 3rd mode Figure 9.⑤ Analyze and design with the pretension force and Eeq obtained from step ③ and ④ 3. Step 1: A preparatory stage to build the roof structure First a temporary shore is installed in the lower end of a Ring Truss. Therefore. Mode shape (c) 4th mode 3. . It is the simplified system that the area. this model is constructed on a large scale. Therefore. and then the separated load patterns are applied to the design.
Main Truss. According to the term of work. Step 3: Installation of the mast Since the establishment of the mast and branch beam is related with the stability of the whole roof. they must be supported by the temporary cables and members under the construction. Besides the roof brace to bind the roof truss is installed and the length for each is adjusted. Step 4: Installation of the Front Stay The upper cable in the front of the roof is constructed. the former things can be constructed at a time in several places.Step 2: Installation of the roof truss The roof truss must be set up rationally by the erection order. . Ring Truss and Perimeter Truss are piled one on another.
the roof structure erection is completed.400 H : 3.8 × 4t ~ φ216.1 Truss member Member φ318.000 × 8t . 4. The examination of excess and deficiency of inducted pretension is performed at the same time as compared with the standard amount in each stage.3 Classification MainTruss Name MT1 ~ MT16 A B C D A B C D Ring Truss RT1~ RT17 × × × × × × 12t 9t 7t 9t 35t 16t Length(mm) W : 1.3 φ139.6 φ139. Step 6: Adjust the length of the roof cable / Introduction of the pretension The pretension is introduced to the roof cable. The whole-inducted pretension capacity is divided into several stages.4 φ700.2 × 4.Step 5: Installation of the Rear Stay and Rear Guy The cables in the backside of the roof are constructed.1 Truss design Table 4. Step 8: Installation of the Front Guy The lower cable in the front of the roof is constructed.4 × 6t φ165.200 ~ 2.000 W : 2. Step 9: Completion of controlling the cable pretension The last tensioning capacity of each cable is checked and the final stress and displacements are examined. MEMBER DESIGN 4.0 φ267. Step 7: Jack down the temporary shore After the appropriate jack-down height is confirmed.5t ~ φ216.5 × 6t ~ φ500.0 φ508. and then the necessary pretension force is inducted.0 φ267.4 × 6t ~ φ355.0 × 12t ~ φ508. Step 10: Completion of erection If the jack down device and temporary support are dismembered. Jack down is gradually executed.8 × 4t ~ φ267.500 ~ 3.0 × 25t ~ φ700.400 H : 1.
2 Cable design The design strength of cables is based on the load combination about the tension of cables specified in UBC(1994).2.6 681.9 1368.7 1368.0 1260 29 66.9 65.8 45. The results are listed in Table 4.2 φ139.5t 4t ~ ~ ~ ~ φ508.11066.500 (a) Ring Truss (b) Main Truss & Perimeter Truss(c) Roof bracing Figure 11.3 φ165. e (mm) FSC1 FSC2 FSC3 FSC4 FSC5 FSC6 FSC7 RSC RGC 65.5 φ165.5 34.1 65.A B Perimeter TrussPT1~PT16 C D φ355.22 0.1 65.0 1260 29 58.9 142.8 × × × × 9t 6t 4. 1398.6 2388.5 29. The shapes of the main truss are all the same except cantilever parts from MT1 to MT 16 (Table 4.34 0. 568.1).0 1260 44 143. Truss member and Roof bracing All member of Truss in the roof structure are designed to use steel pipe.7 33.8 26.5 142. Table 4.0 1260 126 17001274.4 1260 72 283.8 1379.1 84.8 6×100.53 0.3 1260 24 73. 738.4824.6 φ318.2 × × × × 16t 12t 8t 7t W : 1.7 1399.3 49.1 84.6 1379.8 1336.9 303. 4 6 1260 222 17001667.19 0. 5 9 6 Ratio 0. 4.4 2388.6 46.2 Cable Design CableNam NominalDia.8 681.70 .200 H : 1.2 1378.1 1379. The construction processes are under consideration in the design of cables. For the construction convenience each member is designed straight.2 416.42 0.9 2×84.2 303.9 2×84.2 48.0 φ355.1 6×100.9 82.3 1260 72 285.9 303.24 0.8 nor E90(t/cm2 TE T1 Tmax Tmin Tnor E T (t/cm2 allo ) (ton) (ton) (ton) (ton) (ton) (ton) ) 1260 34 49.42 0.16 0.6 φ216.0 303.0 44.6 76.
1 303.49 1260 28 60 165.11 1260 30 88 45.5 18.36 1260 13 53 71.1 303. The standardized Rods by the domestic production are applied.0 1341.8 1275.4 416.1 1398.7 28.2 416.5 29.40 1260 14 53 53.3 Steel Rod Sign FBR3.4 0. The Steel Rods used as the brace of the roof are consisted of the members shown in Table 4.FGC1 FGC2 SSC1 SSC2 SGC1 SGC2 FRSC1 FRSC2 ※ 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) E 84.3.9 65.3 Rod design The Rods are used in the short tension members like the brace.1 95.1 487.24 1260 30 172 181.9 84.1 0. which comprises the diaphragm of the roof.4 0.5 50.3 65. FBR4 FBR7 FBR5 FBR6 FBR1.18 1260 32 172 177.4 0.5 1389.5 : a short term) Tmax / Tallo 4.11 90% of modulus of elasticity of the cables Modulus of elasticity in Tnor Member force for E90 Pretension required for 90% of the laboratory elastic modulus of the cables Maximum cable tension force (in case of the final considering pretension) Minimum cable tension force (in case of the final considering pretension) Cable tension force (in case of norminal operation condition) Allowable strength of the cables (Breaking strength × 0. FBR8.9 41. FBR2.3 84.0 0.9 84. Table 4.9 34.9 E90 nor TE T1 Tmax Tmin Tnor Tallo Ratio : : : : : : : : : 1260 28 60 204.1 95.9 41.4 487.4 0.6 416.4 118.1 0.6 1284.5 16.0 0.8 1397.6 31.2 1399.0171.3 151.8 28.8149.3 29.0 1341.37 1260 30 88 45. FBR9 4.6 31.6 416.4 Mast design Nominal Diameter(mm) φ76 φ64 φ76 φ64 φ30 Pretension(ton) 24 24 18 18 4 .
the inelastic buckling load considering material inelasticity and the stress combination to the moments are included in the design. The cable and the branch beam prevent from the lateral buckling. . The Mast is divided into seven parts in its design for the transport. It becomes the tapered section which has the diameter of 1000mm and 45mm-thick in the minimum diameter. The combination of the concentrated load and moment is given to the mast of the tapered steel pipe. The mast supports the 60% of the total roof load. The mast has a tapered section for the architectural requirement. The elastic buckling load considering the tapered section.The total length of the mast is 64m and the branch beam in height of 19. The diameter is 3000mm and the thickness is 20mm in the most convex part. Therefore its behavior affects decisively overall stability of the structure. and the transformation of its thick. the number of the stiffener.6m supports it laterally.
6 Design of the connected part 4. Detail of the Post Anchor 4. The steel plate of SM490 is used to pass the shear forces (Figure 14). The Architectural Institute of Korea). The plate and the shear stud fix the anchor of the post.1 Branch joint of the pipe The truss connection needs for the detailed design. which supports the main truss and perimeter truss (Figure 13). Each connection is checked with the design standards for the steel pipe construction and the guide for construction (1997. .5 Post design The form of the post member is like A shape. Elevation of Main Truss. Figure 13.6. Post Figure 14.4.
Analysis and picture(the low of the mast) 4. This member transmits the resultant loads to the frame. .2 Connection in the low of the mast In this case.6. Design of Pipe branch joint Figure 16.Figure 15. Therefore these parts are checked with magnified analysis (Figure 16). compression forces from the mast and tension forces from the cable are given to the member at the same time.
Seoul in association with Anderson & OH Inc. USA. Korea Introduction ▶ Shape ▶ Analysis and structural system ▶ Material ▶ CONCLUSION ▶ REFERENCES ▶ SUMMARY: The Anyang City gymnasium has 6000 seats for handball. The structural consultant is C. This article shows how the design of the roof and column effectively use the concept of the structure. The roof trusses consist of an inverted triangle pipe truss. Illinois. Korea (Fig.22m and the maximum height of roof truss is GL+24. Gustafson and Associates. The Architect is Hang-Lim Architects Inc..00m at the eaves end(see Figs 4 and 5). stadia roof.S Structural Engineers INC. Seoul in association with Tylk.30m deep at the centre and 3. 6). Introduction The gymnasium is located in Anyang City near Seoul. It is designed with a steel truss roof and columns. an architectural firm in Chicago. . The construction period is from September 1997 to October 2000.. Seoul.. 1). Korea.50m log and 72. Keywords: Lattice columns.33m (See Figs 2 and 3). The contractor is Doosan Construction INC. pin base connections. Chicago.Design of Anyang City Gymnasium. metal sandwich panels. The supporting column is a triangle lattice column with a pin base (see Fig. basketball and volleyball. Inc.. Illinois. steel roof trusses.00m transverse. 1. Shape The shape is an elliptical roof supported with 12 trusses. the eaves height is GL+15. The roof trusses are covered with sandwich metal panel and the truss columns are exposed to the air. The dimensions of the roof are 94..
Analysis and structural system .
DL + LL 2.76 * (DL + WX) 3. the bridging trusses are connected to each portal frame in the middle and the eaves truss are connected to each lattice column at the eave of the roof truss. WY).75 * (DL + WY) 4.76 * (DL + SL) 5. 0. the live load (LL).The dead load (DL).f/cm2. the wind load (WX. 0. .f/cm2 and the strength of purlin and bridging pipe truss is 2400 Kg. the snow load (SL) and the temperature load (TL) are considered for the analysis and combined for the worst case.75 * (DL + TL) The portal shaped one-way trusses carry the roof loads to the lattice columns and foundations in the transverse direction of the ellipse roof. 0. as follows: 1. The 28-day cylindrical compressive strength of the foundation concrete is 240 Kg. 0. Material The yield strength of pipe truss and lattice pipe column is 3300 Kg. For horizontal stability.f/cm2.
. The bridging and eaves trusses act for the wind loads and the vertical loads effectively. 2.CONCLUSION The 12 portal truss frame whose lattice columns are exposed to the air are very sophisticated and very effective for supporting the roof. The code of steel structures. The total quantity of steel including the main frame and purlins is 71 Kg/m2. 10th edition. Manual of steel construction. REFERENCES 1. The Architectural Institute of Korea. AISC.